Publications by authors named "Yaghoub Hajizadeh"

32 Publications

Urinary concentrations of parabens amongst Iranian adults and their associations with socio-demographic factors.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2020 Dec 19;18(2):1227-1238. Epub 2020 Sep 19.

Environment Research Center, Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Non-communicable Diseases, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: Parabens are widely used to prevent organism growth and increase the shelf life of foods, medicines and personal care products (PCPs). Recent studies indicate their potentially harmful effects on human health. There is no information on the extent of exposure to parabens among Iranians.

Methods: We measured the concentration of urinary methylparaben (MP), ethylparaben (EP), propylparaben (PP) and butylparaben (BP) among Iranian adults and calculated their estimated daily intake (EDI). Also, association between the level of urinary parabens with socio-demographic and lifestyle variables were investigated.

Results: Detection frequencies of MP, EP, PP, and BP were 98.9, 91, 94.3, and 88.2%, and their median urinary concentrations were 69.06, 9.10, 12.4, and 9.87 µg/l, respectively. Urinary parabens were higher in females, and the difference in the concentration of MP and PP was significant. A significantly positive correlation between MP and PP (r = 0.638) and a moderate to a weak correlation between other parabens were observed. There was a significantly negative weak correlation between age and MP, BP and PP. There was also a significant association between different age groups and MP, BP and PP as well as different BMI values and MP. The highest EDI value belonged to MP in the female group. Despite being lower than the acceptable daily intake (ADI), its value was higher than that reported in other countries (except the US).

Conclusions: Our findings indicated that Iranians are widely exposed to the parabens and the range of exposure was associated with socio-demographic factors. These results could serve as a basis for assessing the risk of exposure to parabens amongst Iranians.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40201-020-00540-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7721947PMC
December 2020

PM-associated bacteria in ambient air: Is PM exposure associated with the acquisition of community-acquired staphylococcal infections?

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2020 Dec 22;18(2):1007-1013. Epub 2020 Aug 22.

Environment Research Center, Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Particulate matter (PM), a major component of air pollution, is an important carrier medium of various chemical and microbial compounds. Air pollution due to PM could increase the level of bacteria and associated adverse health effects. Staphylococci as important opportunistic pathogens that cause hospital- and community-acquired infections may transmit through air. This study aimed to obtain knowledge about the concentration of airborne bacteria as well as staphylococci associated with particulate matter with a diameter of less than 2.5 micrometers (PM) in ambient air. The impact of meteorological factors including ultraviolet (UV) index, wind speed, temperature, and moisture on microbial concentrations was also investigated. Quartz filters were used to collect PM and associated bacteria in ambient air of a semiarid area. Airborne bacteria were quantified by culture method and species identified by molecular methods. The mean (SD) concentration of PM and airborne bacteria was 64.83 (24.87) µg/m and 38 (36) colony forming unit (CFU)/m, respectively. The results showed no significant correlation between the levels of PM and concentrations of bacteria (p < 0.05). Staphylococcus species were detected in 8 of 37 (22%) samples in a concentration from 3 to 213 CFU/m. was detected with the highest frequency followed by and , but and methicillin-resistant (MRSA) were not detected. No significant correlation between the concentrations of bacteria with meteorological parameters was observed (p < 0.05). Our finding showed that, although the study area is sometimes subject to air pollution from PM, the concentration of PM- associated bacteria is relatively low. According to the results, PM may not be a source of community-associated staphylococcal infections.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40201-020-00522-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7721920PMC
December 2020

Dietary Habits and Personal Care Product Use as Predictors of Urinary Concentrations of Parabens in Iranian Adolescents.

Environ Toxicol Chem 2020 12 8;39(12):2378-2388. Epub 2020 Oct 8.

Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, School of Health, and Psychosomatic Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Despite the widespread use of parabens as antimicrobial preservatives in personal care products (PCPs) and foodstuffs, recent studies show that exposure to parabens could result in endocrine disruption. The urinary methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, and butylparaben among 100 adolescents and their relationships with using 19 personal care and 18 food products were evaluated. Urinary paraben concentrations were significantly higher in the high-user group (8-19 products) compared to both low (0-3 products) and middle (4-7 products) user groups. The frequency of PCP use was associated with higher urinary levels of 4 parabens, and the frequency of food product use was associated with higher urinary methylparaben and ethylparaben. The use of mouthwash was associated with higher levels of methylparaben, ethylparaben, and propylparaben. Users of makeup base had higher methylparaben and propylparaben, users of eye makeup had higher propylparaben, and users of body wash, sunscreen, and lotion had higher urinary propylparaben than nonusers. Consumers of dairy products had significantly higher urinary methylparaben, propylparaben, and butylparaben, and cookie consumers had higher urinary methylparaben and ethylparaben, than nonusers. Consumers of canned foods and chips/snacks had higher methylparaben, and consumers of sauces and jams had higher ethylparaben than nonconsumers. The findings show that certain types of foods and personal care products could be important sources of paraben exposure. Environ Toxicol Chem 2020;39:2378-2388. © 2020 SETAC.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/etc.4861DOI Listing
December 2020

The association of personal care products uses and dietary habits with the urinary concentration of parabens in Iranian adults.

Int J Environ Health Res 2020 Jul 31:1-17. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

Environment Research Center, Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences , Isfahan, Iran.

