Publications by authors named "Yan Ding"

725 Publications

Efficacy and Safety of Adherence to dl-3-n-Butylphthalide Treatment in Patients With Non-disabling Minor Stroke and TIA-Analysis From a Nationwide, Multicenter Registry.

Front Neurol 2021 22;12:720664. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Department of Neurology, the First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China.

Dl-3-n-Butylphthalide (NBP) has the potential to improve clinical outcomes in acute ischemic stroke patients by improving collateral circulation. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of NBP in patients with non-disabling minor ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA). The BRIDGE (the observation study on clinical effectiveness of NBP on patients with non-disabling ischemic cerebrovascular disease) is a prospective registry to monitor the efficacy and safety of NBP therapy in acute non-disabling ischemic stroke or high-risk TIA. Non-disabling minor ischemic stroke patients within 48 h were enrolled across 51 stroke centers in China. We divided patients into NBP compliance or non-compliance groups according to their adherence to NBP. The primary outcome was the favorable functional outcome at 90 days, defined as a modified Rankin scale (mRS) <2. Between 10th October 2016 and 25th June 2019, 3,118 patients were included in this analysis. In multivariable analysis, after adjusting for common risk factors and demographic factors, NBP-compliance group has a higher proportion of favorable functional outcome (92.1 vs. 87.4%, adjusted odds ratio 2.00, 95% confidence interval, 1.50-2.65), and a higher stroke recurrence rate (2.40 vs. 0.31%, adjusted odds ratio 8.86, 95% confidence interval, 3.37-23.30) than the NBP-non-compliance group. There was no significant difference in death and intracranial hemorrhage rate between the two groups. In subgroup analysis, patients with National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores from 3 to 5 who complied to NBP therapy had a higher rate of favorable functional outcomes than the NBP-non-compliance group. [89.8 vs. 76.8%, adjusted odds ratio 2.54 (1.64-3.93), adjusted interaction = 0.001]. In non-disabling minor ischemic stroke or TIA patients, compliance with NBP therapy led to better 90-day functional outcomes despite a higher risk of recurrence, and this effect seems to be stronger in patients with NIHSS scores of 3-5. Further large randomized, double-blind controlled studies to analyse the association between NBP and functional outcome is warranted in the coming future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2021.720664DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8492907PMC
September 2021

Titanium(IV)-Mediated Ring-Opening/Dehydroxylative Cross-Coupling of Diaryl-Substituted Methanols with Cyclopropanol Derivatives.

J Org Chem 2021 Oct 10. Epub 2021 Oct 10.

Technical Institute of Fluorochemistry (TIF), Institute of Advanced Synthesis, School of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 211816, China.

A titanium(IV)-mediated ring-opening/dehydroxylative cross-coupling of diaryl-substituted methanols with a cyclopropanol derivative was developed. The reactions proceeded efficiently to provide synthetically useful γ,γ-diaryl esters in moderate to good yields, which could be applied to the functionalization of complex molecules derived from bioactive fenofibrate and isoxepac and the synthesis of a precursor of Zoloft.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.joc.1c01790DOI Listing
October 2021

[Correlation and difference analysis in parameters between video head impulse test and caloric test in vestibular disease].

Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi 2021 Sep;35(9):802-806

Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery,the Second Xiangya Hospital,Central South University,Changsha,410011,China.

To investigate interrelationships in parameters between caloric test and video head impulse test(vHIT) in the common peripheral vertigo diseases and healthy people, and to conduct correlation and difference analysis between the results in two tests, so as to evaluate the clinical diagnosis value of peripheral vertigo. The caloric test and vHIT were fulfilled in 68 patients with vertigo and 17 healthy volunteers. The diagnosis was done according to history inquiring, otology and audiology examination and vestibular tests. The vestibulo-ocular reflex(VOR) gain and gain asymmetry(GA) of a vHIT as well as unilateral weakness(UW) and the sum of the slow-phase velocities(SPVs) of warm and cold irrigation of the same side were compared. A cutoff value of VOR gain of a vHIT was also calculated using a receiver-operating characteristic curve. In all ears(=170), there was significant correlation in ipsilateral SPVs and VOR gain(=0.568, <0.0001); In all ears(=34) of 17 healthy volunteers, there was no correlation in ipsilateral SPVs and VOR gain(=-0.05, =0.778); In all affected ears(=76), there was statistically positive correlation in ipsilateral SPVs and VOR gain(=0.571, <0.0001); In all the unaffected ears(=94), there was positive correlation in ipsilateral SPVs and VOR gain(=0.286, =0.005). In 60 patients with unilateral vestibular disease(=60), there was statistically significant negative correlation between the VOR gain of affected ears and UW(=-0.513, <0.0001); there was statistically significant positive correlation between GA of a vHIT and UW(=0.713, <0.0001). There was a statistically significant negative correlation between the VOR gain of affected ears and UW in the fluctuating vertigo group(=-0.516, =0.002) as well as a positive correlation between GA and UW(=0.529, =0.001); In the non-fluctuating vertigo group, there was a statistically significant negative correlation between the VOR gain of affected ears and UW(=-0.428, =0.029); there was a positive correlation between GA of a vHIT and UW(=0.743, <0.0001). In the vestibular neuropathy group, there was a negative correlation between the VOR gain of affected ears and UW(=-0.462, =0.030); there was a statistically significant positive correlation between GA of a vHIT and UW(=0.757, <0.0001). There was a negative correlation between the VOR gain of affected ears and UW in the vestibular peripheral disease group(=-0.516, =0.002) as well as a statistically significant positive correlation between GA and UW(=0.529, =0.001). The mean value of UW(65.5%) was higher in the overt saccade group than that in the normal VOR group, there was statistically significant difference(=0.006). According to the UW damage degree grading, there was statistically significant difference in abnormal educe rates(χ²=17.76, <0.05). Based on the gold standard of caloric response, a cutoff value of 0.865 was determined; the parameters of the two tests were dissociated in 28.3%. There was a statistically significant correlation in parameters between vHIT and caloric test. The patients of overt saccade always accompany with the high UW, which could indicate that the vestibular function severely damaged. vHIT and caloric test can be complementary tools for the comprehensive evaluation of patients' vestibule function, on account of dissociation between the results of vHIT and caloric test and general result of consistent check.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13201/j.issn.2096-7993.2021.09.007DOI Listing
September 2021

Rickettsia burneti and Brucella melitensis co-infection: a case report and literature review.

