Publications by authors named "Yan Gu"

511 Publications

Anti-Atherosclerotic Effect of Afrocyclamin A against Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Is Mediated via p38 MAPK Signaling Pathway.

Cell J 2021 Aug 17;23(3):366. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Department of General Surgery, Shanghai Fourth People's Hospital Affiliated to Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China. Email:

This article published in Cell J (Yakhteh), Vol 23, No 2, 2021, on pages 191-198, corresponding author and corresponding address were changed based on authors' request. The authors would like to apologies for any inconvenience caused.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22074/cellj.2021.8128DOI Listing
August 2021

Plasma Purification Treatment Relieves the Damage of Hyperlipidemia to PBMCs.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 7;8:691336. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Division of Nephrology, Pudong Medical Center, Shanghai Pudong Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Hyperlipidemia {hypercholesterolemia [cholesterol >5.18 mmol/L) or hypertriglyceridemia [triglycerides >2.3 mmol/L], mixed hyperlipidemia [cholesterol >5.18 mmol/L and triglycerides >2.3 mmol/L], and high low-density lipoproteinemia [low-density lipoprotein (LDL) >3.4 mmol/L]} is a strong risk factor for arteriosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Therapy with lipid-lowering drugs often results in many side effects. Our study aimed to investigate the potential effects of non-drug therapy with double-filtration plasmapheresis (DFPP) on lipid metabolism-, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-, and apoptosis-related proteins in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) before and after lipid clearance in patients with hyperlipidemia. Thirty-five hyperlipidemia patients were selected. Proteins related to lipid metabolism [CD36, proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), and LDL receptor], ER stress [glucose-regulated protein 78 (Grp78), C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), and eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (EIF2α)], and apoptosis [B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2-associated X protein (BAX), and cysteinyl aspartate specific proteinase-3 (Caspase-3)] were assayed by Western blot, reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured by flow cytometry (FCM), and ELISA detected serum inflammatory [interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α)] factors. Compared with their pre-DFPP values, the values of most lipid metabolic parameters, such as cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, lipoprotein a [Lp(a)], and small dense LDL (sdLDL) cholesterol, were reduced after DFPP. DFPP was associated with the downregulation of proteins related to lipid metabolism, ER stress, and apoptosis, resulting in decreased ROS and serum inflammatory factor release. DFPP has lipid-lowering activity and can also regulate lipid metabolism-, ER stress-, and apoptosis-related proteins in PBMCs and reduce the levels of inflammatory factors in patients with hyperlipidemia (ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT03491956).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2021.691336DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8292646PMC
July 2021

Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Based on Electrospun Biomimetic Scaffold Mediated Endothelial Differentiation Facilitating Regeneration and Repair of Abdominal Wall Defects HIF-1α/VEGF Pathway.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2021 7;9:676409. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of General Surgery, Hernia and Abdominal Wall Surgery Center of Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Application of synthetic or biological meshes is the main therapy for the repair and reconstruction of abdominal wall defects, a common disease in surgery. Currently, no ideal materials are available, and there is an urgent need to find appropriate ones to satisfy clinical needs. Electrospun scaffolds have drawn attention in soft tissue reconstruction. In this study, we developed a novel method to fabricate a composite electrospun scaffold using a thermoresponsive hydrogel, poly (-isopropylacrylamide)-block-poly (ethylene glycol), and a biodegradable polymer, polylactic acid (PLA). This scaffold provided not only a high surface area/volume ratio and a three-dimensional fibrous matrix but also high biocompatibility and sufficient mechanical strength, and could simulate the native extracellular matrix and accelerate cell adhesion and proliferation. Furthermore, rat adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) were seeded in the composite electrospun scaffold to enhance the defect repair and regeneration by directionally inducing ADSCs into endothelial cells. In addition, we found early vascularization in the process was regulated by the hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α)/vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway. In our study, overexpression of HIF-1α/VEGF in ADSCs using a lentivirus system promoted early vascularization in the electrospun scaffolds. Overall, we expect our composite biomimetic scaffold method will be applicable and useful in abdominal wall defect regeneration and repair in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fbioe.2021.676409DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8293919PMC
July 2021

MiR-375-3p mediates reduced pineal function in hypoxia-ischemia brain damage.

Exp Neurol 2021 Jul 17;344:113814. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Department of Neonatology, Children's Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou 215000, China. Electronic address:

The functional roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) have been studied in various diseases, including hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD). However, changes in the expression of miRNAs and the underlying mechanisms in the pineal gland during HIBD remain unknown. Based on the previous study by microRNA array, hundreds of miRNAs showed altered expression patterns in the pineal gland in a rat model of HIBD. MiR-375-3p was found to be significantly upregulated and abundant in the pineal gland. Further investigation in an in vitro HI model of pinealocytes showed that miRNA-375 exacerbated the damage to pineal function. After oxygen-glucose deprivation / reoxygenation (OGD/R), miR-375-3p expression increased, while aralkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) expression and melatonin (MT) secretion decreased. Overexpression of miRNA-375 in pinealocytes aggravated the influence of OGD/R on AANAT expression and MT secretion. Because miRNA-375 overexpression in pinealocytes induced decreased rasd1 mRNA and protein expression, rasd1 may mediate the effect of miR-375-3p on pineal function. Furthermore, miR-375-3p aggravated the cognitive impairment caused by HIBD in rats, as observed by Morris water maze test, and also affected emotion and circadian rhythm in HIBD-treated rats. Thus, miR-375-3p may be a key regulatory molecule in the pineal gland following HIBD, and targeting of miR-375-3p may represent a new strategy for the treatment of HIBD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.expneurol.2021.113814DOI Listing
July 2021

Overlapping stent-assisted coil embolization for vertebrobasilar dissecting aneurysms: a single-center study.

