Publications by authors named "Yahya Mahamat-Saleh"

41 Publications

Polyphenol Intake and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Aug 4;10(8). Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Institut Gustave Roussy, 94805 Villejuif, France.

Despite some epidemiological evidence on the protective effects of polyphenol intake on epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk from case-control studies, the evidence is scarce from prospective studies and non-existent for several polyphenol classes. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the associations between the intake of total, classes and subclasses of polyphenols and EOC risk in a large prospective study. The study was conducted in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, which included 309,129 adult women recruited mostly from the general population. Polyphenol intake was assessed through validated country-specific dietary questionnaires and the Phenol-Explorer database. During a mean follow-up of 14 years, 1469 first incident EOC cases (including 806 serous, 129 endometrioid, 102 mucinous, and 67 clear cell tumours) were identified. In multivariable-adjusted Cox regression models, the hazard ratio in the highest quartile of total polyphenol intake compared with the lowest quartile (HR) was 1.14 (95% CI 0.94-1.39; -trend = 0.11). Similarly, the intake of most classes and subclasses of polyphenols were not related to either overall EOC risk or any EOC subtype. A borderline statistically significant positive association was observed between phenolic acid intake (HR = 1.20, 95% CI 1.01-1.43; -trend = 0.02) and EOC risk, especially for the serous subtype and in women with obesity, although these associations did not exceed the Bonferroni correction threshold. The current results do not support any association between polyphenol intake and EOC in our large European prospective study. Results regarding phenolic acid intake need further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox10081249DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8389235PMC
August 2021

BMI in the Associations of Plant-Based Diets with Type 2 Diabetes and Hypertension Risks in Women: The E3N Prospective Cohort Study.

J Nutr 2021 Sep;151(9):2731-2740

Paris-Saclay University, UVSQ, University Paris-Sud, Inserm, Gustave Roussy, "Exposome and Heredity" Team, CESP, Villejuif, France.

Background: Few studies have evaluated the quality of plant-based diets in relation to chronic diseases, and the potential role of BMI is not clearly explored.

Objectives: To study the associations between plant-based diet indices and type 2 diabetes (T2D) and hypertension risks, as well as the extent to which the associations were modified and/or mediated by BMI.

Methods: The study included 74,522 women from the Etude Epidémiologique auprès de femmes de la Mutuelle Générale de l'Education Nationale prospective cohort [mean (SD): age, 52.94 (6.7) years; BMI, 22.970 (3.328) kg/m2]. Dietary data were collected at baseline (1993) via an FFQ. Overall plant-based diet index (PDI), healthful PDI (hPDI), and unhealthful PDI (uPDI) were developed. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to derive HRs and 95% CIs. Effect modification and mediation by BMI were explored.

Results: There were 3292 (4.64%) incident cases of T2D and 12,504 (27.14%) incident cases of hypertension over ∼20 years of follow-up. In the multivariable model further adjusted for BMI, higher adherence to PDI and hPDI was associated with lower T2D and hypertension risks, with an HR per 1-SD increase (95% CI) of 0.88 (0.85, 0.91) and 0.96 (0.94, 0.98) for PDI and 0.88 (0.85, 0.92) and 0.94 (0.92, 0.95) for hPDI, respectively. uPDI was not associated with T2D [0.98 (0.94, 1.01)], whereas a positive association was observed with hypertension: 1.04 (1.02, 1.06). There was interaction between PDI and uPDI, as well as BMI, on T2D (P-interaction < 0.001) but not on hypertension (P-interaction > 0.05). In addition, BMI mediated 26-59% and 0.2-59% of diet-T2D and diet-hypertension associations, respectively.

Conclusions: Differential associations between plant-based diets and T2D and hypertension risks were observed among women in this large prospective study. Only healthier plant foods were associated with lower risks, partly through decreasing BMI. The protocol was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03285230.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxab158DOI Listing
September 2021

Background exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and all-cause, cancer-specific, and cardiovascular-specific mortality: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Environ Int 2021 09 31;154:106663. Epub 2021 May 31.

Paris-Saclay University, UVSQ, Inserm, Gustave Roussy, "Exposome and Heredity" Team, CESP UMR1018, F-94805 Villejuif, France. Electronic address:

Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a large family of man-made organic, ubiquitous, and persistent contaminants with endocrine-disrupting properties. PCBs have been associated with numerous adverse health effects and were classified as carcinogenic to humans, but their long-term impact on mortality risk in the general population is unknown.

Objective: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis in order to assess whether background exposure levels of PCBs increase all-cause and cancer- and cardiovascular-specific mortality risk in the general population.

Methods: We searched the Pubmed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Embase databases for eligible studies up to 1st of January, 2021. We included cohort and nested-case control studies comparing the lowest vs. the highest background exposure level of PCBs in the general population and reporting data for all-cause mortality and/or cancer-/cardiovascular-specific mortality. Studies reporting occupational and accidental exposures were excluded. Random-effects meta-analysis was used to estimate summary relative risks (SRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Heterogeneity across studies was assessed by I2 statistics, and publication bias both graphically and using Egger's and Begg's tests. Quality of included studies was assessed using the National Toxicology Program/Office of Health Assessment and Translation (NTP/OHAT). Confidence in the body of evidence and related level of evidence were assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) based on the NTP/OHAT framework. The protocol was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42020178079).

Results: The initial search led to 2,132 articles. Eight prospective cohort studies met our inclusion criteria, leading to 72,852 participants including 17,805 deaths. Overall exposure to PCBs was not statistically significantly associated with all-cause mortality (SRR = 1.13, 95% CI = 0.90-1.41, n = 7 studies, low certainty); however, dietary exposure to PCBs was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular-specific mortality (SRR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.14-1.66, n = 3 studies, moderate certainty), while no association was found with cancer-specific mortality (SRR = 1.07, 95% CI = 0.72-1.59, n = 5 studies, low certainty).

Conclusion: Our meta-analysis suggests that background exposure to PCBs is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular-specific mortality in the general population with a "moderate" level of evidence. These findings should be interpreted with caution given the small number of studies on mortality in the general population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2021.106663DOI Listing
September 2021

The associations of the Palaeolithic diet alone and in combination with lifestyle factors with type 2 diabetes and hypertension risks in women in the E3N prospective cohort.