BMC Microbiol 2021 Oct 5;21(1):270. Epub 2021 Oct 5.

Department of Pathogen Biology and Immunology, Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou, 221004, Jiangsu, China.

Rickettsia is the pathogen of Q fever, Brucella ovis is the pathogen of brucellosis, and both of them are Gram-negative bacteria which are parasitic in cells. The mixed infection of rickettsia and Brucella ovis is rarely reported in clinic. Early diagnosis and treatment are of great significance to the treatment and prognosis of brucellosis and Q fever. Here, we report a case of co-infection Rickettsia burneti and Brucella melitensis. The patient is a 49-year-old sheepherder, who was hospitalized with left forearm trauma. Three days after admission, the patient developed fever of 39.0°C, accompanied by sweating, fatigue, poor appetite and headache. Indirect immunofluorescence (IFA) was used to detect Rickettsia burneti IgM. After 72 hours of blood culture incubation, bacterial growth was detected in aerobic bottles, Gram-negative bacilli were found in culture medium smear, the colony was identified as Brucella melitensis by mass spectrometry. Patients were treated with doxycycline (100 mg bid, po) and rifampicin (600 mg qd, po) for 4 weeks. After treatment, the symptoms disappeared quickly, and there was no sign of recurrence or chronic infection. Q fever and Brucella may exist in high-risk practitioners, so we should routinely detect these two pathogens to prevent missed diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12866-021-02323-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8493673PMC
October 2021

Upregulation of Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein Is Associated With Cervical Cancer Progression.

Front Mol Biosci 2021 13;8:686718. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

School of Laboratory Medicine, Guizhou Medical University, Guiyang, China.

Outside a few affluent countries with adequate vaccination and screening coverage, cervical cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women in many countries. Currently, a major problem is that a substantial proportion of patients are already at an advanced cancer stage when diagnosed. There is increasing evidence that indicates the involvement of translationally controlled tumor protein 1 (TPT1) overexpression in cancer development, but little is known about its implication in cervical cancer. We assessed the levels of TPT1 in surgical tissue and sera of patients with cervicitis, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia III, and cervical cancer, as well as in normal and cancerous cervical cell lines. Gene sets, pathways, and functional protein interactions associated with TPT1 were identified using the TCGA data cohort of cervical cancer. We found that the TPT1 expression was significantly increased in cervical cancer tissue compared to all nonmalignant cervical tissues, including samples of cervicitis, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia III, and normal controls. Serum level of TPT1 was also increased in cervical cancer patients compared to healthy subjects. Furthermore, elevated TPT1 expression was significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis and a low differentiation degree of the cancer. In the cancerous tissues and cell lines, selective markers of PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway over-activation, apoptosis repression, and EMT were detected, and their interaction with TPT1 was supported by biometrics analyses. Our results, for the first time, demonstrate a strong correlation of upregulated TPT1 expression with cervical cancer progression, suggesting that TPT1 might provide a potential biomarker for cervical cancer progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmolb.2021.686718DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8473787PMC
September 2021

Quantification of Myocardial Deformation in Patients with Takayasu Arteritis by Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Feature Tracking Imaging.

J Magn Reson Imaging 2021 Sep 28. Epub 2021 Sep 28.

Department of Interventional Diagnosis and Treatment, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Background: Cardiac involvement is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with Takayasu arteritis (TA). Early detection and intervention of cardiac damage may be helpful to reduce the mortality of TA. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (MRI)-derived feature tracking (FT) is an effective quantitative method to assess myocardial deformation which may reflect early changes of cardiac function.

Purpose: To explore the utility of MR-FT as a method to detect cardiac damage in TA patients.

Study Type: Retrospective.

Population: Fifty-seven TA patients who had undergone clinically indicated MRI and 57 healthy controls.

Field Strength/sequences: Balanced steady-state free precession rest cine and 2D phase-sensitive inversion recovery breath-hold segmented gradient echo late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) sequences at 3.0 T.

Assessment: Based on LGE images, TA patients were divided into two subgroups, LGE (+) subgroup (N = 12) and LGE (-) subgroup (N = 45). In addition, patients were further subdivided into impaired (N = 26) and preserved left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) subgroups (N = 31). FT-derived deformation indices, including left ventricular (LV) global longitudinal strain (GLS), were measured by commercial software.

Statistical Tests: Mann-Whitney U-test, Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Dunn-Bonferroni post hoc method, and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis were conducted. A P-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: GLS was significantly worse in TA than in controls (median [interquartile range, IQR]: TA -10.0 [-7.5 to 12.4] vs. controls -12.7 [-11.8 to 14.7]). Moreover, TA patients with LGE (+) had significantly poorer GLS than those with LGE (-) (median [IQR]: LGE (+) -6.8 [-4.0 to 8.1] vs. LGE (-) -10.7 [-8.5 to 12.9]). The reduced LVEF subgroup had significantly greater cardiac dysfunction as measured by MR-FT than the preserved LVEF subgroup (GLS median [IQR]: reduced LVEF -7.9 [-6.2 to 11.4] vs. preserved LVEF -10.8 [-8.6 to 13.5]).

Data Conclusion: Myocardial deformation impairment was found in the majority of TA patients. MR-FT imaging may be helpful in the early diagnosis and management of TA patients.

Level Of Evidence: 4 TECHNICAL EFFICACY STAGE: 5.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmri.27942DOI Listing
September 2021

The Hh pathway promotes cell apoptosis through Ci-Rdx-Diap1 axis.

Cell Death Discov 2021 Sep 24;7(1):263. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Zhuhai Interventional Medical Center, Zhuhai Precision Medical Center, Zhuhai People's Hospital, Zhuhai Hospital Affiliated with Jinan University, Zhuhai, China.