Neurol Res 2021 Jul 18:1-7. Epub 2021 Jul 18.

Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang Province, People's Republic of China.

Effective treatment strategies for vertebrobasilar dissecting aneurysms (VBDAs) remain controversial due to their high morbidity and mortality. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of overlapping stent-assisted coil embolization (OSCE) in VBDA patients. A total of 42 patients with VBDA were retrospectively examined by OSCE from May 2015 to August 2019. Patients' clinical and radiological parameters were assessed at discharge and during interim follow-up. Safety, technical feasibility and follow-up clinical and imaging observations for therapy were also evaluated retrospectively. The average age of the 42 patients who underwent OSCE was 54 years (range 33 to 74 years). Overlapping stents were successfully implanted in all patients after coil embolism. Overall clinical results were effective (score on a modified Rankin scale from 0 to 2) in all patients. In the meantime, all patients had favorable outcomes when evaluating telephone calls or digital subtractive angiography (DSA) imaging. Among 42 patients, one patient died due to a perioperative rupture. All the remaining 41 patients had a good prognosis during the follow-up telephone call, with a median follow-up of 28 months (range, 2 to 55 months). The total number of DSA recurrences was 20. Subsequent DSA results showed that all aneurysms were completely occluded while in only one case the parent artery of the aneurysm was completely closed. OSCE in VBDAs patients is safe and effective. This technique showed favorable results in clinical and imaging follow-ups for non-ruptured and ruptured VBDAs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01616412.2021.1922172DOI Listing
July 2021

Effects of different patterns of maize-straw application on soil microorganisms, enzyme activities, and grain yield.

Bioengineered 2021 Dec;12(1):3684-3698

Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun, China.

The present study aimed to assess the influences of corn straw application on the soil microbial organisms, soil enzyme activities and the grain yield. Four treatments were evaluated: (i) The straw was ploughed into soil using a fence hydraulic turning plow with ploughing depth of 30-40 cm(PD). (ii) The self-developed straw deep returning machine was used to bury 30-40 cm in the sub-surface layer of soil (SD). (iii) The straw was mulched and no tillage sowing(M). (iv)Without straw application(CK). Soil samples of different deep(0-20 cm, 20-40 cm soil layer) were taken during the corn growth stage to determinesoil biological characteristics.Our results suggested that soil microorganisms were not increased by straw mulching. Straw deep ploughing and returning (PD treatment) could effectively improve the phospholipid fatty acids(PLFAs) of bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi, the activities of urease,invertase,dehydrogenase and polyphenoloxidase, even the grain yield. In 20-40 cm subsoil layer, the effects were more obvious than those of topsoil. The mean yield of PD treatment was higher than SD,M and CK. The results showed that the PLFA signatures and soil enzyme were both sensitive to the changes of soil environment condition by the application of straw. In the actual field production, we should adopt the appropriate way of straw returning to the field to achieve not only the improvement of soil quality, but also the increase of grain yield.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21655979.2021.1931639DOI Listing
December 2021

Dynamin-dependent vesicle twist at the final stage of clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

Nat Cell Biol 2021 Jul 12. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Chemistry, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Dynamin has an important role in clathrin-mediated endocytosis by cutting the neck of nascent vesicles from the cell membrane. Here, using gold nanorods as cargos to image dynamin action during live clathrin-mediated endocytosis, we show that, near the peak of dynamin accumulation, the cargo-containing vesicles always exhibit abrupt, right-handed rotations that finish in a short time (~0.28 s). The large and quick twist, herein named the super twist, is the result of the coordinated dynamin helix action upon GTP hydrolysis. After the super twist, the rotational freedom of the vesicle increases substantially, accompanied by simultaneous or delayed translational movement, indicating that it detaches from the cell membrane. These observations suggest that dynamin-mediated scission involves a large torque generated by the coordinated actions of multiple dynamins in the helix, which is the main driving force for vesicle scission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41556-021-00713-xDOI Listing
July 2021

Three-dimensional analysis of mandibular characteristics in patients with skeletal Class II malocclusion and chin deviation.

Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2021 Jun 23. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Orthodontics, National Engineering Laboratory for Digital and Material Technology of Stomatology, and Beijing Key Laboratory of Digital Stomatology, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Beijing, China.

Introduction: This study aimed to analyze adults with mandibular characteristics of skeletal Class II malocclusion with chin deviation.

Methods: Seventy-five adult patients aged from 18 to 35 years were included and divided into 3 groups on the basis of sagittal skeletal pattern and chin deviation: skeletal Class I symmetry group, skeletal Class II symmetry group, and skeletal Class II asymmetry group (25 patients per group). Mandibular measurements on cone-beam computed tomography images were performed, and the differences between 2 sides in each group and the differences among the 3 groups were investigated.

Results: Compared with the contralateral side, the deviated side of patients in the Class II asymmetry group showed significantly smaller condyle angle to midsagittal plane, condylar height, ramal length, and length of the mandibular body, whereas it showed a significantly larger distance from condylion to the midsagittal plane, ramus angle to the horizontal plane, and distance from gonion to the midsagittal plane. Most linear measurements in the Class II symmetry group were significantly smaller than those in the Class I symmetry group. These linear measurements on the contralateral side of the Class II asymmetry group showed no significant difference with the Class I symmetry group, and these measurements on the deviated side of the Class II asymmetry group showed no significant difference with the Class II symmetry group.

Conclusions: Length of the mandible, rotation of condyle, the inclination of the ramus, and position of gonion should be considered in subjects with skeletal Class II asymmetry when making diagnosis and treatment planning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajodo.2020.04.037DOI Listing
June 2021

Surgical treatment strategy for locally advanced colorectal cancer with abdominal wall invasion.

