Publications by authors named "Yalin Zhang"

313 Publications

Anomalous Superconducting Proximity Effect in Bi Se /FeSe Te Thin-Film Heterojunctions.

Adv Mater 2021 Nov 24:e2107799. Epub 2021 Nov 24.

National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210093, China.

Superconducting proximity effect (SPE) induces superconductivity transition in the otherwise non superconducting thin-film in proximity with a superconductor. The SPE usually occurs in real space and decays exponentially with the film thickness. Herein, we unveiled an abnormal SPE in a topological insulator (TI)/superconductor heterostructure, which is attributed to the topologically protected surface state. Surprisingly, such abnormal SPE occurs in momentum space regardless the TI film thickness, as long as the topological surface states are robust and form a continuous conduction loop. Combining transport measurements and scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy techniques, we explored the SPE in Bi Se /FeSe Te heterostructures, where Bi Se is an ideal three-dimensional topological insulator and FeSe Te a typical iron-based superconductor. As the thickness of the Bi Se thin-film exceeds 400 nanometers, there still exits SPE-induced superconductivity on the surface of Bi Se thin-film with a transition temperature T not less than 10 K. Such an extraordinary behavior is induced by the unique properties of topologically protected surface states of Bi Se . This research will deepen the understanding of important role of topologically protected surface states in the SPE. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202107799DOI Listing
November 2021

Review of the leafhopper genus Hatigoria Distant with one new species (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Hylicinae).

Zootaxa 2021 Jul 27;5005(3):358-366. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Key Laboratory of Plant Protection Resources and Pest Management of the Ministry of Education, Entomological Museum, Northwest AF University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China..

The taxonomy of the hylicine genus Hatigoria Distant is reviewed based on morphological study of the types and other specimens. The male external morphology and genitalia of two known species, H. praeiens Distant, 1908 and H. sauteri Jacobi, 1914, are described and photographed for the first time. A description and figures of the female ovipositor of H. praeiens Distant, 1908 are provided. One new species, H. longistylia n. sp., from Laos and China is reported with descriptions and figures. This also represents the first record of the genus Hatigoria from Laos. A key to adult males of all species is provided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.5005.3.10DOI Listing
July 2021

Taxonomic study of the leafhopper genus Anufrievia Dworakowska (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae: Erythroneurini) from China, with descriptions of two new species.

Zootaxa 2021 Sep 1;5027(3):438-444. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Key Laboratory of Plant Protection Resources and Pest Management, Ministry of Education, Entomological Museum, Northwest AF University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China.

The genus Anufrievia Dworakowska is reviewed with two new species from China: A. anchoroides sp. nov., and A. drepanoides sp. nov.. Detailed morphological descriptions and illustrations of these two new species and a key to all known species (males) from China are provided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.5027.3.9DOI Listing
September 2021

First records of the Oriental Eurhadina (Singhardina) robusta species group from China with descriptions of five new species (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae).

Zootaxa 2021 Nov 5;5061(3):510-522. Epub 2021 Nov 5.

Key Laboratory of Plant Protection Resources and Pest Management of Ministry of Education, Entomological Museum, Northwest AF University, Yangling, Shaanxi Province, 712100, China.

Five new species, Eurhadina (Singhardina) dissimilis, E. (S.) flatilis, E. (S.) fumosa, E. (S.) furca and E. (S.) immatura spp. nov., and two new records, E. (S.) krispinilla rec. nov., E. (S.) pookiewica rec. nov. of the leafhopper subgenus Eurhadina (Singhardina) Mahmood from China are described and illustrated and a key to all members of the E. (S.) robusta species group is provided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.5061.3.6DOI Listing
November 2021

Identification of Two Myrosinases from a Strain and Investigation of Its Tolerance Mechanism to Glucosinolate Hydrolysate.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Dec 21;69(47):14151-14164. Epub 2021 Nov 21.

Solid-State Fermentation Resource Utilization Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Yibin University, Yibin 644000, China.

Glucosinolates (GSLs), secondary metabolites synthesized by cruciferous plants, can be hydrolyzed by myrosinase into compounds, such as isothiocyanates (ITCs), with various bioactivities. Thus, myrosinase plays an important role in the utilization of GSLs. We isolated a bacterial strain, which was identified as , from the rhizosphere soil of rape seedlings and identified two myrosinase genes and an ITC hydrolase gene. Both myrosinases are intracellular and have 658 amino acid residues. Via molecular docking and chemical modification assays investigating the active sites of the myrosinases, arginine was found to be essential for their catalytic activity. Transcriptomic analysis of the response to sinigrin revealed significant up-regulation of some genes involved in allyl-ITC detoxification, with metallo-β-lactamase 3836 having the highest fold change. Thus, we discovered two myrosinases from and demonstrated that the mechanism of tolerance of the bacterium to allyl-ITC likely involved metallo-β-lactamase activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.1c05285DOI Listing
December 2021

Air conditioner filters become sinks and sources of indoor microplastics fibers.

Environ Pollut 2022 Jan 5;292(Pt B):118465. Epub 2021 Nov 5.

