Publications by authors named "Yafeng Wang"

191 Publications

Hypertension and the Risk of All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality: An Outcome-Wide Association Study of 67 Causes of Death in the National Health Interview Survey.

Biomed Res Int 2021 12;2021:9376134. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Health Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

Background: Few studies have assessed the association between hypertension and risk of detailed causes of death. We investigated the association between hypertension and all-cause mortality and 67 causes of death in a large cohort.

Methods: Multivariable Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for self-reported hypertension vs. no hypertension and mortality. Adults aged ≥18 years ( = 213798) were recruited in 1997-2004 and followed through December 31, 2006.

Results: During 5.81 years of follow-up, 11254 deaths occurred. Self-reported hypertension vs. no hypertension was associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality (HR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.19-1.31) and mortality from septicemia (HR =1.66, 1.06-2.59), other infectious parasitic diseases (HR = 2.67, 1.09-6.51), diabetes mellitus (HR = 1.97, 1.45-2.67), circulatory disease (HR = 1.49, 1.37-1.61), hypertensive heart disease (HR = 3.23, 2.00-5.20), ischemic heart disease (HR = 1.35, 1.23-1.49), acute myocardial infarction (HR = 1.50, 1.27-1.77), other chronic ischemic heart diseases (HR = 1.35, 1.17-1.56), all other forms of heart disease (HR = 1.51, 1.21-1.89), primary hypertension and renal disease (HR = 3.11, 1.82-5.30), cerebrovascular disease (HR = 1.64, 1.37-1.97), other circulatory system diseases (HR = 1.71, 1.09-2.69), other chronic lower respiratory diseases (HR = 1.39, 1.12-1.73), other chronic liver disease (HR = 1.89, 1.06-3.37), renal failure (HR = 1.91, 1.33-2.74), motor vehicle accidents (HR = 1.60, 1.07-2.37), and all other diseases (HR =1.30, 1.10-1.54), but with lower risk of uterine cancer (HR = 0.37, 95% CI: 0.15-0.90) and Alzheimer's disease (HR = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.47-0.92).

Conclusion: Hypertension was associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality and 17 out of 67 causes of death, with most of these being circulatory disease outcomes, however, some of the remaining associations are unlikely to be causal. Further studies are needed to clarify associations with less common causes of death and potential causality across outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/9376134DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8292050PMC
July 2021

Magnesium lithospermate B ameliorates hypobaric hypoxia-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension by inhibiting endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition and its potential targets.

Biomed Pharmacother 2020 Oct 12;130:110560. Epub 2020 Aug 12.

The First Hospital of Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China. Electronic address:

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive disease characterized by vascular remodeling leading to elevation of pulmonary artery pressure, right ventricular hypertrophy, and death. Currently, there are no cure exists for PAH. Magnesium lithospermate B (MLB) is the major component of Salvia przewalskii water extracts with treating angina and cardiovascular damage, anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation and anti-apoptosis. However, the effects of MLB on PAH still unclear. This study we investigated the efficacy of MLB in the hypobaric hypoxia-induced rat model of PAH. The results showed that MLB relieved mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) and right ventricular hypertrophy index (RVHI). Meanwhile, MLB significantly reduced pulmonary vascular remodeling. Additionally, MLB inhibited hypobaric hypoxia-induced α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression, cell apoptosis, and α-SMA and von Willebrand factor (vWF) co-expression in lung, suggesting that MLB could inhibit hypobaric hypoxia-induced endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT). Furthermore, after treatment with MLB, the expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4), CyclinD1, RhoA, rho-associated protein kinase 1 (ROCK1) and ROCK2 was decreased. Further, CHK1, PIM1, STK6, LKHA4, PDE5A, BRAF1, PLK1, AKT1, PAK6, PAK7 and ELNE may be the potential targets of MLB. Taken together, our findings suggest that MLB ameliorates hypobaric hypoxia-induced PAH by inhibiting EndMT in rats, and has potential value in the preventment and treatment of PAH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2020.110560DOI Listing
October 2020

Estimation of a statistical geometric model for the cervical vertebrae of children aged 10-18 years.

Med Eng Phys 2021 Aug 15;94:41-50. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Aviation Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Structures Impact Dynamics, China Aircraft Strength Research Institute, Xi'an 710065, China.