Apoptosis is a strictly coordinated process to eliminate superfluous or damaged cells, and its deregulation leads to birth defects and various human diseases. The regulatory mechanism underlying apoptosis still remains incompletely understood. To identify novel components in apoptosis, we carry out a modifier screen and find that the Hh pathway aggravates Hid-induced apoptosis. In addition, we reveal that the Hh pathway triggers apoptosis through its transcriptional target gene rdx, which encodes an E3 ubiquitin ligase. Rdx physically binds Diap1 to promote its K63-linked polyubiquitination, culminating in attenuating Diap1-Dronc interaction without affecting Diap1 stability. Taken together, our findings unexpectedly uncover the oncogenic Hh pathway is able to promote apoptosis through Ci-Rdx-Diap1 module, raising a concern to choose Hh pathway inhibitors as anti-tumor drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41420-021-00653-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8463586PMC
September 2021

Luteolin attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome by activating alveolar epithelial sodium channels via cGMP/PI3K pathway.

J Ethnopharmacol 2022 Jan 16;282:114654. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine, College of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Shenyang, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Luteolin (Lut) was recently identified as the major active ingredient of Mosla scabra, which was a typical representative traditional Chinese medicine and had been used to treat pulmonary diseases for thousands of years.

Aim Of The Study: This study was to explore the effects and relative mechanisms of Lut in LPS-induced acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS). The main characteristic of ALI/ARDS is pulmonary edema, and epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is a key factor in effective removal of excessive alveolar edematous fluid, which is essential for repairing gas exchange and minimizing damage to the peripheral tissues. However, whether the therapeutic effects of Lut on respiratory diseases are relative with ENaC is still unknown.

Materials And Methods: Alveolar fluid clearance was calculated in BALB/c mice and ENaC function was measured in H441 cells. Moreover, ENaC membrane protein and mRNA were detected by Western blot and real-time PCR, respectively. We also studied the involvement of cGMP/PI3K pathway during the regulation of Lut on ENaC during LPS-induced ALI/ARDS by ELISA method and applying cGMP/PI3K inhibitors/siRNA.

Results: The beneficial effects of Lut in ALI/ARDS were evidenced by the alleviation of pulmonary edema, and enhancement of both amiloride-sensitive alveolar fluid clearance and short-circuit currents. Lut could alleviate the LPS decreased expression levels of ENaC mRNA and membrane protein in H441 cells and mouse lung. In addition, cGMP concentration was increased after the administration of Lut in ALI/ARDS mice, while the inhibition of cGMP/PI3K pathway could abrogate the enhanced AFC and ENaC protein expression of Lut.

Conclusion: These results implied that Lut could attenuate pulmonary edema via enhancing the abundance of membrane ENaC at least partially through the cGMP/PI3K pathway, which could provide a promising therapeutic strategy for treating ALI/ARDS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2021.114654DOI Listing
January 2022

A new classification of congenital abnormalities of UPVS: sonographic appearances, screening strategy and clinical significance.

Insights Imaging 2021 Sep 6;12(1):125. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Department of Ultrasound, Affiliated Shenzhen Maternity and Child Healthcare Hospital, Southern Medical University, Hongli Road No. 2004, Futian, Shenzhen, 518028, Guangdong, China.

The umbilical-portal venous system (UPVS) plays an important role in embryonic development, as well as a significant blood circulation system to ensure the normal blood supply of fetal heart and brain and other vital organs. Congenital anomalies of UPVS contain many subtypes with a broad spectrum of manifestations and prognoses. Furthermore, because of fetal small lumen of UPVS, the sonographic evaluation remains difficult in utero. Appreciation of normal embryology and anatomy of UPVS is essential to an understanding of sonographic characteristics of anomalies of UPVS and fetal sequential changes. Through reviewing previous references and our experience with congenital abnormalities of UPVS, a new comprehensive classification is proposed. The new classification identifies three types of congenital abnormalities of UPVS based on morphological abnormalities and shunts. The embryology and etiology, sonographic, clinical and prognostic characteristics of each subtype of the new classification are described in detail. Knowledge of congenital abnormalities of UPVS can give sonographers a clue and aid prenatal sonographic diagnosis. The purpose of this article is to help the sonographers to understand the new classification of congenital abnormalities of UPVS, master the sonographic characteristics of each subtype and prenatal ultrasonographic screening strategy, and guide subsequent appropriate counseling and management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13244-021-01068-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8421501PMC
September 2021

Algorithm of Pulmonary Vascular Segment and Centerline Extraction.

Comput Math Methods Med 2021 25;2021:3859386. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710061, China.

Because pulmonary vascular lesions are harmful to the human body and difficult to detect, computer-assisted diagnosis of pulmonary blood vessels has become the focus and difficulty of the current research. An algorithm of pulmonary vascular segment and centerline extraction which is consistent with the physician's diagnosis process is proposed for the first time. We construct the projection of maximum density, restore the vascular space information, and correct random walk algorithm to satisfy automatic and accurate segmentation of blood vessels. Construct a local 3D model to restrain Hessian matrix when extracting centerline. In order to assist the physician to make a correct diagnosis and verify the effectiveness of the algorithm, we proposed a visual expansion model. According to the 420 high-resolution CT data of lung blood vessels labeled by physicians, the accuracy of segmentation algorithm AOM reached 93%, and the processing speed was 0.05 s/frame, which achieved the clinical application standards.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/3859386DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8413036PMC
August 2021

Highly stable surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy assay on abnormal thrombin levels in the blood plasma of cancer patients.

Anal Methods 2021 Sep 30;13(37):4328-4333. Epub 2021 Sep 30.

School of Food and Biological Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, 230009, China.