School of Ecological and Environmental Sciences, Shanghai Key Laboratory for Urban Ecological Processes and Eco-Restoration, East China Normal University, Shanghai, 200241, China; Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Biotransformation of Organic Solid Waste, East China Normal University, Shanghai, 200241, China. Electronic address:

Indoor airborne microplastics fibers (MPFs) are emerging contaminants of growing concern. Nowadays, air conditioners (ACs) are widely used in indoor environments. However, little is known about their impact on the distribution of indoor MPFs. In this study, we first disclosed the prevalence of MPF contamination in filters for indoor split ACs used in living rooms, dormitories, and offices. The average density of microfibers was 1.47-21.4 × 10 items/cm, and a total 27.7-35.0% of fibers were MPFs. Of these fibers, the majority were polyester (45.3%), rayon (27.8%), and cellophane (20.1%). We further tracked the long-term accumulation of MPFs on AC filters in three types of rooms, and demonstrated that dormitories showed relatively heavy accumulation especially after running for 35-42 days. Furthermore, we found that simulative AC filters which had been lined with PET MPFs could effectively release those MPFs into indoor air, propelling them away from the ACs at varying distances. Statistical analysis showed that the estimated daily intake of MPFs (5-5000 μm length) from AC filters would increase gradually with their usage, with the intake volume reaching up to 11.2 ± 2.2-44.0 ± 8.9 items/kg-BW/day by the 70th day, although this number varied among people of different ages. Altogether, these findings suggest that AC filters can act as both a sink and a source of microplastics fibers. Therefore, AC filters should be evaluated not only for their substantial impact on the distribution of indoor airborne MPFs, but also for their role in the prevalence of the related health risks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.118465DOI Listing
January 2022

Draft genome of the blister beetle, Epicauta chinensis.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Nov 4. Epub 2021 Nov 4.

Key Laboratory of Plant Protection Resources & Pest Management of the Ministry of Education, College of Plant Protection, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China. Electronic address:

Existence of cantharidin (CTD) in blister beetles is a significant ecological adaptive mechanism that defends against predators and regulates courtship and mating behaviors. To better understand CTD biosynthetic information as well as its biology and pharmacology, we assembled a genome of 151.88 Mb for Epicauta chinensis using PacBio sequencing technology. Gene annotation yielded 249,238 repeats, 527 non-coding RNAs and 12,520 protein-coding genes. Compared to other 11 insects, expansions of gene families in E. chinensis for most core gene families likely associated with environmental adaptation, such as chemoreception, immunity, and detoxification. We further annotated P450s and immune-related genes, a total of 117 putative P450s comprising 7 CYP2, 67 CYP3, 36 CYP4, and 7 mitochondrial P450s and 281 immune-related genes were identified. Comparative analysis of the insect immune repertoires indicated presence of immune genes detected only from Coleopteran insects such as MD2-like. This suggested a lineage-specific gene evolution for Coleopteran insects. Based on the gene family evolution analysis, we identified two probable candidate genes including CYP4TT1 and phytanoyl-CoA dioxygenase for CTD biosynthesis. The high-quality reference genome of E. chinensis provides the genetic basis for further investigation of CTD biosynthesis and in-depth studies of the development and evolution of blister beetles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.11.006DOI Listing
November 2021

mTOR inhibitor PP242 increases antitumor activity of sulforaphane by blocking Akt/mTOR pathway in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

Mol Biol Rep 2021 Nov 3. Epub 2021 Nov 3.

State Key Laboratory of Esophageal Cancer Prevention & Treatment, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, 450001, China.

Background: Sulforaphane (SFN) is a kind of isothiocyanate from cruciferous vegetables with extensive anti-tumor activity. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is a popular malignancy in East Asia, East and South Africa, while the more efficient medicines and therapeutic strategies are still lack. This study aims to explore the anti-tumor activity of SFN alone and combined with Akt/mTOR pathway inhibitors as well as the potential molecular mechanism in ESCC.

Methods And Results: Cell proliferation, migration, cell cycle phase, apoptosis and protein expression were detected with MTT assay, clone formation experiment, wound healing assays, flow cytometry and Western blot, respectively, after ESCC cells ECa109 and EC9706 treated with SFN alone or combined with Akt/mTOR inhibitors. Xenograft models were used to evaluate the efficiency and mechanism of SFN combined with PP242 in vivo. The results showed that SFN significantly inhibited the viability and induced apoptosis of ECa109 and EC9706 cells by increasing expression of Cleaved-caspase 9. SFN combined with PP242, but not MK2206 and RAD001, synergetic inhibited proliferation of ESCC cells. Moreover, compared to SFN alone, combination of SFN and PP242 had stronger inhibiting efficiency on clone formation, cell migratory, cell cycle phase and growth of xenografts, as well as the more powerful apoptosis-inducing effects on ESCC. The mechanism was that PP242 abrogated the promoting effects of SFN on p-p70S6K (Thr389) and p-Akt (Ser473) in ESCC.

Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that PP242 enhances the anti-tumor activity of SFN by blocking SFN-induced activation of Akt/mTOR pathway in ESCC, which provides a rationale for treating ESCC using SFN combined with Akt/mTOR pathway inhibitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-021-06895-9DOI Listing
November 2021

Melatonin supplementation in the culture medium rescues impaired glucose metabolism in IVF mice offspring.

J Pineal Res 2021 Nov 2:e12778. Epub 2021 Nov 2.

Centre for Assisted Reproduction, Shanghai First Maternity and Infant Hospital, School of Medicine, Tongji University, Shanghai, China.