Child neck injuries in motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) result in high morbidity and mortality rates. Estimating a statistical cervical vertebrae geometric model and quantifying the variations of the size and shape with age are very important for investigating the dynamic response and injury risk to a child's cervical spine, as well as for providing a geometric basis for developing child anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) and finite element models (FEMs) of different ages. In this study, spatial geometric points were automatically extracted from the cervical vertebrae computed tomography (CT) scans of 30 children aged 10 to 18 years old (YO), and a statistical geometric model was estimated for the cervical vertebrae as a function of age and neck circumference/neck length according to the method of principal component analysis and regression (PCA&R). Based on this statistical model, geometric point sets representing cervical vertebrae geometries at different ages and percentiles were generated and formed to envelope surfaces. Meanwhile, the size changes of the cervical vertebrae with child growth from 10 to 18 YO were quantified. In general, the anteroposterior length (APL), transverse process width (TPW), vertebral body height (VBH), and vertebral body depth (VBD) of the cervical vertebrae increase with age; the VBH and VBD increase faster than the APL and TPW. Compared with other vertebrae, the APL of C7 is larger, and the rate of increase of C1 with age is evidently slower. The TPWs of C1 and C7 are greater than those of C2 to C6. C7 has higher average values for the VBH and VBD than C3 to C6.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.medengphy.2021.06.006DOI Listing
August 2021

Uplink Sparse Channel Estimation for Hybrid Millimeter Wave Massive MIMO Systems by UTAMP-SBL.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Jul 12;21(14). Epub 2021 Jul 12.

School of Information and Communication Engineering, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876, China.

The compressive sensing (CS)-based sparse channel estimator is recognized as the most effective solution to the excessive pilot overhead in massive MIMO systems. However, due to the complex signal processing in the wireless communication systems, the measurement matrix in the CS-based channel estimation is sometimes "unfriendly" to the channel recovery. To overcome this problem, in this paper, the state-of-the-art sparse Bayesian learning using approximate message passing with unitary transformation (UTAMP-SBL), which is robust to various measurement matrices, is leveraged to address the multi-user uplink channel estimation for hybrid architecture millimeter wave massive MIMO systems. Specifically, the sparsity of channels in the angular domain is exploited to reduce the pilot overhead. Simulation results demonstrate that the UTAMP-SBL is able to achieve effective performance improvement than other competitors with low pilot overhead.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21144760DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8309839PMC
July 2021

Psychological Distress and All-Cause, Cardiovascular Disease, Cancer Mortality Among Adults with and without Diabetes.

Clin Epidemiol 2021 13;13:555-565. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Departamento de Medicina Preventiva, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Aim: To examine the association of psychological distress with all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer mortality in US adults, and verified whether the associations differed between participants with and without diabetes.

Methods: A total of 485,864 adults (446,288 without diabetes and 39,576 with diabetes) who participated in the National Health Interview Survey from 1997 to 2013 were linked to the National Death Index through December 31, 2015. Psychological distress was measured by the Kessler 6 distress scale (K6). Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were performed to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the association between psychological distress and mortality.

Results: We ascertained 11,746 deaths (mean follow-up, 7. 7 years) among people with diabetes and 51,636 deaths (9.9 years) among those without diabetes. Psychological distress was associated with higher all-cause, CVD, and cancer mortality. Compared to non-diabetic adults without psychological distress, HRs (95% CI) were 1.07 (1.04 to 1.09) for mild, 1.26 (1.22 to 1.30) for moderate and 1.46 (1.38 to 1.55) for severe psychological distress. Compared to the same reference group, in diabetic participants the HRs were 1.39 (1.33 to 1.44) for no psychological distress, 1.59 (1.53 to 1.66) for mild, 1.90 (1.80 to 2.00) for moderate and 1.98 (1.82 to 2.17) for severe psychological distress. Similar associations were also observed for CVD and cancer mortality but with non-statistically significant interaction.

