Publications by authors named "Yan Feng"

1,710 Publications

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Ultra-high strength Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys with high zinc content prepared via powder hot extrusion.

Micron 2021 Jan 22;144:103015. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083, China; National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology for National Defence on High-strength Structural Materials, Central South University, Changsha, 410083, China. Electronic address:

In this paper, two kinds of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys with high Zn content (Al-8.1Zn-2.0Mg-2.3Cu-0.12Zr-0.12Sc and Al-10.5Zn-2.5Mg-1.5Cu-0.12Zr-0.12Sc) are fabricated by powder hot extrusion. Microstructure and mechanical properties are investigated by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and tensile tests. The results show that the formation of ultrafine grains and homogeneous second phases in as-extruded alloys is achieved by perfect metallurgical bonding during severe plastic deformation. After the optimal solution treatment and peak aging treatment, the strength of the two alloys reaches up to 734 MPa and 802 MPa, and the elongation is 9.8 % and 5.3 %, respectively. The excellent mechanical properties are attributed to the grain boundary strengthening, precipitation strengthening and homogenous microstructure. The element content has little effect on the grain size of the powder hot-extruded Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy, but high Zn and Mg contents can improve the density of strengthening phases while low Cu content can reduce the difficulty of solution treatment by inhibiting the precipitation of S(AlCuMg) phase.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micron.2021.103015DOI Listing
January 2021

Super-enhancer-associated long noncoding RNA AC005592.2 promotes tumor progression by regulating OLFM4 in colorectal cancer.

BMC Cancer 2021 Feb 23;21(1):187. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Department of Clinical Laboratory, The Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Nanjing Medical University & Jiangsu Cancer Hospital & Jiangsu Institute of Cancer Research, Baiziting No. 42, Nanjing, 210009, China.

Background: Super-enhancer-associated long noncoding RNAs (SE-lncRNAs) have been reported to play essential roles in tumorigenesis, but the fundamental mechanism of SE-lncRNAs in colorectal cancer (CRC) remains largely unknown.

Methods: A microarray was performed to identify the differentially expressed SE-lncRNAs between CRC tissues and peritumoral tissues. A novel SE-lncRNA, AC005592.2, was selected from these differentially expressed SE-lncRNAs to explore its effects on CRC development. Fluorescence quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to assay the expression of AC005592.2 in CRC tissues and cell lines. Functional assays were applied to identify the biological effects of AC005592.2 in CRC cells. Furthermore, RNA-seq was employed to predict potential targets of AC005592.2.

Results: AC005592.2 was significantly increased in CRC tissues and cells. High expression of AC005592.2 was significantly associated with TNM stage and tumor differentiation in CRC patients. Knockdown of AC005592.2 suppressed CRC cell proliferation, invasion and migration but promoted apoptosis, while AC005592.2 overexpression exerted the opposite effects on CRC cells. In addition, AC005592.2 positively regulated the expression of olfactomedin 4 (OLFM4), which was also upregulated in CRC tissues.

Conclusion: The findings suggested that AC005592.2 is a crucial promoter of CRC progression and may serve as an attractive therapeutic target for CRC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-021-07900-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7903608PMC
February 2021

A retrospective study assessing the acceleration effect of type I Helicobacter pylori infection on the progress of atrophic gastritis.

Sci Rep 2021 Feb 18;11(1):4143. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Department of Gastroenterology, People's Hospital of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, No. 91 Tianchi Road, Tianshan District, Urumqi, 83000, China.

Based on the antibody typing classification, Helicobacter pylori infection can be divided into type I H. pylori infection and type II H. pylori infection. To observe the effects of different H. pylori infection types on the distribution of histopathological characteristics and the levels of three items of serum gastric function (PG I, PG II, G-17). 1175 cases from October 2018 to February 2020 were collected with ratio 1:2. All patients were performed with C-Urea breath test (C-UBT), H. pylori antibody typing classification, three items of serum gastric function detection, painless gastroscopy, pathological examination, etc. According to H. pylori antibody typing classification, patients were divided into three groups: type I H. pylori infection group, type II H. pylori infection group and control group. Significant difference existed among type I H. pylori infection group, type II H. pylori infection group and control group in inflammation and activity (χ = 165.43, 354.88, P all < 0.01). The proportion of three groups in OLGA staging had statistic difference (χ = 67.99, P all < 0.01); Compared with type II H. pylori infection group and control group, the level of pepsinogen I, pepsinogen II, gastrin17 in type I H. pylori infection group increased, and PG I/PG II ratio (PG I/PG II ratio, PGR) decreased, which was statistically significant (χ = 35.08, 166.24, 134.21, 141.19; P all < 0.01). Type I H. pylori infection worsened the severity of gastric mucosal inflammation and activity. H. pylori infection was prone to induce atrophy of gastric mucosa, while type I H. pylori infection played a key role in promoting the progress of atrophic gastritis and affected the level of serum gastric function. The study indicated that the eradication of H. pylori should be treated individually.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-83647-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7892840PMC
February 2021

Determination of viscosity in shear-induced melting two-dimensional dusty plasmas using Green-Kubo relation.

Phys Rev E 2021 Jan;103(1-1):013211

Center for Soft Condensed Matter Physics and Interdisciplinary Research, School of Physical Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006, China.