Eur J Nutr 2021 Oct 28;60(7):3935-3945. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Paris-Saclay University, UVSQ, Univ. Paris-Sud, Inserm U1018, "Exposome, Heredity, Cancer, and Health" Team, CESP, Gustave Roussy, 114 rue Edouard Vaillant, 94805, Villejuif Cedex, France.

Purpose: Patterns of change from the traditional Palaeolithic lifestyle to the modern lifestyle may partly explain the epidemic proportions of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). We investigated to what extent adherence to the Palaeolithic diet (PD) and the Palaeolithic-like lifestyle was associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and hypertension risks.

Methods: A study of 70,991 women from the E3N (Etude Epidémiologique auprès de femmes de la Mutuelle Générale de l'Education Nationale) cohort, followed up for nearly 20 years. There were 3292 incident T2D and 12,504 incident hypertension cases that were validated. Dietary data were collected at baseline in 1993 via a food frequency questionnaire. The PD score and the Palaeolithic-like lifestyle score (PD, physical activity, smoking status, and body mass index [BMI]) were derived and considered in quintiles. Multivariable Cox regression models were employed to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for incident T2D and hypertension.

Results: In the fully adjusted models, a 1-SD increase of the PD score was associated with 4% and 3% lower risks of T2D and hypertension, respectively. Those in the highest versus the lowest quintile of the score had HR (95% CI) of 0.88 (0.79, 0.98) and 0.91 (0.86, 0.96) for T2D and hypertension, respectively (P-trend < 0.0001). Associations were stronger for the Palaeolithic-like lifestyle score; in the fully adjusted model, a 1-SD increase of the score was associated with 19% and 6% lower risks of T2D and hypertension, respectively. Risks lowered successively with each increase in quintile; those in the highest versus the lowest quintile had HR (95% CI) of 0.58 (0.52, 0.65) and 0.85 (0.80, 0.90) for T2D and hypertension, respectively (P-trend < 0.0001).

Conclusions: Our data suggest that adhering to a PD based on fruit, vegetables, lean meats, fish, and nuts, and incorporating a Palaeolithic-like lifestyle could be promising options to prevent T2D and hypertension.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-021-02565-5DOI Listing
October 2021

Does saffron supplementation have favorable effects on liver function indicators? A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 Mar 16:1-13. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Several pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical approaches have been suggested to improve liver health. There is a large discrepancy in the effects of saffron supplementation on liver function in adults. To fill this knowledge gap, this systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assess the effects of saffron supplementation on liver enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). A systematic search current to August 2020 was performed in PubMed/Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar using relevant keywords to detect eligible articles. A random-effects model was used to estimate the weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% confidence (95% CI). Nine eligible trials were included in the final analysis. The pooled analysis revealed that serum ALT concentrations were significantly reduced using saffron compared to placebo (WMD: -2.39 U/L; 95% CI: -4.57 to -0.22;  = 0.03, = 87.9%,  < 0.001). However, saffron supplementation did not affect levels of serum AST (WMD: 1.12 U/L; 95% CI: -1.42 to 3.65;  = 0.39) or ALP (WMD: 4.32 U/L; 95% CI: -6.91 to 15.54;  = 0.78). In the dose-response analysis, we did not find a significant dose-response relationship between dosage and duration of saffron supplementation on serum levels of ALT, AST, and ALP. We found that saffron supplementation can reduce ALT serum concentrations without significant effects on other liver function indicators, including AST and ALP. Nevertheless, future large RCTs on diverse populations are needed to understand better the effects of saffron and its constituents on these enzymes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2021.1900059DOI Listing
March 2021

Endometriosis and cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Hum Reprod Update 2021 Feb;27(2):393-420

Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Endometriosis is an often chronic, inflammatory gynaecologic condition affecting 190 million women worldwide. Studies have reported an elevated cancer risk among patients with endometriosis. However, prior research has included methodologic issues that impede valid and robust interpretation.

Objective And Rationale: We conducted a meta-analysis of studies investigating the association between endometriosis and cancer risk and analysed the results by methodologic characteristics. We discuss the implications of cancer screening in patients and management challenges faced by clinicians.

Search Methods: We searched PubMed and Embase databases for eligible studies from inception through 24 October 2019. We included cohort and case-control studies examining the association between endometriosis and cancer risk; cross-sectional studies and case reports were excluded. Publications had to present risk/rate/odds estimates with 95% CI. Random effects meta-analysis was used to estimate summary relative risks (SRR) and CIs. Heterogeneity across studies was assessed by the Q test and I2 statistics, and publication bias using Egger's and Begg's tests. Risk of bias and quality of the included studies were assessed using the risk of bias in non-randomized studies of interventions (ROBINS-I) tool.

Outcomes: Forty-nine population-based case-control and cohort studies were included. Twenty-six studies were scored as having a 'serious'/'critical' risk of bias, and the remaining 23 'low'/'moderate'. Cancer-specific analyses showed a positive association between endometriosis and ovarian cancer risk (SRR = 1.93, 95% CI = 1.68-2.22; n = 24 studies) that was strongest for clear cell (SRR = 3.44, 95% CI = 2.82-4.42; n = 5 studies) and endometrioid (SRR = 2.33, 95% CI = 1.82-2.98; n = 5 studies) histotypes (Pheterogeneity < 0.0001), although with significant evidence of both heterogeneity across studies and publication bias (Egger's and Begg's P-values < 0.01). A robust association was observed between endometriosis and thyroid cancer (SRR = 1.39, 95% CI =1.24-1.57; n = 5 studies), a very small association with breast cancer (SRR = 1.04, 95% CI =1.00-1.09; n = 20 studies) and no association with colorectal cancer (SRR = 1.00, 95% CI =0.87-1.16; n = 5 studies). The association with endometrial cancer was not statistically significant (SRR = 1.23, 95% CI =0.97-1.57; n = 17 studies) overall and wholly null when restricted to prospective cohort studies (SRR = 0.99, 95% CI =0.72-1.37; n = 5 studies). The association with cutaneous melanoma was also non-significant (SRR = 1.17, 95% CI =0.97-1.41; n = 7 studies) but increased in magnitude and was statistically significant when restricted to studies with low/moderate risk of bias (SRR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.24-2.36, n = 2 studies). The most robust finding both in terms of statistical significance and magnitude of effect was an inverse association with cervical cancer (SRR = 0.68, 95% CI =0.56-0.82; n = 4 studies); however, this result has a high potential to reflect heightened access to detection of dysplasia for women who reached an endometriosis diagnosis and is thus likely not causal. Several additional cancer types were explored based on <4 studies.