Conclusion: Psychological distress was associated with higher mortality, particularly in participants with diabetes. Strategies to ameliorate psychological distress may be important to reduce mortality in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CLEP.S308220DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8286108PMC
July 2021

Essential Oil Inhibits Hepatocellular Carcinoma Metastasis via Suppression of DEPDC1 Dependent Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 29;9:664791. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Henan Key Laboratory for Pharmacology of Liver Diseases, Institute of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

The tumor metastasis is the major hurdle for the treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), due in part to the lack of effective systemic treatments. DEPDC1, a novel oncoantigen upregulated in HCC, is thought to be a molecular-target for novel therapeutic drugs. is a traditional Chinese medicine with anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor activities. This study investigated the potential therapeutic benefits of essential oil (AAEO) in suppressing metastasis of HCC by targeting DEPDC1. Assessment of AAEO cytotoxicity was performed by MTT assay. Anti-metastatic effects of AAEO were investigated using wound healing and transwell assays. The HepG2 cells were transduced with lentiviral vector containing luciferase (Luc). A metastasis model of nude mice was established by tail vein injection of HepG2-Luc cells. The nude mice were treated with AAEO (57.5, 115, and 230 mg/kg) or sorafenib (40 mg/kg). Metastasis of HCC cells was monitored via bioluminescence imaging. After treatment for 21 days, tissues were collected for histological examination and immunohistochemistry analysis. Gene and protein levels were determined by real-time quantitative PCR and western blotting. The results revealed that AAEO significantly inhibits the migration and invasion in a concentration-dependent manner. assays further confirmed that AAEO markedly inhibits HCC metastasis into lung, brain, and femur tissues and exhibits low toxicity. Our results suggested that AAEO significantly downregulates the mRNA and protein expression of DEPDC1. Also, AAEO attenuated Wnt/β-catenin signaling through reduction of Wnt1 and β-catenin production. Moreover, AAEO prevented epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by downregulation of vimentin and upregulation of E-cadherin. Furthermore, we found that promoted HCC migration and invasion via Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and EMT. These results demonstrate that AAEO effectively inhibits HCC metastasis via attenuating Wnt/β-catenin signaling and inhibiting EMT by suppressing DEPDC1 expression. Thus, AAEO likely acts as a novel inhibitor of the DEPDC1 dependent Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.664791DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8276134PMC
June 2021

Driving mechanisms of gross primary productivity geographical patterns for Qinghai-Tibet Plateau lake systems.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Oct 5;791:148286. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, PR China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, PR China. Electronic address:

Being a fundamental property of aquatic systems, gross primary productivity (GPP) is affected by complex environmental factors, such as salinity, nutrients, pH, and sunlight. Under conditions of intensified anthropogenic activity and climate change, it is critical to understand the driving mechanisms of GPP in alpine lakes. In this study, we investigated GPP and associated environmental factors of 23 lake systems in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) along an altitudinal range (from 2500 m to 4500 m). Results showed an increase in chlorophyll a (Chl a) content as altitude increased and a corresponding decrease as salinity increased. Furthermore, geographical patterns of GPP were higher at the mid-gradient and lower at the extreme gradient. Higher solar radiation and water temperatures, stronger evaporation and higher salinity levels, and lower pH and higher nutrient content were all driving mechanisms of GPP in low altitudinal lake systems within high latitudinal regions. Such conditions have collectively resulted in the current GPP pattern via the promotion or inhibition of phytoplankton growth and photosynthesis. Specifically, geographical features and climate change jointly drive algal growth and GPP of alpine lake systems via internal circulation processes; however, anthropogenic activities interfere with external circulation processes for most of lower-middle altitudinal lake systems, thus playing a certain role in regulating environmental factors and GPP alongside climate change.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.148286DOI Listing
October 2021

Dimeric lipo-α/sulfono-γ-AA hybrid peptides as broad-spectrum antibiotic agents.

Biomater Sci 2021 May;9(9):3410-3424

Department of Chemistry, University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fowler Ave, Tampa, FL 33620, USA.

There is an urgent need to develop novel antibiotic agents that can combat emerging drug resistance. Herein, we report the design and investigation of a class of short dimeric antimicrobial lipo-α/sulfono-γ-AA hybrid peptides. Some of these peptides exhibit potent and broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity toward both clinically related Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The TEM study suggests that these hybrid peptides can compromise bacterial membranes and lead to bacterial death. Membrane depolarization and fluorescence microscopy studies also indicate that the mechanism of action is analogous to host-defense peptides (HDPs). Furthermore, the lead compound shows the ability to effectively inhibit biofilms formed from MRSA and E. coli. Further development of the short dimeric lipo-α/sulfono-γ-AA hybrid peptides may lead to a new generation of antimicrobial biomaterials to combat drug resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0bm01955kDOI Listing
May 2021

Independent and joint associations between leisure time physical activity and strength activities with mortality outcomes in older adults ≥65 years-of-age: a prospective cohort study.