Increasing evidence suggests that in vitro fertilization (IVF) may be associated with an increased risk of developing obesity and metabolic diseases later in life in the offspring. Notably, the addition of melatonin to culture medium may improve embryo development and prevent cardiovascular dysfunction in IVF adult mice. This study aimed to determine if melatonin supplementation in the culture medium can reverse impaired glucose metabolism in IVF mice offspring and the underlying mechanisms. Blastocysts used for transfer were generated by natural mating (control group) or IVF with or without melatonin (10  M) supplementation (mIVF and IVF group, respectively) in clinical-grade culture media. Here, we first report that IVF decreased hepatic expression of Fbxl7, which was associated with impaired glucose metabolism in mice offspring. Melatonin addition reversed the phenotype by up-regulating the expression of hepatic Fbxl7. In vitro experiments showed that Fbxl7 enhanced the insulin signaling pathway by degrading RhoA through ubiquitination and was up-regulated by transcription factor Foxa2. Specific knockout of Fbxl7 in the liver of adult mice, through tail intravenous injection of recombinant adeno-associated virus, impaired glucose tolerance, while overexpression of hepatic Fbxl7 significantly improved glucose tolerance in adult IVF mice. Thus, the data suggest that Fbxl7 plays an important role in maintaining glucose metabolism of mice, and melatonin supplementation in the culture medium may rescue the long-term risk of metabolic diseases in IVF offspring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jpi.12778DOI Listing
November 2021

Exploring disordered loops in DprE1 provides a functional site to combat drug-resistance in Mycobacterium strains.

Eur J Med Chem 2022 Jan 20;227:113932. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Key Laboratory of Plant Protection Resources & Pest Management of the Ministry of Education, College of Plant Protection, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, 712100, Shaanxi, China. Electronic address:

As an anti-tuberculosis target, DprE1 contains two flexible loops (Loop I and Loop II) which have never been exploited for developing DprE1 inhibitors. Here Leu317 in Loop II was discovered as a new functional site to combat drug-resistance in Mycobacterium strains. Based on TCA1, LZDT1 was designed to optimize the hydrophobic interaction with Leu317. A subsequent biochemical and cellular assay displayed increased potency of LZDT1 in inhibiting DprE1 and killing drug-sensitive/-resistant Mycobacterium strains. The improved activity of LZDT1 and its analogue LZDT2 against multidrug resistant tuberculosis was particularly highlighted. For LZDT1, its enhanced interaction with Leu317 also impaired the drug-insensitivity of DprE1 caused by Cys387 mutation. A new nonbenzothiazole lead (LZDT10) with reduced Cys387-dependence was further produced by optimizing interactions with Leu317, improvement directions for LZDT10 were discussed as well. Our research underscores the value of potential functional sites in disordered loops, and affords a feasible way to develop these functional sites into opportunities for drug-resistance management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2021.113932DOI Listing
January 2022

Effective intervention in domestic violence in Chinese communities: an eight-year prospective study.

EC Psychol Psychiatr 2021 Oct 28;10(10):4-16. Epub 2021 Sep 28.

Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.

Background: Domestic violence is increasing in China. To explore the effective intervention, we intervened three large independent Chinese communities with different approaches over an eight-year period from 2005 to 2012, with a fourth independent community as a peer control.

Methods: The intervention approaches included the psychological intervention with traditional Chinese culture characteristics, the social governance and the poverty relief. The statistical analysis was performed in 2017.

Results: We found that while the prevalence of domestic violence kept growing in the control community, it significantly declined in the other three target communities. Among these intervention approaches, the social governance was the most effective, whereas it resulted in the lowest happiness index.

Conclusion: This continuous, long-period, prospective and large-scale study showed that these approaches could significantly reduce domestic violence.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8494426PMC
October 2021

Vitamin D/VDR regulates peripheral energy homeostasis via central renin-angiotensin system.

J Adv Res 2021 11 2;33:69-80. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Department of Clinical Nutrition, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Introduction: Some epidemiological studies have revealed that vitamin D (VD) deficiency is closely linked with the prevalence of obesity, however, the role of VD in energy homeostasis is yet to be investigated, especially in central nervous system. Given that VD negatively regulates renin in adipose tissue, we hypothesized that central VD might play a potential role in energy homeostasis.

Objectives: The present study aims to investigate the potential role of VD in energy homeostasis in the CNS and elaborate its underlying mechanisms.

Methods: This study was conducted in mice, VD-treated and wild-type mice. After the intraventricular injection of renin or its inhibitors, the changes of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and its down-stream pathway as well as their effects on metabolic rate were examined.

Results: The RAS activity was enhanced in mice, exhibiting a increased metabolic rate. Additionally, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), a RAS-mediated protein regulating energy metabolism in the hypothalamus, increased significantly in mice. While in VD-treated group, the RAS and sympathetic nerve activities were slightly inhibited, hence the reduced metabolic rate.

Conclusion: Collectively, the present study demonstrates that the VD/vitamin D receptor (VDR) has a significant impact on energy homeostasis through the modulation of RAS activity in the hypothalamus, subsequently altering CRH expression and sympathetic nervous activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jare.2021.01.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8463910PMC
November 2021

National-scale distribution of micro(meso)plastics in farmland soils across China: Implications for environmental impacts.

J Hazard Mater 2022 Feb 20;424(Pt A):127283. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China.

