Publications by authors named "Yam Nath Paudel"

46 Publications

APOE Genotype and Alzheimer's Disease: The Influence of Lifestyle and Environmental Factors.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2021 Jul 18. Epub 2021 Jul 18.

Department of Biological Chemistry, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 11527 Athens, Greece.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder with obscure pathogenesis and no disease-modifying therapy to date. AD is multifactorial disease that develops from the complex interplay of genetic factors and environmental exposures. The E4 allele of the gene encoding apolipoprotein E () is the most common genetic risk factor for AD, whereas the E2 allele acts in a protective manner. A growing amount of epidemiological evidence suggests that several lifestyle habits and environmental factors may interact with APOE alleles to synergistically affect the risk of AD development. Among them, physical exercise, dietary habits including fat intake and ketogenic diet, higher education, traumatic brain injury, cigarette smoking, coffee consumption, alcohol intake, and exposure to pesticides and sunlight have gained increasing attention. Although the current evidence is inconsistent, it seems that younger APOE4 carriers in preclinical stages may benefit mostly from preventive lifestyle interventions, whereas older APOE4 noncarriers with dementia may show the most pronounced effects. The large discrepancies between the epidemiological studies may be attributed to differences in the sample sizes, the demographic characteristics of the participants, including age and sex, the methodological design, and potential related exposures and comorbidities as possible cofounding factors. In this Review, we aim to discuss available evidence of the prominent APOE genotype-environment interactions in regard to cognitive decline with a focus on AD, providing an overview of the current landscape in this field and suggesting future directions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acschemneuro.1c00295DOI Listing
July 2021

Protective Effect of Chlorogenic Acid and Its Analogues on Lead-Induced Developmental Neurotoxicity Through Modulating Oxidative Stress and Autophagy.

Front Mol Biosci 2021 11;8:655549. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Biology Institute, Qilu University of Technology (Shandong Academy of Sciences), Jinan, China.

Lead (Pb) is among the deleterious heavy metal and has caused global health concerns due to its tendency to cause a detrimental effect on the development of the central nervous system (CNS). Despite being a serious health concern, treatment of Pb poisoning is not yet available, reflecting the pressing need for compounds that can relieve Pb-induced toxicity, especially neurotoxicity. In the quest of exploring protective strategies against Pb-induced developmental neurotoxicity, compounds from natural resources have gained increased attention. Chlorogenic acid (CGA) and its analogues neochlorogenic acid (NCGA) and cryptochlorogenic acid (CCGA) are the important phenolic compounds widely distributed in plants. Herein, utilizing zebrafish as a model organism, we modeled Pb-induced developmental neurotoxicity and investigated the protective effect of CGA, NCGA, and CCGA co-treatment. In zebrafish, Pb exposure (1,000 μg/L) for 5 days causes developmental malformation, loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons, and brain vasculature, as well as disrupted neuron differentiation in the CNS. Additionally, Pb-treated zebrafish exhibited abnormal locomotion. Notably, co-treatment with CGA (100 µM), NCGA (100 µM), and CCGA (50 µM) alleviated these developmental malformation and neurotoxicity induced by Pb. Further underlying mechanism investigation revealed that these dietary phenolic acid compounds may ameliorate Pb-induced oxidative stress and autophagy in zebrafish, therefore protecting against Pb-induced developmental neurotoxicity. In general, our study indicates that CGA, NCGA, and CCGA could be promising agents for treating neurotoxicity induced by Pb, and CCGA shows the strongest detoxifying activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmolb.2021.655549DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8226318PMC
June 2021

Schaftoside Suppresses Pentylenetetrazol-Induced Seizures in Zebrafish via Suppressing Apoptosis, Modulating Inflammation, and Oxidative Stress.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2021 Jul 15;12(13):2542-2552. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Biology Institute, Qilu University of Technology (Shandong Academy of Sciences), 28789 East Jingshi Road, Ji'nan 250103, Shandong Province, People's Republic of China.

The lack of disease-modifying therapeutic strategies against epileptic seizures has caused a surge in preclinical research focused on exploring and developing novel therapeutic candidates for epilepsy. Compounds from traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) have gained much attention for a plethora of neurological diseases, including epilepsy. Herein, for the first time, we evaluated the anticonvulsive effects of schaftoside (SS), a TCM, on pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced epileptic seizures in zebrafish and examined the underlying mechanisms. We observed that SS pretreatments significantly suppressed seizure-like behavior and prolonged the onset of seizures. Zebrafish larvae pretreated with SS demonstrated downregulation of expression during seizures. PTZ-induced upregulation of apoptotic cells was decreased upon pretreatment with SS. Inflammatory phenomena during seizure progression including the upregulation of interleukin 6 (), interleukin 1 beta (), and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells () were downregulated upon pretreatment with SS. The PTZ-induced recruitment of immunocytes was in turn reduced upon SS pretreatment. Moreover, SS pretreatment modulated oxidative stress, as demonstrated by decreased levels of catalase () and increased levels of glutathione peroxidase-1a () and manganese superoxide dismutase (). However, pretreatment with SS modulated the PTZ-induced downregulation of the relative enzyme activity of CAT, GPx, and SOD. Hence, our findings suggest that SS pretreatment ameliorates PTZ-induced seizures, suppresses apoptosis, and downregulates the inflammatory response and oxidative stress, which potentially protect against further seizures in zebrafish.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acschemneuro.1c00314DOI Listing
July 2021

Impact of the apelin/APJ axis in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease with therapeutic potential.