Langevin dynamical simulations of shear-induced melting two-dimensional (2D) dusty plasmas are performed to study the determination of the shear viscosity of this system. It is found that the viscosity calculated from the Green-Kubo relation, after removing the drift motion, well agrees with the viscosity definition, i.e., the ratio of the shear stress to the shear rate in the sheared region, even the shear rate is magnified ten times higher than that in experiments. The behaviors of shear stress and its autocorrelation function of shear-induced melting 2D dusty plasmas are compared with those of uniform liquids at the same temperatures, leading to the conclusion that the Green-Kubo relation is still applicable to determine the viscosity for shear-induced melting dusty plasmas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.103.013211DOI Listing
January 2021

Head-on collision of compressional shocks in two-dimensional Yukawa systems.

Phys Rev E 2021 Jan;103(1-1):013202

Center for Soft Condensed Matter Physics and Interdisciplinary Research, School of Physical Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006, China.

The head-on collision of compressional shocks in two-dimensional dusty plasmas is investigated using both molecular dynamical and Langevin simulations. Two compressional shocks are generated from the inward compressional boundaries in simulations. It is found that, during the collision of shocks, there is a generally existing time delay of shocks τ, which diminishes monotonically with the increasing compressional speed of boundaries, corresponding to the time resolution of the studied system. Dispersive shock waves (DSWs) are generated around the shock front for some conditions. It is also found that the period of the DSW decreases monotonically with the inward compressional speed of boundaries, more substantially than the time delay of shocks τ. When the inward compressional speed of boundaries increases further, the DSWs gradually vanish. We speculate that, for these high compressional speeds of boundaries, the period of the DSW might be reduced to a comparable timescale of the time delay of shocks τ, i.e., the time resolution of our studied system, or even shorter, thus the DSW reasonably vanishes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.103.013202DOI Listing
January 2021

Fluorescence distinguishing of SO derivatives and Cys/GSH from multi-channel signal patterns and visual sensing based on smartphone in living cells and environment.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Feb 6;413:125332. Epub 2021 Feb 6.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology and Key Laboratory of Animal Virology of Ministry of Agriculture, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Xujiaping 1, Lanzhou, Gansu Province 730046, PR China. Electronic address:

Sulfur dioxide (SO), cysteine (Cys) and glutathione (GSH), which perform crucial actions in regulating the balance of human, are closely related reactive sulfur species (RSS). Moreover, SO is one of the most concerned air pollutants, which is easily soluble in water and forms its derivatives. Therefore, it is highly desirable to differentiate SO derivatives and Cys/GSH in living cells and environment. Herein, a new near-infrared (NIR) mitochondria-targeted fluorescent probe, NIR-CG, which could distinguish SO derivatives and Cys/GSH by using multiple sets of signal patterns under single excitation was reported. NIR-CG exhibited different fluorescence signal modes to SO and Cys/GSH with low limit of detection (17.1 nM for SO, 17.3 nM for Cys and 25.9 nM for GSH). The recognition mechanisms of NIR-CG to SO and Cys/GSH were verified by HRMS, H NMR and DFT calculation. NIR-CG had good ability of mitochondrial targeted and fluorescence imaging in cells. What's more, NIR-CG showed great recovery rates (101-104%) in the determination of SO in actual water samples. It was worth noting that NIR-CG-based paper strip successfully realized the visual quantitative detection of SO and Cys/GSH by use of smartphone, which offered a novel method to develop powerful sensing platform.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.125332DOI Listing
February 2021

Electric-Field-Induced Gradient Ionogels for Highly Sensitive, Broad-Range-Response, and Freeze/Heat-Resistant Ionic Fingers.

Adv Mater 2021 Feb 12:e2008486. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Soochow University, Suzhou, 215123, China.

Human fingers exhibit both high sensitivity and wide tactile range. The finger skin structures are designed to display gradient microstructures and compressibility. Inspired by the gradient mechanical Young's modulus distribution, an electric-field-induced cationic crosslinker migration strategy is demonstrated to prepare gradient ionogels. Due to the gradient of the crosslinkers, the ionogels exhibit more than four orders of magnitude difference between the anode and the cathode side, enabling gradient ionogel-based flexible iontronic sensors having high-sensitivity and broader-range detection (from 3 × 10 to 2.5 × 10  Pa) simultaneously. Moreover, owing to the remarkable properties of the gradient ionogels, the flexible iontronic sensors also show good long-time stability (even after 10 000 cycles loadings) and excellent performance over a wide temperature range (from -108 to 300 °C). The flexible iontronic sensors are further integrated on soft grips, exhibiting remarkable performance under various conditions. These attractive features demonstrate that gradient ionogels will be promising candidates for smart sensor applications in complex and extreme conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202008486DOI Listing
February 2021

A pilot study on biaxial mechanical, collagen microstructural, and morphological characterizations of a resected human intracranial aneurysm tissue.

Sci Rep 2021 Feb 10;11(1):3525. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Biomechanics and Biomaterials Design Laboratory (BBDL), School of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, The University of Oklahoma, 865 Asp Ave., Felgar Hall 219C, Norman, 73019, USA.