Microplastics (MPs) pollution is increasingly appreciated as a significant environmental issue, however, the large-scale pattern of MPs in farmland soils and its associated environmental impacts are unknown. This study investigated a national-scale distribution of micro(meso)plastics (MMPs) in the soil of 30 farmlands across China. The abundance of MMPs in soils was 25.56-2067.78 items kg, with a mean of 358.37 items kg, i.e. 6.79 mg kg or 0.0007% after mass conversion. MPs accounted for 93.1% of MMPs, the abundance varied greatly among different regions, high in arid or semi-arid north but relatively low in mild southwest regions. Major MPs included polypropylene, polyethylene, and polyester, tending to decrease in abundance from surface to deeper soil layers. Further, meta-analysis revealed that MPs exposure influenced bulk density, soil enzymes including fluorescein diacetate hydrolase (FDAse) and urease, and crop biomass, and minimum effective concentrations (MEC) were in the range of 0.0040-10%. We found that actual abundance in the national-scale soils was lower than MEC, but partly overlapped or close, which implies various degrees of environmental impacts. These findings disclose the national-scale pollution pattern of MPs in farmlands and its latent risks to soil environments and crop growth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.127283DOI Listing
February 2022

A multi-gene phylogenetic analysis of the leafhopper subfamily Typhlocybinae (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) challenges the traditional view of the evolution of wing venation.

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2021 Dec 30;165:107299. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Key Laboratory of Plant Protection Resources and Pest Management, Ministry of Education, Entomological Museum of Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China. Electronic address:

Genera of the diverse leafhopper subfamily Typhlocybinae have traditionally been classified into tribes primarily based on characters of the wing venation and an intuitive phylogeny of this group was previously proposed based on the hypothetical pattern of wing vein evolution. Some recent authors suggested that wing vein characters are not always reliable but few attempts have been made to examine the status and relationships of typhlocybine tribes using rigorous phylogenetic analyses. Phylogenetic analysis of a dataset comprising DNA sequences from five gene regions (H3, H2A, 28S rDNA D2, 16S rDNA, and COI with a total length of 2413 bps) and 61 species representing six previously recognized tribes of Typhlocybinae provides strong support for the monophyly of the subfamily and five of the previously recognized tribes. Most branches received moderate to strong maximum likelihood bootstrap support. The following intertribal relationships were recovered: (Alebrini + Empoascini) + ((Dikraneurini + Erythroneurini) + Typhlocybini). Maximum likelihood analysis recovered Zyginellini (treated as a separate tribe by some authors) as sister to Typhlocybini with low branch support, but the former tribe was derived from within the latter in Bayesian analysis of the same dataset and relationships within Typhlocybini (sensu lato) were generally poorly resolved in both analyses. The relationship of Typhlocybini to other tribes is also unstable, suggesting that more data are needed to resolve the position of this tribe with confidence. Parts of the phylogeny receiving strong support in both analyses contradict the traditional view that Alebrini, the only tribe retaining an appendix in the forewing, is the earliest diverging lineage and possibly gave rise to the other tribes. Ancestral state reconstructions indicate that characters of the wing venation traditionally used for diagnosing typhlocybine tribes are generally conservative but exhibit some homoplasy and may not, by themselves, be reliable for recognizing monophyletic groups within this subfamily.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2021.107299DOI Listing
December 2021

Removal of microplastics from water by magnetic nano-FeO.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Jan 24;802:149838. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

School of Ecological and Environmental Sciences, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241, China; Shanghai Key Laboratory for Urban Ecological Processes and Eco-Restoration, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241, China; Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Biotransformation of Organic Solid Waste, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241, China. Electronic address:

Microplastics (MPs) have been widely detected in aquatic environments, and become emerging contaminants of growing concern. It is urgently needed to explore how to effectively remove MPs from water. This study first established an alternative method of removing MPs by magnetic nano-FeO. Results showed that 1.3 g·L nano-FeO and 150 min treatments caused optimal magnetization of MPs via surface absorption. Then, magnetized MPs in water can be conveniently removed by suction of the magnet. The average removal rate of four common types of MPs including polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene and polyethylene terephthalate in size of approximately 200-900 μm was 86.87 ± 6.92%, 85.05 ± 4.70%, 86.11 ± 6.21%, and 62.83 ± 8.34%, respectively. The removal rate varied among polymer- and size-different MPs, and was positively related to the density of nano-FeO absorbed on MP surfaces. In addition, the removal rate of MPs in artificial seawater was relatively high in comparison to pure water. Furthermore, the established approach was effectively applied to remove MPs in environmental water bodies including river water, domestic sewage, and natural seawater, with the removal rate of higher than 80%. Altogether, this study provided a novel and simple removal approach to remove MPs in water, which has a certain application prospect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.149838DOI Listing
January 2022

Altered sperm tsRNAs in aged male contribute to anxiety-like behavior in offspring.

Aging Cell 2021 09 27;20(9):e13466. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Clinical and Translational Research Center of Shanghai First Maternity and Infant Hospital, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Signaling and Disease Research, Frontier Science Center for Stem Cell Research, School of Life Sciences and Technology, Tongji University, Shanghai, China.