The accurate discrimination of specific protein levels in the blood of cancer patients is of great importance in clinical diagnostics and prognosis. Here, we report a double-aptamer sandwich strategy on plasmonic magnetic beads (MBs) for a dual-reporter surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) assay for assessing abnormal thrombin (TB) levels in the blood plasma of cancer patients. This SERS assay demonstrated a linear analysis range of 20-400 pM in serum with a limit of detection as low as 20 pM, and to the best of our knowledge, this represents the first attempt to highly stably discriminate an abnormal TB level in the plasma of clinical cancer patients. Two recognition elements of TB aptamers provided high specificity and the dual-reporter assay demonstrated greatly reduced false-positive signals. The sandwich complex produced an efficient SERS "hot spot" to make up for the flaws of the insufficient enhancement of monomer metal nanoparticles. The plasmonic MBs enabled the direct tracking of ultratrace proteins in plasma while avoiding complicated pretreatment with only a few washing steps required. As a preliminary exploration, our report details a new potential tool with high sensitivity, selectivity, and practicality for disease-related protein testing in clinical diagnostics and prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1ay01002fDOI Listing
September 2021

Primary organic gas emissions from gasoline vehicles in China: Factors, composition and trends.

Environ Pollut 2021 Dec 16;290:117984. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Vehicle Emission Control and Simulation, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing, 100012, China; State Key Joint Laboratory of ESPC, State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Sources and Control of Air Pollution Complex, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China. Electronic address:

Continuous tightening emission standards (ESs) facilitate the reduction of organic gas emissions from gasoline vehicles. Correspondingly, it is essential to update the emissions and chemical speciation of total organic gases (TOGs), including volatile organic compounds (VOCs), intermediate volatility organic compounds (IVOCs), CH, and unidentified non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) for assessing the formation of ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA). In this study, TOG and speciation emissions from 12 in-use light-duty gasoline vehicle (LDGV) exhausts, covering the ESs from China II to China V, were investigated on a chassis dynamometer under the Worldwide Harmonized Light-duty Test Cycle (WLTC) in China. The results showed that the most effectively controlled subgroup in TOG emissions from LDGVs was VOCs, followed by the unidentified NMHCs and IVOCs. The mass fraction of VOCs in TOGs also reduced from 61 ± 9% to 46 ± 18% while the IVOCs gently increased from 2 ± 0.4% to 8 ± 4% along with the more stringent ESs. For the VOC subsets, the removal efficiency of oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) was lower than those of other VOC subsets in the ESs from China IV to V, suggesting the importance of OVOC emission controls for relatively new LDGVs. The IVOC emissions were mainly subject to the ESs, then driving cycles and fuel use. The formation potentials of ozone and SOA from LDGVs decreased separately 96% and 90% along with the restricted ESs from China II-III to China IV. The major contributor of SOA formation transformed from aromatics in the VOC subsets for China II-III vehicles to IVOCs for China IV/V vehicles, highlighting that IVOC emissions from LDGVs are also needed more attentions to control in future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.117984DOI Listing
December 2021

Application of a hybrid ARIMA-LSTM model based on the SPEI for drought forecasting.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Aug 17. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

State Key Laboratory of Geo-Information Engineering, Xi'an,, 710054, China.

Drought forecasting can effectively reduce the risk of drought. We proposed a hybrid model based on deep learning methods that integrates an autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model and a long short-term memory (LSTM) model to improve the accuracy of short-term drought prediction. Taking China as an example, this paper compares and analyzes the prediction accuracy of six drought prediction models, namely, ARIMA, support vector regression (SVR), LSTM, ARIMA-SVR, least square-SVR (LS-SVR), and ARIMA-LSTM, for standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI). The performance of all the models was compared using measures of persistence, such as the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE). The results show that all three hybrid models (ARIMA-SVR, LS-SVR, and ARIMA-LSTM) had higher prediction accuracy than the single model, for a given lead time, at different scales. The NSEs of the hybrid models for the predicted SPEI1 are 0.043, 0.168, and 0.368, respectively, and the NSEs of SPEI24 is 0.781, 0.543, and 0.93, respectively. This finding indicates that when the lead time remains unchanged, the hybrid model has high prediction accuracy for SPEI on long time scales and low prediction accuracy for SPEI on short time scales, and the prediction accuracy of the model with a 1-month lead time is higher than that of the model with a 2-month lead time. In addition, the ARIMA-LSTM model has the highest prediction accuracy at the 6-, 12-, and 24-month scales, indicating that the model is more suitable for the forecasting of long-term drought in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-15325-zDOI Listing
August 2021

Pharmacological activation of rev-erbα suppresses LPS-induced macrophage M1 polarization and prevents pregnancy loss.

BMC Immunol 2021 08 16;22(1):57. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

NHC Key Lab of Reproduction Regulation (Shanghai Institute of Planned Parenthood Research), Hospital of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Fudan University Shanghai Medical College, Shanghai, 200090, China.

Background: Circadian rhythm is an important player for reproduction. Rev-erbα, a significant clock gene, is involved in regulating cell differentiation, inflammation and metabolism. Macrophage polarization plays crucial roles in immune tolerance at the maternal-fetus interface, which also modulates the initiation and resolution of inflammation. Alteration of macrophage polarization induces adverse pregnancy outcomes such as infertility, recurrent spontaneous abortion and preterm labor.

Results: Decidual macrophages from LPS-induced mice abortion model displayed M1-like bias, accompanied by decreased expression of Rev-erbα. SR9009, an agonist of Rev-erbα, may reduce lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced M1 polarization of macrophages via activation of PI3K but not NF-κB signaling pathway. Furthermore, SR9009 could reduce M1-like polarization of decidual macrophages induced by LPS and attenuate LPS-induced resorption rates in mice model.

Conclusions: Both in vivo and in vitro experiments demonstrated that the pharmacological activation of Rev-erbα using SR9009 could attenuate the effect of LPS on macrophage polarization and protect pregnancy. This study may provide a potential therapeutic strategy for miscarriage induced by inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12865-021-00438-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8369701PMC
August 2021

The miR-130a-3p/TGF-βRII Axis Participates in Inhibiting the Differentiation of Fibroblasts Induced by TGF-β1.

