Publications by authors named "Yan Lin"

1,625 Publications

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Identification and characterization of pathogenic -specific bacteriophages and polyvalent bacteriophages in piglet gut with increasing coliphage numbers after weaning.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2021 Jun 23:AEM0096621. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Laboratory of Gastrointestinal Microbiology, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Gastrointestinal Nutrition and Animal Health, College of Animal Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China.

Post-weaning diarrhoea in pigs is mainly caused by pathogenic and is a major source of revenue loss to the livestock industry. Bacteriophages dominate the gut virome and have the potential to regulate bacterial communities and thus influence the intestinal physiology. To determine the biological characterization of intestinal coliphages, we isolated and identified the faecal coliphages of healthy pre-weaned and post-weaned piglets from Nanjing and Chuzhou pig farms. First, ahead of coliphage isolation, 87 strains were isolated from healthy or diarrheal faecal samples from three pig farms, of which 8 were pathogenic strains including ETEC and EPEC. 87.3% of strains possessed drug resistance against three antibiotics. Using these 87 strains as indicator hosts, we isolated 45 coliphages and found a higher presence in the post-weaning stage than pre-weaning stage (24 vs 17 in Nanjing farm, 13 vs 4 in Chuzhou farm). Further more, each farm had a one most prevalent coliphage strain. Pathogenic -specific bacteriophages were commonly detected (9/10 samples in Nanjing farm, 7/10 in Chuzhou farm) in guts of sampled piglet and most had significant bacteriostatic effects ( < 0.05) on pathogenic strains. Three polyvalent bacteriophages (N24, N30, and C5) were identified. The N30 and C5 strains showed a genetic identity of 89.67% with mild differences in infection characteristics. Our findings suggest that pathogenic -specific bacteriophages as well as polyvalent bacteriophages are commonly present in piglet gut and that weaning is an important event that affects coliphage numbers. Previous studies based on metagenomic sequencing reported that gut bacteriophages profoundly influence gut physiology but did not provide information regarding the host range and biological significance. Here, we screened coliphages from pre-weaned and post-weaned piglet gut against indicator hosts, which allowed us to identify the pathogenic -specific bacteriophages and polyvalent bacteriophages in pig farms and quantify their presence. Our approach complements sequencing methods and provides new insights into the biological characterizations of bacteriophage in the gut along with the ecological effects of intestinal bacteriophages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.00966-21DOI Listing
June 2021

Long noncoding RNA AFAP1-AS1 promotes tumor progression and invasion by regulating the miR-2110/Sp1 axis in triple-negative breast cancer.

Cell Death Dis 2021 Jun 18;12(7):627. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Breast Surgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College &Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (CAMS), Beijing, China.

Long noncoding ribonucleic acids (LncRNAs) have been found to be involved in the proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, migration, and other pathological processes of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Expression of the lncRNA actin filament-associated protein 1 antisense RNA1 (AFAP1-AS1) has been found to be significantly higher in TNBC than in other subtypes or in normal tissue samples, but the specific mechanism by which AFAP1-AS1 affects the occurrence and development of TNBC is yet to be revealed. In this study, we used Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8), colony formation, wound healing migration, Transwell invasion, and nude mouse xenograft assays to confirm the role of AFAP1-AS1 in the proliferation, migration of TNBC cells in vitro and in vivo. In addition, we performed bioinformatics analyses, reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), western blot (WB), and dual-luciferase reporter assays (dual-LRA) to confirm interaction among AFAP1-AS1, micro-RNA 2110 (miR-2110), and Sp1 transcription factor (Sp1). We found that silencing AFAP1-AS1 and Sp1 or upregulating miR-2110 suppressed the proliferation, migration, and invasion of MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 cells in vitro as well as tumor growth in vivo. Mechanistically, the dual-LRA highlighted that miR-2110 was an inhibitory target of AFAP1-AS1, and that AFAP1-AS1 functioned as a miR-2110 sponge to increase Sp1 expression. AFAP1-AS1 silencing led to a reduction in Sp1 mRNA and protein levels, which could be reversed by joint transfection with miR-2110 inhibitor. Our findings demonstrated that AFAP1-AS1 could modulate the progression of breast cancer cells and affect tumorigenesis in mice by acting as a miR-2110 sponge, resulting in regulation of Sp1 expression. Therefore, AFAP1-AS1 could play a pivotal role in the treatment of TNBC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-021-03917-zDOI Listing
June 2021

Euphorboside A, a cytotoxic meroterpenoid glycoside with an unusual humulene-phloroglucinol skeleton from Euphorbia kansuensis.

Fitoterapia 2021 Jun 15:104966. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

School of Pharmacy, Guizhou Medical University, Guian New District 550025, Guizhou, China. Electronic address:

Euphorboside A (1), an unusual meroterpenoid glycoside featuring the incorporation of an acylphloroglucinol moiety into a humulene skeleton to form a 6/6/11 ring system, was isolated from the roots of Euphorbia kansuensis. Its structure was elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis, chemical methods, and ECD calculations. Compound 1 was screened for the cytotoxicity against nine cancer cell lines, and 1 showed marked inhibitory activities against human colon cancer RKO and human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cell lines with IC values of 3.70 and 4.15 μM, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2021.104966DOI Listing
June 2021

Nuclear dihydroxyacetone phosphate signals nutrient sufficiency and cell cycle phase to global histone acetylation.

Nat Metab 2021 Jun 17;3(6):859-875. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Obstetrics & Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University, State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Metabolic Remodeling, School of Life Sciences and Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Shanghai, China.

Global histone acetylation varies with changes in the nutrient and cell cycle phases; however, the mechanisms connecting these variations are not fully understood. Herein, we report that nutrient-related and cell-cycle-regulated nuclear acetate regulates global histone acetylation. Histone deacetylation-generated acetate accumulates in the nucleus and induces histone hyperacetylation. The nuclear acetate levels were controlled by glycolytic enzyme triosephosphate isomerase 1 (TPI1). Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2), which is phosphorylated and activated by nutrient-activated mTORC1, phosphorylates TPI1 Ser 117 and promotes nuclear translocation of TPI1, decreases nuclear dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) and induces nuclear acetate accumulation because DHAP scavenges acetate via the formation of 1-acetyl-DHAP. CDK2 accumulates in the cytosol during the late G1/S phases. Inactivation or blockade of nuclear translocation of TPI1 abrogates nutrient-dependent and cell-cycle-dependent global histone acetylation, chromatin condensation, gene transcription and DNA replication. These results identify the mechanism of maintaining global histone acetylation by nutrient and cell cycle signals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s42255-021-00405-8DOI Listing
June 2021

Ionic liquid-derived Fe, N, S, F multiple heteroatom-doped carbon materials for enhanced oxygen reduction reaction.