J Neurosci Res 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Biological Chemistry, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

The pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) remains elusive. There is still no available disease-modifying strategy against PD, whose management is mainly symptomatic. A growing amount of preclinical evidence shows that a complex interplay between autophagy dysregulation, mitochondrial impairment, endoplasmic reticulum stress, oxidative stress, and excessive neuroinflammation underlies PD pathogenesis. Identifying key molecules linking these pathological cellular processes may substantially aid in our deeper understanding of PD pathophysiology and the development of novel effective therapeutic approaches. Emerging preclinical evidence indicates that apelin, an endogenous neuropeptide acting as a ligand of the orphan G protein-coupled receptor APJ, may play a key neuroprotective role in PD pathogenesis, via inhibition of apoptosis and dopaminergic neuronal loss, autophagy enhancement, antioxidant effects, endoplasmic reticulum stress suppression, as well as prevention of synaptic dysregulation in the striatum, excessive neuroinflammation, and glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. Underlying signaling pathways involve phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, and inositol requiring kinase 1α/XBP1/C/EBP homologous protein. Herein, we discuss the role of apelin/APJ axis and associated molecular mechanisms on the pathogenesis of PD in vitro and in vivo and provide evidence for its challenging therapeutic potential.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jnr.24895DOI Listing
June 2021

Immunoreactivity of Muscarinic Acetylcholine M2 and Serotonin 5-HT2B Receptors, Norepinephrine Transporter and Kir Channels in a Model of Epilepsy.

Life (Basel) 2021 Mar 26;11(4). Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Comprehensive Epilepsy Center, Department of Neurology, NYU Langone School of Medicine, New York, NY 10010, USA.

Epilepsy is characterized by an imbalance in neurotransmitter activity; an increased excitatory to an inhibitory activity. Acetylcholine (ACh), serotonin, and norepinephrine (NE) may modulate neural activity via several mechanisms, mainly through its receptors/transporter activity and alterations in the extracellular potassium (K) concentration via K ion channels. Seizures may disrupt the regulation of inwardly rectifying K (Kir) channels and alter the receptor/transporter activity. However, there are limited data present on the immunoreactivity pattern of these neurotransmitter receptors/transporters and K channels in chronic models of epilepsy, which therefore was the aim of this study. Changes in the immunoreactivity of epileptogenesis-related neurotransmitter receptors/transporters (M2, 5-HT2B, and NE transporter) as well as Kir channels (Kir3.1 and Kir6.2) were determined in the cortex, hippocampus and medulla of adult Wistar rats by utilizing a Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-kindling chronic epilepsy model. Increased immunoreactivity of the NE transporter, M2, and 5-HT2B receptors was witnessed in the cortex and medulla. While the immunoreactivity of the 5-HT2B receptor was found increased in the cortex and medulla, it was decreased in the hippocampus, with no changes observed in the M2 receptor in this region. Kir3.1 and Kir6.2 staining showed increase immunoreactivity in the cerebral cortex, but channel contrasting findings in the hippocampus and medulla. Our results suggest that seizure kindling may result in significant changes in the neurotransmitter system which may contribute or propagate to future epileptogenesis, brain damage and potentially towards sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). Further studies on the pathogenic role of these changes in neurotransmitter receptors/transporters and K channel immunoreactivity may identify newer possible targets to treat seizures or prevent epilepsy-related comorbidities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/life11040276DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8066555PMC
March 2021

Anti-High Mobility Group Box-1 Monoclonal Antibody Attenuates Seizure-Induced Cognitive Decline by Suppressing Neuroinflammation in an Adult Zebrafish Model.

Front Pharmacol 2020 1;11:613009. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Neuropharmacology Research Strength, Jeffrey Cheah School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Monash University Malaysia, Bandar Sunway, Malaysia.

Epilepsy is a chronic brain disease afflicting around 70 million global population and is characterized by persisting predisposition to generate epileptic seizures. The precise understanding of the etiopathology of seizure generation is still elusive, however, brain inflammation is considered as a major contributor to epileptogenesis. HMGB1 protein being an initiator and crucial contributor of inflammation is known to contribute significantly to seizure generation via activating its principal receptors namely RAGE and TLR4 reflecting a potential therapeutic target. Herein, we evaluated an anti-seizure and memory ameliorating potential of an anti-HMGB1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) (1, 2.5 and 5 mg/kg, I.P.) in a second hit Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) (80 mg/kg, I.P.) induced seizure model earlier stimulated with Pilocarpine (400 mg/kg, I.P.) in adult zebrafish. Pre-treatment with anti-HMGB1 mAb dose-dependently lowered the second hit PTZ-induced seizure but does not alter the disease progression. Moreover, anti-HMGB1 mAb also attenuated the second hit Pentylenetetrazol induced memory impairment in adult zebrafish as evidenced by an increased inflection ration at 3 and 24 h trail in T-maze test. Besides, decreased level of GABA and an upregulated Glutamate level was observed in the second hit PTZ induced group, which was modulated by pre-treatment with anti-HMGB1 mAb. Inflammatory responses occurred during the progression of seizures as evidenced by upregulated mRNA expression of HMGB1, TLR4, NF-κB, and TNF-α, in a second hit PTZ group, which was in-turn downregulated upon pre-treatment with anti-HMGB1 mAb reflecting its anti-inflammatory potential. Anti-HMGB1 mAb modulates second hit PTZ induced changes in mRNA expression of CREB-1 and NPY. Our findings indicates anti-HMGB1 mAb attenuates second hit PTZ-induced seizures, ameliorates related memory impairment, and downregulates the seizure induced upregulation of inflammatory markers to possibly protect the zebrafish from the incidence of further seizures through via modulation of neuroinflammatory pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.613009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7957017PMC
March 2021

The possible hormetic effects of fluorene-9-bisphenol on regulating hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis in zebrafish.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 19;776:145963. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Biology Institute, Qilu University of Technology (Shandong Academy of Sciences), 28789 East Jingshi Road, Ji'nan 250103, Shandong Province, PR China; Key Laboratory for Drug Screening Technology of Shandong Academy of Sciences, 28789 East Jingshi Road, Ji'nan 250103, Shandong Province, PR China. Electronic address:

Fluorene-9-bisphenol (BHPF) is a bisphenol A substitute, which has been introduced for the production of so-called 'bisphenol A (BPA)-free' plastics. However, it has been reported that BHPF can enter living organisms through using commercial plastic bottles and cause adverse effects. To date, the majority of the toxicologic study of BHPF focused on investigating its doses above the toxicological threshold. Here, we studied the effects of BHPF on development, locomotion, neuron differentiation of the central nervous system (CNS), and the expression of genes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis in zebrafish exposed to different doses of BHPF ranging from 1/5 of LD1 to LD50 (300, 500, 750, 1500, 3000, and 4500 nM). As a result, the possible hormetic effects of BHPF on regulating the HPT axis were revealed, in which low-dose BHPF positively affected the HPT axis while this regulation was inhibited as the dose increased. Underlying mechanism investigation suggested that BHPF disrupted myelination through affecting HPT axis including related genes expression and TH levels, thus causing neurotoxic characteristics. Collectively, this study provides the full understanding of the environmental impact of BHPF and its toxicity on living organisms, highlighting a substantial and generalized ongoing dose-response relationship with great implications for the usage and risk assessment of BHPF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.145963DOI Listing
July 2021

Role of Liver Growth Factor (LGF) in Parkinson's Disease: Molecular Insights and Therapeutic Opportunities.

