Publications by authors named "Yan Liu"

6,482 Publications

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Diphenyl Diselenide-Catalyzed Synthesis of Triaryl Phosphites and Triaryl Phosphates from White Phosphorus.

Org Lett 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, and Key Laboratory for Chemical Biology of Fujian Province, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005, China.

Industrially important triaryl phosphites, traditionally prepared from PCl, have been synthesized by a diphenyl diselenide-catalyzed one-step procedure involving white phosphorus and phenols, which provides a halogen- and transition metal-free way to these compounds. Subsequent oxidation of triaryl phosphites produces triaryl phosphates and triaryl thiophosphates. Phosphorotrithioates are also prepared efficiently from aromatic thiols and aliphatic thiols.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.orglett.1c01695DOI Listing
June 2021

PolSIRD: Modeling Epidemic Spread Under Intervention Policies: Analyzing the First Wave of COVID-19 in the USA.

J Healthc Inform Res 2021 Jun 14:1-18. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Computer Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA USA.

Epidemic spread in a population is traditionally modeled via compartmentalized models which represent the free evolution of disease in the absence of any intervention policies. In addition, these models assume full observability of disease cases and do not account for under-reporting. We present a mathematical model, namely PolSIRD, which accounts for the under-reporting by introducing an observation mechanism. It also captures the effects of intervention policies on the disease spread parameters by leveraging intervention policy data along with the reported disease cases. Furthermore, we allow our recurrent model to learn the initial hidden state of all compartments end-to-end along with other parameters via gradient-based training. We apply our model to the spread of the recent global outbreak of COVID-19 in the USA, where our model outperforms the methods employed by the CDC in predicting the spread. We also provide counterfactual simulations from our model to analyze the effect of lifting the intervention policies prematurely and our model correctly predicts the second wave of the epidemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s41666-021-00099-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8202228PMC
June 2021

Biological Mechanisms Induced by Soybean Agglutinin Using an Intestinal Cell Model of Monogastric Animals.

Front Vet Sci 2021 2;8:639792. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

Soybean agglutinin (SBA) has a toxic effect on most animals. The anti-nutritional mechanisms of SBA are not fully understood, in terms of cell survival activity and metabolism of intestinal cells. This study aims to investigate the effects of SBA on the cell cycle, apoptosis, and to verify the mechanism of SBA anti-nutritional characters based on proteomic-based analysis. The IPEC-J2 cell line was cultured with medium containing 0.0, 0.5, or 2.0 mg/mL SBA. With increasing SBA levels, the percentage of the cells at G0/G1 phase, cell apoptosis rates, expressions of Bax and p21, and the activities of Casp-3 and Casp-9 were increased, while cyclin D1 and Bcl-2 expressions were declined ( < 0.05). The proteomic analysis showed that the numbers of differentially expressed proteins, induced by SBA, were mainly enriched in different pathways including DNA replication, base excision repair, nucleus excision repair, mismatch repair, amide and peptide biosynthesis, ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis, as well as structures and functions of mitochondria and ribosome. In conclusion, the anti-nutritional mechanism of SBA is a complex cellular process. Such process including DNA related activities; protein synthesis and metabolism; signal-conducting relation; as well as subcellular structure and function. This study provides comprehensive information to understand the toxic mechanism of SBA in monogastrics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2021.639792DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8207199PMC
June 2021

The Novel Methylation Biomarker SCARA5 Sensitizes Cancer Cells to DNA Damage Chemotherapy Drugs in NSCLC.

Front Oncol 2021 4;11:666589. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Key Laboratory of Molecular Oncology and Epigenetics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Background: Scavenger Receptor Class A Member 5 (SCARA5), also known as TESR, is expressed in various tissues and organs and participates in host defense. Recent studies have found SCARA5 to produce an anti-tumor effect for multiple tumors, although the mechanistic basis for the effect is unknown.

Methods: Bioinformatics, methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP), quantitative real-time PCR, and immunohistochemistry were used to assess promoter methylation and expression of SCARA5 in lung cancer tissues and cell lines. The biological effect of SCARA5 on lung cancer cells was confirmed by the CCK8 assay, colony formation assay, and flow cytometry. GSEA, Western blot, RNA sequencing, and luciferase-based gene reporter assay were used to explore the mechanistic basis for the anti-tumor effect of SCARA5. Chemosensitivity assays were used to evaluate the anti-tumor effect of SCARA5 in conjunction with chemotherapeutic drugs.

Results: We found SCARA5 to be downregulated in lung cancer cell lines and tissues with SCARA5 levels negatively related to promoter methylation. Ectopic expression of SCARA5 suppressed proliferation of lung cancer both and through upregulation of HSPA5 expression, which inhibited FOXM1 expression resulting in G2/M arrest of the A549 cell line. SCARA5 also improved susceptibility of A549 cells to chemotherapeutic drugs that damage DNA.

Conclusion: SCARA5 was silenced in NSCLC due to promoter methylation and could be a potential tumor marker in NSCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.666589DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8213031PMC
June 2021

Cloning and Functional Characterization of a Squalene Synthase from Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis.

Chem Biodivers 2021 Jun 17. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China, and Yunnan Key Laboratory of Natural Medicinal Chemistry, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, 650201, P. R. China.