Parental age at first pregnancy is increasing worldwide. The offspring of aged father has been associated with higher risk of several neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and autism, but the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Here we report that advanced paternal age in mice alters the profile of transfer RNA-derived small RNAs (tsRNAs). Injection of sperm tsRNAs from aged male mice into zygotes induced anxiety-like behaviors in F1 males. RNA sequencing of the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of those F1 male mice altered the gene expression of dopaminergic synapse and neurotrophin. tsRNAs from aged male mice injection also altered the neuropsychiatry-related gene expression in two-cell and blastocyst stage embryos. More importantly, the sperm tsRNA profile changes significantly during aging in human. The up-regulated sperm tsRNA target genes were involved in neurogenesis and nervous system development. These results suggest that aging-related changes of sperm tsRNA may contribute to the intergenerational transmission of behavioral traits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acel.13466DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8441364PMC
September 2021

Structural Features and Phylogenetic Implications of 11 New Mitogenomes of Typhlocybinae (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

Insects 2021 Jul 28;12(8). Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Key Laboratory of Plant Protection Resources and Pest Management, Ministry of Education, Entomological Museum, College of Plant Protection, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China.

To explore the characteristics of mitogenomes and discuss the phylogenetic relationships and molecular evolution of the six tribes within Typhlocybinae, 11 complete mitogenomes are newly sequenced and comparatively analyzed. In all of these complete mitogenomes, the number and order of the genes are highly conserved in overall organization. The PCGs initiate with ATN/TTG/GTG and terminate with TAA/TAG/T. Almost all tRNAs are folded into the typical clover-leaf secondary structure. The control region is always variable in length and in numbers of multiple tandem repeat units. The and exhibits the highest evolution rate among all the PCGs. Phylogenetic analyses based on whole mitogenome sequences, with three different datasets, using both maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, indicate the monophyly of Typhlocybinae and its inner tribes, respectively, except for Typhlocybini and Zyginellini that are paraphyletic. Finally, we confirm that Erythroneurini is a subtribe of Dikraneurini.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/insects12080678DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8396557PMC
July 2021

Two Complete Mitochondrial Genomes of Mileewinae (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) and a Phylogenetic Analysis.

Insects 2021 Jul 22;12(8). Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Key Laboratory of Plant Protection Resources and Pest Management, Ministry of Education, Entomological Museum, College of Plant Protection, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Xianyang 712100, China.

More studies are using mitochondrial genomes of insects to explore the sequence variability, evolutionary traits, monophyly of groups and phylogenetic relationships. Controversies remain on the classification of the Mileewinae and the phylogenetic relationships between Mileewinae and other subfamilies remain ambiguous. In this study, we present two newly completed mitogenomes of Mileewinae ( Cai and Kuoh 1997 and Yang and Meng 2010) and conduct comparative mitogenomic analyses based on several different factors. These species have quite similar features, including their nucleotide content, codon usage of protein genes and the secondary structure of tRNA. Gene arrangement is identical and conserved, the same as the putative ancestral pattern of insects. All protein-coding genes of began with the start codon ATN, while 5 species had the abnormal initiation codon TTG in and . Moreover, had an intergenic spacer of 17 bp that could not be found in other mileewine species. Phylogenetic analysis based on three datasets (PCG123, PCG12 and AA) with two methods (maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference) recovered the Mileewinae as a monophyletic group with strong support values. All results in our study indicate that Mileewinae has a closer phylogenetic relationship to Typhlocybinae compared to Cicadellinae. Additionally, six species within Mileewini revealed the relationship ( + ( + ( + ) + ( + ))) in most of our phylogenetic trees. These results contribute to the study of the taxonomic status and phylogenetic relationships of Mileewinae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/insects12080668DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8396625PMC
July 2021

Effects of soybean raffinose on growth performance, digestibility, humoral immunity and intestinal morphology of growing pigs.

Anim Nutr 2021 Jun 6;7(2):393-399. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Ya'an, 625014, Sichuan, China.

There are appreciable does of raffinose in soybean, but the impacts of raffinose on pigs are poorly investigated. We used 2 experiments to investigate the influence of soybean raffinose on growth performance, digestibility, humoral immunity and intestinal morphology of growing pigs. In Exp. 1, a total of 30 crossbred (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire) barrows (21.93 ± 0.43 kg) were randomly divided into 3 groups, and were fed with the control diet, the control diets supplemented with 0.2% and 0.5% raffinose, respectively, for 21 d. Results showed that the addition of 0.2% or 0.5% raffinose reduced ( < 0.05) average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG) and nutrient digestibility, and dietary 0.5% raffinose increased the ratio of feed to gain ( < 0.05). For serum indexes, dietary 0.5% raffinose decreased growth hormone and increased glucagon-like peptide-2, immunoglobulin G, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 concentration ( < 0.05). In Exp. 2, a total of 24 crossbred barrows (38.41 ± 0.45 kg) were randomly divided into 3 groups, and were fed with the control diet (ad libitum), the raffinose diet (0.5% raffinose, ad libitum), and the control diet in the same amount as the raffinose group (feed-pair group) for 14 d, respectively. Compared with the control diet, dietary 0.5% raffinose decreased ADFI ( < 0.05). Intriguingly, the raffinose group had lower ADG than the feed-pair group, lower nutrient digestibility, lower amylase activity in duodenum, lower amylase, lipase and trypsin activities in jejunum and higher TNF-α concentration in serum compared with the other 2 groups, and a higher ratio of villus height to crypt depth compared with the control group ( < 0.05). These results showed that soybean raffinose could reduce feed voluntary intake and body gain while improving intestinal morphology without a significant negative influence on immunity. Taken together, dietary raffinose could decrease growth performance by reducing both feed intake and nutrient digestibility while inducing humoral immune response of growing pigs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aninu.2020.06.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8245804PMC
June 2021

Taxonomy of the leafhopper genus Nirvanguina (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Deltocephalinae: Drabescini) with description of a new species from China.