Intracranial aneurysms (ICAs) are focal dilatations that imply a weakening of the brain artery. Incidental rupture of an ICA is increasingly responsible for significant mortality and morbidity in the American's aging population. Previous studies have quantified the pressure-volume characteristics, uniaxial mechanical properties, and morphological features of human aneurysms. In this pilot study, for the first time, we comprehensively quantified the mechanical, collagen fiber microstructural, and morphological properties of one resected human posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysm. The tissue from the dome of a right posterior inferior cerebral aneurysm was first mechanically characterized using biaxial tension and stress relaxation tests. Then, the load-dependent collagen fiber architecture of the aneurysm tissue was quantified using an in-house polarized spatial frequency domain imaging system. Finally, optical coherence tomography and histological procedures were used to quantify the tissue's microstructural morphology. Mechanically, the tissue was shown to exhibit hysteresis, a nonlinear stress-strain response, and material anisotropy. Moreover, the unloaded collagen fiber architecture of the tissue was predominantly aligned with the testing Y-direction and rotated towards the X-direction under increasing equibiaxial loading. Furthermore, our histological analysis showed a considerable damage to the morphological integrity of the tissue, including lack of elastin, intimal thickening, and calcium deposition. This new unified characterization framework can be extended to better understand the mechanics-microstructure interrelationship of aneurysm tissues at different time points of the formation or growth. Such specimen-specific information is anticipated to provide valuable insight that may improve our current understanding of aneurysm growth and rupture potential.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-82991-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7876029PMC
February 2021

Wettability of a Polymethylmethacrylate Surface by Extended Anionic Surfactants: Effect of Branched Chains.

Molecules 2021 Feb 6;26(4). Epub 2021 Feb 6.

Key Laboratory of Photochemical Conversion and Optoelectronic Materials, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China.

The adsorption behaviors of extended anionic surfactants linear sodium dodecyl(polyoxyisopropene) sulfate (L-CPOS), branched sodium dodecyl(polyoxyisopropene) sulfate (G-CPOS), and branched sodium hexadecyl(polyoxyisopropene) sulfate (G-CPOS) on polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) surface have been studied. The effect of branched alkyl chain on the wettability of the PMMA surface has been explored. To obtain the adsorption parameters such as the adhesional tension and PMMA-solution interfacial tension, the surface tension and contact angles were measured. The experimental results demonstrate that the special properties of polyoxypropene (PO) groups improve the polar interactions and allow the extended surfactant molecules to gradually adsorb on the PMMA surface by polar heads. Therefore, the hydrophobic chains will point to water and the solid surface is modified to be hydrophobic. Besides, the adsorption amounts of the three extended anionic surfactants at the PMMA-liquid interface are all about 1/3 of those at the air-liquid interface before the critical micelle concentration (CMC). However, these extended surfactants will transform their original adsorption behavior after CMC. The surfactant molecules will interact with the PMMA surface with the hydrophilic heads towards water and are prone to form aggregations at the PMMA-liquid interface. Therefore, the PMMA surface will be more hydrophilic after CMC. In the three surfactants, the branched G-CPOS with two long alkyl chains exhibits the strongest hydrophobic modification capacity. The linear L-CPOS is more likely to densely adsorb at the PMMA-liquid interface than the branched surfactants, thus L-CPOS possesses the strongest hydrophilic modification ability and shows smaller contact angles on PMMA surface at high concentrations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26040863DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7915921PMC
February 2021

A continuous plug-flow anaerobic/aerobic/anoxic/aerobic (AOAO) process treating low COD/TIN domestic sewage: Realization of partial nitrification and extremely advanced nitrogen removal.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jan 27;771:145387. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

National Engineering Laboratory for Advanced Municipal Wastewater Treatment and Reuse Technology, Engineering Research Center of Beijing, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124, PR China.

The realization of stable partial nitrification and advanced nitrogen removal are not acquired effectively in conventional pre-denitrification biological nitrogen removal processes treating domestic sewage. Herein, a novel anaerobic/aerobic/anoxic/aerobic (AOAO) continuous plug-flow reactor, characterized with double sludge reflux and a bypass of anaerobic mixed liquor conveyed to anoxic zone, was first constructed to realize stable partial nitrification in treating domestic sewage. The alternating anoxic/aerobic conditions and longer anoxic sludge retention time might be responsible for the partial nitrification. Nitrite accumulation ratio reached 89.3 ± 3.3% with the maximum activity ratio of AOB to NOB increasing from 0.72 to 8.17. A content total inorganic nitrogen (TIN) removal efficiency (93.7 ± 2.2%) and effluent TIN concentration (2.9 ± 0.9 mg N/L) were obtained after 238 days' operation. Specifically, nitrogen balance of the typical cycle showed that about 30.1% of TIN was removed through simultaneous partial nitrification and denitrification (SND) in aerobic zone and 48.2% by endogenous denitrification in anoxic zone. The AOAO process is an economic treatment for domestic sewage with aerobic hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 4 h.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.145387DOI Listing
January 2021

Demonstration of age-related blood-brain barrier disruption and cerebromicrovascular rarefaction in mice by two-photon microscopy & optical coherence tomography.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2021 Feb 5. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Vascular Cognitive Impairment & Neurodegeneration Program/Oklahoma Ctr for Geroscience, Dept. of Biochemistry, University of Oklahoma HSC, Oklahoma City, OK; Intl Training Program in Geroscience, Doctoral School of Basic & Translational Medicine/Dept. of Public Health, Semmelweis University, Budapest, HU; Dept. of Health Promotion Sciences, College of Public Health, University of Oklahoma HSC, Oklahoma City, OK; Intl Training Program in Geroscience, Theoretical Medicine Doctoral School/Dept. of Cell Biology and Molecular Medicine, University of Szeged, Szeged, HU.