Paris polyphylla Smith var. yunnanensis (Franch.) Hand. - Mazz. is a precious traditional Chinese medicine, and steroidal saponins are its major bioactive constituents possessing extensive biological activities. Squalene synthase (SQS) catalyzes the first dedicated step converting two molecular of farnesyl diphosphate (FDP) into squalene, a key intermediate in the biosynthetic pathway of steroidal saponins. In this study, a squalene synthase gene (PpSQS1) was cloned and functionally characterized from P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis, representing the first identified SQS from the genus Paris. The open reading frame of PpSQS1 is 1239 bp, which encodes a protein of 412 amino acids showing high similarity to those of other plant SQSs. Expression of PpSQS1 in Escherichia coli resulted in production of soluble recombinant proteins. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis showed that the purified recombinant PpSQS1 protein could produce squalene using FDP as a substrate in the in vitro enzymatic assay. qRT-PCR analysis indicated that PpSQS1 was highly expressed in rhizomes, consistent with the dominant accumulation of steroidal saponins there, suggesting that PpSQS1 is likely involved in the biosynthesis of steroidal saponins in the plant. The findings lay a foundation for further investigation on the biosynthesis and regulation of steroidal saponins, and also provide an alternative gene for manipulation of steroid production using synthetic biology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbdv.202100342DOI Listing
June 2021

Mitochondrial STAT5A promotes metabolic remodeling and the Warburg effect by inactivating the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex.

Cell Death Dis 2021 Jun 19;12(7):634. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Obstetrics & Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University, State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, MOE Engineering Research Center of Gene Technology, Key Laboratory of Reproduction Regulation of NPFPC (SIPPR, IRD), School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, 200438, Shanghai, China.

Signal transducer and activator 5a (STAT5A) is a classical transcription factor that plays pivotal roles in various biological processes, including tumor initiation and progression. A fraction of STAT5A is localized in the mitochondria, but the biological functions of mitochondrial STAT5A remain obscure. Here, we show that STAT5A interacts with pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC), a mitochondrial gatekeeper enzyme connecting two key metabolic pathways, glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Mitochondrial STAT5A disrupts PDC integrity, thereby inhibiting PDC activity and remodeling cellular glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation. Mitochondrial translocation of STAT5A is increased under hypoxic conditions. This strengthens the Warburg effect in cancer cells and promotes in vitro cell growth under hypoxia and in vivo tumor growth. Our findings indicate distinct pro-oncogenic roles of STAT5A in energy metabolism, which is different from its classical function as a transcription factor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-021-03908-0DOI Listing
June 2021

Selenium exerts protective effects against heat stress induced barrier disruption and inflammation response in jejunum of growing pigs.

J Sci Food Agric 2021 Jun 19. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China, 611130.

Background: Heat stress (HS) had a negative impact on the intestinal barrier and immune function of pigs. Selenium (Se) may improve intestinal health through affect selenoproteins. Thus, We investigate the protective effect of new organic Se (2-hydroxy-4-methylselenobutanoic acid, HMSeBA) on jejunal damage in growing pigs upon HS and integrate potential roles of corresponding selenoproteins.

Results: HS decreased the villus height and increased (P < 0.05) the protein abundance of HSP70, down-regulated (P < 0.05) protein levels of tight junction-related proteins (CLDN-1 and OCLD). HS-induced jejunal damage was associated with the up-regulation of 4 inflammation-related genes and 10 selenoprotein encoding genes, down-regulation (P < 0.05) of 4 selenoprotein encoding genes and decreased (P < 0.05) the protein abundance of GPX4 and SELENOS. Compared with HS group, HMSeBA supplementation not only elevated the villus height and the ratio of V/C (P < 0:05), but also reduced (P < 0.05) the protein abundance of HSP70 and MDA content, and increased (P < 0.05) the protein abundance of OCLD. HMSeBA supplementation down-regulated the expression of 7 inflammation-related genes, changed the expression of 12 selenoprotein encoding genes in jejunum mucosa affected by HS, and increased the protein abundance of GPX4, TXNRD1 and SELENOS.

Conclusion: In summary, the organic Se supplementation beyond nutritional requirement alleviates the negative effect of HS on the jejunum of growing pigs, and its protective effect is related to the response of corresponding selenoproteins. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.11377DOI Listing
June 2021

A fully 3D printed electronic skin with bionic high resolution and air permeable porous structure.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Jun 10;602:452-458. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Micro-Nano System Research Center, Key Laboratory of Advanced Transducers and Intelligent Control System of Ministry of Education and Shanxi Province, College of Information and Computer, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024, China. Electronic address:

The bionic application of electronic skin (e-skin) requires a high resolution close to that of human skin, while its long-term attachment to human body or robotic skin requires a porous structure that is air permeable and enables hair growth. To simultaneously meet the requirements of high resolution and porous structure, as well as improve the sensing performance, we propose a fully 3D printed e-skin with high-resolution and air permeable porous structure. The flexible substrate and electrodes are 3D printed by a direct ink writing extrusion printer. The sensitive material is 3D printed by a self-made low-viscosity liquid extrusion 3D print module. This e-skin has a high sensor density of 100/cm, which is close to the resolution of the human fingertip skin. The piezoresistive sensor units of e-skin exhibit a highly linear resistance response and a relatively performance consistency between devices. Owing to the porous and breathable structure, better human comfort and mechanical heat dissipation are realized. This high-resolution e-skin is successfully applied to identify small-sized objects with complex contours.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2021.06.041DOI Listing
June 2021

TMEM45A Affects Proliferation, Apoptosis, Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition, Migration, Invasion and Cisplatin Resistance of HPV-Positive Cervical Cancer Cell Lines.

Biochem Genet 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Gynecology, Weifang People's Hospital, Weifang, Shandong Province, People's Republic of China.