Nanotechnology 2021 Jun 17. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

The Engineering Laboratory of Advanced Battery and Materials of Yunnan Province, Faculty of Metallurgical and Energy Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, No. 988, Science and Techonology Road, New & Hi-tech Development Zone, Kunming, Yunnan, China, Kunming, 650093, CHINA.

Heteroatoms doped carbon catalysts have been intensively studied to take the place of Platinum based catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) because of their ideal catalytic activity. Herein, the microporous-mesoporous carbon material catalysts doped with Fe, N, S and F were synthesized through a plain one-pot pyrolysis method with ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methyli-midazolium bis((trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl)imide ([Bmim][TF2N]) and melamine as precursors. Electrochemical analysis shows that the ORR activity and stability of the obtained catalysts are obviously better than Pt/C under alkaline condition. Meanwhile, the catalysts show similar ORR activity and much better durability in 0.1 M HClO4 comparing to Pt/C. Moreover, the tolerance of methanol in both basic and acid solutions is greatly better than Pt/C. The high activity is ascribed to the large specific surface area (SSA), porous structure and the synergistic effect between S, F, pyridine N, graphite N and Fe-Nx. The high stability possibly comes from the appropriate graphitization and the carbon-coating effect. The strategy proposed here has the advantages of facile, low cost, high efficiency and easy large-scale production, which provides new ideas for the preparation of high-performance Fe-N-C electrocatalysts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/ac0c40DOI Listing
June 2021

Value of Conventional Ultrasonography with Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography in the Differential Diagnosis of Partial Cystic Thyroid Nodules.

Ultrasound Med Biol 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Ultrasound, First Medical Center, General Hospital of Chinese PLA, Haidian District, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

The value of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in the diagnosis of malignant partial cystic thyroid nodules (PCTNs) remains unclear. Thus, in the present study, the data of patients with pathologically proven PCTNs who underwent CEUS in the Chinese PLA General Hospital from January 2016 to February 2019 were retrospectively reviewed, and the imaging characteristics of benign and malignant PCTNs were compared. A total of 177 PCTNs were enrolled in this study, including 58 (32.7%) malignant nodules and 119 (67.2%) benign nodules. Six characteristics significantly differed between malignant PCTNs and benign PCTNs in univariate comparison: position of the solid portion (χ = 17.937, p < 0.001), microcalcifications (χ = 81.382, p < 0.001), boundaries (χ = 45.486, p < 0.001), echogenicity (χ = 11.152, p = 0.004), intensity of enhancement (χ = 40.656, p < 0.001) and uniformity of enhancement (χ = 19.933, p < 0.001). Among these, microcalcifications, boundaries, position of the solid portion, and uniformity of enhancement were independent risk factors in the multivariate comparison. A logistic regression model for predicting benign and malignant PCTNs was established with a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of 89.0% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.788-0.961), 91.0% (95% CI: 0.830-0.946), 81.0% (95% CI: 0.715-0.881), 95.0% (95% CI: 0.892-0.974) and 90.0% (95% CI: 0.844-0.938), respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.967 (95% CI: 0.944-0.990), which was significantly higher than that of conventional ultrasound only (0.747, 95% CI: 0.663-0.831, Z = 2.090, p = 0.0366). CEUS can be used in the diagnosis of PCTNs, and the four characteristics of malignant PCTNs proven by our study were microcalcifications, unclear boundaries, eccentric distributions of the solid parts and heterogeneous enhancement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2021.03.009DOI Listing
June 2021

Loco-regional therapy and the risk of breast cancer-related lymphedema: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Breast Cancer 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Breast Disease, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, 1 Shuaifuyuan, Wangfujing, Beijing, 100730, China.

Background: This meta-analysis was designed to assess the association between two loco-regional therapies, regional nodal irradiation (RNI) and axillary lymph node dissection (ALND), and breast cancer-related lymphoedema (BCRL).

Methods: We searched PubMed, Science Direct, Embase, and BMJ databases for clinical studies published between January 1, 2010 and January 1, 2020, which assessed risk factors and incidence/prevalence of BCRL. Two investigators independently selected articles to extract relative data and calculate corresponding exact binomial 95% confidence intervals (CIs). In total, 93 articles were reviewed, from which 19 studies were selected. The extracted data were pooled using a random-effects mixed model.

Results: The incidence of lymphedema in the selected studies ranged from 3% to 36.7%, with a pooled incidence of 14.29% (95% CI 13.79-14.79). The summary odds ratio/risk ratio (OR/RR) of ALND vs. no-ALND was 3.67 (95% CI 2.25-5.98) with a heterogeneity (I) of 81% (P < 0.00001). After excluding the studies with an abnormally high risk of lymphedema from self-reporting, the summary hazard ratio (HR) was 2.99 (95% CI 2.44-3.66) with no heterogeneity (I = 0%, P = 0.83). The summary OR/RR of patients with vs. without radiotherapy (RT) was 1.82 (95% CI 0.92-3.59), but the RR of RT to breast/chest vs. both axillary and supraclavicular areas was 2.66 (95% CI 0.73-9.70).

Conclusion: Regional nodal irradiation has a significantly higher risk for developing lymphedema than irradiation of the breast/chest wall. Axillary dissection and axillary RT have a similar risk for early-onset of breast cancer-related lymphoedema, although the risk trends higher for axillary dissection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12282-021-01263-8DOI Listing
June 2021

Low chorionic villous succinate accumulation associates with recurrent spontaneous abortion risk.