Wider Implications: Endometriosis was associated with a higher risk of ovarian and thyroid, and minimally (only 4% greater risk) with breast cancer, and with a lower risk of cervical cancer. However, this meta-analysis confirms that: a majority of studies had severe/critical risk of bias; there is impactful heterogeneity across studies-and for ovarian cancer, publication bias; and causal inference requires temporality, which in many studies was not considered. We discuss the implications of these potential associations from the perspectives of patients with endometriosis, clinicians involved in their care, and scientists investigating their long-term health risks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/humupd/dmaa045DOI Listing
February 2021

Hydroxychloroquine and COVID-19: a tale of populism and obscurantism.

Lancet Infect Dis 2021 05 13;21(5):e121. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

Centre for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, INSERM "Health across Generations" Team, Paris-Sud 11 University/Paris Saclay, Villejuif, France; Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30866-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7832125PMC
May 2021

Re: effect of hydroxychloroquine with or without azithromycin on the mortality of COVID-19 patients: author's response.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2021 06 6;27(6):920-921. Epub 2020 Nov 6.

CESP (Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health), Fac. de Médecine - Univ. Paris-Sud, Fac. de Médecine - UVSQ, INSERM, Université Paris Saclay, Villejuif, France; Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmi.2020.10.031DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7647442PMC
June 2021

Effect of hydroxychloroquine with or without azithromycin on the mortality of COVID-19 patients: authors' response.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2021 01 17;27(1):138-140. Epub 2020 Oct 17.

CESP (Centre for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health), Faculté de Médecine-Université Paris-Sud, Faculté de Médecine-UVSQ, INSERM, Université Paris Saclay, 94 805, Villejuif, France; Gustave Roussy, F-94805, Villejuif, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmi.2020.10.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7568487PMC
January 2021

Association between nutritional profiles of foods underlying Nutri-Score front-of-pack labels and mortality: EPIC cohort study in 10 European countries.

BMJ 2020 09 16;370:m3173. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

AOU Federico II, Naples, Italy.

Objective: To determine if the Food Standards Agency nutrient profiling system (FSAm-NPS), which grades the nutritional quality of food products and is used to derive the Nutri-Score front-of-packet label to guide consumers towards healthier food choices, is associated with mortality.

Design: Population based cohort study.

Setting: European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort from 23 centres in 10 European countries.

Participants: 521 324 adults; at recruitment, country specific and validated dietary questionnaires were used to assess their usual dietary intakes. A FSAm-NPS score was calculated for each food item per 100 g content of energy, sugars, saturated fatty acids, sodium, fibre, and protein, and of fruit, vegetables, legumes, and nuts. The FSAm-NPS dietary index was calculated for each participant as an energy weighted mean of the FSAm-NPS score of all foods consumed. The higher the score the lower the overall nutritional quality of the diet.

Main Outcome Measure: Associations between the FSAm-NPS dietary index score and mortality, assessed using multivariable adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models.

Results: After exclusions, 501 594 adults (median follow-up 17.2 years, 8 162 730 person years) were included in the analyses. Those with a higher FSAm-NPS dietary index score (highest versus lowest fifth) showed an increased risk of all cause mortality (n=53 112 events from non-external causes; hazard ratio 1.07, 95% confidence interval 1.03 to 1.10, P<0.001 for trend) and mortality from cancer (1.08, 1.03 to 1.13, P<0.001 for trend) and diseases of the circulatory (1.04, 0.98 to 1.11, P=0.06 for trend), respiratory (1.39, 1.22 to 1.59, P<0.001), and digestive (1.22, 1.02 to 1.45, P=0.03 for trend) systems. The age standardised absolute rates for all cause mortality per 10 000 persons over 10 years were 760 (men=1237; women=563) for those in the highest fifth of the FSAm-NPS dietary index score and 661 (men=1008; women=518) for those in the lowest fifth.

Conclusions: In this large multinational European cohort, consuming foods with a higher FSAm-NPS score (lower nutritional quality) was associated with a higher mortality for all causes and for cancer and diseases of the circulatory, respiratory, and digestive systems, supporting the relevance of FSAm-NPS to characterise healthier food choices in the context of public health policies (eg, the Nutri-Score) for European populations. This is important considering ongoing discussions about the potential implementation of a unique nutrition labelling system at the European Union level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m3173DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7491938PMC
September 2020

Effect of hydroxychloroquine with or without azithromycin on the mortality of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2021 Jan 26;27(1):19-27. Epub 2020 Aug 26.

CESP (Centre for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health), Faculté de Médecine-Université Paris-Sud, Faculté de Médecine-UVSQ, INSERM, Université Paris Saclay, Villejuif, France; Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France.

Background: Hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine with or without azithromycin have been widely promoted to treat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) following early in vitro antiviral effects against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).

Objective: The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess whether chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine with or without azithromycin decreased COVID-19 mortality compared with the standard of care.

Data Sources: PubMed, Web of Science, Embase Cochrane Library, Google Scholar and MedRxiv were searched up to 25 July 2020.

Study Eligibility Criteria: We included published and unpublished studies comparing the mortality rate between patients treated with chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine with or without azithromycin and patients managed with standard of care.

Participants: Patients ≥18 years old with confirmed COVID-19.

Interventions: Chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine with or without azithromycin.

Methods: Effect sizes were pooled using a random-effects model. Multiple subgroup analyses were conducted to assess drug safety.