We evaluated the relationships between the use of individual personal care products (PCPs) and food items with the urinary Methylparaben (MP), Ethylparaben (EP), Propylparaben (PP) and Butylparaben (BP) among 178 Iranian adults. The urinary concentrations of parabens were found to be significantly different between low, medium, and high users of PCPs (P < 0.05). The frequency of PCP use was associated with higher urinary MP, PPand BP concentrations. Significant positive association was found between the frequency of food products use and urinary MP and EP concentrations. The urinary concentration of parabens was higher in individuals who used body wash, makeup base, shaving cream and, lotion in the past 24 h compared to non-users. Consumers of cookies and dairy products had significantly higher urinary MP and jelly consumers had higher urinary MP and PP concentrations than non-consumers. Our findings indicated that certain types of foods and PCPs could be important sources of exposure to parabens.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09603123.2020.1798362DOI Listing
July 2020

Effect of photocatalytic pretreatment on the biodegradation of n-hexane vapours in a biofilter.

MethodsX 2020 10;7:100991. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Department of Public Health, Maragheh University of Medical Sciences, Maragheh, Iran.

Hydrophobic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as n-hexane are not completely biodegradable by a single biofilter. So, in the present study, a photoreactor system packed with scoria granules coated with TiO, as a pretreatment unit, was used for increasing the removal efficiency of n-hexane by a biofilter during an operation period of 191 days. The inlet and outlet concentration of n-hexane was analyzed with a gas chromatography coupled with a flame ionization detector (GC/FID). The results indicated that the removal efficiency of the single biofilter with input concentrations of 0.18 - 1 g/m at empty bed residence times (EBRTs) of 30, 60, and 120 s was 10.06%, 21.45%, and 46.8%, respectively. When the photoreactor was used as a pretreatment system, the removal efficiency of the combined system in corresponding EBRTs was improved to 39.79%, 63.08%, and 92.60%, respectively. The results proved that the combined system provided higher removal efficiencies than the single biofilter. Thus, the application of the photoreactor as a pretreatment step was much effective in increasing the removal efficiency of n-hexane from the polluted air by the biofilter.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mex.2020.100991DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7374606PMC
July 2020

Concentrations and mortality due to short- and long-term exposure to PM in a megacity of Iran (2014-2019).

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Oct 2;27(30):38004-38014. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Public Health, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Maragheh University of Medical Sciences, Maragheh, Iran.

The present study aimed to survey the spatial and temporal trends of ambient concentration of PM and to estimate mortality attributed to short- and long-term exposure to PM in Isfahan from March 2014 to March 2019 using the AirQ software. The hourly concentrations of PM were obtained from the Isfahan Department of Environment and Isfahan Air Quality Monitoring Center. Then, the 24-h mean concentration of PM for each station was calculated using the Excel software. According to the results, the annual mean concentration of PM in 2014-2019 was 29.9-50.9 μg/m, approximately 3-5 times higher than the WHO guideline (10 μg/m). The data showed that people of Isfahan in almost 58% to 96% of the days of a year were exposed to PM higher than the WHO daily guideline. The concentrations of PM in cold months such as October, November, December and January were higher than those in the other months. The zoning of the annual concentrations of PM in urban areas showed that the highest PM concentrations were related to the northern, northwestern, southern and central areas of the city. On average, from 2014 to 2019, the number of deaths due to natural mortality, lung cancer (LC), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), ischemic heart disease (IHD) and stroke associated with ambient PM were 948, 16, 18, 281 and 60, respectively. The present study estimated that on average, 14.29% of the total mortality, 17.2% of lung cancer (LC), 15.54% of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), 17.12% of ischemic heart disease (IHD) and 14.94% of stroke mortalities were related to long-term exposure to ambient PM. So provincial managers and politicians must adopt appropriate strategies to control air pollution and reduce the attributable health effects and economic losses.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-09695-zDOI Listing
October 2020

Urinary Concentrations of Parabens in a Population of Iranian Adolescent and Their Association with Sociodemographic Indicators.

Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 2020 Aug 22;79(2):195-207. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Environment Research Center, Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Parabens are widely used as preservatives in personal care products, foodstuffs, and pharmaceuticals. Concerns have been raised regarding the potential endocrine disruption effects of parabens. In the present study, the urinary concentration of four common parabens, including methylparaben (MP), ethylparaben (EP), propylparaben (PP), and butylparaben (BP), in 100 Iranian adolescents randomly referring to health services centres were analyzed using GC/MS. The association of sociodemographic and lifestyle variables, collected through questionnaire, with the concentration of parabens also were studied. Median concentrations of MP, EP, PP, and BP were 92.21, 8.46, 12.26, and 8.42 µg/g creatinine, respectively. There was a strong positive significant correlation between MP and PP (r = 0.694) and moderate to a weak correlation between the other parabens. The concentration of urinary MP in females was significantly higher than those in male (p = 0.021). There was a significant negative association between different BMI groups and MP and EP. There also was a positive significant association between the MP and age, and between MP, EP, and PP, and tobacco use. Although the estimated daily intake of the parabens was lower than the Acceptable Daily Intake, it was higher than those reported in other countries. This confirms the widespread exposure of Iranian adolescents to the paraben compounds and their association with sociodemographic factors. This was the first study reporting the urinary parabens level in Iranian adolescents, and the data can be used as a basis for assessing the risk of exposure to parabens in the Iranian population in future studies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00244-020-00746-7DOI Listing
August 2020

Correction to: Improved degradation of n-hexane vapours using a hybrid system, a photoreactor packed with TiO coated-scoria granules and a multilayer biofilter.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2020 Jun 27;18(1):379-380. Epub 2020 Jan 27.

2Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Faculty of Health, Environmental Research Center, Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Non-communicable Disease, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1007/s40201-019-00416-4.].
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40201-020-00451-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7203376PMC
June 2020

Urinary paraben concentrations and their implications for human exposure in Iranian pregnant women.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 May 12;27(13):14723-14734. Epub 2020 Feb 12.

Student Research Committee, School of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Parabens are widely used as preservatives in cosmetics, medicines, and foods due to its antimicrobial properties. Concerns have been raised regarding the estrogenic activity and potential endocrine disruption effects of parabens. Studies on monitoring of paraben exposure in the Iranian population are very scarce. This study was carried out to measure urinary concentrations of parabens, to estimate their daily intake, and to identify some of the sociodemographic factors affecting exposure to these compounds. The concentrations of methylparaben (MP), ethylparaben (EP), propylparaben (PP), and butylparaben (BP) were measured in urine samples collected from 95 Iranian pregnant women by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The highest median concentration was 87.0 μg/L for MP, followed by PP, EP, and BP with median concentrations of 15.6, 9.64, and 8.57 μg/L, respectively. Except BP, the urinary concentrations of other parabens were comparable to those in other countries. Also, the highest daily intake was related to MP (median = 16.5 μg/kg-BW/day), which is less than the acceptable daily intake (ADI). A significant positive correlation was observed between the measured parabens. Significant negative associations were observed between age and BP, BMI and EP as well as parity and PP. On the other hand, income and smoking were significantly positively associated with MP, BP and EP, BP, respectively. The urinary MP and BP concentrations were higher among the subjects with diploma education (P = 0.003 and P = 0.006, respectively), and during the spring, urinary MP concentration was higher than other seasons. The results showed that Iranian pregnant women are more prone to parabens and their urinary paraben concentrations are associated with sociodemographic factors. This result could serve as a basis for evaluating the rate of exposure of the Iranian population to parabens in future studies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-07991-2DOI Listing
May 2020

Improved degradation of n-hexane vapours using a hybrid system, a photoreactor packed with TiO coated-scoria granules and a multilayer biofilter.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2019 Dec 12;17(2):1017-1027. Epub 2019 Dec 12.

Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Biofiltration of hydrophobic and/or recalcitrant volatile organic compounds such as n-hexane is imperfect. In the present study, we applied a hybrid system consisting of a photoreactor packed with scoria granules coated with TiO and a biofilter to improve the removal efficiency of n-hexane from the air stream. The experimental results showed that the hybrid system provided higher removal efficiencies than the single biofilter process with an inlet n-hexane concentration range of 0.11-1 g for empty bed residence times (EBRTs) of 30-120 s in the hybrid system. The removal efficiency of the single biofilter in EBRTs of 30, 60 and 120 s was 10.06%, 21.45%, and 45.98%, respectively. When the photoreactor was included as a pretreatment system (with residence time of 7-27 s) and the overall EBRTs of the system was adjusted to 30, 60 and 120 s, the removal efficiency of the hybrid system was increased to 39.79%, 63.08%, and 92.6%, respectively. The mass ratio of carbon dioxide produced as an indicator for n-hexane degradation in the hybrid system and the biofilter alone was 1.9 and 1.28, respectively. Bacterial community analysis with sequence analysis of 16S rDNA in the biofilter biomass revealed that and as predominant bacterial species were responsible for n-hexane biodegradation. Therefore, the application of the hybrid system is advantageous in enhanced n-hexane removal from the air stream.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40201-019-00416-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6985411PMC
December 2019

Protocol for identification of airborne asbestos fibres in the urban areas and spatio-temporal trend.

MethodsX 2019 28;6:2237-2241. Epub 2019 Sep 28.

Environmental Science and Technology Research Centre, Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

Asbestos is classified as a hazardous pollutants between the airborne particles that cause diseases such as lung fibrosis (asbestosis). This protocol describes an integrated method for determination of asbestos fibres concentration and its temporal-spatial trends in the air of urban areas. To do this, 60 samples were gathered from various areas of Yazd city with low, moderate and high traffic. For analysis of asbestos fibres in the samples scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) were utilized. The spatial and temporal variation of asbestos fibres concentration was carried out by ArcGIS 10 analysis. The Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) method was used to draw asbestos fibres distribution maps. The interpolation of asbestos fibre by IDW method indicated that the distribution of the fibres in summer and winter were followed almost the similar pattern. However, the distribution of asbestos fibre concentrations in the direction of southeast to the northwest of the city was higher than that in the other areas due to high vehicular traffic.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mex.2019.09.034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6812405PMC
September 2019

Improved biodegradation of hydrophobic volatile organic compounds from the air stream in a multilayer biofilter.

MethodsX 2019 18;6:2052-2056. Epub 2019 Sep 18.

Environmental Science and Technology Research Center, Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

Biofiltration of n-hexane as a representative of hydrophobic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at presence and absence of biosurfactant was studied using a multilayer biofilter packed with scoria, compost, poplar tree skin and sugar beet pulp, for 131 days. The concentration of n-hexane was measured by a gas chromatograph coupled with a flame ionization detector (GC/FID). The results showed that the mean removal efficiency (RE) of n-hexane at the presence of the biosurfactant was two times higher than that at absence of the biosurfactant. According to the results, can enhance the efficiency of biofiltration of VOCs from polluted air streams.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mex.2019.09.020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6812370PMC
September 2019

Biomonitoring of airborne metals using tree leaves: Protocol for biomonitor selection and spatial trend.

MethodsX 2019 20;6:1694-1700. Epub 2019 Jul 20.

Department of Public Health, Maragheh University of Medical sciences, Maragheh, Iran.