Nat Commun 2021 06 8;12(1):3428. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Clinical and Translational Research Center, Shanghai First Maternity and Infant Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Dysregulated extravillous trophoblast invasion and proliferation are known to increase the risk of recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA); however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Herein, in our retrospective observational case-control study we show that villous samples from RSA patients, compared to healthy controls, display reduced succinate dehydrogenase complex iron sulfur subunit (SDHB) DNA methylation, elevated SDHB expression, and reduced succinate levels, indicating that low succinate levels correlate with RSA. Moreover, we find high succinate levels in early pregnant women are correlated with successful embryo implantation. SDHB promoter methylation recruited MBD1 and excluded c-Fos, inactivating SDHB expression and causing intracellular succinate accumulation which mimicked hypoxia in extravillous trophoblasts cell lines JEG3 and HTR8 via the PHD2-VHL-HIF-1α pathway; however, low succinate levels reversed this effect and increased the risk of abortion in mouse model. This study reveals that abnormal metabolite levels inhibit extravillous trophoblast function and highlights an approach for RSA intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-23827-0DOI Listing
June 2021

Store-operated Ca entry as a key oncogenic Ca signaling driving tumor invasion-metastasis cascade and its translational potential.

Cancer Lett 2021 Jun 2;516:64-72. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Otolaryngology & Head and Neck, The People's Hospital of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Guangxi Academy of Medical Sciences, 6 Taoyuan Road, Nanning, 530021, China. Electronic address:

Tumor metastasis is the primary cause of treatment failure and cancer-related deaths. Store-operated Ca entry (SOCE), which is mediated by stromal interaction molecules (STIM) and ORAI proteins, has been implicated in the tumor invasion-metastasis cascade. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a cellular program that enables tumor cells to acquire the capacities needed for migration and invasion and the formation of distal metastases. Tumor-associated angiogenesis contributes to metastasis because aberrantly developed vessels offer a path for tumor cell dissemination as well as supply sufficient nutrients for the metastatic colony to develop into metastasis. Recently, increasing evidence has indicated that SOCE alterations actively participate in the multi-step process of tumor metastasis. In addition, the dysregulated expression of STIM/ORAI has been reported to be a predictor of poor prognosis. Herein, we review the latest advances about the critical role of SOCE in the tumor metastasis cascade and the underlying regulatory mechanisms. We emphasize the contributions of SOCE to the EMT program, tumor cell migration and invasion, and angiogenesis. We further discuss the possibility of modulating SOCE or intervening in the downstream signaling pathways as a feasible targeting therapy for cancer treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2021.05.036DOI Listing
June 2021

Radiofrequency Ablation for Cervical Metastatic Lymph Nodes in Children and Adolescents With Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: A Preliminary Study.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 18;12:624054. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Ultrasound, First Medical Center, Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA) General Hospital, Beijing, China.

Objective: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for metastatic lymph nodes (LNs) in children and adolescents with papillary Thyroid Carcinoma (PTC).

Materials And Methods: From December 2014 to March 2018, 10 metastatic LNs(mean volume 0.30 ± 0.38 ml, range 0.06-1.23ml) in 5 children and adolescents (3 females, 2 males; mean age 15.60 ± 2.97 years, range 12-19 years) with PTC treated by RFA were evaluated in this study. The mean number of surgical procedures performed before RFA was 1.2 (range 1-2) and the mean number of treated metastatic LNs per patient was 2 (rang 1-3). RFA was performed with an 18-gauge bipolar RF applicator under local anesthesia. Follow-up consisted of US and serum thyroglobulin (Tg) level at 1, 3, 6, 12 months and every 12 months thereafter.

Results: All the patients were well tolerant to RFA procedure and no procedure-related complications occurred. During a mean follow-up time of 52.00 ± 21.44 months, the initial volume of LNs was 0.30 ± 0.38 ml, which significantly decreased to 0.01 ± 0.03 ml ( = 0.005) with a mean VRR of 99.28 ± 2.27%. A total of 9 metastatic LNs (90.00%) completely disappeared. After RFA, 2 patients developed newly metastases. One patient had additional RFA. The other one with multiple LN metastases underwent total thyroidectomy with central neck dissection.

Conclusion: As a less invasive and effective technique, RFA may provide another alternative to the existing therapeutic modalities for cervical metastatic LNs in children and adolescents with PTC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2021.624054DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8167037PMC
May 2021

CRISPR/Cas9 mediated knockout of Amyellow-y gene results in melanization defect of the cuticle in adult Apis mellifera.

J Insect Physiol 2021 May 31;132:104264. Epub 2021 May 31.

College of Animal Sciences (College of Bee Science), Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, China. Electronic address:

Visible genetic markers are critical to gene function studies using genome editing technology in insects. However, there is no report about visible phenotypic markers in Apis mellifera, which extremely influences the application of genomic editing in honey bees. Here, we cloned and characterized the Amyellow-y gene in A. mellifera. Stage expression profiles showed that Amyellow-y gene was highly expressed in 2-, 4-day-old pupae, and newly emerged bees, and a high expression level was detected in the leg, thorax, wing and sting. To understand its functional role in pigmentation, Amyellow-y edited honeybees were created using CRISPR/Cas9, and it was found that the black pigment was decreased in the cuticle of mosaic workers and mutant drones. In particular, mutant drones manifested an overall appearance of yellowish cuticle in the body and appendages, including antennae, wings and legs, indicating that mutagenesis induced by disruption of Amyellow-y with CRISPR/Cas9 are heritable. Furthermore, the expression levels of genes associated with melanin pigmentation was investigated in mutant and wild-type drones using quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Transcription levels of Amyellow-y and aaNAT decreased markedly in mutant drones than that in wild-type ones, whereas laccase 2 was significantly up-regulated. Our results provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, that CRISPR/Cas9 edited G1 mutant drones of A. mellifera have a dramatic body pigmentation defect that can be visualized in adults, suggesting that Amyellow-y may serve as a promising visible phenotypic marker for genome editing in honey bees.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinsphys.2021.104264DOI Listing
May 2021

TB and COVID-19: paying attention to diabetes mellitus.

Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2021 06;115(6):600-602

World Diabetes Foundation, Krogshoejvej 30A, Building 8Y2, DK-2880 Bagsvaerd, Denmark.