Ann Transl Med 2021 May;9(10):874

Huadong Hospital Affiliated to Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Background: The incidence of abdominal wall metastasis from colorectal cancer (CRC) is very low, but it has a poor prognosis. Despite the advances in radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy, patient prognosis has not improved significantly. Through surgical treatment, some patients with locally advanced CRC with abdominal wall invasion can achieve tumor-free survival or an improved quality of life.

Methods: The clinical data of 15 patients in our department from January 2015 to January 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. All patients underwent preoperative three-dimensional reconstruction of the tumor and abdominal wall after discussion with a multidisciplinary team (MDT). Patient information, including tumor size, defect size, operation time, intraoperative bleeding, hospital stay, and other factors, was collected.

Results: All 15 patients underwent resection followed by reconstruction for locally advanced CRC with abdominal wall invasion. The average tumor area and abdominal wall defects were 98.13±71.70 and 270.07±101.95 cm, respectively; and accurate abdominal wall classification and zoning were obtained for all patients. The average operation time was 431.7±189.2 min, and the average blood loss was 513.3±244.6 mL. The recurrence rates in the incisional hernia and abdominal wall were 6.0% and 13.3%, respectively. The patient survival rate was 87.7%.

Conclusions: Surgical treatment of locally advanced CRC with abdominal wall invasion is feasible, but requires accurate and comprehensive preoperative evaluation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-21-2094DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8184446PMC
May 2021

Histone Methyltransferase SETD1A Induces Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition to Promote Invasion and Metastasis Through Epigenetic Reprogramming of Snail in Gastric Cancer.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 7;9:657888. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of General Surgery, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Aberrant epigenetic modification induces oncogene expression and promotes cancer development. The histone lysine methyltransferase SETD1A, which specifically methylates histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4), is involved in tumor growth and metastasis, and its ectopic expression has been detected in aggressive malignancies. Our previous study reported that SETD1A promotes gastric cancer (GC) proliferation and tumorigenesis. However, the function and molecular mechanisms of SETD1A in GC metastasis remain to be elucidated. In this study, we found that overexpression of SETD1A promoted GC migration and invasion, whereas knockdown of SETD1A suppressed GC migration and invasion . Moreover, knockdown of SETD1A suppressed GC epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by increasing the expression of epithelial marker E-cadherin and decreasing the expression of mesenchymal markers, including N-cadherin, Fibronectin, Vimentin, and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). Mechanistically, knockdown of SETD1A reduced the EMT key transcriptional factor snail expression. SETD1A was recruited to the promoter of snail, where SETD1A could methylate H3K4. However, knockdown of SETD1A decreased the methylation of H3K4 on the snail promoter. Furthermore, SETD1A could be a coactivator of snail to induce EMT gene expression. Rescue of snail restored SETD1A knockdown-induced GC migration and invasion inhibition. In addition, knockdown of SETD1A suppressed GC metastasis . In summary, our data revealed that SETD1A mediated the EMT process and induced metastasis through epigenetic reprogramming of snail.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.657888DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8215546PMC
June 2021

Identification of candidate targets for the diagnosis and treatment of atherosclerosis by bioinformatics analysis.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(5):4137-4151. Epub 2021 May 15.

Affiliated Hospital of Inner Mongolia Medical University Hohhot 010050, The Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, P. R. China.

Atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory disease, is the primary cause of most cardiovascular diseases. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) were reported to serve as post-transcriptional regulators and diagnostic markers in various diseases, but the underlying correlation between circRNAs and atherosclerosis remains elusive. In this study, we downloaded the microarray dataset GSE107522 from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) and identified nine differentially expressed circRNAs (DECs). DECs expression in exosomes were investigated, and hsa_circ_0005699 was selected for subsequent analysis. We then identified 14 RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) and 71 possible hsa_circ_0005699-interacting microRNAs. Subsequently, target gene prediction and enrichment analyses were performed. The enriched pathways of RBP eIF4AIII include spliceosome, cell cycle, and pathways in cancer. We constructed a protein-protein interaction network, and 20 hub genes were identified using Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins and Cytoscape. Hub gene analysis revealed significant enrichment in mRNA splicing via the spliceosome, RNA splicing, protein binding, neurotrophin signaling pathway, and Ras signaling pathway. Using DrugMatrix of the Enrichr database, we identified 16 most significant small-molecule compounds that interacted with hub genes. Finally, seven hub genes (NEDD4L, FBXO44, FBXO27, WSB1, FBXW8, UBE2F, and ASB1) in cluster 1 were considered key targets associated with atherosclerosis according to MCODE analysis and the intersection between the module and hub genes. Thus, hsa_circ_0005699, RBP eIF4AIII, and the seven identified hub genes (NEDD4L, FBXO44, FBXO27, WSB1, FBXW8, UBE2F, and ASB1) could help to elucidate the pathogenesis and progression of atherosclerosis. This work may contribute to providing candidate targets for the diagnosis and treatment of atherosclerosis.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8205787PMC
May 2021

Application of 3D Visualization Technology in Complex Abdominal Wall Defects.

Int J Gen Med 2021 10;14:2449-2457. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of General Surgery, Huadong Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: To explore the value of medical three-dimensional visualization technology in precise preoperative assessment of complex abdominal wall defects.

Methods: The clinical data of 30 patients were analyzed retrospectively from November 2017 to December 2020 in our department. Ten patients had abdominal wall hernias and 20 patients suffered from abdominal wall tumors. CT examination was performed, and data were stored in the form of DICOM. Three-dimensional reconstruction and related data analysis were performed by Medraw software, which can accurately show the calculation of the abdominal wall defect area, abdominal wall defect classification and zoning.