Age-related blood-brain barrier disruption and cerebromicrovascular rarefaction contribute importantly to the pathogenesis of both vascular cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent advances in geroscience research enable development of novel interventions to reverse age-related alterations of the cerebral microcirculation for prevention of VCID and AD. To facilitate this research there is an urgent need for sensitive and easy-to-adapt imaging methods, which enable longitudinal assessment of changes in BBB permeability and brain capillarization in aged mice, that could be used in vivo to evaluate treatment efficiency. To enable longitudinal assessment of changes in BBB permeability in aged mice equipped with a chronic cranial window, we adapted and optimized two different intravital two-photon imaging approaches. By assessing relative fluorescence changes over the baseline within a volume of brain tissue, after qualitative image subtraction of the brain microvasculature, we confirmed that in 24 month old C57BL/6J mice cumulative permeability of the microvessels to fluorescent tracers of different molecular weights (0.3 kDa to 40 kDa) is significantly increased as compared to that of 5 month old mice. Real-time recording of vessel cross-sections showed that apparent solute permeability of single microvessels is significantly increased in aged mice vs. young mice. Cortical capillary density, assessed both by intravital two-photon microscopy and optical coherence tomography (OCT) was also decreased in aged mice vs. young mice. The presented methods are optimized for longitudinal in vivo assessment of cerebromicrovascular health in preclinical geroscience research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00709.2020DOI Listing
February 2021

Inhibition of Dectin-1 Ameliorates Neuroinflammation by Regulating Microglia/Macrophage Phenotype After Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Mice.

Transl Stroke Res 2021 Feb 4. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Department of Neurosurgery, Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Jiefang Road 88th, Hangzhou, 310016, China.

Polarization of microglia/macrophages toward the pro-inflammatory phenotype is an important contributor to neuroinflammation after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Dectin-1 is a pattern recognition receptor that has been reported to play a key role in regulating neuroinflammation in ischemic stroke and spinal cord injury. However, the role and mechanism of action of Dectin-1 after ICH remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of Dectin-1 on modulating the microglia/macrophage phenotype and neuroinflammation and the possible underlying mechanism after ICH. We found that Dectin-1 expression increased after ICH, and was mainly localized in microglia/macrophages. Neutrophil infiltration and microglia/macrophage polarization toward the pro-inflammatory phenotype increased after ICH. However, treatment with a Dectin-1 inhibitor reversed these phenomena and induced a shift the anti-inflammatory phenotype in microglia/macrophages; this resulted in alleviation of neurological dysfunction and facilitated hematoma clearance after ICH. We also found that Dectin-1 crosstalks with the downstream pro-inflammatory pathway, Card9/NF-κB, by activating spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) both in vivo and in vitro. In conclusion, our data suggest that Dectin-1 is involved in the microglia/macrophage polarization and functional recovery after ICH, and that this mechanism, at least in part, may contribute to the involvement of the Syk/Card9/NF-kB pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12975-021-00889-2DOI Listing
February 2021

Plasma membrane H-ATPase overexpression increases rice yield via simultaneous enhancement of nutrient uptake and photosynthesis.

Nat Commun 2021 02 2;12(1):735. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center for Solid Organic Waste Resource Utilization, College of Resources and Environment Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China.

Nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) are essential elements for plant growth and crop yield. Thus, improved N and C utilisation contributes to agricultural productivity and reduces the need for fertilisation. In the present study, we find that overexpression of a single rice gene, Oryza sativa plasma membrane (PM) H-ATPase 1 (OSA1), facilitates ammonium absorption and assimilation in roots and enhanced light-induced stomatal opening with higher photosynthesis rate in leaves. As a result, OSA1 overexpression in rice plants causes a 33% increase in grain yield and a 46% increase in N use efficiency overall. As PM H-ATPase is highly conserved in plants, these findings indicate that the manipulation of PM H-ATPase could cooperatively improve N and C utilisation, potentially providing a vital tool for food security and sustainable agriculture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-20964-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7854686PMC
February 2021

A Superstrong and Reversible Ionic Crystal-based Adhesive Inspired by Ice Adhesion.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Feb 2. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Soochow University, Department of Chemistry, 199. Ren'ai Road,Suzhou, 215123, Suzhou, CHINA.

In this study, we developed a superstrong and reversible adhesive, which can possess a high bonding strength in the "adhesive" state and detach with the application of heating. An ionic crystal (IC) gel, in which an IC was immobilized within a soft-polymer matrix, were synthesized via in situ photo-crosslinking of a precursor solution composed of N, N-dimethyl acrylamide (DMAA) and a melted IC. The obtained IC gel is homogenous and transparent at melt point. When cooled to the phase transition temperature of the IC, the gel turns into the adhesive with the adhesion strength of 5.82 MPa (on glasses), due to the excellent wetting of melted gel and a thin layer of crystalline IC with high cohesive strength formed on the substrates. The synergistic effects between IC, polymer networks and substrates were investigated by solid state 1H NMR and molecular dynamics simulation. Such an adhesive layer is reversable and can be detached by heating and subsequent re-adhesion via cooling. This study proposed the new design of removable adhesives, which can be used in dynamic and complex environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202100984DOI Listing
February 2021

Induction of muscle-regenerative multipotent stem cells from human adipocytes by PDGF-AB and 5-azacytidine.

Sci Adv 2021 Jan 13;7(3). Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Adult Cancer Program, Lowy Cancer Research Centre, UNSW Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia.

Terminally differentiated murine osteocytes and adipocytes can be reprogrammed using platelet-derived growth factor-AB and 5-azacytidine into multipotent stem cells with stromal cell characteristics. We have now optimized culture conditions to reprogram human adipocytes into induced multipotent stem (iMS) cells and characterized their molecular and functional properties. Although the basal transcriptomes of adipocyte-derived iMS cells and adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells were similar, there were changes in histone modifications and CpG methylation at cis-regulatory regions consistent with an epigenetic landscape that was primed for tissue development and differentiation. In a non-specific tissue injury xenograft model, iMS cells contributed directly to muscle, bone, cartilage, and blood vessels, with no evidence of teratogenic potential. In a cardiotoxin muscle injury model, iMS cells contributed specifically to satellite cells and myofibers without ectopic tissue formation. Together, human adipocyte-derived iMS cells regenerate tissues in a context-dependent manner without ectopic or neoplastic growth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abd1929DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7806226PMC
January 2021

Phosphate removal via biological process coupling with hydroxyapatite crystallization in alternating anaerobic/aerobic biofilter reactor.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Apr 18;326:124728. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

School of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022, China; Research Center for Functional Material & Water Purification Engineering of Shandong Province, Jinan 250022, China.