In 2019, global diabetes prevalence was 463 million. Diabetes increases the risk of TB and adverse treatment outcomes including death and relapse. Diabetes also increases the risk of severe disease, multi-organ failure, coagulopathy and death in COVID-19. TB and COVID-19 share many features, suggesting opportunities to integrate prevention, diagnosis and care. Three areas for further work are highlighted: better infection control in diabetes clinics, easier and quicker diagnosis using similar technology platforms and optimal blood glucose control. The funding and resources for COVID-19 should be harnessed to improve TB and diabetes care and achieve their respective sustainable development goal targets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/trstmh/trab035DOI Listing
June 2021

How do smoking status and smoking cessation efforts affect TB recurrence after successful completion of anti-TB treatment? A multicentre, prospective cohort study with a 7-year follow-up in China.

Nicotine Tob Res 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Social Medicine and Health Education, School of Public Health, Peking University Health Science Centre, Beijing, China.

Objective: Many important risk factors are associated with tuberculosis (TB) recurrence; among them, smoking is the most common and modifiable behavioural factor. We aimed to assess the association of smoking status and cessation support during anti-TB treatment with subsequent TB recurrence.

Method: A 7-year prospective cohort study was performed on 634 TB patients in China. The participants were grouped by smoking status at baseline. Cox proportional hazards models were applied to analyse the association between baseline characteristics and TB recurrence. The cumulative incidence of TB recurrence was estimated by Kaplan-Meier curves.

Results: Multivariable analysis showed that patients who continued smoking during anti-TB treatment were at higher risk for TB recurrence (HR= 3.45; 95% CI: 1.54-7.73) than nonsmokers. Moreover, this risk remained significant even in those who stopped smoking during anti-TB treatment (HR = 2.75; 95% CI: 1.47-5.14) than nonsmokers. The association between smoking and TB recurrence was stronger for smear-positive TB patients than for smear-negative TB patients. Among all the subgroups, patients who continued smoking had a higher TB recurrence rate over the 7-year follow-up than those who successfully quit during their anti-TB treatment (log-rank statistic, P< 0.01). With the increase in the number of cigarettes smoked daily, the TB recurrence risk also increased accordingly (log-rank statistic, P= 0.02).

Conclusion: Our findings highlight the importance of incorporating effective smoking cessation intervention measures into TB services and call for continuous monitoring of TB recurrence. Among patients who continue smoking or have a history of smoking, special attention should be given to smear-positive patients and heavy smokers when monitoring recurrence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntab117DOI Listing
June 2021

Association Between Parental Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosis and Major Osteoporotic Fracture Risk in Adult Offspring: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

Can J Diabetes 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

Objectives: Previous research suggests an intergenerational influence of diabetes on bone health. We examined the association between parental diabetes and major osteoporotic fracture (MOF) risk in offspring.

Methods: This population-based cohort study used de-identified administrative health data from Manitoba, Canada, which capture population-level records of hospitalizations, physician visits and drug dispensations. The cohort included individuals 40 years with at least 1 parent identified in the data between 1997 and 2015. The exposure was parental diagnosis of diabetes since 1970; the outcome was offspring incident MOF diagnosis of the hip, forearm, spine or humerus. Both measures were identified from hospital and physician visit records using validated case definitions. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models tested the association of parental diabetes and offspring MOF risk.

Results: The cohort included 279,085 offspring; 48.5% were females and 86.8% were ≤44 years of age. Both parents were identified for 89.4% of the cohort; 36.7% had a parental diabetes diagnosis. During a median follow up of 12.0 (interquartile range, 6.0 to 18.0) years, 8,762 offspring had a MOF diagnosis. After adjusting for fracture risk factors, parental diabetes diagnosis was not associated with MOF risk, whether diagnosed in fathers (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.97 to 1.08), mothers (aHR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.97 to 1.07) or both parents (aHR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.93 to 1.11). The results remained consistent in a stratified analysis by offspring sex, secondary analysis based on MOF site and sensitivity analyses.

Conclusions: The results indicate parental diabetes is not associated with offspring MOF risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcjd.2021.04.005DOI Listing
April 2021

[Preparation of paclitaxel-loaded and folic acid-modified poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) nano-micelles and in vitro anticancer effect on cervical cancer HeLa cells].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2021 May;46(10):2481-2488

Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences Beijing 100700, China.

The paclitaxel-loaded and folic acid-modified poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nano-micelles([email protected]) were prepared by the emulsion solvent evaporation method, and the parameters of paclitaxel-loaded nano-micelles were optimized with the particle size and PDI as evaluation indexes. The morphology of the nano-micelles was observed by transmission electron microscopy(TEM), and the stability, drug loading and encapsulation efficiency were systematically investigated. In vitro experiments were performed to study the cytotoxic effects of nano-micelles, apoptosis, and cellular uptake. Under the optimal parameters, the nano-micelles showed the particle size of(125.3±1.2) nm, the PDI of 0.086±0.026, the zeta potential of(-20.0±3.8) mV, the drug loading of 7.2%±0.75%, and the encapsulation efficiency of 50.7%±1.0%. The nano-micelles were in regular spherical shape as observed by TEM. The blank FA-PLGA-NMs exhibited almost no inhibitory effect on the proliferation and growth of tumor cells, while the drug-loaded nano-micelles and free PTX exhibited significant inhibitory effects. The IC_(50) of [email protected] and PTX was 0.56 μg·mL~(-1) and 0.66 μg·mL~(-1), respectively. The paclitaxel-loaded nano-micelles were potent in inhibiting cell migration as assessed by the scratch assay. [email protected] had good pro-apoptotic effect on cervical cancer HeLa cells and significantly promoted the uptake of HeLa cells. The results of in vitro experiments suggested that [email protected] could target and treat cervical cancer HeLa cells. Therefore, as nanodrug carriers, [email protected] with anti-cancer activity are a promising nano-system for improving the-rapeutic effects on tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20210302.303DOI Listing
May 2021

The Value of Sonography in Distinguishing Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma from Adenoma.