Results: The initial search yielded 839 articles, of which 29 met our inclusion criteria. All studies except one were conducted on hospitalized patients and evaluated the effects of hydroxychloroquine with or without azithromycin. Among the 29 articles, three were randomized controlled trials, one was a non-randomized trial and 25 were observational studies, including 11 with a critical risk of bias and 14 with a serious or moderate risk of bias. After excluding studies with critical risk of bias, the meta-analysis included 11 932 participants for the hydroxychloroquine group, 8081 for the hydroxychloroquine with azithromycin group and 12 930 for the control group. Hydroxychloroquine was not significantly associated with mortality: pooled relative risk (RR) 0.83 (95% CI 0.65-1.06, n = 17 studies) for all studies and RR = 1.09 (95% CI 0.97-1.24, n = 3 studies) for randomized controlled trials. Hydroxychloroquine with azithromycin was associated with an increased mortality (RR = 1.27; 95% CI 1.04-1.54, n = 7 studies). We found similar results with a Bayesian meta-analysis.

Conclusion: Hydroxychloroquine alone was not associated with reduced mortality in hospitalized COVID-19 patients but the combination of hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin significantly increased mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmi.2020.08.022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7449662PMC
January 2021

25-Hydroxyvitamin D status, vitamin D intake, and skin cancer risk: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies.

Sci Rep 2020 08 4;10(1):13151. Epub 2020 Aug 4.

Institute for Biometrics and Epidemiology, German Diabetes Center, Leibniz Center for Diabetes Research At Heinrich Heine University, Düsseldorf, Germany.

Sun exposure is a major environmental risk factor for skin cancers and is also an important source of vitamin D. However, while experimental evidence suggests that vitamin D may have a protective effect on skin cancer risk, epidemiologic studies investigating the influence of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) level and/or vitamin D intake on skin cancer risk are conflicting. A systematic review and dose-response meta-analyses of prospective studies was conducted to clarify these associations. Relevant studies were identified by searching the PubMed database up to 30th August 2019. Random effects dose-response meta-analyses were used to estimate summary relative risks (SRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Overall, thirteen prospective studies were included. Circulating level of 25(OH)D was associated with higher risks of melanoma (SRR (95% CI) per 30 nmol = 1.42 (1.17-1.72)) and keratinocyte cancer (KC) (SRR (95% CI) per 30 nmol/L = 1.30 (1.13-1.49)). The SRR (95% CI) per 30 nmol/L increase in 25(OH) D level was 1.41 (1.19-1.67), and 1.57 (0.64-3.86), for basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), respectively. However, while we found that vitamin D intake (from diet, supplemental and total) was not associated with risks of melanoma and SCC, vitamin D intake was associated with slightly increased BCC risk, albeit with no heterogeneity across skin cancer type. This meta-analysis suggests positive associations between circulating 25(OH)D level and risk of melanoma and KC, however, this finding is most likely confounded by sun exposure. We found no associations between vitamin D intake skin cancers, except positive associations with BCC risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-70078-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7403339PMC
August 2020

Metabolic perturbations prior to hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosis: Findings from a prospective observational cohort study.

Int J Cancer 2021 02 28;148(3):609-625. Epub 2020 Aug 28.

Public Health Directorate, Asturias, Spain.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development entails changes in liver metabolism. Current knowledge on metabolic perturbations in HCC is derived mostly from case-control designs, with sparse information from prospective cohorts. Our objective was to apply comprehensive metabolite profiling to detect metabolites whose serum concentrations are associated with HCC development, using biological samples from within the prospective European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort (>520 000 participants), where we identified 129 HCC cases matched 1:1 to controls. We conducted high-resolution untargeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomics on serum samples collected at recruitment prior to cancer diagnosis. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was applied controlling for dietary habits, alcohol consumption, smoking, body size, hepatitis infection and liver dysfunction. Corrections for multiple comparisons were applied. Of 9206 molecular features detected, 220 discriminated HCC cases from controls. Detailed feature annotation revealed 92 metabolites associated with HCC risk, of which 14 were unambiguously identified using pure reference standards. Positive HCC-risk associations were observed for N1-acetylspermidine, isatin, p-hydroxyphenyllactic acid, tyrosine, sphingosine, l,l-cyclo(leucylprolyl), glycochenodeoxycholic acid, glycocholic acid and 7-methylguanine. Inverse risk associations were observed for retinol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, glycerophosphocholine, γ-carboxyethyl hydroxychroman and creatine. Discernible differences for these metabolites were observed between cases and controls up to 10 years prior to diagnosis. Our observations highlight the diversity of metabolic perturbations involved in HCC development and replicate previous observations (metabolism of bile acids, amino acids and phospholipids) made in Asian and Scandinavian populations. These findings emphasize the role of metabolic pathways associated with steroid metabolism and immunity and specific dietary and environmental exposures in HCC development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.33236DOI Listing
February 2021

Citrus intake and risk of skin cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort (EPIC).

Eur J Epidemiol 2020 Nov 24;35(11):1057-1067. Epub 2020 Jul 24.

CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain.

Citrus intake has been suggested to increase the risk of skin cancer. Although this relation is highly plausible biologically, epidemiologic evidence is lacking. We aimed to examine the potential association between citrus intake and skin cancer risk. EPIC is an ongoing multi-center prospective cohort initiated in 1992 and involving ~ 520,000 participants who have been followed-up in 23 centers from 10 European countries. Dietary data were collected at baseline using validated country-specific dietary questionnaires. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to compute hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). During a mean follow-up of 13.7 years, 8448 skin cancer cases were identified among 270,112 participants. We observed a positive linear dose-response relationship between total citrus intake and skin cancer risk (HR = 1.10, 95% CI 1.03-1.18 in the highest vs. lowest quartile; P = 0.001), particularly with basal cell carcinoma (BCC) (HR = 1.11, 95% CI 1.02-1.20, P = 0.007) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (HR = 1.23, 95% CI 1.04-1.47, P = 0.01). Citrus fruit intake was positively associated with skin cancer risk (HR = 1.08, 95% CI 1.01-1.16, P = 0.01), particularly with melanoma (HR = 1.23, 95% CI 1.02-1.48; P = 0.01), although with no heterogeneity across skin cancer types (P = 0.21). Citrus juice was positively associated with skin cancer risk (P = 0.004), particularly with BCC (P = 0.008) and SCC (P = 0.004), but not with melanoma (P = 0.02). Our study suggests moderate positive linear dose-response relationships between citrus intake and skin cancer risk. Studies with available biomarker data and the ability to examine sun exposure behaviors are warranted to clarify these associations and examine the phototoxicity mechanisms of furocoumarin-rich foods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10654-020-00666-9DOI Listing
November 2020

High Body Mass Index and Central Adiposity Is Associated with Increased Risk of Acute Pancreatitis: A Meta-Analysis.