In northwest of Iran, airborne particulate matter originated from drying Urmia Lake is threaten the health of surrounding communities due to salt particles and heavy metals. This study aimed to use leave of local trees for biomonitoring of toxic metals and to evaluate tolerance of the trees against air pollution due to greenbelt development. Leaf samples were taken from four dominant tree species including and in two radial distances (5 and 10 km) around the Urmia Lake in 32 sampling sites. The concentration of Cd, Pb, Ni, As, Cu, Zn and Na in the leaves were extracted according to method 3050B defined by United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and analyzed by ICP-AES technique. According to the levels of air pollution tolerance index (APTI), was classified as more sensitive and as moderately tolerant. The accumulation/existence of metals in the leaves can be arranged as follows: Na > Zn > Cu > Ni > Pb > As > Cd. Our findings showed that can be applied as a local biomonitor and can be used as a good sink of air pollutants for greenbelt development around the drying Urmia Lake. •The results show that APTI is a suitable index for selection of tree species as biomonitor and green belt development.•Determination of metal concentration level in local tree leaves is suggested as a good tool for mapping of airborne metal.•The local trees can be suitable for development of greenbelt in order to improve air quality, and for biomonitoring of air pollution.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mex.2019.07.019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6676369PMC
July 2019

Evaluation of Anticipated Performance Index, biochemical, and physiological parameters of Cupressus arizonica Greene and Juniperus excelsa Bieb for greenbelt development and biomonitoring of air pollution.

Int J Phytoremediation 2019 16;21(5):496-502. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

b Department of Environmental Health Engineering , School of Health and Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Non-communicable Disease Isfahan University of Medical Sciences , Isfahan , Iran.

Plants can be used naturally to mitigate environmental pollution, such as air pollution; however, it is important to evaluate plant susceptibility to air pollution when considering green space creation in urban areas. In this study, we investigated the biochemical and physiological parameters, including pH, and ascorbic acid, relative water, total chlorophyl, proline, soluble sugar, protein, and free amino acid contents of two gymnosperm tree species, Cupressus arizonica Greene and Juniperus excelsa Bieb. Using these data, we computed the Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) and Anticipated Performance Index (API) of the trees at five sites in Isfahan, Iran, to determine their applicability for greenbelt establishment. Our results indicated that these evergreen species are good indicators of air pollution and can be used as an early warning tool for air pollution level that is harmful to human health.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15226514.2018.1537251DOI Listing
September 2019

Phytoremediation of Formaldehyde from Indoor Environment by Ornamental Plants: An Approach to Promote Occupants Health.

Int J Prev Med 2018 14;9:70. Epub 2018 Aug 14.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Environmental Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: Formaldehyde is a common hazardous indoor air pollutant which recently raised public concerns due to its well-known carcinogenic effects on human. The aim of this study was to investigate a potted plant-soil system ability in formaldehyde removal from a poor ventilated indoor air to promote dwellers health.

Methods: For this purpose, we used one of the common interior plants from the fern species (), inside a Plexiglas chamber under controlled environment. Entire plant removal efficiency and potted soil/roots contribution were determined by continuously introducing different formaldehyde vapor concentrations to the chamber (0.6-11 mg/m) each over a 48-h period. Sampling was conducted from inlet and outlet of the chamber every morning and evening over the study period, and the average of each stage was reported.

Results: The results showed that the plant efficiently removed formaldehyde from the polluted air by 90%-100%, depending on the inlet concentrations, in a long time exposure. The contribution of the soil and roots for formaldehyde elimination was 26%. Evaluation of the plant growing characteristics showed that the fumigation did not affect the chlorophyll content, carotenoid, and average height of the plant; however, a decrease in the plant water content was observed.

Conclusions: According to the results of this study, phytoremediation of volatile organic compound-contaminated indoor air by the ornamental potted plants is an effective method which can be economically applicable in buildings. The fern species tested here had high potential to improve interior environments where formaldehyde emission is a health concern.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijpvm.IJPVM_269_16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6106135PMC
August 2018

Electrochemical degradation of diclofenac using three-dimensional electrode reactor with multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Sep 20;25(25):24746-24763. Epub 2018 Jun 20.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Health, Environment Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

The electro-oxidation treatment of aqueous solution containing diclofenac (DCF) on a Ti/RuO-TiO electrode in the presence of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) was studied in a three-dimensional electrochemical (3DE) reactor. The response surface methodology (RSM) based on central composite design (CCD) was utilized to determine the influence of different factors. The results revealed that the obtained polynomial experimental model had a high coefficient of determination (R = 0.9762) based on analysis of variance. The optimum condition for the removal of DCF by the 3DE process was obtained with the initial pH of 3.8, the initial DCF concentration of 4 mg/L, the current density of 20 mA/cm, the particle electrode concentration of 70 mg/L, and the electrolysis time of 85 min. The quadratic model developed for DCF removal and subsequently the analysis of the F value illustrated that the initial pH was the most important factor in the removal of DCF. The comparative experiments between electrochemical processes showed the high electrocatalytic activity and removal efficiency of the 3DE reactor with the MWCNT particle electrode. The results also showed that the Ti/RuO-TiO electrode, in addition to its high stability, had a very good electrocatalytic activity in the 3D reactor. The stability and reusability test proved that MWCNTs, as a particle electrode, had a potential to improve the long-term electrocatalytic degradation of DCF in the aqueous solutions. Based on the identified intermediate compounds along with the results of other studies, a possible pathway for the electrochemical oxidation of DCF by the 3DE process catalyzed with MWCNTs was proposed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-2527-8DOI Listing
September 2018

Association of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with cardiometabolic risk factors and obesity in children.