Front Pharmacol 2021 28;12:732540. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Departments of Anesthesiology, The First Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is a chronic progressive interstitial lung disease that has a poor prognosis. Abnormal activation of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) plays a crucial role in fibroblast differentiation. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are currently being considered for the treatment of PF, but the regulatory mechanisms are poorly understood. We co-cultured bone marrow-derived MSCs and mouse lung fibroblasts (MLg) in the presence of TGF-β1, and studied the protein/mRNA expression of fibrosis markers and related signaling pathways. The effects of miR-130a-3p and TGF-β receptor II (TGF-βRII) on the differentiation of MLg induced by TGF-β1 were studied using immunofluorescence assay, Western blot, and quantitative real-time PCR techniques, respectively. Our results showed that MSCs reversed the overexpression of fibrosis markers and TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway proteins and mRNAs after TGF-β1 treatment and increased the level of miR-130a-3p. TGF-βRII was identified as a target of miR-130a-3p and was evaluated by dual-luciferase reporter assay. The miR-130a-3p/TGF-βRII axis could suppress the differentiation of lung fibroblasts the TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway, thereby reducing the process of PF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.732540DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8355625PMC
July 2021

Developmental and temporal characteristics of clonal sperm mosaicism.

Cell 2021 Sep 12;184(18):4772-4783.e15. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

Department of Neurosciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA; Rady Children's Institute for Genomic Medicine, San Diego, CA 92123, USA. Electronic address:

Throughout development and aging, human cells accumulate mutations resulting in genomic mosaicism and genetic diversity at the cellular level. Mosaic mutations present in the gonads can affect both the individual and the offspring and subsequent generations. Here, we explore patterns and temporal stability of clonal mosaic mutations in male gonads by sequencing ejaculated sperm. Through 300× whole-genome sequencing of blood and sperm from healthy men, we find each ejaculate carries on average 33.3 ± 12.1 (mean ± SD) clonal mosaic variants, nearly all of which are detected in serial sampling, with the majority absent from sampled somal tissues. Their temporal stability and mutational signature suggest origins during embryonic development from a largely immutable stem cell niche. Clonal mosaicism likely contributes a transmissible, predicted pathogenic exonic variant for 1 in 15 men, representing a life-long threat of transmission for these individuals and a significant burden on human population health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2021.07.024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8496133PMC
September 2021

Regulation of Bax-dependent apoptosis by mitochondrial deubiquitinase USP30.

Cell Death Discov 2021 Aug 11;7(1):211. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

Affiliated Cancer Hospital & Institute of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, 510095, China.

Deubiquitinates (DUBs) have been suggested as novel promising targets for cancer therapies. Accumulating experimental evidence suggests that some metal compounds have the potential to induce cancer cell death via inhibition of DUBs. We previously reported that auranofin, a gold(I)-containing agent used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in clinics, can induce cell death by inhibiting proteasomal DUBs in a series of cancer cell lines. Unfortunately, currently available gold compounds are not potent in inhibiting DUBs. Here, we report that: (i) aumdubin, a synthetic derivative of auranofin, exhibited stronger DUB-inhibiting and apoptosis-inducing activities than auranofin in lung cancer cells; (ii) aumdubin shows high affinity for mitochondrial DUB USP30; (iii) aumdubin induces apoptosis by increasing the ubiquitination and mitochondrial location of Bax protein; and (iv) USP30 inhibition may contribute to Bax-dependent apoptosis induced by aumdubin in lung cancer cells. These results suggest that gold(I)-containing agent aumdubin induces Bax-dependent apoptosis partly through inhibiting the mitochondrial DUB USP30, which could open new avenues for lung cancer therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41420-021-00599-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8357812PMC
August 2021

Conditioned Medium of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Involved in Acute Lung Injury by Regulating Epithelial Sodium Channels miR-34c.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2021 1;9:640116. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine, College of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Background: One of the characteristics of acute lung injury (ALI) is severe pulmonary edema, which is closely related to alveolar fluid clearance (AFC). Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) secrete a wide range of cytokines, growth factors, and microRNA (miRNAs) through paracrine action to participate in the mechanism of pulmonary inflammatory response, which increase the clearance of edema fluid and promote the repair process of ALI. The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is the rate-limiting step in the sodium-water transport and edema clearance in the alveolar cavity; the role of bone marrow-derived MSC-conditioned medium (BMSC-CM) in edema clearance and how miRNAs affect ENaC are still seldom known.

Methods: CCK-8 cell proliferation assay was used to detect the effect of BMSC-CM on the survival of alveolar type 2 epithelial (AT2) cells. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot were used to detect the expression of ENaC in AT2 cells. The effects of miR-34c on lung fluid absorption were observed in LPS-treated mice , and the transepithelial short-circuit currents in the monolayer of H441 cells were examined by the Ussing chamber setup. Dual luciferase reporter gene assay was used to detect the target gene of miR-34c.

Results: BMSC-CM could increase the viability of mouse AT2 cells. RT-PCR and western blot results showed that BMSC-CM significantly increased the expression of the γ-ENaC subunit in mouse AT2 cells. MiR-34c could restore the AFC and lung wet/dry weight ratio in the ALI animal model, and Ussing chamber assay revealed that miR-34c enhanced the amiloride-sensitive currents associated with ENaC activity in intact H441 cell monolayers. In addition, we observed a higher expression of miR-34c in mouse AT2 cells administrated with BMSC-CM, and the overexpression or inhibition of miR-34c could regulate the expression of ENaC protein and alter the function of ENaC. Finally, we detected that myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate (MARCKS) may be one of the target genes of miR-34c.