Dig Dis Sci 2021 04 19;66(4):1249-1267. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, St. Mary's Campus, Norfolk Place, Paddington, London, W2 1PG, UK.

Background: Higher body mass index and waist circumference have been associated with increased risk of pancreatitis in several prospective studies; however, the results have not been entirely consistent.

Aims: We conducted a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies on adiposity and risk of pancreatitis to clarify this association.

Methods: PubMed and Embase databases were searched for studies on adiposity and pancreatitis up to January 27, 2020. Prospective studies reporting adjusted relative risk (RR) estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between adiposity and risk of pancreatitis were included, and summary RRs (95% CIs) were calculated using a random effects model.

Results: Ten prospective studies with 5129 cases and 1,693,657 participants were included. The summary RR (95% CI) of acute pancreatitis was 1.18 (95% CI: 1.03-1.35, I = 91%, n = 10 studies) per 5 kg/m increase in BMI and 1.36 (95% CI: 1.29-1.43, I = 0%, n = 3) per 10 cm increase in waist circumference. There was evidence of a nonlinear association between BMI and acute pancreatitis, p < 0.0001, with a steeper association at higher levels of BMI, but not for waist circumference, p = 0.19. Comparing a BMI of 35 with a BMI of 22, there was a 58% increase in the RR and there was a fourfold increase in the RR comparing a waist circumference of 110 cm with 69 cm. There was no evidence of publication bias.

Conclusions: This meta-analysis suggests that both increasing BMI and waist circumference are associated with a dose-response-related increase in the risk of acute pancreatitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10620-020-06275-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7990844PMC
April 2021

Methodological approaches to compile and validate a food composition database for methyl-group carriers in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.

Food Chem 2020 Nov 2;330:127231. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Nutrition and Metabolism Section (NME), International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon CEDEX 08, France. Electronic address:

A standardised methodology was used to compile and validate a methyl-group carrier database (MGDB) including folate, choline, betaine and methionine, for use in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Compilation was performed by following structured guidelines to match the EPIC dietary intake data to food items from four food composition databases, according to their assigned priority of use. To assess relative validity, calculated dietary folate intakes were compared between the MGDB and the EPIC nutrient database (ENDB), used as the reference database. Folate intakes based on the MGDB and those generated using the ENDB showed good agreement (weighted κ = 0.63) and were strongly correlated (r = 0.81). This MGDB can be used for investigating potential associations between methyl-group carrier intakes and risk or prognosis of cancer and other diseases in the EPIC study population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.127231DOI Listing
November 2020

Patterns of Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acid Dietary Intake and Melanoma Thickness at Diagnosis.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2020 08 19;29(8):1647-1653. Epub 2020 May 19.

Population Health Department, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Background: Experimental evidence suggests that dietary intakes of omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids have divergent effects on melanoma growth, but epidemiologic evidence on their combined effect is lacking.

Methods: In 634 Australian patients with primary melanoma, we assessed prediagnosis consumption of 39 food groups by food frequency questionnaires completed within 2 months of diagnosis. We derived, by reduced rank regression, dietary patterns that explained variability in selected omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid intakes. Prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between tertiles of dietary patterns and melanoma thickness >2 mm versus ≤2 mm were estimated using Poisson regression.

Results: Overall omega-3 fatty acid intakes were low. Two major fatty acid dietary patterns were identified: "meat, fish, and fat," positively correlated with intakes of all fatty acids; and "fish, low-meat, and low-fat," positively correlated with long-chain omega-3 fatty acid intake, and inversely with medium-chain omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid intakes. Prevalence of thick melanomas was significantly higher in those in the highest compared with lowest tertile of the "meat, fish, and fat" pattern (PR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.01-1.94), especially those with serious comorbidity (PR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.15-2.92) or a family history (PR, 2.32; 95% CI, 1.00-5.35). The "fish, low-meat, and low-fat" pattern was not associated with melanoma thickness.

Conclusions: People with high meat, fish, and fat intakes, who thus consumed relatively high levels of omega-3 and high omega-6 fatty acid intakes, are more likely to be diagnosed with thick than thin melanomas.

Impact: High omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid intakes may contribute to patients' presentation with thick melanomas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-0319DOI Listing
August 2020

Diabetes mellitus and the risk of pancreatitis: A systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies.

Pancreatology 2020 Jun 7;20(4):602-607. Epub 2020 Apr 7.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom.

Background: Diabetes mellitus has been associated with increased risk of pancreatitis in several studies, however, not all studies have found an association. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies on diabetes mellitus and pancreatitis to clarify the association.

Methods: PubMed and Embase databases were searched for studies on diabetes mellitus and pancreatitis up to 8 of January 2020. Cohort studies that reported adjusted relative risk (RR) estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between diabetes diagnosis and pancreatitis were included and summary RRs (95% CIs) were calculated using a random effects model.

Results: Eight cohort studies were included in the meta-analysis, and seven of these were included in the analysis of diabetes mellitus and acute pancreatitis (14124 cases, 5.7 million participants). Comparing diabetes patients with persons without diabetes the summary RRs (95% CIs) were 1.74 (95% CI: 1.33-2.29, I = 95%) for acute pancreatitis, 1.40 (95% CI: 0.88-2.22, I = 0%, n = 2) for chronic pancreatitis, and 1.39 (95% CI: 1.07-1.80, I = 54%, n = 3) for pancreatitis overall. Although there was some indication of publication bias in the analysis of acute pancreatitis this appeared to be explained by one outlying study which when excluded did not substantially alter the association. The results persisted in several subgroup and sensitivity analyses.