Zootaxa 2021 May 6;4966(5):585590. Epub 2021 May 6.

Key Laboratory of Plant Protection Resources and Pest Management, Ministry of Education, Entomological Museum, College of Plant Protection, Northwest A F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China.

The leafhopper genus Nirvanguina Zhang Webb (Cicadellidae: Deltocephalinae: Drabescini: Paraboloponina) is reviewed, including description of a new species, Nirvanguina bifurcatus Xu Zhang sp. nov., from China. An updated checklist along with distribution and a key to males of this genus are also provided. Type specimens of this new species are deposited in the Entomological Museum, Northwest A F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, China (NWAFU).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4966.5.8DOI Listing
May 2021

Characterization of Three Complete Mitogenomes of Flatidae (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea) and Compositional Heterogeneity Analysis in the Planthoppers' Mitochondrial Phylogenomics.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 25;22(11). Epub 2021 May 25.

Key Laboratory of Plant Protection Resources & Pest Management, College of Plant Protection, Northwest A&F University, Ministry of Education, Yangling, Xianyang 712100, China.

Although sequences of mitogenomes have been widely used for investigating phylogenetic relationship, population genetics, and biogeography in many members of Fulgoroidea, only one complete mitogenome of a member of Flatidae has been sequenced. Here, the complete mitogenomes of , and are sequenced. The gene arrangements of the three new mitogenomes are consistent with ancestral insect mitogenomes. The strategy of using mitogenomes in phylogenetics remains in dispute due to the heterogeneity in base composition and the possible variation in evolutionary rates. In this study, we found compositional heterogeneity and variable evolutionary rates among planthopper mitogenomes. Phylogenetic analysis based on site-homogeneous models showed that the families (Delphacidae and Derbidae) with high values of Ka/Ks and A + T content tended to fall together at a basal position on the trees. Using a site-heterogeneous mixture CAT + GTR model implemented in PhyloBayes yielded almost the same topology. Our results recovered the monophyly of Fulgoroidea. In this study, we apply the heterogeneous mixture model to the planthoppers' phylogenetic analysis for the first time. Our study is based on a large sample and provides a methodological reference for future phylogenetic studies of Fulgoroidea.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22115586DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8197536PMC
May 2021

Tribological and Thermo-Mechanical Properties of TiO Nanodot-Decorated TiC/Epoxy Nanocomposites.

Materials (Basel) 2021 May 12;14(10). Epub 2021 May 12.

Key Laboratory of Yarn Materials Forming and Composite Processing Technology of Zhejiang Province, Jiaxing University, Jiaxing 314001, China.

The micromorphology of fillers plays an important role in tribological and mechanical properties of polymer matrices. In this work, a TiO-decorated TiC (TiO/TiC) composite particle with unique micro-nano morphology was engineered to improve the tribological and thermo-mechanical properties of epoxy resin. The TiO/TiC were synthesized by hydrothermal growth of TiO nanodots onto the surface of accordion-like TiC microparticles, and three different decoration degrees (low, medium, high density) of TiO/TiC were prepared by regulating the concentration of TiO precursor solution. Tribological test results indicated that the incorporation of TiO/TiC can effectively improve the wear rate of epoxy resin. Among them, the medium density TiO/TiC/epoxy nanocomposites gained a minimum wear rate. This may be ascribed by the moderate TiO nanodot protuberances on the TiC surface induced a strong mechanical interlock effect between medium-density TiO/TiC and the epoxy matrix, which can bear a higher normal shear stress during sliding friction. The morphologies of worn surfaces and wear debris revealed that the wear form was gradually transformed from fatigue wear in neat epoxy to abrasive wear in TiO/TiC/epoxy nanocomposites. Moreover, the results of thermo-mechanical property indicated that incorporation of TiO/TiC also effectively improved the storage modulus and glass transition temperature of epoxy resin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14102509DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8150460PMC
May 2021

The Protective Effect of 1,25(OH)D on Myocardial Function is Mediated Sirtuin 3-Regulated Fatty Acid Metabolism.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 26;9:627135. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Clinical Nutrition, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Energy substrate imbalance is a major cause of cardiac dysfunction. Vitamin D/vitamin D receptor (VD/VDR) deficiency is involved in the pathogenesis of various cardiac diseases; however, the exact underlying mechanism remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate whether vitamin D modulates mitochondrial fatty acid oxidase sirtuin 3 signaling to protect the myocardium. 1-Alpha-hydroxylase-defficient mice exhibited a high metabolic rate and lower myocardial contractility than wild-type mice. Sirtuin 3 upregulation was detected in high-fat diet-fed mice receiving vitamin D3 compared with that in high-fat diet-fed mice. Both sirtuin 3 blockade and knockout inhibited the VD/VDR-induced downregulation of fatty acid oxidase in myocardial mitochondria. VD/VDR suppressed fatty acid metabolism by upregulating sirtuin 3 and lowering mitochondrial fat uptake, thereby improving myocardial function and balancing energy substrates, rather than by altering fat endocytosis and exocytosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.627135DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8107292PMC
April 2021

Composition of Rhizosphere Microbial Communities Associated With Healthy and Wilt Diseased Cotton Plants.

Front Microbiol 2021 6;12:618169. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

National Institute of Agricultural Botany, East Malling Research, East Malling, United Kingdom.

