Publications by authors named "Yahaya Usman"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Dengue Virus is Hyperendemic in Nigeria from 2009 to 2020: A Contemporary Systematic Review.

Infect Chemother 2021 Jun;53(2):284-299

Department of Nursing Science, Maryam Abacha American university of Niger, Maradi, Niger Republic.

Backround: Data on Dengue virus (DENV) infection prevalence, geographic distribution and risk factors are necessary to direct appropriate utilization of existing and emerging control strategies. This study aimed to determine the pooled prevalence, risk factors of DENV infection and the circulating serotypes within Nigeria from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2020.

Materials And Methods: Twenty-one studies out of 2,215 available articles were eligible and included for this systematic review. Relevant articles were searched, screened and included in this study according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) criteria. The risk of bias in primary studies was assessed by Cochrane's method. Heterogeneity of pooled prevalence was calculated using the chi-square test on Cochrane's Q statistic, which was quantified by I-square values. The random-effects analyses of proportions were used to determine the pooled prevalence of DENV antibodies, antigen and RNA from eligible studies.

Results: Of these, 3 studies reported co-circulation of all the 4 serotypes, while 2 separately reported co-circulation of DENV-1 &2 and DENV-1 to -3. All the antibody-based studies had significantly high heterogeneity (I² >90%, <0.05), while the NS1 and PCR-based studies had low heterogeneity (I² <25%, >0.05). The pooled prevalence of DENV IgM, IgG, RNA, NS1 and neutralizing antibodies were 16.8%, 34.7%, 7.7%, 7.7% and 0.7%, respectively. South-east Nigeria had the highest pooled DENV-IgG seropositivity, 77.1%. Marital status, gender, educational level and occupation status, the proximity of residence to refuse dumpsite, frequent use of trousers and long sleeve shirts were significantly associated with DENV IgG seropositivity ( <0.05).

Conclusion: Based on these findings, it can be inferred that Nigeria is hyperendemic for Dengue fever and needs concerted efforts to control its spread within and outside the country.
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June 2021

Humoral immunological kinetics of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection and diagnostic performance of serological assays for coronavirus disease 2019: an analysis of global reports.

Int Health 2021 Feb 23. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Immunology Unit, Department of Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.

As the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to rise and second waves are reported in some countries, serological test kits and strips are being considered to scale up an adequate laboratory response. This study provides an update on the kinetics of humoral immune response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and performance characteristics of serological protocols (lateral flow assay [LFA], chemiluminescence immunoassay [CLIA] and ELISA) used for evaluations of recent and past SARS-CoV-2 infection. A thorough and comprehensive review of suitable and eligible full-text articles was performed on PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Wordometer and medRxiv from 10 January to 16 July 2020. These articles were searched using the Medical Subject Headings terms 'COVID-19', 'Serological assay', 'Laboratory Diagnosis', 'Performance characteristics', 'POCT', 'LFA', 'CLIA', 'ELISA' and 'SARS-CoV-2'. Data from original research articles on SARS-CoV-2 antibody detection ≥second day postinfection were included in this study. In total, there were 7938 published articles on humoral immune response and laboratory diagnosis of COVID-19. Of these, 74 were included in this study. The detection, peak and decline period of blood anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM, IgG and total antibodies for point-of-care testing (POCT), ELISA and CLIA vary widely. The most promising of these assays for POCT detected anti-SARS-CoV-2 at day 3 postinfection and peaked on the 15th day; ELISA products detected anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG at days 2 and 6 then peaked on the eighth day; and the most promising CLIA product detected anti-SARS-CoV-2 at day 1 and peaked on the 30th day. The most promising LFA, ELISA and CLIA that had the best performance characteristics were those targeting total SARS-CoV-2 antibodies followed by those targeting anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG then IgM. Essentially, the CLIA-based SARS-CoV-2 tests had the best performance characteristics, followed by ELISA then POCT. Given the varied performance characteristics of all the serological assays, there is a need to continuously improve their detection thresholds, as well as to monitor and re-evaluate their performances to assure their significance and applicability for COVID-19 clinical and epidemiological purposes.
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February 2021

Spectrum of pulmonary fungal pathogens, associated risk factors, and anti-fungal susceptibility pattern among persons with presumptive tuberculosis at Gombe, Nigeria.

Int J Mycobacteriol 2020 Apr-Jun;9(2):144-149

Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria.