Conclusions: These results suggest that diabetes patients are at an increased risk of acute pancreatitis. Further studies are needed on diabetes and risk of chronic pancreatitis, pancreatitis overall and on gallstone-related and non-gallstone-related pancreatitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pan.2020.03.019DOI Listing
June 2020

Association of Circulating Vitamin D With Colorectal Cancer Depends on Vitamin D-Binding Protein Isoforms: A Pooled, Nested, Case-Control Study.

JNCI Cancer Spectr 2020 Feb 15;4(1):pkz083. Epub 2019 Oct 15.

Department of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA.

Background: Higher circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin-D [25(OH)D] concentrations are consistently inversely associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk in observational studies. However, it is unknown whether this association depends on the functional rs4588*A (Thr436Lys) variant encoding the vitamin D-binding protein-2 (DBP2) isoform, which may affect vitamin D status and bioavailability.

Methods: We analyzed data from 1710 incident CRC cases and 1649 incidence-density-matched controls nested within three prospective cohorts of mostly Caucasians. Study-specific incidence rate ratios (RRs) for associations of prediagnostic, season-standardized 25(OH)D concentrations according to DBP2 isoform with CRC were estimated using multivariable unconditional logistic regression and were pooled using fixed-effects models. All statistical significance tests were two-sided.

Results: The odds of having 25(OH)D concentrations less than 50 nmol/L (considered insufficient by the Institute of Medicine) were 43% higher for each DBP2-encoding variant (rs4588*A) inherited (per DBP2 odds ratio [OR] = 1.43, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.27 to 1.62, = 1.2 × 10). The association of 25(OH)D concentrations with CRC risk differed by DBP2: 25(OH)D concentrations considered sufficient (≥ 50 nmol/L), relative to deficient (< 30 nmol/L), were associated with a 53% lower CRC risk among individuals with the DBP2 isoform (RR = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.33 to 0.67), but with a non-statistically significant 12% lower risk among individuals without it (RR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.61 to 1.27) ( = .01).

Conclusions: Our results suggest that the 25(OH)D-CRC association may differ by DBP isoform, and those with a DBP2-encoding genotype linked to vitamin D insufficiency may particularly benefit from adequate 25(OH)D for CRC prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jncics/pkz083DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7050153PMC
February 2020

Healthy lifestyle and the risk of lymphoma in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study.

Int J Cancer 2020 09 30;147(6):1649-1656. Epub 2020 Mar 30.

Department of Radiation Sciences and Oncology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.

Limited evidence exists on the role of modifiable lifestyle factors on the risk of lymphoma. In this work, the associations between adherence to healthy lifestyles and risks of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) were evaluated in a large-scale European prospective cohort. Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), 2,999 incident lymphoma cases (132 HL and 2,746 NHL) were diagnosed among 453,808 participants after 15 years (median) of follow-up. The healthy lifestyle index (HLI) score combined information on smoking, alcohol intake, diet, physical activity and BMI, with large values of HLI expressing adherence to healthy behavior. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate lymphoma hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Sensitivity analyses were conducted by excluding, in turn, each lifestyle factor from the HLI score. The HLI was inversely associated with HL, with HR for a 1-standard deviation (SD) increment in the score equal to 0.78 (95% CI: 0.66, 0.94). Sensitivity analyses showed that the association was mainly driven by smoking and marginally by diet. NHL risk was not associated with the HLI, with HRs for a 1-SD increment equal to 0.99 (0.95, 1.03), with no evidence for heterogeneity in the association across NHL subtypes. In the EPIC study, adherence to healthy lifestyles was not associated with overall lymphoma or NHL risk, while an inverse association was observed for HL, although this was largely attributable to smoking. These findings suggest a limited role of lifestyle factors in the etiology of lymphoma subtypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.32977DOI Listing
September 2020

Inflammatory potential of the diet and risk of colorectal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study.

Int J Cancer 2020 08 31;147(4):1027-1039. Epub 2020 Jan 31.

CESP, Faculté de Médecine, Université Paris-Sud, UVSQ, INSERM, Université Paris-Saclay, Villejuif, France.

Proinflammatory diets are associated with risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC), however, inconsistencies exist in subsite- and sex-specific associations. The relationship between CRC and combined lifestyle-related factors that contribute toward a low-grade inflammatory profile has not yet been explored. We examined the association between the dietary inflammatory potential and an inflammatory profile and CRC risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. This cohort included 476,160 participants followed-up of 14 years and 5,991 incident CRC cases (3,897 colon and 2,094 rectal tumors). Dietary inflammatory potential was estimated using an Inflammatory Score of the Diet (ISD). An Inflammatory Profile Score (IPS) was constructed, incorporating the ISD, physical activity level and abdominal obesity. The associations between the ISD and CRC and IPS and CRC were assessed using multivariable regression models. More proinflammatory diets were related to a higher CRC risk, particularly for colon cancer; hazard ratio (HR) for highest versus lowest ISD quartile was 1.15 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04-1.27) for CRC, 1.24 (95% CI 1.09-1.41) for colon cancer and 0.99 (95% CI 0.83-1.17) for rectal cancer. Associations were more pronounced in men and not significant in women. The IPS was associated with CRC risk, particularly colon cancer among men; HRs for the highest versus lowest IPS was 1.62 (95% CI 1.31-2.01) for colon cancer overall and 2.11 (95% CI 1.50-2.97) for colon cancer in men. Our study shows that more proinflammatory diets and a more inflammatory profile are associated with higher risk of CRC, principally colon cancer and in men.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.32870DOI Listing
August 2020

Urinary flavanone concentrations as biomarkers of dietary flavanone intakes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.

Br J Nutr 2020 03 3;123(6):691-698. Epub 2019 Dec 3.

Unit of Nutrition and Cancer, Catalan Institute of Oncology (ICO), Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute (IDIBELL), 08908Barcelona, Spain.