In this work, a laboratory-scale alternating anaerobic/aerobic biofilter (A/O BF) filled with self-made steel slag media was constructed, where the integrated biological and crystalline phosphorus removal process was realized to remove phosphorus and achieve phosphorus recovery from wastewater. Phosphorus accumulating organisms (PAOs) were successfully enriched within 30 days operation, the maximum phosphate removal efficiency was close to 80% under the optimal conditions with the anaerobic time of 34 h, HRT of 4 h and influent COD of 300 mg/L. The analysis of SEM-EDS and XRD indicated that hydroxyapatite (HAP) crystals were formed inside biofilms without addition of chemical reagents. The high phosphate environment created by PAOs and the release of Ca from the steel slag media might be responsible for the generation of HAP. These findings have crucial implications for the application BF technology to remove and recover phosphorus from wastewater.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.124728DOI Listing
April 2021

Cytotoxic Escherichia coli strains encoding colibactin, cytotoxic necrotizing factor, and cytolethal distending toxin colonize laboratory common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus).

Sci Rep 2021 Jan 27;11(1):2309. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Division of Comparative Medicine, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Building 16-825, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA, 02139, USA.

Cyclomodulins are virulence factors that modulate cellular differentiation, apoptosis, and proliferation. These include colibactin (pks), cytotoxic necrotizing factor (cnf), and cytolethal distending toxin (cdt). Pathogenic pks+, cnf+, and cdt+ E. coli strains are associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and colorectal cancer in humans and animals. Captive marmosets are frequently afflicted with IBD-like disease, and its association with cyclomodulins is unknown. Cyclomodulin-encoding E. coli rectal isolates were characterized using PCR-based assays in healthy and clinically affected marmosets originating from three different captive sources. 139 E. coli isolates were cultured from 122 of 143 marmosets. The pks gene was detected in 56 isolates (40%), cnf in 47 isolates (34%), and cdt in 1 isolate (0.7%). The prevalences of pks+ and cnf+ E. coli isolates were significantly different between the three marmoset colonies. 98% of cyclomodulin-positive E. coli belonged to phylogenetic group B2. Representative isolates demonstrated cyclomodulin cytotoxicity, and serotyping and whole genome sequencing were consistent with pathogenic E. coli strains. However, the presence of pks+, cnf+, or cdt+ E. coli did not correlate with clinical gastrointestinal disease in marmosets. Cyclomodulin-encoding E. coli colonize laboratory common marmosets in a manner dependent on the source, potentially impacting reproducibility in marmoset models.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-80000-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7841143PMC
January 2021

Case 290.

Radiology 2021 Feb;298(2):468-470

From the Departments of Medical Ultrasound (H.Y., C.Z., X.W., Y.L.) and Medical Ultrasound, Laboratory of Ultrasound Imaging Drug (F.Y.), West China Hospital, Sichuan University, No. 37 Guo Xue Xiang, Chengdu 610041, China.

History A 26-year-old man presented with a 1-month history of chest pain, a palpable and painful right inguinal mass, and edema in the right lower extremity. One month earlier, he started to experience left chest pain with no cough. Pulmonary CT angiography (CTA) revealed a left lower lobe segmental pulmonary embolus. The local hospital made a diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE). He received anticoagulants, and his chest pain was gradually relieved. At the time of current presentation, the patient was experiencing right lower extremity swelling and pain. Physical examination revealed a 4 × 3 cm palpable right inguinal mass with no redness. His medical history and family history were negative. The results of laboratory work-up were normal, with a D-dimer level of 0.16 mg/L fibrinogen equivalent units (reference range, <0.46 mg/L) and an international normalized ratio of 2.45 (therapeutic range, 2.0-3.0 for a patient taking warfarin), except the prothrombin time was 28.2 seconds (reference range, 9.6-12.8 seconds) and the activated partial thromboplastin time was 52.2 seconds (reference range, 24.8-33.8 seconds). Echocardiography, chest radiography, chest CT, and contrast-enhanced CT revealed no abnormalities. The patient underwent right lower extremity vascular conventional US (Philips IU22; Philips) with an L9-3 probe (3-9 MHz, venous condition) and contrast-enhanced US (1.5-2.0 mL, SonoVue; Bracco) with an intravenous bolus injection at the initial evaluation. Two days later, noncontrast and contrast-enhanced CT images of the lower abdomen (1.5 mL per kilogram of body weight, 300 mg/mL iomeprol, Iomeron; Bracco) were acquired for further evaluation (Figs 1-3).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/radiol.2021192862DOI Listing
February 2021

T-ALL can evolve to oncogene independence.