Mol Neurobiol 2021 Jul 19;58(7):3031-3042. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Department of Biological Chemistry, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

Parkinson's disease is the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder with unclear etiology and only symptomatic treatment to date. Toward the development of novel disease-modifying agents, neurotrophic factors represent a reasonable and promising therapeutic approach. However, despite the robust preclinical evidence, clinical trials using glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and neurturin have been unsuccessful. In this direction, the therapeutic potential of other trophic factors in PD and the elucidation of the underlying molecular mechanisms are of paramount importance. The liver growth factor (LGF) is an albumin-bilirubin complex acting as a hepatic mitogen, which also exerts regenerative effects on several extrahepatic tissues including the brain. Accumulating evidence suggests that intracerebral and peripheral administration of LGF can enhance the outgrowth of nigrostriatal dopaminergic axonal terminals; promote the survival, migration, and differentiation of neuronal stem cells; and partially protect against dopaminergic neuronal loss in the substantia nigra of PD animal models. In most studies, these effects are accompanied by improved motor behavior of the animals. Potential underlying mechanisms involve transient microglial activation, TNF-α upregulation, and activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) and of the transcription factor cyclic AMP response-element binding protein (CREB), along with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant pathways. Herein, we summarize recent preclinical evidence on the potential role of LGF in PD pathogenesis, aiming to shed more light on the underlying molecular mechanisms and reveal novel therapeutic opportunities for this debilitating disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-021-02326-9DOI Listing
July 2021

Neuroprotective potential of cinnamon and its metabolites in Parkinson's disease: Mechanistic insights, limitations, and novel therapeutic opportunities.

J Biochem Mol Toxicol 2021 Feb 15:e22711. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, India.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder with obscure etiology and no disease-modifying therapy to date. Hence, novel, safe, and low cost-effective approaches employing medicinal plants are currently receiving increased attention. A growing body of evidence has revealed that cinnamon, being widely used as a spice of unique flavor and aroma, may exert neuroprotective effects in several neurodegenerative diseases, including PD. In vitro evidence has indicated that the essential oils of Cinnamomum species, mainly cinnamaldehyde and sodium benzoate, may protect against oxidative stress-induced cell death, reactive oxygen species generation, and autophagy dysregulation, thus acting in a potentially neuroprotective manner. In vivo evidence has demonstrated that oral administration of cinnamon powder and sodium benzoate may protect against dopaminergic cell death, striatal neurotransmitter dysregulation, and motor deficits in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine mouse models of PD. The underlying mechanisms of its action include autophagy regulation, antioxidant effects, upregulation of Parkin, DJ-1, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, as well as modulation of the Toll-like receptors/nuclear factor-κB pathway and inhibition of the excessive proinflammatory responses. In addition, in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that cinnamon extracts may affect the oligomerization process and aggregation of α-synuclein. Herein, we discuss recent evidence on the novel therapeutic opportunities of this phytochemical against PD, indicating additional mechanistic aspects that should be explored and potential obstacles/limitations that need to be overcome for its inclusion in experimental PD therapeutics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbt.22711DOI Listing
February 2021

Enlightening the neuroprotective effect of quercetin in epilepsy: From mechanism to therapeutic opportunities.

Epilepsy Behav 2021 02 4;115:107701. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Department of Biological Chemistry, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece. Electronic address:

Epilepsy is a devastating neurological disorder characterized by the repeated occurrence of epileptic seizures. Epilepsy stands as a global health concern affecting around 70 million people worldwide. The mainstream antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) only exert symptomatic relief and drug-resistant epilepsy occurs in up to 33 percent of patients. Hence, the investigation of novel therapeutic strategies against epileptic seizures that could exert disease modifying effects is of paramount importance. In this context, compounds of natural origin with potential antiepileptic properties have recently gained increasing attention. Quercetin is a plant-derived flavonoid with several pharmacological activities. Emerging evidence has demonstrated the antiepileptic potential of quercetin as well. Herein, based on the available evidence, we discuss the neuroprotective effects of quercetin against epileptic seizures and further analyze the plausible underlying molecular mechanisms. Our review suggests that quercetin might be a potential therapeutic candidate against epilepsy that deserves further investigation, and paves the way for the development of plant-derived antiepileptic treatment approaches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2020.107701DOI Listing
February 2021

Revisiting the role of neurotransmitters in epilepsy: An updated review.

Life Sci 2021 Jan 28;265:118826. Epub 2020 Nov 28.

Neuropharmacology Research Strength, Jeffrey Cheah School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Monash University Malaysia, Bandar Sunway, Selangor, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Epilepsy is a neurologicaldisorder characterized by persistent predisposition to recurrent seizurescaused by abnormal neuronal activity in the brain. Epileptic seizures maydevelop due to a relative imbalance of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters. Expressional alterations of receptors and ion channelsactivated by neurotransmitters can lead to epilepsy pathogenesis.

Aims: In this updated comprehensive review, we discuss the emerging implication of mutations in neurotransmitter-mediated receptors and ion channels. We aim to provide critical findings of the current literature about the role of neurotransmitters in epilepsy.

Materials And Methods: A comprehensive literature review was conducted to identify and critically evaluate studies analyzing the possible relationship between epilepsy and neurotransmitters. The PubMed database was searched for related research articles.