In the present study, the aim was to investigate the correlation between the acute and habitual dietary intake of flavanones, their main food sources and the concentrations of aglycones naringenin and hesperetin in 24 h urine in a European population. A 24-h dietary recall (24-HDR) and a 24-h urine sample were collected the same day from a subsample of 475 people from four different countries of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Acute and habitual dietary data were captured through a standardised 24-HDR and a country/centre-specific validated dietary questionnaire (DQ). The intake of dietary flavanones was estimated using the Phenol-Explorer database. Urinary flavanones (naringenin and hesperetin) were analysed using tandem MS with a previous enzymatic hydrolysis. Weak partial correlation coefficients were found between urinary flavanone concentrations and both acute and habitual dietary flavanone intakes (Rpartial = 0·14-0·17). Partial correlations were stronger between urinary excretions and acute intakes of citrus fruit and juices (Rpartial ∼ 0·6) than with habitual intakes of citrus fruit and juices (Rpartial ∼ 0·24). In conclusion, according to our results, urinary excretion of flavanones can be considered a good biomarker of acute citrus intake. However, low associations between habitual flavanone intake and urinary excretion suggest a possible inaccurate estimation of their intake or a too sporadic intake. For assessing habitual exposures, multiple urinary collections may be needed. These results show that none of the approaches tested is ideal, and the use of both DQ and biomarkers can be recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114519003131DOI Listing
March 2020

Fertility drugs and cutaneous melanoma risk: a French prospective cohort study.

Eur J Cancer Prev 2020 03;29(2):182-185

CESP, Fac. de médecine - Univ. Paris-Sud, Fac. de médecine - UVSQ, INSERM, Université Paris-Saclay.

Cutaneous melanoma has been suspected to be influenced by female sex hormones. A review of the literature in 2018 indicated that fertility drug (FD) use was associated with increased melanoma risk among parous women only. However, most studies so far were based on a retrospective design and the current evidence is unclear. We sought to prospectively investigate the associations between FD use and melanoma risk in women. E3N is a prospective cohort of 98 995 French women aged 40-65 years at inclusion in 1990. Information on use of FDs, including duration and time of administration, was assessed through self-administered questionnaires. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusted for age and melanoma risk factors. Over 1990-2008, about 611 melanoma cases were ascertained among 86 653 women. Compared with never use, ever use of FDs was not associated with melanoma risk overall [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.15; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.75-1.74], or among parous women (HR = 1.08; 95% CI = 0.67-1.73). Among ever users of FDs, duration of use and age at first use were not associated with melanoma risk. Associations were similar after adjustment for UV exposure, although FD users were more likely to report tanning bed use than never-users (odds ratio = 1.50; CI = 1.01-2.22) in a subsample with recreational UV exposure data. Our data do not support an association between FD use and melanoma risk, but underlie the importance of taking into consideration potential confounding from sun exposure in future research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CEJ.0000000000000532DOI Listing
March 2020

Authors' Reply: Body fatness, diabetes, physical activity and risk of kidney stones: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies.

Eur J Epidemiol 2019 12 21;34(12):1177-1178. Epub 2019 Nov 21.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10654-019-00588-1DOI Listing
December 2019

Tobacco smoking and the risk of pancreatitis: A systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies.

Pancreatology 2019 Dec 11;19(8):1009-1022. Epub 2019 Sep 11.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom.

Background: Tobacco smoking has been associated with increased risk of pancreatitis in several studies, however, not all studies have found an association and it is unclear whether there is a dose-response relationship between increasing amount of tobacco smoked and pancreatitis risk. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies on tobacco smoking and pancreatitis to clarify the association.

Methods: PubMed and Embase databases were searched for relevant studies up to April 13th 2019. Prospective studies that reported adjusted relative risk (RR) estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between tobacco smoking and pancreatitis were included and summary RRs were calculated using a random effects model.

Results: Ten prospective studies were included. The summary RR for acute pancreatitis was 1.49 (95% CI: 1.29-1.72, I = 68%, n = 7) for current smokers, 1.24 (95% CI: 1.15-1.34, I = 0%, n = 7) for former smokers, and 1.39 (95% CI: 1.25-1.54, I = 69%, n = 7) for ever smokers compared to never smokers. Similar results were observed for chronic pancreatitis and acute/chronic pancreatitis combined. The summary RR per 10 cigarettes per day was 1.30 (95% CI: 1.18-1.42, I = 42%, n = 3) and per 10 pack-years in current smokers was 1.13 (95% CI: 1.08-1.17, I = 14%, n = 4) for acute pancreatitis and results were similar for chronic pancreatitis and acute/chronic pancreatitis combined.

Conclusions: These results suggest that tobacco smoking increases the risk of acute and chronic pancreatitis and acute and chronic pancreatitis combined and that there is a dose-response relationship between increasing number of cigarettes and pack-years and pancreatitis risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pan.2019.09.004DOI Listing
December 2019

Premenopausal Use of Progestogens and Cutaneous Melanoma Risk: A French Prospective Cohort Study.

Am J Epidemiol 2020 04;189(4):314-329

We investigated the influence of premenopausal use of progestogens on melanoma using data from E3N (Etude Epidémiologique Auprès de Femmes de l'Education Nationale), a prospective cohort of 98,995 French women, aged 40-65 years at inclusion. We used Cox models to adjust for age and melanoma risk factors. Over 1992-2008, 540 melanoma cases were ascertained among 79,558 women. We found a modest association between self-reported progestogen use and melanoma risk (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02, 1.47), which was reduced after adjustment for melanoma risk factors (HR = 1.15, 95% CI: 0.95, 1.39). There was no heterogeneity across types of progestogens (P = 0.22), and use of multiple progestogens was positively associated with melanoma risk (HR = 1.33, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.70). Among users, we found no relationship with duration of progestogen use, age at start and last use, and time since first and last use. Although our results did not show evidence of a confounding effect of sun exposure, progestogen users had lower levels of residential sun exposure and were more likely to report sunscreen use, suggesting specific sun exposure profiles in users. Our findings do not support a strong influence of progestogens on melanoma risk. Further research is needed to confirm these results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwz240DOI Listing
April 2020

Plasma polyphenols associated with lower high-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentrations: a cross-sectional study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort.

Br J Nutr 2020 01;123(2):198-208

CIBER de Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), 28029 Madrid, Spain.