Cancer Manag Res 2021 17;13:3991-4002. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Ultrasound, The First Medical Center Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Differentiation between follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTCs) and follicular thyroid adenomas (FTAs) is difficult and the sonographic features of FTC are not yet fully established. The purpose of this study is to explore the sonographic features of FTC and the value of sonography in differentiating FTCs from FTAs.

Patients And Methods: A total of 28 pathologically proven FTCs and 53 FTAs in 78 patients who were performed thyroid surgery were included in this retrospective study. The sonographic features of each tumor including an interrupted halo, satellite nodule(s) with or without halo ring, local irregularity of margin and cluster of grapes sign were evaluated. A mode image of FTC halo was built up in our study. The frequencies of the sonographic features were compared by chi-square test or Fisher exact test between FTCs and FTAs. The relative risk of malignancy was assessed by logistic regression analysis.

Results: Logistic regression analysis showed that a thick, irregular and/or interrupted halo with or without satellite nodule(s), hypoechoic or marked hypoechoic echogenicity, a predominantly solid pattern, cluster of grapes sign, micro-or macro-calcifications, rim calcifications correlated with significant increases in relative risk for FTCs (odds ratio 11.48 (1.37-96.56), 6.74 (1.05-43.30), 17.51 (1.78-172.53), 9.55 (1.44-63.46), 9.36 (1.25-70.15) and 17.45 (1.04-292.65), respectively, p<0.05). Two new sonographic features, an interrupted halo and satellite nodule(s) with or without halo ring, can only be found in FTCs.

Conclusion: An interrupted halo and satellite nodule(s) with or without halo ring are specific sonographic features for FTCs. Sonography could play a role in differentiating follicular thyroid carcinoma from adenoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CMAR.S307166DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8139727PMC
May 2021

Chrysin Stimulates Subcutaneous Fat Thermogenesis in Mice by Regulating PDGFRα and MicroRNA Expressions.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Jun 24;69(21):5897-5906. Epub 2021 May 24.

School of Food and Biological Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, Anhui 230009, China.

The activation of adipose tissue browning and thermogenesis provides a new strategy to counter obesity and associated metabolic diseases. Here, a natural flavonoid chrysin is used as the supplement of a high-fat diet (HFD). Dietary chrysin alleviates adiposity and insulin resistance in HFD-fed mice. Meanwhile, dietary chrysin elevates systemic energy expenditure and enhances the uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) level in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), which is accompanied by the increased thermogenic program, beige preadipocyte number, and angiogenesis in SAT. Dietary chrysin also induces the expression of SAT platelet-derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRα), which commits adipose progenitor cells to differentiate into beige or white adipocytes in response to various environmental signals. Double immunofluorescent staining for UCP1 and PDGFRα reveals that chrysin elevates the number of UCP1PDGFRα beige progenitors in SAT. Further, chrysin treatment reverses the effects of the specific PDGFRα inhibitor imatinib on browning differentiation of stromal vascular fraction cells from SAT. Finally, chrysin-induced adipocyte browning is correlated with the expressions of microRNAs as PDGFRα inhibitors or thermogenesis suppressors. In conclusion, dietary chrysin promotes subcutaneous adipocyte browning and systematic energy expenditure by regulating PDGFRα and microRNA expressions in HFD-fed mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.1c01130DOI Listing
June 2021

The therapeutic effect of TBK1 in intervertebral disc degeneration via coordinating selective autophagy and autophagic functions.

J Adv Res 2021 05 24;30:1-13. Epub 2020 Aug 24.

Department of Orthopaedics, The Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, West Xueyuan Road 109#, Wenzhou 325027, Zhejiang Province, China.

Introduction: While its innate immune function has been known, recent works of literature have focused on the role of Tank binding kinase 1 (TBK1) in regulating autophagy and it is unknown whether TBK1 protects against intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD) through affecting autophagy.

Objectives: Here, we aim to explore whether TBK1 is implicated in the pathogenesis of IVDD, and investigated the potential mechanism.

Methods: Western blotting and immunohistochemistry were used to detect the TBK1 expression in human and rat NP tissue. After TBK1 overexpression in NP cells with lentivirus transfection, autophagic flux, apoptosis and senescence percentage were assessed. Si-RNA , a utophagy inhibitors and protein phosphatase inhibitors were applied to study the mechanism of autophagy regulation. In vivo study, we further evaluated the therapeutic action of lentivirus-TBK1(Lv-TBK1)injection in a rodent IVDD model.

Results: The TBK1 level was reduced in rat and human NP tissue. TBK1 overexpression protected against apoptosis and premature senescence. These functions of TBK1 were abolished by chloroquine-medicated autophagy inhibition.P-TBK1, an activation form of TBK, is involved in selective autophagy through directly phosphorylating P62 at Ser 403, and the activation of TBK1 is also dependent on Parkin manner. TBK1 also activated NPCs autophagy to relieve puncture injury in vivo.

Conclusion: We demonstrated that TBK1 overexpression attenuated senescence and apoptosis and promoted NPCs survival via upregulating autophagy. TBK1 represents a promising avenue for IVDD treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jare.2020.08.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8132185PMC
May 2021

Transgenic , Containing Individual Genes and Open Reading Frames Under Promoter, Exhibit Compact Habit, Reduced Plant Growth, and Altered Ethylene Tolerance in Flowers.

Front Plant Sci 2021 7;12:672023. Epub 2021 May 7.

Section for Crop Sciences, Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, Taastrup, Denmark.