Rhizosphere microbial communities are known to be related to plant health; using such an association for crop management requires a better understanding of this relationship. We investigated rhizosphere microbiomes associated with wilt symptoms in two cotton cultivars. Microbial communities were profiled by amplicon sequencing, with the total bacterial and fungal DNA quantified by quantitative polymerase chain reaction based on the respective 16S and internal transcribed spacer primers. Although the level of inoculum was higher in the rhizosphere of diseased plants than in the healthy plants, such a difference explained only a small proportion of variation in wilt severities. Compared to healthy plants, the diseased plants had much higher total fungal/bacterial biomass ratio, as represented by quantified total fungal or bacterial DNA. The variability in the fungal/bacterial biomass ratio was much smaller than variability in either fungal or bacterial total biomass among samples within diseased or healthy plants. Diseased plants generally had lower bacterial alpha diversity in their rhizosphere, but such differences in the fungal alpha diversity depended on cultivars. There were large differences in both fungal and bacterial communities between diseased and healthy plants. Many rhizosphere microbial groups differed in their abundance between healthy and diseased plants. There was a decrease in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and an increase in several plant pathogen and saprophyte guilds in diseased plants. These findings suggested that . infection of roots led to considerable changes in rhizosphere microbial communities, with large increases in saprophytic fungi and reduction in bacterial community.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.618169DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8057349PMC
April 2021

Vitamin D Attenuates Alzheimer-like Pathology Induced by Okadaic Acid.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2021 04 5;12(8):1343-1350. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Clinical Nutrition, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110004, China.

Many elderly individuals suffer from Alzheimer's disease (AD), which causes a growing concern. We investigated the mechanism underlying the effects of vitamin D (VD) as a prophylactic treatment. A mouse model of okadaic-acid-induced AD-like pathology was used and . Morris water maze and field trials were used to assess cognitive function. The expression levels of VDR, MTHFR, LCMT-1, PP2A, p-TAU (Thr396), and T-TAU and the methylation level of PP2A were measured by Western blotting, and a reversal of the increase in the levels of these proteins in an AD cell model was observed. We used MTHFR-knockdown SH-SY5Y cells to further test the effects of VD, treated these cells with cycloheximide and MG132, and used RT-PCR to explore the mechanism underlying MTHFR targeting. We found that the effects of VD on AD were impaired by MTHFR knockdown through a pretranscriptional mechanism. In addition, VD attenuated AD-induced cognitive impairment and significantly suppressed the expression of TAU. Our findings indicated that VD treatment alleviated TAU accumulation and rescued methylated PP2A by increasing the expression of LCMT-1 and MTHFR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acschemneuro.0c00812DOI Listing
April 2021

Review of the Pacific leafhopper genus Hecaloidella (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Deltocephalinae: Selenocephalini) with description of sixteen new species.

Zootaxa 2021 Mar 22;4948(3):zootaxa.4948.3.4. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Key Laboratory of Plant Protection Resources and Pest Management, Ministry of Education, Entomological Museum, College of Plant Protection, Northwest AF University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China.

Eighteen species of the Pacific leafhopper genus Hecaloidella Osborn, 1934 are described and illustrated and a key provided for their separation. The previously described species, H. nitida Osborn (type species) and H. brunnifacialis Shang Zhang, and the following sixteen new species are treated: H. brunifasciata Zhang Webb, H. bimaculata Zhang Webb, H. borneoensis Zhang Webb, H. brevis Zhang Webb, H. brevipenis Zhang Webb, H. brevispina Zhang Webb, H. caudospina Zhang Webb, H. knighti Zhang Webb, H. longipenis Zhang Webb, H. nudapenis Zhang Webb, H. pacifica Zhang Webb, H. quadripicta Zhang Webb, H. quadrispina Zhang Webb, H. sandakanensis Zhang Webb, H. singaporensis Zhang Webb and H. spinosa Zhang Webb spp. nov..
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4948.3.4DOI Listing
March 2021

Xylitol enhances synthesis of propionate in the colon via cross-feeding of gut microbiota.

Microbiome 2021 03 18;9(1):62. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

School of Food Science and Biotechnology, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou, 310018, China.

Background: Xylitol, a white or transparent polyol or sugar alcohol, is digestible by colonic microorganisms and promotes the proliferation of beneficial bacteria and the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), but the mechanism underlying these effects remains unknown. We studied mice fed with 0%, 2% (2.17 g/kg/day), or 5% (5.42 g/kg/day) (weight/weight) xylitol in their chow for 3 months. In addition to the in vivo digestion experiments in mice, 3% (weight/volume) (0.27 g/kg/day for a human being) xylitol was added to a colon simulation system (CDMN) for 7 days. We performed 16S rRNA sequencing, beneficial metabolism biomarker quantification, metabolome, and metatranscriptome analyses to investigate the prebiotic mechanism of xylitol. The representative bacteria related to xylitol digestion were selected for single cultivation and co-culture of two and three bacteria to explore the microbial digestion and utilization of xylitol in media with glucose, xylitol, mixed carbon sources, or no-carbon sources. Besides, the mechanisms underlying the shift in the microbial composition and SCFAs were explored in molecular contexts.