Environ Int 2018 09 7;118:203-210. Epub 2018 Jun 7.

Child Growth and Development Research Center, Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Non-communicable Disease, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. Electronic address:

A limited body of evidence exists on the association of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with cardiometabolic risk factors and obesity in children. No study has evaluated these associations in subgroups of children with and without excess weight, and those with and without cardiometabolic risk factors. We aimed to investigate the association between PAH exposure and cardiometabolic risk factors in children independent of their weight status. The secondary aim was to evaluate the obesogen properties of PAHs in children independent of their cardiometabolic risk factors. This study was based on a representative sample of 186 children (aged 6-18 years) living in Isfahan, Iran (2014-2016). We enrolled four groups of participants with and without excess weight and with and without cardiometabolic risk factor. Urinary levels of monohydroxy PAHs (OH-PAHs) were measured twice, six months apart. Logistic regression models were developed to estimate the associations of tertiles of urinary OH-PAH concentrations with cardiometabolic risk factors and excess weight, adjusted for the relevant covariates. The findings in all participants combined showed that increased risk of cardiometabolic risk factors and excess weight was associated with exposure to most of evaluated PAHs. Exposure to 1-hydroxypyrene was associated with higher risk of cardiometabolic risk factors in participants with excess weight. Exposure to 2-Naphtol was also associated with higher risk of cardiometabolic risk factors in both groups, but the associations were not significant (p < 0.1). For participants without cardiometabolic risk factors, exposure to 2-naphtol, 9-phenanthrol, and ∑ OH-PAH was associated with increased risk of obesity. For participants with cardiometabolic risk factors, we observed similar pattern of associations for 2-naphtol and ∑ OH-PAH, but the associations were not statistically significant (p < 0.1). We found that exposure to PAHs could possibly explain, in part, the cardiometabolic risk factors in children with excess weight as well as obesity in children with normal cardiometabolic profile.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2018.05.048DOI Listing
September 2018

Biomonitoring levels of airborne metals around Urmia Lake using deciduous trees and evaluation of their tolerance for greenbelt development.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Jul 16;25(21):21138-21148. Epub 2018 May 16.

Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Research Center of Prevention and Epidemiology of Non-Communicable Disease, Faculty of Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

In the northwest of Iran, the dust of salty and toxic metals possibly caused due to drying Urmia Lake is threatening the health of surrounding communities. This study aimed to employ leaves of local deciduous trees for biomonitoring of toxic elements and to evaluate air pollution tolerance of the trees for greenbelt application. Sampling from leaves of four dominant tree species including Vitis vinifera, Juglans regia, Ulmus umbraculifera, and Popolus alba was carried out from gardens in two radial distances (5 and 10 km) around the Urmia Lake accounting for 16 sites. The concentration of metals in the leaves were extracted according to method USEPA method 3050B and measured by ICP AES technique. According to the levels of air pollution tolerance index (APTI), Popolus alba showed to be more sensitive to air pollution and can be applied for biomonitoring. The ranks of heavy metals and sodium concentrations in the leaves gained in the order of Na > Zn > Cu > Ni > Pb > As > Cd. The mean enrichment factor for the elements was calculated from 1 to 3, suggesting minor enrichment for them. As, Pb, and Na with similar spatial distribution were dominantly observed in northwest and center-east of the Urmia Lake. Potential ecological risk (PER) index showed a moderate risk in 6% of sampling zones, where Cd and As were identified as responsible pollutants. Principle component and correlation analysis between the elements depicted human sources such as industrial activity and road traffic for Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn, whereas As and Na were most likely originated from the aerosols of Urmia Lake. Our findings showed that Popolus alba can be applied as a local biomonitor and Vitis vinifera with moderate tolerance can be used as a good air pollutant sink in greenbelt development around the drying Urmia Lake in the northwest of Iran.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-1899-0DOI Listing
July 2018

Mortality and Morbidity Due to Exposure to Ambient NO, SO, and O in Isfahan in 2013-2014.

Int J Prev Med 2018 8;9:11. Epub 2018 Feb 8.

Environmental Research Center, Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Non-Communicable Disease, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: The presence of air pollutants such as CO, NO, SO, O, and PM in the ambient air mainly emitted from fossil fuels combustion has become a major health concern. The aims of this study were to estimate the attribution of NO, SO, and O in the premature deaths and prevalence of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases in Isfahan in 2013-2014.

Methods: In this study, short-term health effects (total mortality, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and acute myocardial infarction) of exposure NO, SO, and O on the population of Isfahan were assessed using AirQ 2.2.3 software suggested by the World Health Organization (WHO).

Results: The result showed that from nonaccident total mortality in 2013-2014 in Isfahan, the attributable proportion related to NO, SO, and O were 1.03% (109 cases), 3.46% (365 cases), and 1.29% (136 cases), respectively. The percentage of days that people were exposed to the highest concentration of NO (40-49 μg/m), SO (60-69 μg/m), and O (40-49 μg/m) was 34.46%, 16.85%, and 42.74% of a year, respectively. Total mortality attributed to NO, SO, and O exposure was 0.36%, 0.79%, and 0.83%, respectively.

Conclusions: The concentrations of NO and SO were upper than the WHO guidelines. The Air-Q software in spite of its limitations can provide useful information regarding the health outcome of the air pollutants. The results estimated in this study were considerable. This information can help the health authorities and policy makers to draw suitable strategies and fulfill effective emission control programs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijpvm.IJPVM_387_16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5843953PMC
February 2018

Spatio-seasonal variation of airborne asbestos concentration in urban areas of Shiraz, Iran.