Leukemia 2021 Jan 22. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Australian Centre for Blood Diseases, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

The majority of cases of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) contain chromosomal abnormalities that drive overexpression of oncogenic transcription factors. However, whether these initiating oncogenes are required for leukemia maintenance is poorly understood. To address this, we developed a tetracycline-regulated mouse model of T-ALL driven by the oncogenic transcription factor Lmo2. This revealed that whilst thymus-resident pre-Leukemic Stem Cells (pre-LSCs) required continuous Lmo2 expression, the majority of leukemias relapsed despite Lmo2 withdrawal. Relapse was associated with a mature phenotype and frequent mutation or loss of tumor suppressor genes including Ikzf1 (Ikaros), with targeted deletion Ikzf1 being sufficient to transform Lmo2-dependent leukemias to Lmo2-independence. Moreover, we found that the related transcription factor TAL1 was dispensable in several human T-ALL cell lines that contain SIL-TAL1 chromosomal deletions driving its overexpression, indicating that evolution to oncogene independence can also occur in human T-ALL. Together these results indicate an evolution of oncogene addiction in murine and human T-ALL and show that loss of Ikaros is a mechanism that can promote self-renewal of T-ALL lymphoblasts in the absence of an initiating oncogenic transcription factor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41375-021-01120-9DOI Listing
January 2021

The Infratentorial Localization of Brain Metastases May Correlate with Specific Clinical Characteristics and Portend Worse Outcomes Based on Voxel-Wise Mapping.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Jan 17;13(2). Epub 2021 Jan 17.

School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, Zhejiang, China.

The infratentorial regions are vulnerable to develop brain metastases (BMs). However, the associations between the infratentorial localization of BMs and clinical characteristics remained unclear. We retrospectively studied 1102 patients with 4365 BM lesions. Voxel-wise mapping of MRI was applied to construct the tumor frequency heatmaps after normalization and segmentation. The analysis of differential involvement (ADIFFI) was further used to obtain statistically significant clusters. Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression were used to analyze the prognosis. The parietal, insular and left occipital lobes, and cerebellum were vulnerable to BMs with high relative metastatic risks. Infratentorial areas were site-specifically affected by the lung, breast, and colorectal cancer BMs, but inversely avoided by melanoma BMs. Significant infratentorial clusters were associated with young age, male sex, lung neuroendocrine and squamous cell carcinomas, high expression of Ki-67 of primaries and BMs, and patients with poorer prognosis. Inferior OS was observed in patients with ≥3 BMs and those who received whole-brain radiotherapy alone. Infratentorial involvement of BMs was an independent risk factor of poor prognosis for patients who received surgery ( = 0.023, hazard ratio = 1.473, 95% confidence interval = 1.055-2.058). The current study may add valuable clinical recognition of BMs and provide references for BMs diagnosis, treatment evaluation, and prognostic prediction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13020324DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7831020PMC
January 2021

and infection in a colony of research macaques: characterization and clinical correlates.

J Med Microbiol 2021 Jan 21. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

The Division of Comparative Medicine, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Bldg 16-825, Cambridge, MA, USA.

( type 1) commonly infects nonhuman primates but its clinical importance is in question. To characterize infection in a colony of rhesus macaques () used in cognitive neuroscience research. Inquiries into the nature of in nonhuman primates are required to further define the organism's virulence and the experimental animal's gastric microbiome. Animals with and without clinical signs of vomiting and abdominal pain (=5 and =16, respectively) were evaluated by histology, culture, PCR amplification and sequencing, fluorescent hybridization (FISH) and serology. Three of the five animals with clinical signs, an index case and two others, were evaluated before and after antimicrobial therapy. The index animal had endoscopically visible ulcers and multifocal, moderate, chronic lymphoplasmacytic gastritis with intraglandular and luminal spiral bacteria. Antimicrobial therapy in the index animal achieved histologic improvement, elimination of endoscopically visible ulcers, and evident eradication but clinical signs persisted. In the other treated animals, gastritis scores were not consistently altered, gastric bacteria persisted, but vomiting and abdominal discomfort abated.Nineteen of 21 animals were PCR positive for and five animals were also PCR positive for . Organisms were detected by FISH in 17 of 21 animals: 16S rRNA sequences of two of these were shown to be . Mild to moderate lymphoplasmacytic gastritis was seen in antrum, body and cardia, with antral gastritis more likely to be moderate than that of the body. No clear association between the bacterial numbers of spp. and the degree of inflammation was observed. is prevalent in this colony of but its clinical importance remains unclear. This study corroborates many of the findings in earlier studies of infection in macaques but also identifies at least one animal in which gastritis and endoscopically visible gastric ulcers were strongly associated with infection. In this study, serology was an inadequate biomarker for endoscopic evaluation in diagnosis of infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jmm.0.001315DOI Listing
January 2021

Parkinson-like early autonomic dysfunction induced by vagal application of DOPAL in rats.

CNS Neurosci Ther 2021 Jan 21. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Department of Pharmacology (State-Province Key Laboratories of Biomedicine-Pharmaceutics of China, Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Medicine Research, Ministry of Education), College of Pharmacy, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China.

Aim: To understand why autonomic failures, a common non-motor symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD), occur earlier than typical motor disorders.

Methods: Vagal application of DOPAL (3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde) to simulate PD-like autonomic dysfunction and understand the connection between PD and cardiovascular dysfunction. Molecular and morphological approaches were employed to test the time-dependent alternation of α-synuclein aggregation and the ultrastructure changes in the heart and nodose (NG)/nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS).

Results: Blood pressure (BP) and baroreflex sensitivity of DOPAL-treated rats were significantly reduced accompanied with a time-dependent change in orthostatic BP, consistent with altered echocardiography and cardiomyocyte mitochondrial ultrastructure. Notably, time-dependent and collaborated changes in Mon-/Tri-α-synuclein were paralleled with morphological alternation in the NG and NTS.