To investigate the effects of transmembrane protein 45A (TMEM45A) on biological characteristics and cisplatin (DDP) resistance of cervical cancer cells. TMEM45A in cervical cancer cells and normal cervical epithelial cells (HCerEpiC) were quantified by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting. HPV genotypes were identified by multiplex PCR. SiHa and HeLa cells were divided into Blank, shCTL, shTMEM45A-1, and shTMEM45A-2 groups, followed by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8), EdU, Annexin V-FITC/PI staining, Wound healing, and Transwell invasion assays, as well as qRT-PCR and Western blotting. MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide) was employed to evaluate the impact of TMEM45A shRNA on cisplatin-resistant cervical cancer cells (SiHa/DDP and HeLa/DDP). Compared with HcerEpic cell, cervical cancer cells exhibited the upregulation of TMEM45A expression, especially in HPV-positive cell lines (CaSki, SiHa, HeLa). TMEM45A shRNA suppressed the proliferation of SiHa and HeLa cells, arrested cells at the S phase, and promoted cell apoptosis. TMEM45A shRNA inhibited the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), invasion, migration of SiHa and HeLa cells, accompanying by the downregulated Vimentin and N-cadherin with the upregulated E-cadherin. Moreover, SiHa/DDP and HeLa/DDP had higher TMEM45A expression than their parental SiHa and HeLa cells, respectively. And inhibiting TMEM45A can reduce the IC50 of SiHa/DDP cells and HeLa/DDP cells to cisplatin. Silencing TMEM45A can inhibit cell proliferation, invasion, migration and EMT, regulate cell cycle distribution, promote cell apoptosis, and reverse cisplatin resistance of HPV-positive cervical cancer cells, highlighting that inhibition of TMEM45A may be a therapeutic strategy for HPV-positive cervical cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10528-021-10094-3DOI Listing
June 2021

Combined single-molecule fluorescence hybridization and immunohistochemistry analysis in intact murine dorsal root ganglia and sciatic nerve.

STAR Protoc 2021 Jun 3;2(2):100555. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Biological Chemistry, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.

Single-molecule fluorescence hybridization (smFISH) allows spatial mapping of gene expression. This protocol presents advances in smFISH fidelity and flexibility in intact murine sensory nervous system tissue. An approach using RNAscope probes allows multiplexing, enhanced target specificity, and immunohistochemistry compatibility. Computational strategies increase quantification accuracy of mRNA puncta with a point spread function for clustered transcripts in the dorsal root ganglion and 3D masking for intermingled sciatic nerve cell types. Approaches are validated for mRNAs of modest (Lin28a) and medium (Ppib) steady-state abundance in neurons.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.xpro.2021.100555DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8185307PMC
June 2021

Influence of Changes in Obesity Indicators on the Risk of Hypertension: A Cohort Study in Southern China.

Ann Nutr Metab 2021 Jun 17:1-9. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

General Practice Center, The Seventh Affiliated Hospital, Southern Medical University, Foshan, China.

Objectives: The objective of this study was to demonstrate the association between changes in different obesity indicators and the risk of incident hypertension by the age-group among community-dwelling residents in southern China.

Methods: A total of 6,959 non-hypertensive participants aged ≥18 years old were enrolled in this cohort study and completed questionnaire interviews and anthropometric measurements at baseline (2010) and follow-up (2017). A time-dependent covariate Cox proportional hazard model considered the changes in obesity indicators during the follow-up period and calculated the hazard ratios (HRs) to analyze the risk of incident hypertension according to different obesity indicators.

Results: During a mean follow-up of 7.1 years, 1,904 participants were newly diagnosed with hypertension. The body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) were significantly positively associated with an increased future risk of incident hypertension, and BMI was the best predictive indicator of hypertension (obesity in men: HR = 2.65, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.20-3.20; obesity in women: HR = 2.80, 95% CI = 2.27-3.45). Compared with the middle-aged and older group, the risk of incident hypertension was highest in the younger group which had the highest baseline obesity indicators.

Conclusions: Changes in obesity indicators were significantly associated with the risk of incident hypertension in all age-groups, and the risk of future incident hypertension increased with the increase in baseline obesity indicators.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000515059DOI Listing
June 2021

Synthesis and Characterization of a Positron Emission Tomography Imaging Probe Selectively Targeting the Second Bromodomain of Bromodomain Protein BRD4.

Bioconjug Chem 2021 Jun 17. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Two tandem bromodomains (BD1 and BD2) of bromodomain and extraterminal domain (BET) family proteins have shown distinct roles in mediating gene transcription and expression. Inhibitors that interact with a specific bromodomain may contribute to a specific therapeutic potential with fewer side effects. However, little is known about this disease-related target. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging could allow us to achieve in-depth knowledge of the BD2 bromodomain. Herein we describe the radiosynthesis and evaluation of [C] as a BRD4 BD2 bromodomain PET imaging radioligand. Our preliminary PET imaging results in rodents demonstrated that [C] had suitable biodistribution in peripheral organs and tissues. Further blocking studies indicated that [C] had good binding specificity toward the BD2 bromodomain. This study may pave the way for the development of a PET radioligand specifically targeting BD1/2 bromodomains as well as for the biological mechanism investigation of BD1/2 bromodomains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.bioconjchem.1c00245DOI Listing
June 2021

Characterization of volatile compounds of Pixian Douban fermented in closed system of gradient steady-state temperature field.

Food Sci Nutr 2021 Jun 29;9(6):2862-2876. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

College of Food and Bioengineering Xihua University Chengdu China.