Int J Occup Environ Health 2017 04 9;23(2):143-150. Epub 2018 Feb 9.

a Faculty of Health, Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Environmental Research Center and Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases , Isfahan University of Medical Sciences , Isfahan , Iran.

Background Asbestos fiber is mainly released from friction product in brakes and clutch linings and from reinforcing agent in the asbestos-cement industry. It leads to serious health problem such as mesothelioma and lung cancer. The objectives of this study were to monitor the levels of asbestos fibers in ambient air of Shiraz, Iran during 2014, and to draw its GIS distribution map for the city. Methods Samples were collected by mixed cellulose ester filters mounted on an open-faced filter holder using a SKC sampling pump. Fiber counting was conducted using both phase contrast microscopy (PCM) method to determine total fibers, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) method to identify non-asbestos from asbestos fibers. Results The average concentrations of asbestos fibers in ambient air of the city were 1.11 ± 0.25 PCM f/l and 12.21 ± 2.52 SEM f/l. The highest concentration of asbestos fibers was measured in Valiasr square amounting 1.96 ± 0.34 PCM f/l and 16.87  ± 2.14 SEM f/l. Conclusions The average of asbestos fibers in all sampling points was higher than the WHO guideline (0.05 PCM f/l, 2.2 SEM f/l). This may be attributed to the frequently occurrence of heavy traffic, the existence of relevant industries in and around the city, and the topographic characteristics of the city. Thus, product substitution, traffic smoothing and industrial sites relocating are suggested to eliminate the asbestos fibers emission.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10773525.2018.1436016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6060860PMC
April 2017

Phytoremediation of VOCs from indoor air by ornamental potted plants: A pilot study using a palm species under the controlled environment.

Chemosphere 2018 Apr 16;197:375-381. Epub 2018 Jan 16.

Faculty of Health and Environment Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. Electronic address:

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in indoor air have recently raised public concern due to their adverse health effects. One of hazardous VOC is Formaldehyde which can cause sensory irritation and induce nasopharyngeal cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate potted plant-soil system ability in formaldehyde removal from indoor air. We applied one of common interior plant from the palm species, Chamaedorea elegans, inside a chamber under the controlled environment. Entire plant, growing media and roots contribution in formaldehyde were evaluated by continuously introduction of different concentrations of formaldehyde into the chamber (0.66-16.4 mg m) each over a 48-h period. Our findings showed that the plant efficiently removed formaldehyde from polluted air by 65-100%, depending on the inlet concentrations, for a long time exposure. A maximum elimination capacity of 1.47 mg/m. h was achieved with an inlet formaldehyde concentration of 14.6 mg m. The removal ratio of areal part to pot soil and roots was 2.45:1 (71%: 29%). The plants could remove more formaldehyde in light rather than dark environment. Concentrations up to 16.4 mg m were not high enough to affect the plants growth. However, a trivial decrease in chlorophyll content, carotenoid and water content of the treated plants was observed compared to the control plants. Thus, the palm species tested here showed high tolerance and good potential of formaldehyde removal from interior environments. Therefore, phytoremediation of VOCs from indoor air by the ornamental potted plants is an effective method which can be economically applicable in homes and offices.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.01.078DOI Listing
April 2018

Cardiovascular, respiratory, and total mortality ascribed to PM and PM exposure in Isfahan, Iran.

J Educ Health Promot 2017 4;6:109. Epub 2017 Dec 4.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Environmental Science and Technology Research Center, School of Public Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

Background: Air pollution is an important environmental issue due to its proven serious impacts on human health. The aim of this study was to estimate the attribution of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameters of ≤ 2.5 and 10 (PM and PM) in the prevalence of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases and premature deaths in Isfahan in 2013-2014.

Materials And Methods: This descriptive, ecological study was conducted to assess health impacts of PM and PM on the population using Air Q software, suggested by the World Health Organization (WHO).

Results: The results showed that the annual mean, winter mean, summer mean, and the 98 percentile of PM concentration in Isfahan were 108, 100, 116, and 264 μg/m, respectively. The number of deaths per year related to PM was 670 and that for PM was 713 cases. The number of annual deaths due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases attributed to PM was 316 and 68 cases, respectively.

Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that about 44.3% of total annual death due to cardiovascular diseases and 9.55% of that due to respiratory diseases were attributed to PM exposure. In the other word, residents were exposed to PM and PM concentrations higher than the WHO guidelines which caused a notable increase in the rate of mortality.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jehp.jehp_166_16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5747222PMC
December 2017

Environmental and biological monitoring of exposures to VOCs in a petrochemical complex in Iran.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Mar 19;25(7):6656-6667. Epub 2017 Dec 19.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Faculty of Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Hezar Jerib St., Isfahan, Iran.

Exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can cause cancers in human. This study aimed to measure the concentration of four VOCs including benzene, styrene, ethylbenzene, and phenol in ambient air of a petrochemical complex in Iran. Also, their urinary metabolites including phenol, mandelic acid (MA), and phenylglyoxylic acid (PGA) in the workers were monitored. Urine samples were collected before and after the 8-h workshift according to the NIOSH methods. They were analyzed by a gas chromatograph coupled with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID). High levels of the ambient VOCs were detected in the units of recovery and olefin. The levels of ethylbenzene and phenol were less than the guidelines suggested by NIOSH and ACGIH. However, in some cases, the amounts of benzene and styrene were higher than the guidelines. Excellent positive correlations were observed between VOCs exposure and their urinary metabolites (r  > 0.90), except for benzene (r  = 0.26). Our finding verified that urinary biomarkers can be applied as bioindicators for ambient exposure to VOCs. There is a risk of exposure to high levels of the pollutants in some of the sites, and it is necessary to adopt some preventive measures to reduce health risk.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-1045-4DOI Listing
March 2018

Hybrid coagulation-UF processes for spent filter backwash water treatment: a comparison studies for PAFCl and FeCl as a pre-treatment.