Key Findings: Glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are the main neurotransmitters playing a critical role in the pathophysiology of this balance, and irreversible neuronal damage may occur as a result of abnormal changes in these molecules. Acetylcholine (ACh), the main stimulant of the autonomic nervous system, mediates signal transmission through cholinergic and nicotinic receptors. Accumulating evidence indicates that dysfunction of nicotinic ACh receptors, which are widely expressed in hippocampal and cortical neurons, may be significantly implicated in the pathogenesis of epilepsy. The dopamine-norepinephrine-epinephrine cycle activates hormonal and neuronal pathways; serotonin, norepinephrine, histamine, and melatonin can act as both hormones and neurotransmitters. Recent reports have demonstrated that nitric oxide mediates cognitive and memory-related functions via stimulating neuronal transmission.

Significance: The elucidation of the role of the main mediators and receptors in epilepsy is crucial for developing new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2020.118826DOI Listing
January 2021

Pivotal Role of Fyn Kinase in Parkinson's Disease and Levodopa-Induced Dyskinesia: a Novel Therapeutic Target?

Mol Neurobiol 2021 Apr 11;58(4):1372-1391. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

Department of Biological Chemistry, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 75 M. Asias Street, 11527, Athens, Greece.

The exact etiology of Parkinson's disease (PD) remains obscure, although many cellular mechanisms including α-synuclein aggregation, oxidative damage, excessive neuroinflammation, and dopaminergic neuronal apoptosis are implicated in its pathogenesis. There is still no disease-modifying treatment for PD and the gold standard therapy, chronic use of levodopa is usually accompanied by severe side effects, mainly levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID). Hence, the elucidation of the precise underlying molecular mechanisms is of paramount importance. Fyn is a tyrosine phospho-transferase of the Src family nonreceptor kinases that is highly implicated in immune regulation, cell proliferation and normal brain development. Accumulating preclinical evidence highlights the emerging role of Fyn in key aspects of PD and LID pathogenesis: it may regulate α-synuclein phosphorylation, oxidative stress-induced dopaminergic neuronal death, enhanced neuroinflammation and glutamate excitotoxicity by mediating key signaling pathways, such as BDNF/TrkB, PKCδ, MAPK, AMPK, NF-κB, Nrf2, and NMDAR axes. These findings suggest that therapeutic targeting of Fyn or Fyn-related pathways may represent a novel approach in PD treatment. Saracatinib, a nonselective Fyn inhibitor, has already been tested in clinical trials for Alzheimer's disease, and novel selective Fyn inhibitors are under investigation. In this comprehensive review, we discuss recent evidence on the role of Fyn in the pathogenesis of PD and LID and provide insights on additional Fyn-related molecular mechanisms to be explored in PD and LID pathology that could aid in the development of future Fyn-targeted therapeutic approaches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-020-02201-zDOI Listing
April 2021

Emerging role of S100B protein implication in Parkinson's disease pathogenesis.

Cell Mol Life Sci 2021 Feb 14;78(4):1445-1453. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Department of Biological Chemistry, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 75 M. Asias Street, 11527, Athens, Greece.

The exact etiology of Parkinson's disease (PD) remains obscure, lacking effective diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. In search of novel molecular factors that may contribute to PD pathogenesis, emerging evidence highlights the multifunctional role of the calcium-binding protein S100B that is widely expressed in the brain and predominantly in astrocytes. Preclinical evidence points towards the possible time-specific contributing role of S100B in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders including PD, mainly by regulating neuroinflammation and dopamine metabolism. Although existing clinical evidence presents some contradictions, estimation of S100B in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid seems to hold a great promise as a potential PD biomarker, particularly regarding the severity of motor and non-motor PD symptoms. Furthermore, given the recent development of S100B inhibitors that are able to cross the blood brain barrier, novel opportunities are arising in the research field of PD therapeutics. In this review, we provide an update on recent advances in the implication of S100B protein in the pathogenesis of PD and discuss relevant studies investigating the biomarker potential of S100B in PD, aiming to shed more light on clinical targeting approaches related to this incurable disorder.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00018-020-03673-xDOI Listing
February 2021

Arylsulfatase A (ASA) in Parkinson's Disease: From Pathogenesis to Biomarker Potential.

Brain Sci 2020 Oct 7;10(10). Epub 2020 Oct 7.

Department of Biological Chemistry, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 11527 Athens, Greece.

Parkinson's disease (PD), the second most common neurodegenerative disorder after Alzheimer's disease, is a clinically heterogeneous disorder, with obscure etiology and no disease-modifying therapy to date. Currently, there is no available biomarker for PD endophenotypes or disease progression. Accumulating evidence suggests that mutations in genes related to lysosomal function or lysosomal storage disorders may affect the risk of PD development, such as gene mutations. In this context, recent studies have revealed the emerging role of arylsulfatase A (ASA), a lysosomal hydrolase encoded by the gene causing metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) in PD pathogenesis. In particular, altered ASA levels have been detected during disease progression, and reduced enzymatic activity of ASA has been associated with an atypical PD clinical phenotype, including early cognitive impairment and essential-like tremor. Clinical evidence further reveals that specific gene variants may act as genetic modifiers in PD. Recent in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that ASA may function as a molecular chaperone interacting with α-synuclein (SNCA) in the cytoplasm, preventing its aggregation, secretion and cell-to-cell propagation. In this review, we summarize the results of recent preclinical and clinical studies on the role of ASA in PD, aiming to shed more light on the potential implication of ASA in PD pathogenesis and highlight its biomarker potential.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10100713DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7601048PMC
October 2020

Critical role of HOX transcript antisense intergenic RNA (HOTAIR) in gliomas.

J Mol Med (Berl) 2020 11 25;98(11):1525-1546. Epub 2020 Sep 25.

Department of Biological Chemistry, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 75 M. Asias Street, 11527, Athens, Greece.