Experimental studies have reported on the anti-inflammatory properties of polyphenols. However, results from epidemiological investigations have been inconsistent and especially studies using biomarkers for assessment of polyphenol intake have been scant. We aimed to characterise the association between plasma concentrations of thirty-five polyphenol compounds and low-grade systemic inflammation state as measured by high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). A cross-sectional data analysis was performed based on 315 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort with available measurements of plasma polyphenols and hsCRP. In logistic regression analysis, the OR and 95 % CI of elevated serum hsCRP (>3 mg/l) were calculated within quartiles and per standard deviation higher level of plasma polyphenol concentrations. In a multivariable-adjusted model, the sum of plasma concentrations of all polyphenols measured (per standard deviation) was associated with 29 (95 % CI 50, 1) % lower odds of elevated hsCRP. In the class of flavonoids, daidzein was inversely associated with elevated hsCRP (OR 0·66, 95 % CI 0·46, 0·96). Among phenolic acids, statistically significant associations were observed for 3,5-dihydroxyphenylpropionic acid (OR 0·58, 95 % CI 0·39, 0·86), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylpropionic acid (OR 0·63, 95 % CI 0·46, 0·87), ferulic acid (OR 0·65, 95 % CI 0·44, 0·96) and caffeic acid (OR 0·69, 95 % CI 0·51, 0·93). The odds of elevated hsCRP were significantly reduced for hydroxytyrosol (OR 0·67, 95 % CI 0·48, 0·93). The present study showed that polyphenol biomarkers are associated with lower odds of elevated hsCRP. Whether diet rich in bioactive polyphenol compounds could be an effective strategy to prevent or modulate deleterious health effects of inflammation should be addressed by further well-powered longitudinal studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114519002538DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7015881PMC
January 2020

Syringol metabolites as new biomarkers for smoked meat intake.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 12;110(6):1424-1433

Nutrition and Metabolism Section, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France.

Background: Processed meat intake is associated with a higher risk of colorectal and stomach cancers, coronary artery disease, and type 2 diabetes and with higher mortality, but the estimation of intake of different processed meat products in this heterogeneous food group in epidemiological studies remains challenging.

Objective: This work aimed at identifying novel biomarkers for processed meat intake using metabolomics.

Methods: An untargeted, multi-tiered metabolomics approach based on LC-MS was applied to 33 meat products digested in vitro and secondly to urine and plasma samples from a randomized crossover dietary intervention in which 12 volunteers consumed successively 3 processed meat products (bacon, salami, and hot dog) and 2 other foods used as controls, over 3 consecutive days. The putative biomarkers were then measured in urine from 474 subjects from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cross-sectional study for which detailed 24-h dietary recalls and FFQs were available.

Results: Syringol and 4 derivatives of syringol were found to be characteristic of in vitro digests of smoked meat products. The same compounds present as sulfate esters in urine increased at 2 and 12 h after consumption of smoked meat products (hot dog, bacon) in the intervention study. The same syringol sulfates were also positively associated with recent or habitual consumption of smoked meat products in urine samples from participants of the EPIC cross-sectional study. These compounds showed good discriminative ability for smoked meat intake with receiver operator characteristic areas under the curve ranging from 0.78 to 0.86 and 0.74 to 0.79 for short-term and habitual intake, respectively.

Conclusions: Four novel syringol sulfates were identified as potential biomarkers of smoked meat intake and may be used to improve assessment of smoked meat intake in epidemiological studies. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03354130.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqz222DOI Listing
December 2019

Exogenous hormone use and cutaneous melanoma risk in women: The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

Int J Cancer 2020 06 10;146(12):3267-3280. Epub 2019 Oct 10.

CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain.

Evidence suggests an influence of sex hormones on cutaneous melanoma risk, but epidemiologic findings are conflicting. We examined the associations between use of oral contraceptives (OCs) and menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) and melanoma risk in women participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). EPIC is a prospective cohort study initiated in 1992 in 10 European countries. Information on exogenous hormone use at baseline was derived from country-specific self-administered questionnaires. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Over 1992-2015, 1,696 melanoma cases were identified among 334,483 women, whereof 770 cases among 134,758 postmenopausal women. There was a positive, borderline-significant association between OC use and melanoma risk (HR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.00-1.26), with no detected heterogeneity across countries (p = 0.42). This risk increased linearly with duration of use (p = 0.01). Among postmenopausal women, ever use of MHT was associated with a nonsignificant increase in melanoma risk overall (HR = 1.14, 95% CI = 0.97-1.43), which was heterogeneous across countries (p = 0.05). Our findings do not support a strong and direct association between exogenous hormone use and melanoma risk. In order to better understand these relations, further research should be performed using prospectively collected data including detailed information on types of hormone, and on sun exposure, which may act as an important confounder or effect modifier on these relations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.32674DOI Listing
June 2020

A Metabolomic Study of Biomarkers of Habitual Coffee Intake in Four European Countries.

Mol Nutr Food Res 2019 11 23;63(22):e1900659. Epub 2019 Sep 23.

International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), Nutrition and Metabolism Section, 150 Cours Albert Thomas, Lyon, F-69372, France.

Scope: The goal of this work is to identify circulating biomarkers of habitual coffee intake using a metabolomic approach, and to investigate their associations with coffee intake in four European countries.

Methods And Results: Untargeted mass spectrometry-based metabolic profiling is performed on serum samples from 451 participants of the European Prospective Investigation on Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) originating from France, Germany, Greece, and Italy. Eleven coffee metabolites are found to be associated with self-reported habitual coffee intake, including eight more strongly correlated (r = 0.25-0.51, p < 10E ). Trigonelline shows the highest correlation, followed by caffeine, two caffeine metabolites (paraxanthine and 5-Acetylamino-6-amino-3-methyluracil), quinic acid, and three compounds derived from coffee roasting (cyclo(prolyl-valyl), cyclo(isoleucyl-prolyl), cyclo(leucyl-prolyl), and pyrocatechol sulfate). Differences in the magnitude of correlations are observed between countries, with trigonelline most highly correlated with coffee intake in France and Germany, quinic acid in Greece, and cyclo(isoleucyl-prolyl) in Italy.

Conclusion: Several biomarkers of habitual coffee intake are identified. No unique biomarker is found to be optimal for all tested populations. Instead, optimal biomarkers are shown to depend on the population and on the type of coffee consumed. These biomarkers should help to further explore the role of coffee in disease risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.201900659DOI Listing
November 2019
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