Results: In both in vivo and in vitro experiments, we found that xylitol did not significantly influence the structure of the gut microbiome. However, it increased all SCFAs, especially propionate in the lumen and butyrate in the mucosa, with a shift in its corresponding bacteria in vitro. Cross-feeding, a relationship in which one organism consumes metabolites excreted by the other, was observed among Lactobacillus reuteri, Bacteroides fragilis, and Escherichia coli in the utilization of xylitol. At the molecular level, we revealed that xylitol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.14), xylulokinase (EC 2.7.1.17), and xylulose phosphate isomerase (EC 5.1.3.1) were key enzymes in xylitol metabolism and were present in Bacteroides and Lachnospiraceae. Therefore, they are considered keystone bacteria in xylitol digestion. Also, xylitol affected the metabolic pathway of propionate, significantly promoting the transcription of phosphate acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.8) in Bifidobacterium and increasing the production of propionate.

Conclusions: Our results revealed that those key enzymes for xylitol digestion from different bacteria can together support the growth of micro-ecology, but they also enhanced the concentration of propionate, which lowered pH to restrict relative amounts of Escherichia and Staphylococcus. Based on the cross-feeding and competition among those bacteria, xylitol can dynamically balance proportions of the gut microbiome to promote enzymes related to xylitol metabolism and SCFAs. Video Abstract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40168-021-01029-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7977168PMC
March 2021

Effects of starter culture inoculation on microbial community diversity and food safety of Chinese Cantonese sausages by high-throughput sequencing.

J Food Sci Technol 2021 Mar 26;58(3):931-939. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Chengdu Agricultural College, Chengdu, 611130 Sichuan Province China.

Effects of starter culture composed of , , and at the ratios (w/w) of 1:1:1:1 on bacterial community diversity and food safety of Chinese Cantonese sausages were demonstrated by high-throughput sequencing technology. At genus level, spoilage organisms and pathogenic bacteria such as spp., spp., spp., spp. accounted for 54.13%, 10.01%, 6.94% and 5.35% of bacterial in the initial fermentation of spontaneous sausage, and the dominant bacteria of spp. reached 84.61% on day 20. Accordingly, the total proportion of spp., spp. and spp. were present higher than 98% during fermentation in fermented sausage by starter culture inoculation, and spp. was dominant genus and increased from 53.53 to 74.09% during whole fermentation process. Moreover, the histamine accumulation was lower 84.17% in sausage fermented by starter culture inoculation than that of spontaneous sausage, suggesting that starter culture could decrease histamine accumulation of sausages significantly (< 0.01). These results revealed that the starter culture inoculation was conducive to improve the microbial quality and food safety of Chinese Cantonese sausages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-020-04607-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7884565PMC
March 2021

Genome-Wide Analysis of Ribosomal Protein GhRPS6 and Its Role in Cotton Verticillium Wilt Resistance.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Feb 11;22(4). Epub 2021 Feb 11.

State Key Laboratory of Cotton Biology, Institute of Cotton Research, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Anyang 455000, China.

Verticillium wilt is threatening the world's cotton production. The pathogenic fungus can survive in the soil in the form of microsclerotia for a long time, colonize through the root of cotton, and invade into vascular bundles, causing yellowing and wilting of cotton leaves, and in serious cases, leading to plant death. Breeding resistant varieties is the most economical and effective method to control Verticillium wilt. In previous studies, proteomic analysis was carried out on different cotton varieties inoculated with strain Vd080. It was found that GhRPS6 was phosphorylated after inoculation, and the phosphorylation level in resistant cultivars was 1.5 times than that in susceptible cultivars. In this study, knockdown of expression results in the reduction of SA and JA content, and suppresses a series of defensive response, enhancing cotton plants susceptibility to . Overexpression in Arabidopsis transgenic plants was found to be more resistant to . Further, serines at 237 and 240 were mutated to phenylalanine, respectively and jointly. The transgenic plants demonstrated that seri-237 compromised the plant resistance to . Subcellular localization in showed that GhRPS6 was localized in the nucleus. Additionally, the pathogen inoculation and phosphorylation site mutation did not change its localization. These results indicate that GhRPS6 is a potential molecular target for improving resistance to Verticillium wilt in cotton. This lays a foundation for breeding disease-resistant varieties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22041795DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7918698PMC
February 2021

Vitamin B12 Enriched in Spinach and its Effects on Gut Microbiota.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Feb 9;69(7):2204-2212. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

School of Food Science and Bioengineering, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310018, China.

Meat and fermented foods are the main source of vitamin B12 (cobalamin) for human beings. Therefore, daily cobalamin intake is a big problem for vegans. In this study, cyanocobalamin (CNCBL) was added to the culture broth for cobalamin enrichment in spinach. After 36 h of cultivation, the accumulated CNCBL in the spinach leaves (wet weight) was as high as 0.48% (concentration), and the leaves still contained 0.94 ± 0.11 μg/g CNCBL after boiling, which could provide consumer daily requirement of CNCBL. Because CNCBL supplementation had adverse effects on gut microbiota, this study focused on the effect of the combination of spinach and CNCBL on gut microbiota as well. After the boiled leaves were passed through an gastrointestinal tract simulation system, it was found that the spinach protected CNCBL against the low-pH gastric acid. Moreover, compared with the CNCBL supplement group, the relative abundances of and increased, and the relative abundance of Proteobacteria, especially spp., reduced. Analysis of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) showed that cobalamin-rich spinach was positively correlated with , propionate, and butyrate. The results showed that the method of enriching spinach with CNCBL was effective and had beneficial effects on gut microbiota and SCFAs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.0c07597DOI Listing
February 2021
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