As an essential flavor condiment in Sichuan cuisine, Pixian Douban (PXDB) is usually produced by open fermentation process in strip pools or ceramic vats. In this study, an experiment of PXDB fermentation was conducted for 90 days in a closed system of gradient steady-state temperature field (GSTF). To investigate the characterization of volatile compounds of PXDB in the closed system, the volatiles in three kinds of samples including samples of GSTF (SGT), samples of constant temperature (SCT), and samples of traditional fermentation (STF) were analyzed. The results showed that 75, 67, and 68 volatile compounds were detected in SGT, SCT, and STF, respectively. Compared with the traditional fermentation, the process in the closed system of GSTF was conducive to produce more kinds of esters and alcohols. A total of 22 major aroma active compounds were identified in three samples by combination analyses of gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and odor activity value (OAV). The appearance, smell, texture, and taste of the three different samples had shown different changes, but the sensory characteristics of the SGT were more similar to those of the STF by quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) and principal component analysis (PCA). This study indicated that the closed system of GSTF could be applied in PXDB fermentation to obtain higher quality products, which brought a bright prospect of replacing the traditional fermentation process to realize the controllable industrialized production of PXDB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.2242DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8194942PMC
June 2021

Aromatherapy Plus Music Therapy Improve Pain Intensity and Anxiety Scores in Patients With Breast Cancer During Perioperative Periods: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Clin Breast Cancer 2021 May 20. Epub 2021 May 20.

Clinical Nursing Teaching and Research Section, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China; Department of Anesthesiology, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China. Electronic address:

Introduction: To investigate the effect of perioperative aromatherapy (AT) or/plus music therapy (MT) on pain and anxiety level, and the potential mechanism in women experiencing breast cancer surgery.

Methods: A total of 160 patients with breast cancer were randomly assigned in a 1:1:1:1 ratio to receive usual care (UC), AT, MT, or combination therapy (CT) during perioperative periods. Pain intensity and anxiety scores were measured by visual analog scale. Interleukin (IL)-6 and high mobility group box 1 (HMGB-1) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

Results: There was a significant group effect on pain, anxiety, and IL-6 and HMGB-1 levels, with the greatest improvement occurring in the CT group (P < .001). Compared with the UC group, the AT and MT groups had lower mean changes of pain intensity and IL-6 and HMGB-1 levels, and greater anxiety reduction (P < .001). However, the differences between the AT and MT groups did not reach significance (P > .05).

Conclusion: In patients with breast cancer, perioperative CT achieves greater pain improvement and anxiety reduction and less marked increase in IL-6 and HMGB-1 levels. These results suggest that CT is an acceptable complementary and alternative medicine for breast cancer patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clbc.2021.05.006DOI Listing
May 2021

Clinical verification of vimentin/EpCAM immunolipid magnetic sorting system in monitoring CTCs in arterial and venous blood of advanced tumor.

J Nanobiotechnology 2021 Jun 16;19(1):185. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Huzhou Lieyuan Medical Laboratory Co., Ltd, No. 800, Rujiadian Road, Huzhou, 313009, China.

Background: Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are the dominant factor leading to tumor metastasis. This study aims to investigate the effect of disparate sources of CTCs on the treatment and prognosis of patients with advanced tumors by analyzing the number and gene mutations change of CTCs in arterial and venous blood in patients with advanced tumors.

Results: A CTCs sorting system was constructed based on Vimentin-immunolipid magnetic balls (Vi-IMB) and EpCAM immunolipid magnetic balls (Ep-IMB). Results showed that the prepared Ep-IMB and Vi-IMB had lower cytotoxicity, better specificity and sensitivity. The number of arterial CTCs was higher than that of venous CTCs, with a statistically significant difference (P < 0.05). Moreover, the prognosis of the low positive group of total CTCs in arterial blood and venous blood was higher than that of the high positive group, with a statistical significance (P < 0.05). The genetic testing results showed that the targeted drug gene mutations in tissues, arterial CTCs and venous CTCs showed a complementary trend, indicating that there was heterogeneity among different tumor samples.

Conclusions: CTCs in blood can be efficiently captured by the CTCs sorting system based on Vi-LMB/Ep-LMB, and CTCs detection in arterial blood can be utilized to more accurately evaluate the prognosis and predict postoperative progress. It is further confirmed that tumor samples from disparate sources are heterogeneous, providing a reference basis for gene mutation detection before clinical targeted drug treatment, and the detection of CTCs in arterial blood has more potential clinical application value.

Trial Registration: The Ethics Committee of Putuo Hospital, PTEC-A-2019-18-1. Registered 24 September 2019.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12951-021-00929-xDOI Listing
June 2021

Optimization of Fenton process on removing antibiotic resistance genes from excess sludge by single-factor experiment and response surface methodology.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Sep 19;788:147889. Epub 2021 May 19.

College of Environmental Sciences, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, PR China; College of Resources, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, PR China. Electronic address:

Excess sludge contains large amounts of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and mobile genetic elements (MGEs), posing a risk for human health. However, most current studies usually ignored their abundance and removal in excess sludge. Therefore, this study aimed to reduce ARGs/MGEs in sludge by Fenton process, and applied single-factor experiment (SFE) and response surface methodology (RSM) to optimize the Fenton reaction condition for higher removal rates of ARGs/MGEs. The results demonstrated that the removal rates of target genes by SFE optimized condition ranged from 10.91% to 66.86%, while the removal rates caused by RSM optimized condition were 48.02% - 76.36%, indicating RSM was a useful tool to improve the removal rates of ARGs in excess sludge. Additionally, the scanning electron microscope and cell apoptosis results suggested that the Fenton treatment altered the structure of sludge and reduced the numbers of normal cells, thus causing the reductions of target genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.147889DOI Listing
September 2021

Seven undescribed steroids from the leaves of Datura metel L.