Results: The ratio of the volume of the hernia sac to the whole abdominal volume in 10 patients with abdominal wall hernia was 4.75%. The average ratio of defect area to the whole abdominal wall in 16 patients suffered from abdominal wall tumors was 17.68%. Preoperative three-dimensional reconstruction can accurately obtain an average abdominal wall defect area of 227.83 ± 157.33 cm and accurate abdominal wall classification and zoning. Combined with clinical information, we can develop personalized surgical plans for patients. The average operating time was 5.39 ± 2.71 h, respectively, and the average hospital stay was 22.77 ± 11.59 days. The mean follow-up time was 21.09 ± 9.72 months. The incidence of postoperative complications was 23.33% (7/30). The recurrence rates of incisional hernias and abdominal wall tumors were 20.00% (2/10) and 15.00% (3/20), respectively. The patient survival rate was 86.67% (26/30).

Conclusion: Three-dimensional visualization technology can be used for the accurate evaluation of patients with complex abdominal defects before surgery and can help surgeons design personalized surgical plans for patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S310170DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8203297PMC
June 2021

Effects of Berberine on Diabetes and Cognitive Impairment in an Animal Model: The Mechanisms of Action.

Am J Chin Med 2021 Jun 16:1-17. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Guang'anmen Hospital, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100053, P. R. China.

Diabetes is a group of metabolic disorders with an increased risk of developing cognitive impairment and dementia. The hippocampus in the forebrain contains an abundance of insulin receptors related to cognitive function and plays an important role in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative disorders. Berberine from traditional Chinese medicine has been used to treat diabetes and diabetic cognitive impairment, although its related mechanisms are largely unknown. In this study, a STZ diabetes rat model feeding with a high-fat diet was used to test the effects of berberine compared with metformin. Oral glucose tolerance and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp were used for glucose metabolism and insulin resistance. The Morris water maze was used to observe the compound effects on cognitive impairment. Serum and hippocampal [Formula: see text]-amyloid peptide (A[Formula: see text], Tau and phosphorylated Tau protein deposition in the hippocampi were measured. The TUNEL assay was used to detect the neuronal apoptosis, supported by histomorphological changes and transmissional electron microscopy (TEM) image. Our data showed that the diabetic rats had a significantly cognitive impairment. In addition to improving glucose metabolism and reducing insulin resistance, berberine significantly improved the cognitive function in the rat. Berberine also effectively decreased the expression of hippocampal tau protein, phosphorylated Tau, and increased insulin receptor antibodies. Moreover, berberine downregulated the abnormal phosphorylation of A[Formula: see text] and Tau protein and improved hippocampal insulin signaling. The TUNEL assay confirmed that berberine reduced hippocampal neuronal apoptosis supported by TEM. Thus, berberine significantly improved the cognitive function in diabetic rats by changing the peripheral and central insulin resistance. The reduction of neuronal injury, A[Formula: see text] deposition, abnormal phosphorylation of Tau protein, and neuronal apoptosis in the hippocampus were observed as the related mechanisms of action.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/S0192415X21500658DOI Listing
June 2021

Microglia, synaptic dynamics and forgetting.

Brain Res Bull 2021 Jun 12;174:173-183. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Center of Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine, Department of Neurology of the Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, 310058, China. Electronic address:

Microglia are the major immune cells in the brain parenchyma. Besides their immune functions, microglia are important in regulating the dynamics of synapses. It is believed that the stability of synapses is essential for long-term storage and retrieval of memories, whereas microglial regulation of synaptic dynamics could affect the stability of memories, thus providing a potential mechanism for forgetting. In this review, we focus on the regulation of synaptic dynamics by microglia, as well as the subsequent effects on memory and forgetting, under physiological and pathological conditions. Revealing microglial regulation of synaptic dynamics will not only illuminate the physiological functions of microglia in the brain, but also provide us a new perspective to study the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying forgetting. In addition, this will also improve our understanding of the process of memory encoding, storage and retrieval in the brain. Furthermore, uncovering the mechanisms through which microglia act on synaptic dynamics in pathological conditions will provide new strategies for the prevention and treatment of memory impairment in diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2021.06.005DOI Listing
June 2021

Enhanced thermoelectric performance in polymorphic heavily Co-doped CuSnS through carrier compensation by Sb substitution.

Sci Technol Adv Mater 2021 May 28;22(1):363-372. Epub 2021 May 28.

Nagoya Industrial Science Research Institute, Nagoya, Japan.

Heavily acceptor-doped CuSnS (CTS) shows promisingly large power factor () due to its rather high electrical conductivity () which causes a modest with a high electronic thermal conductivity ( ). In the present work, a strategy of carrier compensation through Sb-doping at the Sn site in CuSnCoS was investigated, aiming at tailoring electrical and phonon transport properties simultaneously. Rietveld analysis suggested a complex polymorphic microstructure in which the cation-(semi)ordered tetragonal phase becomes dominant over the coherently bonded cation-disordered cubic phase, as is preliminarily revealed using TEM observation, upon Sb-doping and Sb would substitute Sn preferentially in the tetragonal structure. With increasing content of Sb, the was lowered and the Seebeck coefficient () was enhanced effectively, which gave rise to high s maintained at ~10.4 μWcmK at 773 K together with an optimal reduction in by 60-70% in the whole temperature range. The lattice thermal conductivity was effectively suppressed from 1.75 WmK to ~1.2 WmK at 323 K while maintained very low at 0.3-0.4 WmK at 773 K. As a result, a peak of ~0.88 at 773 K has been achieved for CuSnSbCoS, which stands among the tops so far of the CTS-based diamond-like ternary sulfides. These findings demonstrate that polymorphic microstructures with cation-disordered interfaces as an approach to achieve effective phonon-blocking and low lattice thermal conductivity, of which further crystal chemistry, microstructural and electrical tailoring are possible by appropriate doping.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14686996.2021.1920821DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8168757PMC
May 2021

Anti-Atherosclerotic Effect of Afrocyclamin A against Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Is Mediated via p38 MAPK Signaling Pathway.