Environ Monit Assess 2017 Aug 10;189(8):387. Epub 2017 Jul 10.

Isfahan Water and Wastewater Company, Isfahan, Iran.

In this study, the reclamation of clean water from spent filter backwash water (SFBW) was investigated through pilot-scale experiments. The pilot plant consisted of pre-sedimentation, coagulation, flocculation, clarification, and ultrafiltration (UF). Two coagulants of PAFCl and FeCl were investigated with respect to their performance on treated SFBW quality and UF membrane fouling. At the optimum dose of PAFCl and FeCl turbidity removal of 99.6 and 99.4% was attained, respectively. PAFCl resulted in an optimum UV, TOC, and DOC removal of 80, 83.6, and 72.7%, respectively, and FeCl caused the removal of those parameters by 76.7, 80.9, and 65.9%, respectively. PAFCl removed hydrophilic and transphilic constituent better than FeCl, but FeCl had, to some extent, higher affinities to a hydrophobic fraction. It was concluded that PAFCl showed a better coagulation performance in most cases and caused a lower membrane fouling rate compared to FeCl. Finally, the treated SFBW with both coagulant-UF systems met the drinking water standards.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-017-6091-3DOI Listing
August 2017

Association of atmospheric concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with their urinary metabolites in children and adolescents.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2017 Jul 6;24(20):17136-17144. Epub 2017 Jun 6.

Child Growth and Development Research Center, Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Non-communicable Disease, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

This study aims to determine the atmospheric concentrations of particulate matter 2.5 (PM)-bounded polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their association with their urinary metabolites in children and adolescents. This study was conducted from October 2014 to March 2016 in Isfahan, Iran. We measured 16 species of PAHs bounded to PM by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS) from 7 parts of the city. Moreover, PAH urinary metabolites were measured in 186 children and adolescents, randomly selected from households. Urinary metabolites consisted of 1-hydroxy naphthalene (1-naphthol), 2-hydroxy naphthalene (2-naphthol), 9-hydroxy phenanthrene (9-phenanthrol), and 1-hydroxy pyrene using GC/MS. Considering the short half-lives of PAHs, we measured the metabolites twice with 4 to 6 months of time interval. We found that the ambient concentrations of PAHs were significantly associated with their urinary metabolites. 1-hydroxy naphthalene and 2-hydroxy naphthalene concentrations showed an increase of 1.049 (95% CI: 1.030, 1.069) and 1.047 (95% CI: 1.025, 1.066) for each unit increase (1 ng/m) in ambient naphthalene. Similarly, 1-hydroxy pyrene showed an increase of 1.009 (95% CI: 1.006-1.011) for each unit increase (1 ng/m) in ambient pyrene concentration after adjustment for body mass index, physical activity level, urinary creatinine, age, and sex. The association of urinary 9-hydroxyphenanthrene and ambient phenantherene was significant in the crude model; however after adjustment for the abovementioned covariates, it was no more significant. We found significant correlations between exposure to ambient PM-bounded PAHs and their urinary excretion. Considering the adverse health effects of PAHs in the pediatric age group, biomonitoring of PAHs should be underscored; preventive measures need to be intensified.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-9315-8DOI Listing
July 2017

A Systematic Review on the Effects of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons on Cardiometabolic Impairment.

Int J Prev Med 2017 6;8:19. Epub 2017 Apr 6.

Environment Research Center, Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Non-communicable Disease, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: Various epidemiological studies have shown that exposure to environmental pollutants including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) might increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and their risk factors. This study aims to systematically review the association of PAH exposure with metabolic impairment.

Methods: Data were collected by searching for relevant studies in international databases using the following keywords: "polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon" + "cardiovascular disease," PAH + CVD, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and "air pollutant" + "CVD," and the desired data were extracted and included in the study according to the systematic review process.

Results: From the 14 articles included in the present systematic review, eight articles were conducted on the relationship between PAH and CVDs, four articles were conducted to examine the association of PAH exposure with blood pressure (BP), and two articles investigated the link between PAH and obesity.

Conclusions: Most studies included in this systematic review reported a significant positive association of PAH exposure with increased risk of CVDs and its major risk factors including elevated BP and obesity. These findings should be confirmed by longitudinal studies with long-term follow-up.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijpvm.IJPVM_144_17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5404352PMC
April 2017

Association between Aluminum and Silicon Concentrations in Isfahan Drinking Water and Their Health Risk Assessments.

Int J Prev Med 2015 12;6:111. Epub 2015 Nov 12.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Environment Research Center, Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Non Communicable Disease, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: High concentrations of elements such as aluminum (Al) and silicon (Si) in drinking water can affect human health. It is suggested that high daily intake of Al is associated with increased risk of neurodegenerative disorders. Si, as an antidote of Al, may decrease Al bioavailability. The study was conducted to estimate Al and Si concentration and correlation in water and evaluate their health risk.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, water samples were collected from 20 points of water distribution system and the water treatment plant of Isfahan in spring and summer. Samples were analyzed using DR-5000. The health risk was evaluated via calculating chronic daily intake (CDI) and hazard index (HI).