Steroids 2021 Jun 13:108877. Epub 2021 Jun 13.

Key Laboratory of Chinese Materia Medica, Ministry of Education of Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine, Harbin 150040, China. Electronic address:

Extraction of Datura metel L. leaves with ethanol as a solvent gave a group of steroids, including two unique 1,10-seco-withanolides (1, 4), an unusual nitrogen-containing withanolides (2), one undescribed saponin (3), two withanolides with a carbohydrate (5, 6), and one C steroid (7). These compounds' structures were identified based on HR-ESI-MS and H, C-NMR data analyses, also compared with data from the document. Some compounds showed moderate inhibition on NO production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.steroids.2021.108877DOI Listing
June 2021

miR-452-5p regulates the responsiveness of intestinal epithelial cells in inflammatory bowel disease through Mcl-1.

Exp Ther Med 2021 Aug 28;22(2):813. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Union Hospital of Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430022, P.R. China.

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are chronic immune disorders that occur in the intestinal tract. Previous studies have revealed that intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) play critical roles in the development of IBDs, and therapies targeting IECs hold great potential for the treatment of IBDs. However, the roles of microRNAs (miRs) in the regulation of IEC properties and whether they can be used as targets for IEC regulation and IBD treatment are largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of the miR-452-5p/Mcl-1 axis in the regulation of the properties of IECs during the pathology of IBD. A dextran sulfate sodium-induced mouse model of ulcerative colitis (UC) and an lipopolysaccharide-stimulated IEC-6 cell model were investigated. The results revealed that miR-452-5p expression in the IECs of the mice increased significantly upon UC induction, and the knockdown of miR-452-5p alleviated the IBD symptoms. Furthermore, the suppression of miR-452-5p downregulated the expression of the inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-8 and TNFα, and upregulated the expression of intestinal barrier-associated molecules, namely occludin, zona occludens 1 and mucin-2 in IECs and . Notably, the results indicated that miR-452-5p modulated the responses of IECs by negatively regulating the expression of Mcl-1, as the knockdown of Mcl-1 abrogated the effects of miR-452-5p suppression on IECs. The present study suggested that miR-452-5p regulated the responsiveness of IECs to influence the development of UC in an Mcl-1-dependent manner. These observations provide important information to improve the understanding of IBD pathogenesis and indicate that targeting the miR-452-5p-Mcl-1 signaling axis in IECs holds potential for IBD treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2021.10245DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8193216PMC
August 2021

Smart Bionic Surfaces with Switchable Wettability and Applications.

J Bionic Eng 2021 11;18(3):473-500. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Key Laboratory of Bionic Engineering (Ministry of Education), Jilin University, Changchun, 130022 China.

In order to satisfy the needs of different applications and more complex intelligent devices, smart control of surface wettability will be necessary and desirable, which gradually become a hot spot and focus in the field of interface wetting. Herein, we review interfacial wetting states related to switchable wettability on superwettable materials, including several classical wetting models and liquid adhesive behaviors based on the surface of natural creatures with special wettability. This review mainly focuses on the recent developments of the smart surfaces with switchable wettability and the corresponding regulatory mechanisms under external stimuli, which is mainly governed by the transformation of surface chemical composition and geometrical structures. Among that, various external stimuli such as physical stimulation (temperature, light, electric, magnetic, mechanical stress), chemical stimulation (pH, ion, solvent) and dual or multi-triggered stimulation have been sought out to realize the regulation of surface wettability. Moreover, we also summarize the applications of smart surfaces in different fields, such as oil/water separation, programmable transportation, anti-biofouling, detection and delivery, smart soft robotic Furthermore, current limitations and future perspective in the development of smart wetting surfaces are also given. This review aims to offer deep insights into the recent developments and responsive mechanisms in smart biomimetic surfaces with switchable wettability under external various stimuli, so as to provide a guidance for the design of smart surfaces and expand the scope of both fundamental research and practical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s42235-021-0038-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8193597PMC
June 2021

Synthesis of SPIO Nanoparticles and the Subsequent Applications in Stem Cell Labeling for Parkinson's Disease.

Nanoscale Res Lett 2021 Jun 14;16(1):107. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Suzhou Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 88 Keling Road, Suzhou New District, Suzhou, 215163, China.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the midbrain, and the stem cell transplantation method provides a promising strategy for the treatment. In these studies, tracking the biological behaviors of the transplanted cells in vivo is essential for a basic understanding of stem cell function and evaluation of clinical effectiveness. In the present study, we developed a novel ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles coating with the polyacrylic acid (PAA) and methoxypolyethylene glycol amine (PEG) by thermal decomposition method and a two-step modification. The USPIO-PAA/PEG NPs have a uniform diameter of 10.07 ± 0.55 nm and proper absorption peak of the corresponding ligands, as showed by TEM and FTIR. MTT showed that the survival of cells incubated with USPIO-PAA/PEG NPs remained above 96%. The synthesized USPIO-PAA/PEG had a good relaxation rate of 84.65 s Mm, indicating that they could be efficiently uptake and traced by MRI. Furthermore, the primary human adipose-derived stem cells (HADSCs) were characterized, labeled with USPIO-PAA/PEG and transplanted into the striatum of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced PD rat models. The labeled cells could be traced by MRI for up to 3 weeks after the transplantation surgery; moreover, transplantation with the labeled HADSCs significantly attenuated apomorphine-induced rotations in PD models and increased the number of the dopaminergic neurons in the substania nigra. Overall, the development of USPIO-PAA/PEG NPs provides a promising tool for in vivo tracing technique of cell therapy and identifies a novel strategy to track stem cells with therapeutic potential in PD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s11671-021-03540-zDOI Listing
June 2021

Identification of epigenetic regulators in the estrogen signaling pathway siRNA screening.