Despite extensive research, gliomas are associated with high morbidity and mortality, mainly attributed to the rapid growth rate, excessive invasiveness, and molecular heterogeneity, as well as regenerative potential of cancer stem cells. Therefore, elucidation of the underlying molecular mechanisms and the identification of potential molecular diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers are of paramount importance. HOX transcript antisense intergenic RNA (HOTAIR) is a well-studied long noncoding RNA, playing an emerging role in tumorigenesis of several human cancers. A growing amount of preclinical and clinical evidence highlights the pro-oncogenic role of HOTAIR in gliomas, mainly attributed to the enhancement of proliferation and migration, as well as inhibition of apoptosis. In vitro and in vivo studies demonstrate that HOTAIR modulates the activity of specific transcription factors, such as MXI1, E2F1, ATF5, and ASCL1, and regulates the expression of cell cycle-associated genes along with related signaling pathways, like the Wnt/β-catenin axis. Moreover, it can interact with specific miRNAs, including miR-326, miR-141, miR-148b-3p, miR-15b, and miR-126-5p. Of importance, HOTAIR has been demonstrated to enhance angiogenesis and affect the permeability of the blood-tumor barrier, thus modulating the efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents. Herein, we provide evidence on the functional role of HOTAIR in gliomas and discuss the benefits of its targeting as a novel approach toward glioma treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00109-020-01984-xDOI Listing
November 2020

Role of Innate Immune Receptor TLR4 and its endogenous ligands in epileptogenesis.

Pharmacol Res 2020 10 29;160:105172. Epub 2020 Aug 29.

Neuropharmacology Research Strength, Jeffrey Cheah School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Monash University Malaysia, Bandar Sunway, Selangor, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Understanding the interplay between the innate immune system, neuroinflammation, and epilepsy might offer a novel perspective in the quest of exploring new treatment strategies. Due to the complex pathology underlying epileptogenesis, no disease-modifying treatment is currently available that might prevent epilepsy after a plausible epileptogenic insult despite the advances in pre-clinical and clinical research. Neuroinflammation underlies the etiopathogenesis of epilepsy and convulsive disorders with Toll-like receptor (TLR) signal transduction being highly involved. Among TLR family members, TLR4 is an innate immune system receptor and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) sensor that has been reported to contribute to epileptogenesis by regulating neuronal excitability. Herein, we discuss available evidence on the role of TLR4 and its endogenous ligands, the high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein, the heat shock proteins (HSPs) and the myeloid related protein 8 (MRP8), in epileptogenesis and post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE). Moreover, we provide an account of the promising findings of TLR4 modulation/inhibition in experimental animal models with therapeutic impact on seizures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2020.105172DOI Listing
October 2020

HMGB1-Mediated Neuroinflammatory Responses in Brain Injuries: Potential Mechanisms and Therapeutic Opportunities.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Jun 29;21(13). Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Neuropharmacology Research Strength, Jeffrey Cheah School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Monash University Malaysia, Bandar Sunway, Selangor 47500, Malaysia.

Brain injuries are devastating conditions, representing a global cause of mortality and morbidity, with no effective treatment to date. Increased evidence supports the role of neuroinflammation in driving several forms of brain injuries. High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein is a pro-inflammatory-like cytokine with an initiator role in neuroinflammation that has been implicated in Traumatic brain injury (TBI) as well as in early brain injury (EBI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Herein, we discuss the implication of HMGB1-induced neuroinflammatory responses in these brain injuries, mediated through binding to the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), toll-like receptor4 (TLR4) and other inflammatory mediators. Moreover, we provide evidence on the biomarker potential of HMGB1 and the significance of its nucleocytoplasmic translocation during brain injuries along with the promising neuroprotective effects observed upon HMGB1 inhibition/neutralization in TBI and EBI induced by SAH. Overall, this review addresses the current advances on neuroinflammation driven by HMGB1 in brain injuries indicating a future treatment opportunity that may overcome current therapeutic gaps.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21134609DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7370155PMC
June 2020

Revisiting the Impact of Neurodegenerative Proteins in Epilepsy: Focus on Alpha-Synuclein, Beta-Amyloid, and Tau.

Biology (Basel) 2020 Jun 12;9(6). Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Neuropharmacology Research Strength, Jeffrey Cheah School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Monash University Malaysia, Bandar Sunway, Selangor 47500, Malaysia.

Lack of disease-modifying therapy against epileptogenesis reflects the complexity of the disease pathogenesis as well as the high demand to explore novel treatment strategies. In the pursuit of developing new therapeutic strategies against epileptogenesis, neurodegenerative proteins have recently gained increased attention. Owing to the fact that neurodegenerative disease and epileptogenesis possibly share a common underlying mechanism, targeting neurodegenerative proteins against epileptogenesis might represent a promising therapeutic approach. Herein, we review the association of neurodegenerative proteins, such as α-synuclein, amyloid-beta (Aβ), and tau protein, with epilepsy. Providing insight into the α-synuclein, Aβ and tau protein-mediated neurodegeneration mechanisms, and their implication in epileptogenesis will pave the way towards the development of new agents and treatment strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biology9060122DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7344698PMC
June 2020

Animal Models of Metabolic Epilepsy and Epilepsy Associated Metabolic Dysfunction: A Systematic Review.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel) 2020 May 26;13(6). Epub 2020 May 26.

Research Center of the University of Montreal Hospital Center (CRCHUM), Department of Neurosciences, Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC H2X 0A9, Canada.

Epilepsy is a serious neurological disorder affecting around 70 million people globally and is characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures. Recent evidence indicates that dysfunction in metabolic processes can lead to the alteration of neuronal and network excitability, thereby contributing to epileptogenesis. Developing a suitable animal model that can recapitulate all the clinical phenotypes of human metabolic epilepsy (ME) is crucial yet challenging. The specific environment of many symptoms as well as the primary state of the applicable neurobiology, genetics, and lack of valid biomarkers/diagnostic tests are the key factors that hinder the process of developing a suitable animal model. The present systematic review summarizes the current state of available animal models of metabolic dysfunction associated with epileptic disorders. A systematic search was performed by using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) model. A range of electronic databases, including google scholar, Springer, PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Scopus, were scanned between January 2000 and April 2020. Based on the selection criteria, 23 eligible articles were chosen and are discussed in the current review. Critical analysis of the selected literature delineated several available approaches that have been modeled into metabolic epilepsy and pointed out several drawbacks associated with the currently available models. The result describes available models of metabolic dysfunction associated with epileptic disorder, such as mitochondrial respiration deficits, Lafora disease (LD) model-altered glycogen metabolism, causing epilepsy, glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) deficiency, adiponectin responsive seizures, phospholipid dysfunction, glutaric aciduria, mitochondrial disorders, pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) α-subunit gene (PDHA1), pyridoxine dependent epilepsy (PDE), BCL2-associated agonist of cell death (BAD), Kcna1 knock out (KO), and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA) cancer susceptibility candidate 2 (lncRNA CASC2). Finally, the review highlights certain focus areas that may increase the possibilities of developing more suitable animal models and underscores the importance of the rationalization of animal models and evaluation methods for studying ME. The review also suggests the pressing need of developing precise robust animal models and evaluation methods for investigating ME.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ph13060106DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7345684PMC
May 2020

Fractalkine (CX3CL1) signaling and neuroinflammation in Parkinson's disease: Potential clinical and therapeutic implications.