Results: Significant negative correlation was documented between Al and Si (R = -0.482, P = 0.037 in spring, and R = -0.452, P = 0.049 in summer). These values were approximately similar in all types of Al and Si. The amounts of CDI for Al in spring and summer were 6.67E-04 and 0.002 mg/kg/day, respectively. The Al HI values were below 1 in both seasons.

Conclusions: The significant correlation between Al and Si concentrations suggests that Si can eliminate Al in water, and probably it might do the same in the body. The health risk of Al intake from tap water was negligible, it was assessed in an acceptable range with an HI value of less than the standard levels. The health risk of Si remained unknown due to lack of information regarding its toxicity and adverse health effects.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2008-7802.169644DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4671161PMC
December 2015

Myeloperoxidase levels predicts angiographic severity of coronary artery disease in patients with chronic stable angina.

Adv Biomed Res 2014 25;3:139. Epub 2014 Jun 25.

Cardiac Rehabilitation Research Center, Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: Myeloperoxidase (MPO) has an important role in the both processes of inflammation and oxidative stress. It plays proatherogenic role via low-density lipoprotein oxidation, functional inactivation of the high-density lipoprotein and endothelial dysfunction, and seems to be involved in the atherogenesis of coronary arteries. This study designed to evaluate the association between the plasma MPO levels and angiographic severity of coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with the stable CAD.

Materials And Methods: Sixty-eight patients who had documented CAD with angiography and 66 subjects who had normal angiography were selected as case and the control groups for this study, respectively. Gensini scoring system was used for evaluation of severity of coronary artery stenosis. Plasma MPO and C-reactiveprotein (CRP) levels of both case and control groups were determined.

Results: Plasma MPO levels and CRP levels were significantly higher in CAD patients (P < 0.001), and plasma levels of MPO and CRP were correlated with Genssini scores.

Conclusions: Our findings indicated that the plasma MPO levels increase in patients with stable CAD and hence that, it can be used as adiagnostic factor to predict the coronary artery atherosclerosis severity in stable CAD patients; However, it needs further widespread investigations to achieve an accurate cut point.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2277-9175.135155DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4139978PMC
August 2014

Effects of gaseous NH(3) and SO(2) on the concentration profiles of PCDD/F in flyash under post-combustion zone conditions.

Waste Manag 2012 Jul 17;32(7):1378-86. Epub 2012 Mar 17.

Energy Research Institute, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK.

The influence of gaseous ammonia and sulphur dioxide on the formation of 2378-substituted PCDD/F on a reference flyash from a municipal waste incinerator has been investigated using a laboratory scale fixed-bed reactor. The reference flyash samples (BCR-490) was reacted under a simulated flue gas stream at temperatures of 225 and 375°C for 96h. The experiments were carried out in two series: first with simulated flue gas alone, and then with injection of NH(3) or SO(2) gas into the flue gas just before the reactor inlet. It was found that the injection of gaseous ammonia into the flue gas could decrease the concentration of both PCDD and PCDF by 34-75% from the solid phase and by 21-40% from the gas phase. Converting the results to I-TEQ values, it could reduce the total I-TEQ values of PCDD and PCDF in the sum of the flyash and exhaust flue gas by 42-75% and 24-57% respectively. The application of SO(2) led to 99% and 93% reductions in the PCDD and PCDF average congener concentrations, respectively in the solid phase. In the gas phase, the total reductions were 89% and 76% for PCDD and PCDF, respectively. Moreover, addition of SO(2) reduced the total I-TEQ value of PCDD and PCDF in the flyash and exhaust flue gas together by 60-86% and 72-82% respectively. Sulphur dioxide was more effective than ammonia in suppressing PCDD/F formation in flyash under the conditions investigated.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2012.02.007DOI Listing
July 2012

Application of low-temperature CP-Sil 88 column for the isomeric analysis of toxic 2,378-substituted PCDD/Fs in incinerator flyash and sewage sludge using a triple quadrupole GC-MS/MS.

Talanta 2011 Dec 1;87:143-51. Epub 2011 Oct 1.

Energy and Resources Research Institute, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK.

The seventeen 2378-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzo-p-furans (PCDD/Fs) congeners have been separated and analyzed in sewage sludge and incinerator flyash samples using a CP-Sil 88 column (50 m × 0.25 mm I.D., 0.25 μm film thickness) operating at a maximum oven temperature of 240°C. The column was used on a Varian 450-GC with a Varian 320-MS Triple Quadrupole. Calibration standards were used to determine the transition chemistries of the 2378-substituted PCDD/F congeners in the gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) system. The five-point calibration curve for each of the congeners showed very good linearity with R(2) values greater than 0.999. The recovery of labelled compounds ranged from 50% to 120%. Analytical results from a reference flyash (BCR-490) and a reference sewage sludge (BCR-677) compared very well with the certified values, giving percentage deviations in I-TEQ (international toxic equivalents) of 4.93% and 0.53%, respectively. Results from 'real' flyash samples underscored the level of progress made in the abatement of dioxin emissions from incinerators; the old incinerator flyash contained much higher PCDD/F concentrations than the modern one. In addition, the concentrations profiles of PCDD/Fs in the 'real' sewage sludge from two UK wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) showed that one contained a total PCDD/Fs content of 314 ng I-TEQ kg(-1), while the other gave a total of 53 ng I-TEQ kg(-1). Over an 18-month period of operation, no significant loss of analytical performance was observed from the low-temperature column.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2011.09.053DOI Listing
December 2011