Cell J 2021 Jul 26;23(2):191-198. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of General Surgery, Shanghai Fourth People's Hospital Affiliated to Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Objective: Research suggests that fine particulate matter (PM2.5) contributes to the expansion and development of atherosclerosis. Infiltration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from the blood vessel media into the intima, is an important step in the atherosclerosis pathophysiology. Afrocyclamin A, is an oleanane-type triterpene saponin, isolated from , which is commonly used in Chinese herbal medicine. In the study, we examined the effect of Afrocyclamin A on PM2.5-induced VSMCs proliferation and scrutinized possible mechanisms of action.

Materials And Methods: In the experimental study, counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay was used for estimation of VSMCs viability. BrdU immunofluorescence was used for estimation of VSMCs proliferation. The levels of antioxidant parameters such as malonaldehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione (GSH); proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), nitric oxide (NO), endothelin-1 (ET-1), and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), were estimated. The expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and phospho-p38 MAPK (p-p38 MAPK) was assessed.

Results: Compared to PM2.5-treated cells, in addition to reducing PM2.5-induced VSMCs proliferation, Afrocyclamin A reduced the expression of PCNA and p-p38 MAPK, down-regulated the level of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, VCAM-1, MDA and ET-1, and up-regulated SOD, GSH and NO level. Furthermore, the anti-proliferative effect of Afrocyclamin A was considerably increased following co-incubation of Afrocyclamin A with SB203580 (p38 MAPK inhibitor) in comparison with Afrocyclamin A-treated cells.

Conclusion: Based on the results, we can conclude that Afrocyclamin A might reduce PM2.5-induced VSMCs proliferation via reduction of p38 MAPK signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22074/cellj.2021.7148DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8181314PMC
July 2021

Prognostic Model to Predict Postoperative Adverse Events in Pediatric Patients With Aortic Coarctation.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 21;8:672627. Epub 2021 May 21.

Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Postoperative adverse events remain excessively high in surgical patients with coarctation of aorta (CoA). Currently, there is no generally accepted strategy to predict these patients' individual outcomes. This study aimed to develop a risk model for the prediction of postoperative risk in pediatric patients with CoA. In total, 514 patients with CoA at two centers were enrolled. Using daily clinical practice data, we developed a model to predict 30-day or in-hospital adverse events after the operation. The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator approach was applied to select predictor variables and logistic regression was used to develop the model. Model performance was estimated using the receiver-operating characteristic curve, the Hosmer-Lemeshow test and the calibration plot. Net reclassification improvement (NRI) and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) compared with existing risk strategies were assessed. Postoperative adverse events occurred in 195 (37.9%) patients in the overall population. Nine predictive variables were identified, including incision of left thoracotomy, preoperative ventilation, concomitant ventricular septal defect, preoperative cardiac dysfunction, severe pulmonary hypertension, height, weight-for-age -score, left ventricular ejection fraction and left ventricular posterior wall thickness. A multivariable logistic model [area under the curve = 0.8195 (95% CI: 0.7514-0.8876)] with adequate calibration was developed. Model performance was significantly improved compared with the existing Aristotle Basic Complexity (ABC) score (NRI = 47.3%, IDI = 11.5%) and the Risk Adjustment for Congenital Heart Surgery (RACHS-1) (NRI = 75.0%, IDI = 14.9%) in the validation set. Using daily clinical variables, we generated and validated an easy-to-apply postoperative risk model for patients with CoA. This model exhibited a remarkable improvement over the ABC score and the RACHS-1 method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2021.672627DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8175771PMC
May 2021

A high-quality genome assembly of Morinda officinalis, a famous native southern herb in the Lingnan region of southern China.

Hortic Res 2021 Jun 1;8(1):135. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Crops Genetics & Improvement, Crops Research Institute, Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 510640, Guangzhou, China.

Morinda officinalis is a well-known medicinal and edible plant that is widely cultivated in the Lingnan region of southern China. Its dried roots (called bajitian in traditional Chinese medicine) are broadly used to treat various diseases, such as impotence and rheumatism. Here, we report a high-quality chromosome-scale genome assembly of M. officinalis using Nanopore single-molecule sequencing and Hi-C technology. The assembled genome size was 484.85 Mb with a scaffold N50 of 40.97 Mb, and 90.77% of the assembled sequences were anchored on eleven pseudochromosomes. The genome includes 27,698 protein-coding genes, and most of the assemblies are repetitive sequences. Genome evolution analysis revealed that M. officinalis underwent core eudicot γ genome triplication events but no recent whole-genome duplication (WGD). Likewise, comparative genomic analysis showed no large-scale structural variation after species divergence between M. officinalis and Coffea canephora. Moreover, gene family analysis indicated that gene families associated with plant-pathogen interactions and sugar metabolism were significantly expanded in M. officinalis. Furthermore, we identified many candidate genes involved in the biosynthesis of major active components such as anthraquinones, iridoids and polysaccharides. In addition, we also found that the DHQS, GGPPS, TPS-Clin, TPS04, sacA, and UGDH gene families-which include the critical genes for active component biosynthesis-were expanded in M. officinalis. This study provides a valuable resource for understanding M. officinalis genome evolution and active component biosynthesis. This work will facilitate genetic improvement and molecular breeding of this commercially important plant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41438-021-00551-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8166937PMC
June 2021

Berberine and Ginsenoside Rb1 Ameliorate Depression-Like Behavior in Diabetic Rats.