Reduced growth habit is a desirable trait for ornamental potted plants and can successfully be obtained through transformation in a stable and heritable manner. Additionally, it can also be obtained by transformation with harboring specific genes from . The bacterial T-DNA harbors four () genes and 14 less known open reading frames (ORFs). The four genes, i.e., A, B, C, and D, are conceived as the common denominator for the compact phenotype and the other less characterized ORFs seem auxiliary but present a potential breeding target for less aberrant and/or more tailored phenotypes. In this study, 'Molly' was transformed with individual genes and selected ORFs in overexpressing cassettes to comprehensively characterize growth traits, gene copy and expression, and ethylene tolerance of the flowers. An association of reduced growth habit, e.g. height and diameter, was observed for B2 and ORF14-2 when a transgene single copy and high gene expression were detected. Chlorophyll content was reduced in overexpressing lines compared to wild type (WT), except for one ΔORF13a (a truncated ORF13a, where SPXX DNA-binding motif is absent). The flower number severely decreased in the overexpressing lines compared to WT. The anthesis timing showed that WT opened the first flower at 68.9 ± 0.9 days and the overexpressing lines showed similar or up to 24 days delay in flowering. In general, a single or low relative gene copy insertion was correlated to higher gene expression, ca. 3 to 5-fold, in B and ΔORF13a lines, while in ORF14 such relation was not directly linked. The increased gene expression observed in B2 and ΔORF13a-2 contributed to reducing plant growth and a more compact habit. Tolerance of detached flowers to 0.5 μl L ethylene was markedly higher for ORF14 with 66% less flower closure at day 3 compared to WT. The subcellular localization of C and ΔORF13a was investigated by transient expression in and confocal images showed that C and ΔORF13a are soluble and localize in the cytoplasm being able to enter the nucleus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.672023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8138453PMC
May 2021

TAT-modified tetramethylpyrazine-loaded nanoparticles for targeted treatment of spinal cord injury.

J Control Release 2021 May 17;335:103-116. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Southwest Medical University, Luzhou, Sichuan 646000, China. Electronic address:

Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) has been effectively used for treating spinal cord injury (SCI) due to its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and neuroprotective activity. However, its clinical application is limited due to poor water solubility and insufficient spinal cord targeting through the traditional dosage forms. Given that intravascular neutrophils are quickly recruited to the injury site as part of the inflammatory response in SCI, we conjugated the cell-penetrating HIV trans-activator of transcription (TAT) peptide to human serum albumin nanoparticles (NPs) to make a TMP delivery system (TAT-TMP-NPs) that could be internalized by neutrophils and delivered to SCI lesions. Results found that in SCI rats TAT-TMP-NPs promoted the recovery of locomotor function and the lesion area, while reducing the levels of inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress-related factors. Safety evaluation and in vivo small-animal imaging showed that the cell-penetrating peptide TAT could enhance the uptake of TAT-TMP-NPs by neutrophils without being toxic to the body. TAT-TMP-NPs may overcome the poor water solubility and low bioavailability of TMP, showing promise for the clinical treatment of SCI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2021.05.016DOI Listing
May 2021

Aesthetic Comparison of Abdominal Donor Site Scar Between Absorbable Dermal Staple and Subcutaneous Suture after Autologous Breast Reconstruction: A Prospective Randomized Controlled, Double-Blinded Study.

Authors:
Yan Lin Dali Mu

Aesthetic Plast Surg 2021 May 19. Epub 2021 May 19.

Plastic Surgery Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Shijingshan District, 33 Badachu Road, Beijing, 100144, People's Republic of China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00266-021-02208-4DOI Listing
May 2021

NADPH-Oxidase 2 Promotes Autophagy in Spinal Neurons During the Development of Morphine Tolerance.

Neurochem Res 2021 May 18. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Anesthesiology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Repeated morphine administration results in analgesic tolerance. However, the underlying mechanism of morphine analgesic tolerance remains unclear. NADPH-oxidase 2 (NOX2) is the first discovered NADPH oxidase, which mainly functions to produce reactive oxygen species. Its specific role in morphine tolerance has not been fully investigated. In this work, we found that chronic morphine administration significantly increased the expression of NOX2 in spinal cord. Pretreatment of NOX2 inhibitor blocked the upregulation of NOX2 and autophagy markers, including LC3B and P62, and consequently the development of morphine tolerance. NOX2 and LC3B were both colocalized with NeuN in spinal dorsal horn in morphine-tolerant rats. Our results suggest that the increased autophagy activity in spinal neurons promoted by NOX2 activation contributes to the development of morphine tolerance. NOX2 may be considered as a new therapeutic target for morphine tolerance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-021-03347-5DOI Listing
May 2021

Mapping three versions of the international classification of diseases to categories of chronic conditions.

Int J Popul Data Sci 2021 Apr 15;6(1):1406. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, R3E0T6.

Introduction: Administrative health data capture diagnoses using the International Classification of Diseases (ICD), which has multiple versions over time. To facilitate longitudinal investigations using these data, we aimed to map diagnoses identified in three ICD versions - ICD-8 with adaptations (ICDA-8), ICD-9 with clinical modifications (ICD-9-CM), and ICD-10 with Canadian adaptations (ICD-10-CA) - to mutually exclusive chronic health condition categories adapted from the open source Clinical Classifications Software (CCS).

Methods: We adapted the CCS crosswalk to 3-digit ICD-9-CM codes for chronic conditions and resolved the one-to-many mappings in ICD-9-CM codes. Using this adapted CCS crosswalk as the reference and referring to existing crosswalks between ICD versions, we extended the mapping to ICDA-8 and ICD-10-CA. Each mapping step was conducted independently by two reviewers and discrepancies were resolved by consensus through deliberation and reference to prior research. We report the frequencies, agreement percentages and 95% confidence intervals (CI) from each step.

Results: We identified 354 3-digit ICD-9-CM codes for chronic conditions. Of those, 77 (22%) codes had one-to-many mappings; 36 (10%) codes were mapped to a single CCS category and 41 (12%) codes were mapped to combined CCS categories. In total, the codes were mapped to 130 adapted CCS categories with an agreement percentage of 92% (95% CI: 86%-98%). Then, 321 3-digit ICDA-8 codes were mapped to CCS categories with an agreement percentage of 92% (95% CI: 89%-95%). Finally, 3583 ICD-10-CA codes were mapped to CCS categories; 111 (3%) had a fair or poor mapping quality; these were reviewed to keep or move to another category (agreement percentage = 77% [95% CI: 69%-85%]).

Conclusions: We developed crosswalks for three ICD versions (ICDA-8, ICD-9-CM, and ICD-10-CA) to 130 clinically meaningful categories of chronic health conditions by adapting the CCS classification. These crosswalks will benefit chronic disease studies spanning multiple decades of administrative health data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23889/ijpds.v6i1.1406DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8104065PMC
April 2021

High glucose suppresses autophagy through the AMPK pathway while it induces autophagy via oxidative stress in chondrocytes.