Background: Pulmonary mycosis (PM) poses a great diagnostic challenge due to the lack of pathognomonic and radiological features, especially in the absence of mycology laboratory tests. This study was aimed to isolate, phenotypically identify, determine the prevalence of pulmonary fungal pathogens and antifungal susceptibility pattern of isolates of presumptive tuberculosis (PTB) patients attending Federal Teaching Hospital (FTH) Gombe, Nigeria.

Methods: After ethical approval, three consecutive early morning sputa were collected from 216 participants with presumptive of PTB attending FTH Gombe, between May 2, 2017 and May 30, 2018. Samples were processed using standard mycological staining, microscopy, sugar biochemistry, and antifungal susceptibility test protocols. Sociodemographic variables and risk factors of pulmonary fungal infection were assessed through structured questionnaires. Pulmonary fungal infection was defined by the positive culture in at least two sputa. PTB was defined by Genexpert nested polymerase chain reaction.

Results: Of the 216 participants, 19.9% had PTB and 73.6% had pulmonary fungal pathogens. Among the isolated pulmonary fungal pathogens, Aspergillus fumigatus made the highest occurrence, while 6.5% had PTB-fungal co-infection. No significant association existed between the prevalence of PM with age and sex of participants (P < 0.05). Cigarette smoking (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 15.9 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.9-268.8]), prolong antibiotic use (aOR = 77.9 [95% CI: 4.7-1283]) and possession of domestic pet (aOR = 77.9 [95% CI: 4.7-1283]) were significant risk factors of PM (P < 0.05). Penicillium citrinum, Mucor spp. and Aspergillus flavus are more susceptible to voriconazole, and Candida albicans was found to be more susceptible to Nystatin. Of the 159 fungal isolates, 92.5% were resistant to fluconazole.

Conclusion: Findings from this study revealed high level pulmonary fungal pathogens, especially among PTB patients. A majority of fungal isolates were resistant to fluconazole. It's recommended that persons should do away with or minimize risk factors for pulmonary fungal pathogens identified in this study.
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July 2021

Evaluation of apoptotic protease-activating Factor-1 and cluster of Differentiation-4 T-Cell counts in patients-infected with mycobacterium tuberculosis in Bauchi, Nigeria.

Int J Mycobacteriol 2019 Apr-Jun;8(2):146-152

Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.

Background: This cross-sectional study evaluated Apoptotic Protease Activating Factor and cluster of differentiation-4 (CD4) T-cell counts in patients infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Bauchi, Nigeria.

Methods: This involved 180 blood samples from 90 tuberculosis (TB)-infected patients and 90 of their close contacts at home or attending Federal Medical Center Azare and Infectious Disease Hospital Bayara, Bauchi, Nigeria. The blood samples were analyzed for Apoptotic Protease Activating Factor (Apaf-1) expression using ELISA and CD4 T cells using cyflow counter. Structured questionnaires were also used to collect the sociodemographic and clinical data of the study participants.

Results: Eighty-six of the TB-infected patients had pulmonary TB (PTB), two had spine TB, and two had pleural TB. No statistically significant difference was recorded in CD4 T-cell counts (P = 0.2935) between participants with PTB (mean ± standard deviation [SD]: 680.4 ± 235 cells/mm) and those with extra-PTB (mean ± SD: 553.0 ± 130.5 cells/mm). Similarly, there was no significant difference in Apaf-1 concentration (P = 0.1432) between participants with PTB (mean ± standard error of the mean [SEM]: 320.3 ± 35.4 pg/ml), and participants with extra-PTB (mean ± SEM: 143.7 ± 7.8 pg/ml). No significant difference was recorded in CD4 T-cell counts (P = 0.4299) between the participants on treatment (mean ± SD: 758.6 ± 358.6 cells/mm) and those who are treatment naïve (mean ± SD: 637.7 ± 208.4 cells/mm). Similarly, there was no significant difference in Apaf-1 concentration (P = 0.6829) between the study participants on treatment (mean ± SEM: 336.3 ± 34.7 pg/ml) and those who are not on treatment (mean ± SEM: 381.2 ± 176.8 pg/ml). The CD4 T-cells count was significantly higher in the controls (866.7 ± 288.4 cells/mm) compared to the TB (675.0 ± 232.7 cells/mm) patients (P < 0.0001). However, there was no significant difference in Apaf-1 expression between the control (312.4 ± 34.6 pg/ml) and the TB patients (329.1 ± 44.0 pg/ml) (P = 0.7658).

Conclusion: Findings from this study showed a lower T-cell immune function during TB infection. However, Apaf-1 has no relevance on TB progression and control.
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November 2019