Conclusion: Our results indicate that BMSC-CM may alleviate LPS-induced ALI through miR-34c targeting MARCKS and regulate ENaC indirectly, which further explores the benefit of paracrine effects of bone marrow-derived MSCs on edematous ALI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fbioe.2021.640116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8336867PMC
July 2021

Study on real-world power-based emission factors from typical construction machinery.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Dec 2;799:149436. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Vehicle Emission Control and Simulation, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012, China; Vehicle Emission Control Center of Ministry of Ecology and Environment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012, China. Electronic address:

Construction machinery accounts for a large share of the non-road machinery market and is an important pollutant source. In this study, real-world emission tests were undertaken on 16 excavators and 19 wheel loaders by using a portable emission measurement system (PEMS) to obtain their real-world engine performance and emission factors. The typical operating modes were categorized as idling, moving and working modes. The results show that in the working mode, the engine continuously operated at a high speed, high torque and high load factor, which led to sharp up and down CO, HC, NO and particle number (PN) emissions. As the emission standards were strengthened, the CO, HC and NO emissions clearly decreased, and the excavators and wheel loaders showed a higher emission level in the moving mode. A comparison of the excavator and wheel loader in China III displayed that the CO, HC, and NO total emission factors of the wheel loader were 10.20, 2.70 and 1.79 times higher than those of the excavator, respectively, so the wheel loader contributed more seriously to environmental pollution. The CO and HC measured emission factors of the excavators and wheel loaders were 0.05-1.38 times and 0.13-0.58 times higher than the corresponding Limitation and the recommended values from the national emission inventory Guideline. However, the NO emission factors were 1.20-3.25 times higher than the corresponding Limitation and the recommended value from the Guideline, which means that the recommended values overestimate CO and HC, and underestimate NO. A comparison of the emission factors of the excavators and wheel loaders in this study with others demonstrate that the CO and HC power-based emission factors were generally lower, but the NO emission factor was higher.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.149436DOI Listing
December 2021

Theoretical design and preparation research of molecularly imprinted polymers for steviol glycosides.

J Mol Model 2021 Aug 7;27(9):238. Epub 2021 Aug 7.

School of Food Science and Technology, Dalian Polytechnic University, Dalian, 116034, People's Republic of China.

In this paper, a novel molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) for specific adsorption of steviol glycosides was designed, and the imprinting mechanism of self-assembly system between template and monomers was clearly explored. Firstly, steviol (STE) was chosen as dummy template, and the density functional theory (DFT) at B3LYP/6-31 + G (d, p) level was used to select monomers, imprinting molar ratios, solvents, and cross-linking agents. The selectivity to five steviol glycosides was also calculated. Importantly, reduced density gradient (RDG) theory combined with atom in molecules (AIM) and infrared spectrum (IR) was applied to investigate the bonding situation and the nature of noncovalent interaction in self-assembly system. The theoretical designed results showed that the template which interacts with acrylic acid (AA) has the minimum binding energy, and the complex with the molar ratio of 1 : 4 has the most stable structure. Toluene (TL) and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) were chosen as the optimal solvent and cross-linking agent, respectively. Five hydrogen bonds formed in the self-assembly system are the key forces at the adsorption sites of MIPs through the RDG and AIM analyses. The MIPs were synthesized by theoretical predictions, and the results showed that the maximum adsorption capacity towards dulcoside A is 26.17 mg/g. This work provided a theoretical direction and experimental validation for deeper researches of the MIPs for steviol glycosides. In addition, the method of RDG theory coupled with AIM and IR also could be used to analyze other imprinting formation mechanisms systematically.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00894-021-04819-9DOI Listing
August 2021

Propofol Suppresses Cell Progression by Inhibiting CCL18 Expression in Hepatoblastoma.

J Oncol 2021 26;2021:6880473. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Pediatric Ward (II), Rizhao People's Hospital, Rizhao 276800, China.

Background: Propofol is an anesthetic commonly used clinically and has been found to have antitumor activity in various cancers. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of propofol in hepatoblastoma (HB).

Methods: CCK-8 and transwell were used to measure cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in HB cells. Cell apoptosis rate was measured by FCM. The expression of CCL18 in HB tissues and cells was detected by RT-qPCR. Western blotting was used to explore the protein expression of CCK18- and PI3K/AKT-related proteins.

Results: The expression of CCL18 in HB tissues and cells was overexpressed compared with control groups. CCL18 knockdown was found to notably block cell proliferation and progression, while enhancing cell apoptosis in HuH-6 and HepT1 cells. Furthermore, propofol suppressed the proliferation of HB cells in a dose-dependent manner. According to the results, we chose 5 g/mL of propofol-treated cells for 48 hours as the subsequent experimental conditions. We found that propofol (5 g/mL, 48 h) significantly blocked cell migration and invasion, but induced cell apoptosis in HuH-6 and HepT1 cells. In addition, CCK18 overexpression facilitated cell progression in HB cells, while propofol dramatically suppressed the effect of CCK18. Besides that, propofol suppressed the PI3K/AKT pathway.

Conclusion: Propofol suppressed the development of HB cells by inhibiting CCK18 expression and the PI3K/AKT pathway. Therefore, we infer that propofol plays a role in the treatment of HB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6880473DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8331318PMC
July 2021

A case report of brain abscess caused by Nocardia farcinica.

Eur J Med Res 2021 Aug 3;26(1):83. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Department of Pathogen Biology and Immunology, Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou, 221004, Jiangsu, China.

Background: Brain abscess due to the Nocardia genus is rarely reported and it is usually found in immunocompromised patients. Treatment of Nocardia brain abscess is troublesome and requires consideration of the severity of the underlying systemic disease. The difficulties in identifying the bacterium and the frequent delay in initiating adequate therapy often influence the prognosis of patients.

Case Presentation: Here, we report a rare case of brain abscess caused by Nocardia farcinica. The patient's medical history was complicated: he was hospitalized several times, but no pathogens were found. At last, bacteria were found in the culture of brain abscess puncture fluid; the colony was identified as Nocardia farcinica by mass spectrometry. Targeted antibiotic treatment was implemented, brain abscess tended to alleviate, but the patient eventually developed fungal pneumonia and died of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).

Conclusion: Brain abscess caused by Nocardia farcinica can appear in non-immunocompromised individuals. Early diagnosis, reasonable surgical intervention, and targeted antibiotic treatment are critical for Nocardia brain abscess treatment. In the treatment of Nocardia brain abscess, attention should paid be to the changes in patients' immunity and infection with other pathogens, especially fungi, avoided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40001-021-00562-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8330121PMC
August 2021

Melatonin regulates proliferation and apoptosis of endometrial stromal cells via MT1.

Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai) 2021 Oct;53(10):1333-1341

NHC Key Lab of Reproduction Regulation (Shanghai Institute of Planned Parenthood Research), Hospital of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Fudan University Shanghai Medical College, Shanghai 200090, China.