Pharmacol Res 2020 08 20;158:104930. Epub 2020 May 20.

Department of Biological Chemistry, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece. Electronic address:

Neuroinflammation plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) with the dysregulation of microglial activity being tightly linked to dopaminergic degeneration. Fractalkine (CX3CL1), a chemokine mainly expressed by neurons, can modulate microglial activity through binding to its sole G-protein-coupled receptor (CX3CR1), expressed by microglia. Fractalkine/CX3CR1 signaling is one of the most important mediators of the communication between neurons and microglia, and its emerging role in neurodegenerative disorders including PD has been increasingly recognized. Pre-clinical evidence has revealed that fractalkine signaling axis exerts dual effects on PD-related inflammation and degeneration, which greatly depend on the isoform type (soluble or membrane-bound), animal model (mice or rats, toxin- or proteinopathy-induced), route of toxin administration, time course and specific brain region (striatum, substantia nigra). Furthermore, although existing clinical evidence is scant, it has been indicated that fractalkine may be possibly associated with PD progression, paving the way for future studies investigating its biomarker potential. In this review, we discuss recent evidence on the role of fractalkine/CX3CR1 signaling axis in PD pathogenesis, aiming to shed more light on the molecular mechanisms underlying the neuroinflammation commonly associated with the disease, as well as potential clinical and therapeutic implications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2020.104930DOI Listing
August 2020

Increased ACh-Associated Immunoreactivity in Autonomic Centers in PTZ Kindling Model of Epilepsy.

Biomedicines 2020 May 8;8(5). Epub 2020 May 8.

Neuropharmacology Research Strength, Jeffrey Cheah School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Monash University Malaysia, Bandar Sunway 47500, Selangor, Malaysia.

Experimental and clinical studies of cardiac pathology associated with epilepsy have demonstrated an impact on the autonomic nervous system (ANS). However, the underlying molecular mechanism has not been fully elucidated. Molecular investigation of the neurotransmitters related receptor and ion channel directing ANS might help in understanding the associated mechanism. In this paper, we investigated the role of acetylcholine (ACh), which demonstrates both sympathetic and parasympathetic roles in targeted expression in terms of the relevant receptor and ion channel. Inwardly rectifying potassium (Kir) channels play a significant role in maintaining the resting membrane potential and controlling cell excitability and are prominently expressed in both the excitable and non-excitable tissues. The immunoreactivity of ACh-activated Kir3.1 channel and muscarinic ACh receptors (M2) in autonomic centers such as the brainstem, vagus nerve (VN) and atria of heart was confirmed by both histological staining and pathological tissue analysis. Significant upregulations of Kir3.1 and M2 receptors were observed in pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-kindled epileptic rats for all related tissues investigated, whereas no pathological difference was observed. These findings provide proof-of-concept that changes in ACh-associated immunoreactivity might be linked to the ANS dysfunctions associated with epilepsy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8050113DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7277646PMC
May 2020

Lymphocyte-Activation Gene 3 (LAG3) Protein as a Possible Therapeutic Target for Parkinson's Disease: Molecular Mechanisms Connecting Neuroinflammation to α-Synuclein Spreading Pathology.

Biology (Basel) 2020 Apr 23;9(4). Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Department of Biological Chemistry, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 11527 Athens, Greece.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder without any objective biomarker available to date. Increasing evidence highlights the critical role of neuroinflammation, including T cell responses, and spreading of aggregated α-synuclein in PD progression. Lymphocyte-activation gene 3 (LAG3) belongs to the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily expressed by peripheral immune cells, microglia and neurons and plays a key role in T cell regulation. The role of LAG3 has been extensively investigated in several human cancers, whereas until recently, the role of LAG3 in the central nervous system (CNS) has been largely unknown. Accumulating evidence highlights the potential role of LAG3 in PD pathogenesis, mainly by binding to α-synuclein fibrils and affecting its endocytosis and intercellular transmission, which sheds more light on the connection between immune dysregulation and α-synuclein spreading pathology. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) soluble LAG3 (sLAG3) levels have been demonstrated to be potentially associated with PD development and clinical phenotype, suggesting that sLAG3 could represent an emerging PD biomarker. Specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the LAG3 gene have been also related to PD occurrence especially in the female population, enlightening the pathophysiological background of gender-related PD clinical differences. Given also the ongoing clinical trials investigating various LAG3-targeting strategies in human diseases, new opportunities are being developed for PD treatment research. In this review, we discuss recent preclinical and clinical evidence on the role of LAG3 in PD pathogenesis and biomarker potential, aiming to elucidate its underlying molecular mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biology9040086DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7235703PMC
April 2020

From the Molecular Mechanism to Pre-clinical Results: Anti-epileptic Effects of Fingolimod.