Conclusion: These all demonstrate that early autonomic dysfunction mediated by vagal application of DOPAL highly suggests the plausible etiology of PD initiated from peripheral, rather than central site. It will provide a scientific basis for the prevention and early diagnosis of PD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cns.13589DOI Listing
January 2021

Adeno-associated virus-mediated delivery of anti-miR-199a tough decoys attenuates cardiac hypertrophy by targeting .

Mol Ther Nucleic Acids 2021 Mar 17;23:406-417. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Department of Medical Ultrasound, Laboratory of Ultrasound Imaging Drug, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China.

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators in the process of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. Previous studies have shown that miR-199a is upregulated in pressure-overload cardiac hypertrophy and that inhibition of miR-199a attenuates cardiac hypertrophy . However, the therapeutic role of anti-miR-199a treatment in the cardiac hypertrophy model is less known. Here, we show an efficient and useful method to treat mouse cardiac hypertrophy and restore cardiac function through injection of adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated anti-miR-199a tough decoys (TuDs). RNA-seq transcriptome analysis indicated that genes related to cytoplasmic translation and mitochondrial respiratory chain complex assembly were upregulated in anti-miR-199a-treated recovered hearts. We further validated that PGC-1α is the direct target of miR-199a involved in the therapeutic effect and the regulation of the PGC-1α/ERRα axis and that the downstream pathway of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and oxidative phosphorylation constitute the underlying mechanism of the restored mitochondrial structure and function in our anti-miR-199a-treated mice. Our study highlights the important regulatory role of miR-199a in cardiac hypertrophy and the value of the AAV-mediated miRNA delivery system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.omtn.2020.11.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7787996PMC
March 2021

Study of Piezoresistive Behavior of Smart Cement Filled with Graphene Oxide.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Jan 15;11(1). Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Yunnan Key Laboratory of Disaster Reduction in Civil Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650500, China.

A cement-based piezoelectric composite, modified by graphene oxide (GO), was prepared to study piezoresistive capacity. The testing confirms that GO is more effective than other carbon nanomaterials at improving piezoresistive sensitivity of cement-based composites, because the content of GO in cement paste was much lower than other carbon nanomaterials used in previously published research. Further investigation indicates that the addition of GO significantly improved the stability and repeatability for piezoresistive capacity of cement paste under cycle loads. Based on experiment results, the piezoresistive sensitivity of this composite depended on GO content, water-to-cement weight ratio (w/c) and water-loss rate, since the highest piezoresistive gauge factor value (GF = 35) was obtained when GO content was 0.05 wt.%, w/c was 0.35 and water-loss rate was 3%. Finally, microstructure analysis confirmed that conductivity and piezoresistivity were achieved through a tunneling effect and by contacting conduction that caused deformation of GO networks in the cement matrix.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano11010206DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7830615PMC
January 2021

Continuous and discontinuous transitions in the depinning of two-dimensional dusty plasmas on a one-dimensional periodic substrate.

Phys Rev E 2020 Dec;102(6-1):063203

Center for Soft Condensed Matter Physics and Interdisciplinary Research, School of Physical Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006, China.

Langevin dynamical simulations are performed to study the depinning dynamics of two-dimensional dusty plasmas on a one-dimensional periodic substrate. From the diagnostics of the sixfold coordinated particles P_{6} and the collective drift velocity V_{x}, three different states appear, which are the pinning, disordered plastic flow, and moving ordered states. It is found that the depth of the substrate is able to modulate the properties of the depinning phase transition, based on the results of P_{6} and V_{x}, as well as the observation of hysteresis of V_{x} while increasing and decreasing the driving force monotonically. When the depth of the substrate is shallow, there are two continuous phase transitions. When the potential well depth slightly increases, the phase transition from the pinned to the disordered plastic flow states is continuous; however, the phase transition from the disordered plastic flow to the moving ordered states is discontinuous. When the substrate is even deeper, the phase transition from the pinned to the disordered plastic flow states changes to discontinuous. When the depth of the substrate further increases, as the driving force increases, the pinned state changes to the moving ordered state directly, so that the disordered plastic flow state disappears completely.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.102.063203DOI Listing
December 2020

Clinicopathologic Features of COVID-19: A Case Report and Value of Forensic Autopsy in Studying SARS-CoV-2 Infection.

Am J Forensic Med Pathol 2021 Jan 15. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

From the Department of Forensic Medicine, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, Hubei, China Hubei Chongxin Judicial Expertise Center, Wuhan 430415, Hubei, China Department of Pathology, Wuhan Jin Yin-tan Hospital, Wuhan 430023, Hubei, China Institute of Pathology/Department of Pathology, Tongji Hospital/Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, Hubei, China Center for Biosafety Mega-Science and Technology, Wuhan Institute of Virology Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071, Hubei, China Basic Medical Science and Forensic Medicine, Hangzhou Medical College, Hangzhou 310053, Zhejiang, China.

Abstract: As of August 23, 2020, the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has infected more than 23,518,340 people and caused more than 810,492 deaths worldwide including 4,717 deaths in China. We present a case of a 53-year-old woman who was admitted to the hospital because of dry coughs and high fever on January 26, 2020, in Wuhan, China. She was not tested for SARS-CoV-2 RNA until on hospital day 11 (illness day 21) because of a significant shortage of test kits at the local hospital. Then, her test was positive for COVID-19 on hospital day 20. Despite intensive medical treatments, she developed respiratory failure with secondary bacterial infection and expired on hospital day 23 (3 days after she was tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA). A systemic autopsy examination, including immunohistochemistry and ultrastructural studies, demonstrates that SARS-CoV-2 can infect multiple organs with profound adverse effect on the immune system, and the lung pathology is characterized by diffuse alveolar damage. Extrapulmonary SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in several organs postmortem. The detailed pathological features are described. In addition, this report highlights the value of forensic autopsy in studying SARS-CoV-2 infection and the importance of clinicopathological correlation in better understanding the pathogenesis of COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAF.0000000000000644DOI Listing
January 2021

Highly sensitive detection of caspase-3 activity based on peptide-modified organic electrochemical transistor biosensors.