Endometrial dysfunction is an important factor for implantation failure. The function of the endometrium is regulated by multiple factors like sex hormones and circadian rhythms. Endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) are a major cellular component in the endometrium, which is essential for proper physiological activities of the endometrium and the establishment of pregnancy. Melatonin, as a circadian-controlled hormone, plays beneficial roles in the regulation of reproductive processes. MT1, a melatonin receptor, can regulate cell proliferation and apoptosis. Whether melatonin-MT1 signal affects biological function of ESCs remains unknown. Here, we showed that MT1 was expressed in human ESCs (hESCs), which could be regulated by estrogen and progesterone. MT1 knockdown inhibited proliferative activity and promoted apoptosis of hESCs by activating caspase-3 and upregulating the Bax/Bcl2 ratio. Melatonin could reverse the effect of MT1 knockdown on proliferative activity and apoptosis of hESCs. Melatonin could promote proliferative activity of hESCs via the JNK/P38 signal pathway and repress the apoptosis of hESCs via the JNK signal pathway. Moreover, in vivo experiments showed that MT1 expression was decreased in endometrial cells from mice with disrupted circadian rhythm, accompanied by increased apoptosis and suppressed proliferative activity, which could be alleviated by administration of melatonin. These results showed the regulatory effect of melatonin-MT1 signal on biological behaviors of ESCs, which might provide a novel therapeutic strategy for endometrial dysfunction induced by disrupted circadian rhythm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/abbs/gmab108DOI Listing
October 2021

GARP and GARP-Treated tDC Prevented the Formation of Atherosclerotic Plaques in ApoE Mice.

J Inflamm Res 2021 22;14:3465-3479. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Cardiology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430022, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: This study aims to clarify the specific mechanism by which GARP affects the atherosclerotic plaques in ApoE mice and the effect of GARP-tDC on atherosclerosis.

Methods: The mice were randomly divided into three groups: the control group, the GARP-overexpressed group and the GARP-inhibited group. After 12 weeks, all the mice were euthanized, and the specimens were collected. In vitro, experiments were conducted to observe the effect of GARP on DC phenotype and the changes of the proportion of CD4CD25Foxp3 Treg cells when GARP-tDCs were co-cultured with CD4 T cells. Furthermore, adoptive transmission of GARP-tDCs was used to observe the effect on atherosclerotic plaque in mice.

Results: The GARP-overexpressed group enhanced the biological activity of Foxp3 CD4CD25 Tregs and resulted in increased expression of LAP in T cells. In addition, the GARP-overexpressed group significantly suppressed the function of Th1 and Th17, and decreased the secretion of INF-γ and IL-17A. Thus, GARP had a protective effect on atherosclerosis. In vitro, we found that GARP-tDC had a tolerance-inducing phenotype, and GARP-tDC also had the ability to induce tolerance when co-cultured with CD4 T cells. More importantly, adoptive transmission of GARP-tDCs reduced the size of atherosclerotic plaques.

Conclusion: GARP and the GARP-tDC play protective roles in atherosclerosis. The protective effect of GARP on atherosclerosis is achieved by increasing CD4CD25Foxp3 Treg cells and inhibiting the production of IFN-γ and IL-17A.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JIR.S308963DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8314935PMC
July 2021

Developing a midwifery service task list for Chinese midwives in the task-shifting context: a Delphi study.

BMJ Open 2021 07 15;11(7):e044792. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Maternal, Child and Adolescent Health, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai, China

Objective: To develop and validate a midwifery-led task list in the task-shifting context.

Design: An extensive literature review followed by a two-iterative Delphi survey.

Setting: Twenty university hospitals, three non-university hospitals and four university colleges from nine provincial regions of China.

Participants: Purposive non-probability sampling of a national panel of experts in maternal healthcare, obstetrics, nursing and midwifery. Experts in the panel were asked to rate each midwifery service item regarding importance, feasibility and advancement on a 5-point scale, in order to determine those best suited for midwifery-led practice in China.

Results: Two rounds of Delphi surveys were completed before consensus was achieved, with effective response rate ranging from 96.4% (27/28) to 100% (27/27), indicating a high positive coefficient of the experts. The authority coefficient of experts was 0.882, indicating the high reliability of this study. The Kendall harmony coefficient (W) in the two rounds of consultations was 0.196 (p<0.001) and 0.324 (p<0.001), respectively. A detailed, three-level midwifery-led task list was developed, including 3 domains of midwifery practice (first-level indicators), 13 types of task (second-level indicators) and 58 midwifery service items (third-level indicators). The 3 domains of midwifery practice involved the appropriate scope of practice for Chinese midwives, including antenatal care, intrapartum care and postnatal care. The 58 service items embraced core components of caring task in the Chinese midwifery profession.

Conclusion: This study outlines the first midwifery-led task list that defines clearly the Chinese midwives' scope of practice. It will provide a foundational framework for future midwifery practice in China and abroad, and can be used to inform the design of midwifery-led task shifting interventions in various maternity settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-044792DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8286777PMC
July 2021

Trends and socioeconomic factors in smoking and alcohol consumption among Chinese people: evidence from the 2008-2018 National Health Service Surveys in Jiangsu Province.

Arch Public Health 2021 Jul 9;79(1):127. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

School of Health Policy Management, Nanjing Medical University-Nanjing, Nanjing, China.

Background: Smoking and excessive drinking are risk factors for many diseases. With the rapid economic development in China, it is important to identify trends in smoking and alcohol consumption and socioeconomic factors that contribute to these behaviors to ensure the health of the population.

Methods: we analyzed pooled cross-sectional data from the fourth, fifth, and sixth National Health Service Surveys conducted in Jiangsu Province in 2008, 2013, and 2018, respectively. The study population was those over 15 years old in three surveys. Trends in smoking and alcohol use were analyzed with descriptive statistics, and bivariate and multinomial logistic regression was used to identify contributing factors.