Mol Omics 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China. and University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China and Institute of Environment and Health, Jianghan University, Wuhan 430056, China.

Breast cancer is the most prevalent malignant disease among women across the globe. Notably, estrogen signaling plays a vital role in the progression of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. Therefore, targeting epigenetic regulators is a promising therapy for cancer. To identify epigenetic regulators, we conducted a siRNA screening targeting 140 epigenetic genes by which 32 positive and 15 negative regulators of estrogen signaling were obtained. The protein-protein interaction network of the candidate genes was constructed and the topological parameters of the network were calculated. As a result, the top 10 genes with higher MCC (Maximal Clique Centrality) scores were considered as hub genes. Notably, the hub genes all belong to polycomb group genes. The transcription levels of the above genes were compared between breast cancer and normal tissues using the UALCAN database. Then, the survival analysis of the hub genes was conducted using the Kaplan-Meier Plotter online database. Lastly, the effect of hub genes on MCF-7 cell proliferation and ER target gene expression were investigated. These results indicate that PcG genes regulate estrogen signaling and breast cancer development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1mo00040cDOI Listing
June 2021

Force-Induced Autophagy in Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells Modulates M1 Macrophage Polarization via AKT Signaling.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 26;9:666631. Epub 2021 May 26.

Laboratory of Biomimetic Nanomaterials, Department of Orthodontics, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology & National Engineering Laboratory for Digital and Material Technology of Stomatology & Beijing Key Laboratory of Digital Stomatology, Beijing, China.

Autophagy, a lysosomal degradation pathway, serves as a protective cellular mechanism in maintaining cell and tissue homeostasis under mechanical stimulation. As the mechanosensitive cells, periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) play an important role in the force-induced inflammatory bone remodeling and tooth movement process. However, whether and how autophagy in PDLSCs influences the inflammatory bone remodeling process under mechanical force stimuli is still unknown. In this study, we found that mechanical force stimuli increased the expression of the autophagy protein LC3, the number of M1 macrophages and osteoclasts, as well as the ratio of M1/M2 macrophages in the compression side of the periodontal ligament . These biological changes induced by mechanical force were repressed by the application of an autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine. Moreover, autophagy was activated in the force-loaded PDLSCs, and force-stimulated PDLSC autophagy further induced M1 macrophage polarization The macrophage polarization could be partially blocked by the administration of autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine or enhanced by the administration of autophagy activator rapamycin in PDLSCs. Mechanistically, force-induced PDLSC autophagy promoted M1 macrophage polarization via the inhibition of the AKT signaling pathway. These data suggest a novel mechanism that force-stimulated PDLSC autophagy steers macrophages into the M1 phenotype via the AKT signaling pathway, which contributes to the inflammatory bone remodeling and tooth movement process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.666631DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8187804PMC
May 2021

Construction and Identification of New Molecular Markers of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Stem Cells.

Front Oncol 2021 28;11:647291. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Breast Surgery, Breast Cancer Center, Tai'an Central Hospital, Tai'an, China.

We screened the TNBC stem cells using phage display (PD) and acquired the specific binding clones; and then the positive phage DNAs were amplified and extracted, synthesized with specific polypeptides, and labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). Finally, we identified the specificity of the polypeptides and . Human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 and human mammary gland cell line hs578bst were chosen in our study, and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) were cultured and identified by flow cytometry. The phage peptide library was screened using MDA-MB-231 BCSCs, the positive phage clones were identified by ELISA, and the DNA of the positive phages was extracted and sent to a biotechnology company for sequencing. According to the sequencing results, a specific polypeptide was synthesized and labeled with FITC. In the end, the specificity of a polypeptide to BCSCs was identified and . The MDA-MB-231 BCSCs were cultured and enriched with the "serum and serum-free alternate" method. The BCSCs were found to have characteristics of CD44/CD24 epithelial surface antigen (ESA) and ALDH with flow cytometry. The phage was enriched to 200-fold after three rounds of screening for MDA-MB-231 BCSCs. The positive phages were sequenced; then a polypeptide named M58 was synthesized according to sequencing results. Polypeptide M58 has a specific affinity to MDA-MB-231 BCSCs and . Specific polypeptides binding to MDA-MB-231 BCSCs were screened out by PD screening method, which laid a theoretical foundation for the targeted therapy and further research of BCSCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.647291DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8193032PMC
May 2021

A Combined Long Noncoding RNA Signature as a Candidate Prognostic Biomarker for Ovarian Cancer.

Front Oncol 2021 27;11:624240. Epub 2021 May 27.

Central Laboratory, the Fifth People's Hospital of Shanghai, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Aims: Dysregulated long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) contributing to ovarian cancer (OC) development may serve as prognostic biomarker. We aimed to explore a lncRNA signature to serve as prognostic biomarker of OC.