Cell Death Dis 2021 May 18;12(6):506. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Orthopaedics, The Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, 325027, Zhejiang, China.

Diabetes (DB) is a risk factor for osteoarthritis progression. High glucose (HG) is one of the key pathological features of DB and has been demonstrated to induce apoptosis and senescence in chondrocytes. Autophagy is an endogenous mechanism that can protect cells against apoptosis and senescence. The effects of HG on autophagy in cells including chondrocytes have been studied; however, the results have been inconsistent. The current study aimed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms, which could be associated with the contrasting outcomes. The present study revealed that HG can induce apoptosis and senescence in chondrocytes, in addition to regulating autophagy dynamically. The present study demonstrated that HG can cause oxidative stress in chondrocytes and suppress the AMPK pathway in a dose-dependent manner. Elimination of oxidative stress by Acetylcysteine, also called N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), downregulated autophagy and alleviated HG-stimulated apoptosis and senescence, while activation of the AMPK signaling pathway by AICAR not only upregulated autophagy but also alleviated HG-stimulated apoptosis and senescence. A combined treatment of NAC and AICAR was superior to treatment with either NAC or AICAR. The study has demonstrated that HG can suppress autophagy through the AMPK pathway and induce autophagy via oxidative stress in chondrocytes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-021-03791-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8131591PMC
May 2021

Voluntary running of defined distances alters bone microstructure in C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet.

Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2021 May 17. Epub 2021 May 17.

USDA ARS, Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center, 2420 2nd Ave N, Grand Forks, North Dakota, United States, 58203;

Obesity increases the risk for pathological conditions such as bone loss. On the other hand, physical exercise reduces body adiposity. To test the hypothesis that physical activity improves bone quality, we evaluated voluntary running of defined distances on trabecular and cortical microstructure in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Sedentary mice were fed the standard AIN93G diet or the HFD. Mice fed the HFD remained sedentary or were assigned to unrestricted running or 75%, 50%, and 25% of unrestricted running with an average running activity at 8.3, 6.3, 4.2, and 2.1 km per day, respectively. The bone structural differences found in sedentary mice were that HFD, compared the AIN93G diet, resulted in a lower bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and a higher structure model index (SMI) in vertebrae. Running had a greater effect on trabecular microstructure in femurs than in vertebrae; the decrease in SMI and an increase in trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) were in a dose-dependent manner. Running was positively correlated with BV/TV and Tb.Th and inversely correlated with SMI in femurs. The HFD increased plasma concentrations of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b, a marker of bone resorption, in sedentary mice; while running decreased it in a dose-dependent manner. The findings show that voluntary running improves bone quality in young adult mice fed an HFD. Novelty bullets • The high-fat diet alters bone microstructure by increasing bone resorption. • Quantitative voluntary running improves bone microstructure through its attenuation of bone resorption in mice fed a high-fat diet.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2021-0061DOI Listing
May 2021

H Long Terminal Repeat-Associating 2 (HHLA2) is a Biomarker of Advanced Stage Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Promotes Tumor Cell Development In Vitro.

Med Sci Monit 2021 May 15;27:e930215. Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Endoscopy, Guangxi Medical University Cancer Hospital, Nanning, Guangxi, China (mainland).

BACKGROUND Several risk factors contribute to the inflammation promoting hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Human endogenous retrovirus H long terminal repeat-associating 2 (HHLA2), a B7 family member, is highly expressed in various malignant tumor tissues and is related to tumor progression and metastasis. MATERIAL AND METHODS Bioinformatics analysis was used to analyze the gene expression chip GSE33006 of HCC tissue in the GEO database, draw a heat map of differentially expressed genes, and analyze the GO pathway of gene function annotation. Then, we compared HCC tissues with para-carcinoma liver tissues from 55 patients for expression patterns and associations with HHLA2. Effects of HHLA2 knockdown were examined in the human HCC cell line HepG2 to explore effects of HHLA2 on HepG2 cells. RESULTS A significantly higher expression of HHLA2 at the mRNA and protein levels was detected in HCC tissues than in para-carcinoma liver tissues, which was similar to HHLA2 expression in the GSE33006 data. A higher expression of HHLA2 protein was associated with advanced cancer stage, tumor differentiation, and invasion of adjacent structures. In vitro knockdown of HHLA2 expression significantly increased HepG2 cell adhesion, promoted cell apoptosis, induced cell cycle arrest in the G1/S phase, and inhibited cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. CONCLUSIONS Our data indicated there was a higher expression of HHLA2 in HCC tissues than in para-carcinoma liver tissues, and HHLA2 plays a major role in the development and progression of HCC. Owing to its higher expression, HHLA2 is a potential prognostic biomarker for HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/MSM.930215DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8132585PMC
May 2021

Comparison of Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss with Tinnitus and Short-Term Tinnitus.

Neural Plast 2021 20;2021:6654932. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui Province, China.

Objective: As one of the common symptoms of sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSH), tinnitus seriously affects the life and work of SSH patients. The present study is aimed at exploring whether SSH can receive acoustic therapy and the factors that affect the efficacy of SSH acoustic therapy.

Methods: A total of 162 patients were outpatients and inpatients, 86 were SSH, and 76 were short-term tinnitus (STT). Both groups received pure tone audiometry, tinnitus matching, and residual inhibition test (RI). The Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI), visual analog scale with respect to tinnitus loudness (VAS), and RI in each group were evaluated. The effects of age, degree of hearing loss, and tinnitus course on the efficacy of SSH acoustic therapy were also evaluated.

Results: In the comparison of RI, THI, and VAS, there was no difference between SSH and STT ( > 0.05). SSH patients with mild hearing loss showed better acoustic therapy efficacy compared with SSH patients with severe hearing loss ( < 0.05), but there is no statistical difference in age and the course of tinnitus ( > 0.05).