Curr Neuropharmacol 2020 ;18(11):1126-1137

Neuropharmacology Research Laboratory, Jeffrey Cheah School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Monash University Malaysia, Bandar Sunway, Selangor, Malaysia

Epilepsy is a devastating neurological condition characterized by long-term tendency to generate unprovoked seizures, affecting around 1-2 % of the population worldwide. Epilepsy is a serious health concern which often associates with other neurobehavioral comorbidities that further worsen disease conditions. Despite tremendous research, the mainstream anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) exert only symptomatic relief leading to 30% of untreatable patients. This reflects the complexity of the disease pathogenesis and urges the precise understanding of underlying mechanisms in order to explore novel therapeutic strategies that might alter the disease progression as well as minimize the epilepsy-associated comorbidities. Unfortunately, the development of novel AEDs might be a difficult process engaging huge funds, tremendous scientific efforts and stringent regulatory compliance with a possible chance of end-stage drug failure. Hence, an alternate strategy is drug repurposing, where anti-epileptic effects are elicited from drugs that are already used to treat non-epileptic disorders. Herein, we provide evidence of the anti-epileptic effects of Fingolimod (FTY720), a modulator of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor, USFDA approved already for Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS). Emerging experimental findings suggest that Fingolimod treatment exerts disease-modifying anti-epileptic effects based on its anti-neuroinflammatory properties, potent neuroprotection, anti-gliotic effects, myelin protection, reduction of mTOR signaling pathway and activation of microglia and astrocytes. We further discuss the underlying molecular crosstalk associated with the anti-epileptic effects of Fingolimod and provide evidence for repurposing Fingolimod to overcome the limitations of current AEDs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570159X18666200420125017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7709153PMC
July 2021

Implication of HMGB1 signaling pathways in Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS): From molecular mechanisms to pre-clinical results.

Pharmacol Res 2020 06 8;156:104792. Epub 2020 Apr 8.

Neuropharmacology Research Laboratory, Jeffrey Cheah School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Monash University Malaysia, Bandar Sunway, Selangor, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating and rapidly progressing neurodegenerative disorder with no effective disease-modifying treatment up to date. The underlying molecular mechanisms of ALS are not yet completely understood. However, the critical role of the innate immune system and neuroinflammation in ALS pathogenesis has gained increased attention. High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a typical damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecule, acting as a pro-inflammatory cytokine mainly through activation of its principal receptors, the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) which are crucial components of the innate immune system. HMGB1 is an endogenous ligand for both RAGE and TLR4 that mediate its biological effects. Herein, on the ground of pre-clinical findings we unravel the underlying mechanisms behind the plausible contribution of HMGB1 and its receptors (RAGE and TLR4) in the ALS pathogenesis. Furthermore, we provide an account of the therapeutic outcomes associated with inhibition/blocking of HMGB1 receptor signalling in preventing motor neuron's death and delaying disease progression in ALS experimental models. There is strong evidence that HMGB1, RAGE and TLR4 signaling axes might present potential targets against ALS, opening a novel headway in ALS research that could plausibly bridge the current treatment gap.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2020.104792DOI Listing
June 2020

Pilocarpine Induced Behavioral and Biochemical Alterations in Chronic Seizure-Like Condition in Adult Zebrafish.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Apr 3;21(7). Epub 2020 Apr 3.

Neuropharmacology Research Strength, Jeffrey Cheah School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Monash University Malaysia, Bandar Sunway, Selangor 47500, Malaysia.

Epilepsy is a devastating neurological condition exhibited by repeated spontaneous and unpredictable seizures afflicting around 70 million people globally. The basic pathophysiology of epileptic seizures is still elusive, reflecting an extensive need for further research. Developing a novel animal model is crucial in understanding disease mechanisms as well as in assessing the therapeutic target. Most of the pre-clinical epilepsy research has been focused on rodents. Nevertheless, zebrafish disease models are relevant to human disease pathophysiology hence are gaining increased attention nowadays. The current study for the very first time developed a pilocarpine-induced chronic seizure-like condition in adult zebrafish and investigated the modulation in several neuroinflammatory genes and neurotransmitters after pilocarpine exposures. Seizure score analysis suggests that compared to a single dose, repeated dose pilocarpine produces chronic seizure-like effects maintaining an average seizure score of above 2 each day for a minimum of 10 days. Compared to the single dose pilocarpine treated group, there was increased mRNA expression of HMGB1, TLR4, TNF-α, IL-1, BDNF, CREB-1, and NPY; whereas decreased expression of NF-κB was upon the repeated dose of pilocarpine administration. In addition, the epileptic group demonstrates modulation in neurotransmitters levels such as GABA, Glutamate, and Acetylcholine. Moreover, proteomic profiling of the zebrafish brain from the normal and epileptic groups from LCMS/MS quantification detected 77 and 13 proteins in the normal and epileptic group respectively. Summing up, the current investigation depicted that chemically induced seizures in zebrafish demonstrated behavioral and molecular alterations similar to classical rodent seizure models suggesting the usability of adult zebrafish as a robust model to investigate epileptic seizures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21072492DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7178024PMC
April 2020

Flotillin: A Promising Biomarker for Alzheimer's Disease.

J Pers Med 2020 Mar 26;10(2). Epub 2020 Mar 26.

Department of Biological Chemistry, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 11527 Athens, Greece.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the accumulation of beta amyloid (Aβ) in extracellular senile plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) mainly consisting of tau protein. Although the exact etiology of the disease remains elusive, accumulating evidence highlights the key role of lipid rafts, as well as the endocytic pathways in amyloidogenic amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing and AD pathogenesis. The combination of reduced Aβ42 levels and increased phosphorylated tau protein levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is the most well established biomarker, along with Pittsburgh compound B and positron emission tomography (PiB-PET) for amyloid imaging. However, their invasive nature, the cost, and their availability often limit their use. In this context, an easily detectable marker for AD diagnosis even at preclinical stages is highly needed. Flotillins, being hydrophobic proteins located in lipid rafts of intra- and extracellular vesicles, are mainly involved in signal transduction and membrane-protein interactions. Accumulating evidence highlights the emerging implication of flotillins in AD pathogenesis, by affecting APP endocytosis and processing, Ca homeostasis, mitochondrial dysfunction, neuronal apoptosis, Aβ-induced neurotoxicity, and prion-like spreading of Aβ. Importantly, there is also clinical evidence supporting their potential use as biomarker candidates for AD, due to reduced serum and CSF levels that correlate with amyloid burden in AD patients compared with controls. This review focuses on the emerging preclinical and clinical evidence on the role of flotillins in AD pathogenesis, further addressing their potential usage as disease biomarkers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jpm10020020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7354424PMC
March 2020

Impact of HMGB1, RAGE, and TLR4 in Alzheimer's Disease (AD): From Risk Factors to Therapeutic Targeting.

Cells 2020 02 7;9(2). Epub 2020 Feb 7.