Methods: Univariate Cox regression was conducted on the lncRNA expression dataset from the TCGA cohort, and 246 genes significantly associated with survival were retained for building a model. A random forest survival model was carried out, and a model was developed using 6 genes with the highest frequency. The selected genes were applied in a Cox multivariate regression model for prognostic prediction by calculating the risk score. We also used CCK-8, EdU, and colony formation assays to validate the function of these lncRNAs in OC cells.

Results: This study confirmed that the 6-lncRNA combined signature was related to OC prognosis. Systematic analysis demonstrated that lncRNA-associated genes were enriched in oncogenic signalling pathways. Five out of the 6 lncRNAs participated in OC proliferation.

Conclusion: We established a 6-lncRNA combined signature for OC prognosis, which may serve as powerful prognostic biomarker for OC after further validation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.624240DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8191461PMC
May 2021

Mitral valve regurgitation and endocarditis triggered by a needle.

BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2021 Jun 13;21(1):295. Epub 2021 Jun 13.

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Wenhua Xi Road 107#, Jinan, 250012, Shandong Province, People's Republic of China.

Background: Cardiac foreign bodies are extremely rare in clinical patients, especially when foreign bodies damage the internal structure of the heart coincidentally after they penetrate the heart.

Case Presentation: Here, we report the case of a two-year-old girl whose heart was penetrated by a needle, which triggered mitral valve regurgitation and endocarditis. After a comprehensive inspection, accurate judgment and surgical preparation, we removed the needle and repaired her mitral valve. Fortunately, she recovered postoperatively.

Conclusion: From this case, we can know that when cardiac foreign bodies are suspected, ultrasound is an important inspection method. Moreover, the approaches for handling each such case are different depending on the associated injuries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12872-021-02109-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8201851PMC
June 2021

Lentinan inhibited colon cancer growth by inducing endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated autophagic cell death and apoptosis.

Carbohydr Polym 2021 Sep 7;267:118154. Epub 2021 May 7.

Hubei Key Laboratory of Nature Medicinal Chemistry and Resource Evaluation, Tongji Medical College of Pharmacy, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 430030 Wuhan, PR China. Electronic address:

Lentinan (SLNT) has been shown to be directly cytotoxic to cancer cells. However, this direct antitumour effect has not been thoroughly investigated in vivo, and the mechanism remains unclear. We aimed to examine the direct antitumour effect of SLNT on human colon cancer and the mechanism in vivo and in vitro. SLNT significantly inhibited tumour growth and induced autophagy and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) in HT-29 cells and tumour-bearing nonobese diabetic (NOD)/severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. Experiments with the autophagy inhibitors chloroquine (CQ) and 3-methyladenine (3-MA) showed that autophagy facilitated the antitumour effect of SLNT. Moreover, ERS was identified as the common upstream regulator of SLNT-induced increases in Caconcentrations, autophagy and apoptosis by using ERS inhibitors. In summary, our study demonstrated that SLNT exerted direct antitumour effects on human colon cancer via ERS-mediated autophagy and apoptosis, providing a novel understanding of SLNT as an anti-colon cancer therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2021.118154DOI Listing
September 2021

Microbial interaction promotes desulfurization efficiency under high pH condition.

Environ Res 2021 Jun 10;200:111423. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China; Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory for Water Pollution Control and Environmental Safety, Hangzhou, China; Key Laboratory of Environment Remediation and Ecological Health, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China. Electronic address:

The existence of HS in biogas may cause equipment corrosion and considerable SO emission. Commonly used biotrickling filters may cause biogas dilution or generation of explosive mixtures. Compared with biotrickling filters, two-step process such as bioscrubber filters can overcome these shortages. However, its removal efficiency was still limited due to low microbial activity under high pH condition. Here, a bioreactor filter was carried out under pH 9.0. Removal efficiency higher than 99% was achieved under sulfide loading rate reaching 4.24 kg S md. Results of network and high throughput sequencing showed that Thiobacillus acted as both dominant species (accounting for 75%) and unique kinless hub in this bioreactor. Other bacteria (accounting for 25%) contributed 75% to the network, which implied the intensive interaction between Thiobacillus and others. Sulfide removal ability and pH tolerance of pure bacteria and mixed culture were considered to verify how microbial interaction influenced them. Compared with pure bacteria, mixed culture had better performance under high pH condition, which confirmed that microbial interaction promoted desulfurization efficiency under high pH condition. These results showed that intensive microbial interaction might be the key to enhance sulfide removal efficiency under high pH condition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.111423DOI Listing
June 2021

Selenogenome and AMPK signal insight into the protective effect of dietary selenium on chronic heat stress-induced hepatic metabolic disorder in growing pigs.

J Anim Sci Biotechnol 2021 Jun 12;12(1):68. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, 611130, Sichuan, China.

Background: Chronic heat stress (CHS) disrupts hepatic metabolic homeostasis and jeopardizes product quality of pigs. Selenium (Se) may regulate the metabolic state through affect selenoprotein. Thus, we investigate the protective effect of dietary hydroxy-4-methylselenobutanoic acid (HMSeBA) on CHS induced hepatic metabolic disorder in growing pigs, and the corresponding response of selenoprotein.

Methods: Forty crossbreed growing pigs were randomly assigned to five groups: control group raised in the thermoneutral environment (22 ± 2 °C) with basal diet; four CHS groups raised in hyperthermal condition (33 ± 2 °C) with basal diet and supplied with 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 mg Se/kg HMSeBA, respectively. The trial lasted 28 d. The serum biochemical, hepatic metabolism related enzyme, protein and gene expression and 25 selenoproteins in liver tissue were determined by real-time PCR, ELISA and western blot.