Conclusion: The present study showed that SSH may improve tinnitus symptom through receiving acoustic therapy and SSH patients with mild hearing loss can get better acoustic therapy effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6654932DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8079215PMC
April 2021

Cadmium disturbs epigenetic modification and induces DNA damage in mouse preimplantation embryos.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Aug 11;219:112306. Epub 2021 May 11.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, PR China; Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, PR China; Joint International Research Laboratory of Agriculture and Agri-Product Safety, the Ministry of Education of China, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, PR China. Electronic address:

Cadmium is an environmental pollutant that has extensive deleterious effects on the reproductive system. However, the mechanisms underlying the effects of cadmium on preimplantation embryos are unclear. Here, we used a mouse model to investigate the effects of maternal cadmium (32 mg/l) exposure in drinking water for 2 days on early embryonic development, and studied the mechanisms associated with epigenetic modifications and DNA damage induced by oxidative stress. We observed that maternal cadmium exposure impaired preimplantation embryo development by inducing embryo death, fragmentation, or developmental blockade. After cadmium exposure, the most survived embryos were at the 8-cell stage, which were used for all measurements. Histone acetylation, not methylation, was disturbed by increasing histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) levels after cadmium exposure. Cadmium also disrupted DNA methylation of H19; however genomic DNA methylation can be normally reprogrammed in embryos. Furthermore, cadmium increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and DNA damage, and partly inhibited gene expression related to DNA repair. The distribution and activity of mitochondria was increased; therefore, embryos maintain intracellular homeostasis for survival. Collectively, our findings revealed that maternal cadmium exposure impairs preimplantation embryo development by disturbing the epigenetic modification and inducing DNA damage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112306DOI Listing
August 2021

The clinical features and prognosis of patients with mucinous breast carcinoma compared with those with infiltrating ductal carcinoma: a population-based study.

BMC Cancer 2021 May 11;21(1):536. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Breast Surgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, No 41 Damucang Hutong, Xicheng District, Beijing, 100032, China.

Background: At present, the characteristics of mucinous breast carcinoma (MBC) and the factors affecting its prognosis are controversial. We compared the clinical features of MBC with those of infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC) and summarized the relevant prognostic factors.

Methods: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database includes information on 10,593 patients diagnosed with MBC between 2004 and 2016. Chi-square tests and analyses were used to analyze differences in variables between the MBC and IDC groups. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the relative impacts of risk factors on cancer-specific survival (CSS) in patients. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were constructed to assess cancer-specific mortality and were compared using the log-rank test.

Results: From 2004 to 2016, 10,593 people were diagnosed with MBC, and 402,797 were diagnosed with IDC. Patients with MBC had significantly higher 5-/10-year CSS rates (96.4%/93.4%) than those with IDC (89%/83.8%). Compared with IDC patients, MBC patients had less lymph node metastasis, an earlier stage, a higher rate of hormone receptor positivity and a lower expression rate of HER2. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that age ≥ 60 years old (HR = 1.574, 95%CI: 1.238-2.001, P < 0.001), singled status (HR = 1.676, 95%CI: 1.330-2.112, P < 0.001) and advanced TNM/SEER stage were independent prognostic risk factors for MBC. In addition, positive estrogen receptor (HR = 0.577, 95%CI: 0.334-0.997, P = 0.049), positive progesterone receptor (HR = 0.740, 95%CI: 0.552-0.992, P = 0.044), surgical treatment (HR = 0.395, 95%CI: 0.288-0.542, P < 0.001) and radiotherapy (HR = 0.589, 95%CI: 0.459-0.756, P < 0.001) were identified as protective factors.

Conclusion: Compared with IDC, MBC has a better prognosis. For patients with MBC, we identified prognostic factors that can help clinicians better assess patient outcomes and guide individualized treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-021-08262-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8111957PMC
May 2021

The Interaction between Rice Genotype and Magnaporthe oryzae Regulates the Assembly of Rice Root-Associated Microbiota.

Rice (N Y) 2021 May 11;14(1):40. Epub 2021 May 11.

State Key Laboratory of Ecological Pest Control for Fujian and Taiwan Crops, College of Life Science, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, China.

Background: Utilizating the plant microbiome to enhance pathogen resistance in crop production is an emerging alternative to the use of chemical pesticides. However, the diversity and structure of the microbiota, and the assembly mechanisms of root-associated microbial communities of plants are still poorly understood.

Results: We invstigated the microbiota of the root endosphere and rhizosphere soils of the rice cultivar Nipponbare (NPB) and its Piz-t-transgenic line (NPB-Piz-t) when infected with the filamentous fungus Magnaporthe oryzae (M. oryzae) isolate KJ201, using 16S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) amplicon sequencing. The rhizosphere soils showed higher bacterial and fungal richness and diversity than the endosphere except for fungal richness in the rhizosphere soils of the mock treatment. Bacteria richness and diversity increased in the endospheric communities of NPB and Piz-t under inoculation with KJ201 (referred to as 'NPB-KJ201' and 'Piz-t-KJ201', respectively) compared with the corresponding mock treatments, with the NPB-KJ201 showing the highest diversity in the four bacterial endocompartments. In contrast, fungal richness and diversity decreased in the endospheric communities of NPB-KJ201 and Piz-t-KJ201, relative to the corresponding mock treatments, with NPB-KJ201 and Piz-t-KJ201 having the lowest richness and diversity, respectively, across the four fungal endocompartments. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that the microbiota of Piz-t-KJ201 of root endophytes were mostly remarkablely distinct from that of NPB-KJ201. Co-occurrence network analysis revealed that the phyla Proteobacteria and Ascomycota were the key contributors to the bacterial and fungal communities, respectively. Furthermore, a comparative metabolic analysis showed that the contents of tryptophan metabolism and indole alkaloid biosynthesis were significantly lower in the Piz-t-KJ201 plants.

Conclusions: In this study, we compared the diversity, composition, and assembly of microbial communities associated with the rhizosphere soils and endosphere of Piz-t-KJ201 and NPB-KJ201. On the basis of the different compositions, diversities, and assemblies of the microbial communities among different compartments, we propose that the host genotype and inoculation pattern of M. oryzae played dominant roles in determining the microbial community assemblage. Further metabolomics analysis revealed that some metabolites may influence changes in bacterial communities. This study improves our understanding of the complex interactions between rice and M. oryzae, which could be useful in developing new strategies to improve rice resistance through the manipulation of soil microorganisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12284-021-00486-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8113375PMC
May 2021