Neuropharmacology Research Laboratory, Jeffrey Cheah School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Monash University Malaysia, Bandar Sunway, Selangor 46150, Malaysia.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder and a leading cause of dementia, with accumulation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) as defining pathological features. AD presents a serious global health concern with no cure to date, reflecting the complexity of its pathogenesis. Recent evidence indicates that neuroinflammation serves as the link between amyloid deposition, Tau pathology, and neurodegeneration. The high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein, an initiator and activator of neuroinflammatory responses, has been involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, including AD. HMGB1 is a typical damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) protein that exerts its biological activity mainly through binding to the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). RAGE and TLR4 are key components of the innate immune system that both bind to HMGB1. Targeting of HMGB1, RAGE, and TLR4 in experimental AD models has demonstrated beneficial effects in halting AD progression by suppressing neuroinflammation, reducing Aβ load and production, improving spatial learning, and inhibiting microglial stimulation. Herein, we discuss the contribution of HMGB1 and its receptor signaling in neuroinflammation and AD pathogenesis, providing evidence of its beneficial effects upon therapeutic targeting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9020383DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7072620PMC
February 2020

Exploring the role of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein in the pathogenesis of Huntington's disease.

J Mol Med (Berl) 2020 03 8;98(3):325-334. Epub 2020 Feb 8.

Department of Biological Chemistry, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal-dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by an increased and unstable CAG DNA expansion in the Huntingtin (HTT) gene, resulting in an elongated polyglutamine tract in huntingtin protein. Despite its monogenic cause, HD pathogenesis remains elusive and without any approved disease-modifying therapy as yet. A growing body of evidence highlights the emerging role of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein in HD pathology. HMGB1, being a nuclear protein, is primarily implicated in DNA repair, but it can also translocate to the cytoplasm and participate into numerous cellular functions. Cytoplasmic HMGB1 was shown to directly interact with huntingtin under oxidative stress conditions and induce its nuclear translocation, a key process in the HD pathogenic cascade. Nuclear HMGB1 acting as a co-factor of ataxia telangiectasia mutated and base excision repair (BER) complexes can exert dual roles in CAG repeat instability and affect the final DNA repair outcome. HMGB1 can inhibit mutant huntingtin aggregation, protecting against polyglutamine-induced neurotoxicity and acting as a chaperon-like molecule, possibly via autophagy regulation. In addition, HMGB1 being a RAGE and TLR-2, TLR-3, and TLR-4 ligand may further contribute to HD pathogenesis by triggering neuroinflammation and apoptosis. Furthermore, HMGB1 participates at the unfolded protein response (UPR) system and can induce protein degradation and apoptosis associated with HD. In this review, we discuss the multiple role of HMGB1 in HD pathology, providing mechanistic insights that could direct future studies towards the development of targeted therapeutic approaches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00109-020-01885-zDOI Listing
March 2020

Unraveling the Role of Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (RAGE) and Its Ligands in Myasthenia Gravis.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2020 03 13;11(5):663-673. Epub 2020 Feb 13.

Department of Biological Chemistry, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 11527 Athens, Greece.

Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune T cell-dependent B cell-mediated disorder of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) characterized by fluctuating skeletal muscle weakness, most commonly attributed to pathogenic autoantibodies against postsynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs). Although MG pathogenesis is well-documented, there are no objective biomarkers that could effectively correlate with disease severity or MG clinical subtypes, and current treatment approaches are often ineffective. The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a multiligand cell-bound receptor highly implicated in proinflammatory responses and autoimmunity. Preclinical evidence demonstrates that RAGE and its ligand S100B are upregulated in rat models of experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG). S100B-mediated RAGE activation has been shown to exacerbate EAMG, by enhancing T cell proinflammatory responses, aggravating T helper (Th) subset imbalance, increasing AChR-specific T cell proliferative capacity, and promoting the production of antibodies against AChRs from the spleen. Soluble sRAGE and esRAGE, acting as decoys of RAGE ligands, are found to be significantly reduced in MG patients. Moreover, MG has been associated with increased serum levels of S100A12, S100B and HMGB1. Several studies have shown that the presence of thymic abnormalities, the onset age of MG, and the duration of the disease may affect the levels of these proteins in MG patients. Herein, we discuss the emerging role of RAGE and its ligands in MG immunopathogenesis, their clinical significance as promising biomarkers, as well as the potential therapeutic implications of targeting RAGE signaling in MG treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acschemneuro.9b00678DOI Listing
March 2020

Potential Neuroprotective Effect of the HMGB1 Inhibitor Glycyrrhizin in Neurological Disorders.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2020 02 4;11(4):485-500. Epub 2020 Feb 4.

Neuropharmacology Research Laboratory, Jeffrey Cheah School of Medicine and Health Sciences , Monash University Malaysia , Bandar Sunway , Selangor 46150 , Malaysia.

Glycyrrhizin (glycyrrhizic acid), a bioactive triterpenoid saponin constituent of , is a traditional medicine possessing a plethora of pharmacological anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antiaging properties. It is a known pharmacological inhibitor of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a ubiquitous protein with proinflammatory cytokine-like activity. HMGB1 has been implicated in an array of inflammatory diseases when released extracellularly, mainly by activating intracellular signaling upon binding to the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). HMGB1 neutralization strategies have demonstrated disease-modifying outcomes in several preclinical models of neurological disorders. Herein, we reveal the potential neuroprotective effects of glycyrrhizin against several neurological disorders. Emerging findings demonstrate the therapeutic potential of glycyrrhizin against several HMGB1-mediated pathological conditions including traumatic brain injury, neuroinflammation and associated conditions, epileptic seizures, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and multiple sclerosis. Glycyrrhizin's effects in neurological disorders are mainly attributed to the attenuation of neuronal damage by inhibiting HMGB1 expression and translocation as well as by downregulating the expression of inflammatory cytokines. A large number of preclinical findings supports the notion that glycyrrhizin might be a promising therapeutic alternative to overcome the shortcomings of the mainstream therapeutic strategies against neurological disorders, mainly by halting disease progression. However, future research is warranted for a deeper exploration of the precise underlying molecular mechanism as well as for clinical translation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acschemneuro.9b00640DOI Listing
February 2020
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