Am J Chin Med 2021 27;49(5):1195-1213. Epub 2021 May 27.

Guang'anmen Hospital, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100053, P. R. China.

(Huang-lian) and Asian have been widely used in the treatment of diabetes and other concurrent diseases with apparent effects. This study investigated the effects of the active ingredients of and , berberine and ginsenoside Rb1, on depression-like behavior in a rat diabetes model. The animal model was established via a high-fat diet and intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin, while the animal's depression-like behavior was induced via chronic unpredictable mild stress. These experimental rats were divided into four groups: control, depression-like behavior (DLB), metformin plus fluoxetine hydrochloride (M+FH), and berberine plus ginsenoside Rb1 (B+GRb1) groups. Glucose metabolism and insulin resistance were evaluated by oral glucose test and glucose clamp study. Depression-like behavior was evaluated via behavioral analyses, including forced swim, sucrose preference, elevated plus maze, and open-field tests. HE and Nissl staining, plasma cortisol expression of adrenocorticotropic hormone, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels were assayed to explore the mechanisms of action. Compared with the control, rats in the DLB group had a significant increase in the levels of blood glucose and depression-like behavior. The B+GRb1 group significantly improved glucose metabolism and insulin resistance, reduced depression-like behavior, downregulated levels of plasma cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone under stress, and upregulated BDNF protein expression compared to the DLB rats. HE and Nissl staining data revealed that B+GRb1 protected neurons from pathological and morphological changes. Thus, berberine and ginsenoside Rb1 not only improved glucose metabolism in diabetic rats but also ameliorated their depression-like behavior under chronic unpredictable stress. Mechanistically, studied data with plasma hormonal levels and brain neuronal pathological/morphological changes supported the observed effects. The combination of berberine and ginsenoside Rb1 may have a clinical value in the management of diabetic patients with depression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/S0192415X21500579DOI Listing
May 2021

miR-3074-5p/CLN8 pathway regulates decidualization in recurrent miscarriage.

Reproduction 2021 May 27;162(1):33-45. Epub 2021 May 27.

NHC Key Lab of Reproduction Regulation, Shanghai Institute of Planned Parenthood Research, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.

Decidualization is essential for the successful establishment of pregnancy, and the dysregulated decidualization may lead to early pregnancy loss. It was previously reported by us that miR-3074-5p could promote apoptosis but inhibit invasion of human extravillous trophoblast (EVT) cells in vitro, and the expression level of miR-3074-5p in villus tissues of recurrent miscarriage (RM) patients was significantly increased. The aim of this study was to preliminarily explore the role of miR-3074-5p played in the decidualization of human endometrial stromal cells (ESCs). It was found that the decidual expression level of miR-3074-5p in RM patients was remarkably higher than that in the control group. The overexpression of miR-3074-5p in the immortalized human ESC line, T-HESCs, showed suppressive effects not only on the cell proliferation, as well as the intracellular expression levels of cyclin B1 (CCNB1), CCND1 and CCNE1 but also on the in vitro-induced decidualization. CLN8 mRNA, encoding an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated membrane protein, was validated to be directly targeted by miR-3074-5p. And, the expression level of CLN8 was continuously increased along with the decidualization process, whereas down-regulated CLN8 expression could inhibit the decidualization of T-HESCs in vitro. Furthermore, contrary to the increased expression level of miR-3074-5p, a significantly decreased CLN8 expression was observed in decidual tissues of RM patients. Collectively, these data suggested that an increased miR-3074-5p expression in ESCs might cause early pregnancy failure by disturbing decidualization of ESCs via the miR-3074-5p/CLN8 pathway, providing a potential diagnostic and therapeutic target for RM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/REP-21-0032DOI Listing
May 2021

Silencing of lncRNA SNHG12 inhibits proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells via targeting miR-766-5p/EIF5A axis.

Adv Clin Exp Med 2021 Jun;30(6):591-598

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, The First Hospital of Jilin University, China.

Background: Although long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been reported to serve as potential biomarkers of atherosclerosis (AS), the role of lncRNA small nucleolar RNA host gene 12 (SNHG12) in AS still remains to be elucidated.

Objectives: The present study aimed to investigate the regulatory effects and potential mechanisms of SNHG12 in human vascular smooth muscle cells (hVSMCs).

Material And Methods: Reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was employed to determine the expression of SNHG12, miR-766-5p and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (EIF5A) in oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced hVSMCs. After transfection with short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-SNHG12, cell viability was estimated using the Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. Wound healing and transwell assays were used for evaluating migratory capacities of hVSMCs. To further investigate the regulatory mechanisms, binding sites between SNHG12 and miR-766-5p, and EIF5A and miR-766-5p were predicted using starBase database and validated using luciferase reporter gene assays. Moreover, cell viability and migration were detected following EIF5A overexpression and SNHG12-knockdown.

Results: SNHG12 was significantly upregulated in ox-LDL-insulted hVSMCs. SNHG12 silencing inhibited ox-LDL-induced proliferation and migration of hVSMCs. Moreover, SNHG12 acted as a sponge of miR-766-5p, and miR-766-5p also interacted with EIF5A. EIF5A plasmids promoted the capacities of proliferation and migration in ox-LDL-induced hVSMCs. However, shRNA-SNHG12 counteracted the facilitation of EIF5A plasmids on hVSMCs biological behaviors.

Conclusions: Taken together, these findings demonstrated that silencing of SNHG12 blocks the proliferation and migration of hVSMCs via targeting the miR-766-5p/EIF5A axis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17219/acem/133496DOI Listing
June 2021

2b or Not 2b: How Opposing FGF Receptor Splice Variants Are Blocking Progress in Precision Oncology.