Results: Among total sample, smoking rate was 23.95%, in which the incidence of light, moderate and heavy smoking was 5.75, 4.63 and 13.56%, respectively; drinking rate was 23.29%, in which non-excessive drinking and excessive drinking were 19.80 and 3.49%, respectively, "smoking and drinking" rate was 13.41%. From 2008 to 2018, overall and light-to-moderate smoking rates first increased and then decreased while heavy smoking rate declined; alcohol consumption increased while excessive drinking increased before decreasing; and the incidence of "smoking and drinking" has been rising continuously. The trend of smoking and drinking rates in urban area was similar to rural area, however there was significant difference between urban and rural area. Socioeconomic factors, demographic, health-related and year variables were significant influencing factors of smoking and drinking.

Conclusion: Our research can provide important evidences for tobacco and alcohol control in China and other similar developing countries. Preventive measures such as education and support services along with stricter regulations for tobacco and alcohol use are needed to improve public health in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13690-021-00646-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8268563PMC
July 2021

inhibited progression of nasopharyngeal carcinoma by interaction with PCDH8 and the inactivation of PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway.

J Cancer 2021 11;12(16):4933-4944. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is characterised by distinct geographical distribution and is particularly prevalent in Asian countries. But the mechanisms related to the progression of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) are not completely understood. MiR-124-3p functions as a tumor suppressor in many kinds of human cancers. Here, we explored the effects and mechanism of on the proliferation and colony formation in NPC. In our study, we reported that miR-124-3p was significantly downregulated in NPC tissues and cell lines Overexpression decreased NPC cell proliferation and colony formation abilities. Meanwhile, knockdown increased proliferation and colony formation abilities. Additionally, dual-luciferase assay showed that miR-124-3p could positively regulated PCDH8 by targeting its 3'-UTR. Overexpression of PCDH8 could partially rescue the proliferation and colony formation role of inhibitor. Our study indicated that played a tumor suppressor by directly interacting with PCDH8 and inhibiting the activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. Overall, we found that inhibited the activation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway in NPC by interacting with PCDH8. Thus, PCDH8 may be a potential molecular target that impeded NPC proliferation and colony formation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/jca.57152DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8247379PMC
June 2021

Joint disease-specificity at the regulatory base-pair level.

Nat Commun 2021 07 6;12(1):4161. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Department of Human Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA.

Given the pleiotropic nature of coding sequences and that many loci exhibit multiple disease associations, it is within non-coding sequence that disease-specificity likely exists. Here, we focus on joint disorders, finding among replicated loci, that GDF5 exhibits over twenty distinct associations, and we identify causal variants for two of its strongest associations, hip dysplasia and knee osteoarthritis. By mapping regulatory regions in joint chondrocytes, we pinpoint two variants (rs4911178; rs6060369), on the same risk haplotype, which reside in anatomical site-specific enhancers. We show that both variants have clinical relevance, impacting disease by altering morphology. By modeling each variant in humanized mice, we observe joint-specific response, correlating with GDF5 expression. Thus, we uncouple separate regulatory variants on a common risk haplotype that cause joint-specific disease. By broadening our perspective, we finally find that patterns of modularity at GDF5 are also found at over three-quarters of loci with multiple GWAS disease associations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-24345-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8260791PMC
July 2021

Research on ammonia emissions characteristics from light-duty gasoline vehicles.

J Environ Sci (China) 2021 Aug 5;106:182-193. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Vehicle Emission Control Center, Ministry of Environmental Protection, Beijing 100012, China.

In this study, ammonia emissions characteristics of typical light-duty gasoline vehicles were obtained through laboratory vehicle bench test and combined with New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) condition and Worldwide Harmonized Light Vehicles Test Cycle (WLTC) condition. The influence of ambient temperature on ammonia emissions is mainly concentrated in the cold start stage. The influence of ambient temperature on ammonia emission is shown that the ammonia emissions of light-duty gasoline vehicles under ambient temperature conditions (14 and 23°C) are lower than those under low ambient temperature conditions (-7°C) and high ambient temperature conditions (35 and 40°C). The influence of TWC on ammonia emission is shown that ammonia is a by-product of the catalytic reduction reaction of conventional gas pollutants in the exhaust gas in the TWC. Under NEDC operating conditions and WLTC operating conditions, ammonia emissions after the catalyst are 45 times and 72 times that before the catalyst, respectively. In terms of ammonia emissions control strategy research, Pd/Rh combination can reduce NH formation more effectively than catalyst with a single Pd formula. Precise control of the engine's air-fuel ratio and combination with the optimized matched precious metal ratio TWC can effectively reduce ammonia emissions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jes.2021.01.021DOI Listing
August 2021

Modeling the emissions of rural vehicles based on real-world driving cycles.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Nov 16;793:148380. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Vehicle Emission Control and Simulation, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012, China; Vehicle Emission Control Center of Ministry of Ecology and Environment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012, China.

Characterized by a high frequency of use, harsh working environments, poor maintenance, and low levels of emission controls, rural vehicles (RVs) are becoming an important source of air pollution. Our study used a portable emission measurement system (PEMS) to test the real-world emissions of 35 RVs on provincial, rural, and farm roads. The results show that high emission rates of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbons (HC) mainly occurred when accelerating at low speeds. However, high levels of nitrogen oxides (NO) were emitted during high-speed acceleration. The particulate number (PN) of emissions was higher when the RVs were accelerating. According to the overall test results, the vehicle specific power (VSP) on the provincial road mostly ranged within (0, 3], accounting for 68.80% of the total. The VSP on rural and farm roads was concentrated within (0, 2] kW·ton, accounting for 67.09% and 76.64% of the total, respectively. We defined 14 bins based on the distribution of the VSP values and calculated the average emission rate of each bin. By comparing the average emission rate among the bins, we found that within Bins 1-7 (VSP < 0 kW·ton), CO, HC, and NO emissions slowly increased as the VSP increased. In Bins 8-13 (VSP ≥ 0 kW·ton), the average emission rates of four pollutants increased as the VSP increased. However, all pollutants decreased in Bin 14 (VSP ≥ 6 kW·ton). We built a microscopic emission model according to the VSP distribution characteristics of RVs on different road types. We compared the measured and simulated emission factors and found that our emission model can greatly simulate the HC, NOx and PN emission factors of RVs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.148380DOI Listing
November 2021
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