Results: CHS significantly increased the rectal temperature, respiration rate, serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) of pigs, up-regulated hepatic heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and induced lower liver weight, glycogen content, hepatic glucokinase and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). The CHS-induced liver metabolic disorder was associated with the aberrant expression of 6 metabolism-related gene and 11 selenoprotein encoding genes, and decreased the protein abundance of GCK, GPX4 and SELENOS. HMSeBA improved anti-oxidative capacity of liver. 0.4 or 0.6 mg Se/kg HMSeBA supplementation recovered the liver weight, glycogen content and rescue of mRNA abundance of genes related to metabolism and protein levels of GCK. HMSeBA supplementation changed expressions of 15 selenoprotein encoding genes, and enhanced protein expression of GPX1, GPX4 and SELENOS in the liver affected by CHS. CHS alone showed no impact while HMSeBA supplementation increased protein levels of p-AMPKα in the liver.

Conclusions: In summary, HMSeBA supplementation beyond nutrient requirement mitigates CHS-induced hepatic metabolic disorder, recovered the liver glycogen content and the processes that are associated with the activation of AMPK signal and regulation of selenoproteins in the liver of growing pigs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40104-021-00590-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8196429PMC
June 2021

Development of a rapid and sensitive immunochromatographic strip based on EuNPs-ES fluorescent probe for the detection of early Trichinella spiralis-specific IgG antibody in pigs.

Vet Res 2021 Jun 11;52(1):85. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Key Laboratory of Zoonosis Research, Ministry of Education, Institute of Zoonosis, College of Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, Changchun, 130062, China.

Trichinellosis, which is caused by nematodes of the genus Trichinella, is one of the most important zoonotic parasite diseases in the world. A rapid and sensitive immunochromatographic strip (ICS) based on Eu (III) nanoparticles (EuNPs) was developed for the detection of Trichinella spiralis (T. spiralis) infection in pigs. T. spiralis muscle larvae excretory secretory or preadult worm excretory secretory (ML-ES or PAW-ES) antigens were conjugated with EuNPs probes to capture T. spiralis-specific antibodies in pig sera, after which the complex bound to mouse anti-pig IgG deposited on the test line (T-line), producing a fluorescent signal. In the pigs infected with 100, 1000 and 10 000 ML, seroconversion was first detectable for the EuNPs-ML-ES ICS at 30, 25 and 21 days post-infection (dpi) and for the EuNPs-PAW-ES ICS at 25, 21 and 17 dpi. These results show that EuNPs-PAW-ES ICS detects anti-Trichinella IgG in pigs 4-5 days earlier that test using ML-ES antigens. Our ICS have no cross reaction with other parasite infection sera. Furthermore, the detection process could be completed in 10 min. This study indicated that our ICS can be used for the detection of the circulating antibodies in early T. spiralis infection and provide a novel method for on-site detection of T. spiralis infection in pigs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13567-021-00951-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8196438PMC
June 2021

Five metastasis-related mRNAs signature predicting the survival of patients with liver hepatocellular carcinoma.

BMC Cancer 2021 Jun 11;21(1):693. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Interventional Radiology, The Second Clinical College of North Sichuan Medical College, Nan Chong Central Hospital, Nan Chong, 637000, Sichuan, China.

Backgrounds: Liver hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most malignant tumors, of which prognosis is unsatisfactory in most cases and metastatic of HCC often results in poor prognosis. In this study, we aimed to construct a metastasis- related mRNAs prognostic model to increase the accuracy of prediction of HCC prognosis.

Methods: Three hundred seventy-four HCC samples and 50 normal samples were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database, involving transcriptomic and clinical data. Metastatic-related genes were acquired from HCMBD website at the same time. Two hundred thirty-three samples were randomly divided into train dataset and test dataset with a proportion of 1:1 by using caret package in R. Kaplan-Meier method and univariate Cox regression analysis and lasso regression analysis were performed to obtain metastasis-related mRNAs which played significant roles in prognosis. Then, using multivariate Cox regression analysis, a prognostic prediction model was established. Transcriptome and clinical data were combined to construct a prognostic model and a nomogram for OS evaluation. Functional enrichment in high- and low-risk groups were also analyzed by GSEA. An entire set based on The International Cancer Genome Consortium(ICGC) database was also applied to verify the model. The expression levels of SLC2A1, CDCA8, ATG10 and HOXD9 are higher in tumor samples and lower in normal tissue samples. The expression of TPM1 in clinical sample tissues is just the opposite.

Results: One thousand eight hundred ninety-five metastasis-related mRNAs were screened and 6 mRNAs were associated with prognosis. The overall survival (OS)-related prognostic model based on 5 MRGs (TPM1,SLC2A1, CDCA8, ATG10 and HOXD9) was significantly stratified HCC patients into high- and low-risk groups. The AUC values of the 5-gene prognostic signature at 1 year, 2 years, and 3 years were 0.786,0.786 and 0.777. A risk score based on the signature was a significantly independent prognostic factor (HR = 1.434; 95%CI = 1.275-1.612; P < 0.001) for HCC patients. A nomogram which incorporated the 5-gene signature and clinical features was also built for prognostic prediction. GSEA results that low- and high-risk group had an obviously difference in part of pathways. The value of this model was validated in test dataset and ICGC database.

Conclusion: Metastasis-related mRNAs prognostic model was verified that it had a predictable value on the prognosis of HCC, which could be helpful for gene targeted therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-021-08431-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8194172PMC
June 2021