J Oncol 2021 30;2021:9955456. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

New Hope Cancer Center, Beijing United Hospital, 9-11 Jiangtai West Rd, Chaoyang, Beijing 100015, China.

More than ten thousand peer-reviewed studies have assessed the role of fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and their receptors (FGFRs) in cancer, but few patients have yet benefited from drugs targeting this molecular family. Strategizing how best to use FGFR-targeted drugs is complicated by multiple variables, including RNA splicing events that alter the affinity of ligands for FGFRs and hence change the outcomes of stromal-epithelial interactions. The effects of splicing are most relevant to FGFR2; expression of the FGFR2b splice isoform can restore apoptotic sensitivity to cancer cells, whereas switching to FGFR2c may drive tumor progression by triggering epithelial-mesenchymal transition. The differentiating and regulatory actions of wild-type FGFR2b contrast with the proliferative actions of FGFR1 and FGFR3, and may be converted to mitogenicity either by splice switching or by silencing of tumor suppressor genes such as CDH1 or PTEN. Exclusive use of small-molecule pan-FGFR inhibitors may thus cause nonselective blockade of FGFR2 isoforms with opposing actions, undermining the rationale of FGFR2 drug targeting. This splice-dependent ability of FGFR2 to switch between tumor-suppressing and -driving functions highlights an unmet oncologic need for isoform-specific drug targeting, e.g., by antibody inhibition of ligand-FGFR2c binding, as well as for more nuanced molecular pathology prediction of FGFR2 actions in different stromal-tumor contexts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/9955456DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8110382PMC
April 2021

Comparison of mandibular cross-sectional morphology between Class I and Class II subjects with different vertical patterns: based on CBCT images and statistical shape analysis.

BMC Oral Health 2021 05 5;21(1):238. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Orthodontics, National Engineering Laboratory for Digital and Material Technology of Stomatology, Beijing Key Laboratory of Digital Stomatology, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, No. 22 Zhongguancun Avenue South, Haidian District, Beijing, 100081, China.

Background: This study is aimed to (1) investigate the influence of sagittal and vertical patterns on mandibular cross-sectional morphology and to (2) provide visualized mandibular cross-sectional morphology in different groups with General Procrustes Analysis (GPA), canonical variance analysis (CVA) and discriminant function analysis (DFA).

Methods: 324 cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images were collected to analyze mandibular cross-sectional morphology and were categorized into 12 groups according to sagittal and vertical pattern and gender. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the difference among the groups. Thirty equidistant points were marked along the contour of mandibular cross-section and GPA, CVA and DFA were applied.

Results: (1) Mandibular height in hyperdivergent groups was significantly higher than that in normodivergent and hypodivergent groups (P < 0.05). (2) Hypodivergent groups showed significantly wider upper third of mandibular width from symphysis to molar region than that in hyperdivergent group (P < 0.05), except for the premolar and molar regions in male groups (P > 0.05). (3) Class II hyperdivergent group showed narrowest lower third width in the molar region, with the mean value of 12.03 mm in females and 11.98 mm in males. (4) For males and females, the ratio between height and lower third width at symphysis was significantly higher in Class II hyperdivergent group than that in Class I hyperdivergent group (P < 0.05).

Conclusions: (1) The influence of vertical facial patterns on mandibular cross-sectional morphology is more obvious than that of sagittal skeletal pattern. (2) Subjects with increased vertical dimension presented with a remarkable "slimer" mandibular cross-sectional morphology at symphysis. (3) A deeper curve along the anterior contour of symphysis in Class II hyperdivergent group was noted with GPA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12903-021-01591-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8097981PMC
May 2021

Topological Structure Design and Fabrication of Biocompatible PLA/TPU/ADM Mesh with Appropriate Elasticity for Hernia Repair.

Macromol Biosci 2021 Jun 18;21(6):e2000423. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Biomaterials and Organ Engineering Group, Centre for Biomaterials, Cellular and Molecular Theranostics, School of Mechanical Engineering, Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore, 632014, India.

The meshes for hernia repair result in many problems that are related to complications including chronic pain and limited movement due to inadequate mechanical strength, non-absorbability, or low elasticity. In this study, degradable polylactic acid (PLA), synthetic thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU), and acellular dermal matrix (ADM) powders are combined to prepare a novel PLA/TPU/ADM mesh with three different topological structures (square, circular, and diamond) by 3D printing. The physicochemical properties and structural characteristics of mesh are studied, the results show that the diamond structure mesh with the pore size of 3 mm has sufficient elasticity and tensile strength, which provides the efficient mechanical strength required for hernia repair (16 N cm ) and the value more than polypropylene(PP) mesh. Besides, in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrate human umbilical vein endothelial cells could successfully proliferate on the PLA/TPU/ADM mesh whose biocompatibility with the host is shown using a rat model of abdominal wall defect. In conclusion, the results of this study demonstrate that the PLA/TPU/ADM mesh may be considered a good choice for hernia repair as its potential to overcome the elastic and strength challenges associated with a highly flexible abdominal wall, as well as its good biocompatibility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mabi.202000423DOI Listing
June 2021

LncRNA MTX2-6 Suppresses Cell Proliferation by Acting as ceRNA of miR-574-5p to Accumulate SMAD4 in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 23;9:654746. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Yancheng Third People's Hospital, The Sixth Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, Yancheng, China.

Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) has been one of the key causes of cancer deaths worldwide. It has been found that long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) is related to the generation and progression of various cancers (including ESCC). However, there are still many lncRNAs related to ESCC whose functions and molecular mechanisms have not been clearly elucidated. In this study, we first reported that lncRNA MTX2-6 was significantly downregulated in ESCC tissues and cell lines. The decreased expression of MTX2-6 is closely related to larger tumor and worse prognosis of ESCC patients. Through a series of functional experiments, we detected that overexpressed MTX2-6 inhibited cell proliferation and promoted cell apoptosis of ESCC and . Further studies showed that MTX2-6 exerts as a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) by binding miR-574-5p and elevates the expression of SMAD4 in ESCC. In summary, our results clarify the tumor suppressor roles of MTX2-6/miR-574-5p/SMAD4 axis in the progression of ESCC and provide emerging therapeutic targets for ESCC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.654746DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8044847PMC
March 2021

Mechanisms of Primary Membranous Nephropathy.

Biomolecules 2021 03 30;11(4). Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Surgery, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S 4K1, Canada.

Membranous nephropathy (MN) is an autoimmune disease of the kidney glomerulus and one of the leading causes of nephrotic syndrome. The disease exhibits heterogenous outcomes with approximately 30% of cases progressing to end-stage renal disease. The clinical management of MN has steadily advanced owing to the identification of autoantibodies to the phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) in 2009 and thrombospondin domain-containing 7A (THSD7A) in 2014 on the podocyte surface. Approximately 50-80% and 3-5% of primary MN (PMN) cases are associated with either anti-PLA2R or anti-THSD7A antibodies, respectively. The presence of these autoantibodies is used for MN diagnosis; antibody levels correlate with disease severity and possess significant biomarker values in monitoring disease progression and treatment response. Importantly, both autoantibodies are causative to MN. Additionally, evidence is emerging that NELL-1 is associated with 5-10% of PMN cases that are PLA2R- and THSD7A-negative, which moves us one step closer to mapping out the full spectrum of PMN antigens. Recent developments suggest exostosin 1 (EXT1), EXT2, NELL-1, and contactin 1 (CNTN1) are associated with MN. Genetic factors and other mechanisms are in place to regulate these factors and may contribute to MN pathogenesis. This review will discuss recent developments over the past 5 years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom11040513DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8065962PMC
March 2021

Awareness on tetrodotoxin of illegal activity: forensic issue from a rare homicide case report and literature review.

J Forensic Leg Med 2021 Apr 17;79:102152. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Forensic Pathology, West China School of Basic Medical Sciences and Forensic Medicine, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610041, Sichuan, China. Electronic address:

The authors describe an extremely rare case of homicide by injecting tetrodotoxin (TTX) as lethal neurotoxin found in puffer fish. After a thorough investigation, the male victim was found to have a broken stalk from syringe needle in the subcutaneous tissue of left buttock and severe asphyxia confirmed by the main pathological findings at autopsy. During tortuous toxicological analysis,TTX was revealed by ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) as well as acute intoxication confirmed from forensic examination. The literature of qualitative and quantitative determination of TTX from human fluids was also reviewed to expect widely acceptable detection strategies. This case highlighted the importance of TTX toxicant with chemical formula name purchased through e-commerce,so as to improve particular emphasis and supervision on harmful substances possibly using hidden information or illegal means. Histopathological and toxicological results demonstrated here provided a reference and other useful information to the challenges of forensic casework. In general, the case report illustrates medico-legal issues of more attention to the possibility of TTX poisoning in rapid death and the need of routine postmortem tox screening in future practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jflm.2021.102152DOI Listing
April 2021

High-Resolution Magnetic Resonance Imaging (HR-MRI) Imaging Characteristics of Vertebral Artery Dissection with Negative MR Routine Scan and Hypoperfusion in Arterial Spin Labeling.

Med Sci Monit 2021 Mar 10;27:e929445. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Radiology, The First People's Hospital of Lianyungang, Xuzhou Medical University, Lianyungang, Jiangsu, China (mainland).

BACKGROUND Unruptured vertebral artery dissection (VAD) that causes ischemic infarction may require anticoagulant therapy or other treatments. However, anticoagulation therapy is not recommended for patients without ischemic infarction. To date, there has been no research on the imaging characteristics of patients with ischemic hypoperfusion that have a negative routine MRI scan. MATERIAL AND METHODS Patients with suspected VAD were recruited between June 2015 and June 2020 in order to perform high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (HR-MRI). In total, 26 patients with negative MRI routine scans that underwent arterial spin labeling (ASL) examination were included in the study. The patients were divided into the hypoperfusion group and normal group based on whether hypoperfusion was found in ASL. The clinical features and HR-MRI features between these 2 groups were analyzed. RESULTS There were no statistical differences between the hypoperfusion group and normal group based on the patient's clinical characteristics (P>0.05). According to imaging characteristics between the 2 groups, the effective lumen index and the vertebrobasilar artery minimum angle were statistically significant (P.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/MSM.929445DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7958500PMC
March 2021

Enhanced performance of high Al-content AlGaN MSM photodetectors by electrode modification using hexadecanethiol.

Opt Express 2021 Feb;29(4):5466-5474

A metal electrode modification process for AlGaN-based metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodetectors have been introduced to enhance the response of solar-blind ultraviolet (UV) light detection. The hexadecanethiol organic molecules are chemically adsorbed on the electrodes of high-Al-content AlGaN MSM solar-blind UV photodetectors, which can reduce the work function of the metal electrode and change the height of the Schottky barrier. This modification process significantly increases the photocurrent and responsivity of the device compared with the referential photodetector without modification. Additionally, the adverse effects caused by the surface state and polarization of the AlGaN materials are effectively reduced, which can be beneficial for improving the electrical performances of III-nitride-based UV photodetectors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.418421DOI Listing
February 2021
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