Nanoscale 2021 Feb 19;13(5):2868-2874. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Department of Physics, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, P.R. China.

Caspase-3 is an important proteolytic enzyme that cleaves several key substrates in apoptotic processes, resulting in DNA fragmentation, the degradation of nuclear proteins, and the formation of apoptotic bodies. However, it is challenging to detect caspase-3 due to its low expression levels in cells. In this work, organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) are used in the detection of caspase-3 for the first time. A self-assembled monolayer of the peptide is bonded to the Au gate electrode (GE) of an OECT via gold-sulphur bonds. It is found that the transfer curve of the transistor shifts to a lower gate voltage due to the modulation of the surface potential of the GE by the peptides. Then, the device is used in the detection of caspase-3 in aqueous solutions and shows a detection limit of 0.1 pM. Due to its high sensitivity, the device can detect caspase-3 in induced apoptotic HeLa cells. The system is low-cost, conveniently used and applicable for biological and medical monitoring where caspase-3 detection and quantification are required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0nr08453kDOI Listing
February 2021

Loss of Wip1 aggravates brain injury after ischaemia/reperfusion by overactivating microglia.

Stroke Vasc Neurol 2021 Jan 15. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Beijing Institute of Brain Disorders, Laboratory of Brain Disorders, Ministry of Science and Technology, Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Disorders, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Background And Purpose: The inflammatory response mediated by microglia/macrophages is closely related to cerebral ischaemia/reperfusion injury. Wild-type p53-induced protein phosphatase 1 (Wip1), a serine/threonine phosphatase, is expressed in various tissues. A growing number of reports have suggested that Wip1 is a negative regulator of inflammation in peripheral tissue; however, its role in the central nervous system (CNS) remains unclear. This study aimed to clarify whether Wip1 can inhibit CNS inflammation by regulating microglia/macrophage functions after ischaemic injury.

Methods: A model of middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion was established in mice. CNS inflammation was simulated by lipopolysaccharide treatment of primary microglia. Laser speckle imaging was used to monitor regional cerebral blood flow. Behavioural outcomes were assessed with a TreadScan gait analysis system. TTC staining was used to evaluate the infarct volume, and western blotting and immunofluorescence staining were applied to detect the phenotypical transformation of microglia. ELISA was performed to detect the levels of inflammatory factors.

Results: Wip1 expression was increased after ischaemia/reperfusion. Wip1-knockout (KO) mice displayed more severe brain injury than wild-type mice, as indicated by aggravated motor dysfunction, greater brain infarct volumes and higher expression of inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor alpha) in the brain. We also found that Wip1 depletion increased microglial/macrophage activation in both in vitro and in vivo models, which all showed activation of microglia/macrophages. Lentivirus- reversed the injury induced by Wip1-KO.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that Wip1 may inhibit neuroinflammation by inhibiting microglial/macrophage activation after brain ischaemia/reperfusion injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/svn-2020-000490DOI Listing
January 2021

Mechanical Loading-Driven Tumor Suppression Is Mediated by Lrp5-Dependent and Independent Mechanisms.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Jan 13;13(2). Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150081, China.

Bone is mechanosensitive and lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (Lrp5)-mediated Wnt signaling promotes loading-driven bone formation. While mechanical loading can suppress tumor growth, the question is whether Lrp5 mediates loading-driven tumor suppression. Herein, we examined the effect of Lrp5 using osteocyte-specific Lrp5 conditional knockout mice. All mice presented noticeable loading-driven tumor suppression in the loaded tibia and non-loaded mammary pad. The degree of suppression was more significant in wild-type than knockout mice. In all male and female mice, knee loading reduced cholesterol and elevated dopamine. It reduced tumor-promoting nexin, which was elevated by cholesterol and reduced by dopamine. By contrast, it elevated p53, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), and chemerin, and they were regulated reversely by dopamine and cholesterol. Notably, Lrp5 overexpression in osteocytes enhanced tumor suppression, and osteoclast development was inhibited by chemerin. Collectively, this study identified Lrp5-dependent and independent mechanisms for tumor suppression. Lrp5 in osteocytes contributed to the loaded bone, while the Lrp5-independent regulation of dopamine- and cholesterol-induced systemic suppression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13020267DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7828232PMC
January 2021

Independent Amplitude Control of Arbitrary Orthogonal States of Polarization via Dielectric Metasurfaces.

Phys Rev Lett 2020 Dec;125(26):267402

National Laboratory of Solid-State Microstructures and Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China.

Exquisite polarization control using optical metasurfaces has attracted considerable attention thanks to their ability to manipulate multichannel independent wavefronts with subwavelength resolution. Here we present a new class of metasurface polarization optics, which enables imposition of two arbitrary and independent amplitude profiles on any pair of orthogonal states of polarization. The implementation method involves a polarization-dependent interference mechanism achieved by constructing a metasurface composed of an array of nanoscale birefringent waveplates. Based on this principle, we experimentally demonstrate chiral grayscale metasurface and chiral shadow rendering of structured light. These results illustrate a general approach interlinking amplitude profiles and orthogonal states of polarization and expands the scope of metasurface polarization shaping optics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.125.267402DOI Listing
December 2020