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Translational Medicine, Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine, Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA.

Scientific evidence regarding the combined effect of both aerobic leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and muscle strengthening activities on all-cause, CVD or cancer mortality in older adults is scant. The aim of the study was to investigate the associations between recommended physical activity and mortality in older adults ≥65 years-of-age. This prospective cohort study used data from the National Health Interview Surveys from 1997-2013 linked with mortality files through December 31, 2015 (n=89,962). The main outcomes included all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer mortality. The main exposure variables were aerobic leisure time physical activity and guideline-concordant strength training during leisure time. Cox regression models were used to calculate the hazard ratios (HR) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). Muscle-strengthening activity at least twice per week were associated with lower hazards of all-cause mortality (HR 0.92; 95% CI 0.88-0.96), CVD mortality (HR 0.90; 95% CI 0.81-0.99) and cancer mortality (HR 0.87; 95% CI 0.79-0.96). Those who reached the recommended weekly amount of LTPA, had lower hazard of all-cause mortality by 35% (HR 0.66; 95% CI 0.63-0.67), the hazard of CVD 38% (HR 0.62; 95% CI 0.58-0.67), and cancer mortality by 22% (HR 0.78; 95% CI 0.73-0.84). The hazard of death among those who were physically active in both leisure time and engaged in muscle-strengthening activities were 0.57 (95% CI 0.54-0.60) for all-cause mortality, 0.53 (95% CI 0.47-0.61) for CVD mortality, and 0.66 (95% CI 0.58-0.75) for cancer mortality. Thus, engaging in muscle-strengthening activity ≥2 times/week may provide additional benefits among physically active older adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gerona/glab114DOI Listing
April 2021

In vitro and in vivo antiviral activity of a fluoronucleoside analog, NCC, against Coxsackie virus B3.

Acta Virol 2021 ;65(1):58-67

Coxsackie virus B3 (CVB3) is believed to be a major cause of viral myocarditis, with virus-induced apoptosis playing an important role in pathogenesis. The purpose of this study was to characterize the antiviral activity of a novel fluoronucleoside analogue, N-cyclopropyl-4'-azido-2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-β-D-cytidine (NCC), against CVB3 in vitro and in vivo, and to establish whether NCC inhibits apoptosis in infected cells. In this study, HeLa cells infected with CVB3 were treated with NCC. Cell viability and apoptosis were examined. Caspase-3 and Bcl-2 levels were monitored by real-time RT PCR and Western blot analysis. For in vivo studies, BALB/c mice infected with CVB3 were treated with NCC daily. Serum markers of myocardial injury and histological studies were measured to examine myocardial injury on day 8 post-infection. To measure apoptosis, levels of Bcl-2 and caspase-3 were examined by immunohistochemistry and real-time RT-PCR. We found that NCC inhibited virus-mediated cytopathic effects in HeLa cells with an EC50 of 116.60 ± 0.32 μM. In infected mice, administration of NCC (2 mg/kg) decreased the activities of serum creatine kinase and lactic dehydrogenase, inhibited the replication of CVB3 and alleviated damage to the heart. Importantly, NCC suppressed CVB3-induced apoptosis in HeLa cells and affected the expression of apoptosis-related factors in infected mice. Together, our results demonstrate that NCC exerts significant antiviral activities against CVB3. We conclude that NCC is a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of viral myocarditis. Keywords: coxsackie virus B3; viral myocarditis; N-cyclopropyl-4'-azido-2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-β-D-cytidine; apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4149/av_2021_106DOI Listing
April 2021

Single- or dual-antiplatelet therapy after transcatheter aortic valve replacement: A protocol of systematic review and meta-analysis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Feb;100(6):e24550

Qinghai People's Hospital, Qinghai, China.

Background: The evidence related to bleeding and thromboembolic events after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) compared single antiplatelet therapy (SAPT) with dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) treatment are inconsistent. Moreover, there are some limitations such as small sample size and the risk of bias in existing studies. We will conduct a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis to explore the safety and efficacy of SAPT or DAPT after TAVR.

Methods: A comprehensive literature search of PubMed, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials will be searched to retrieve studies involving SAPT versus DAPT after TAVR. Two investigators will independently select studies, extract data, and assess the quality of the included study. Any disagreement will be resolved by the third investigator. The study will use a random-effects model to pool the results of all studies and use the relative risk and 95% confidence intervals to summarize individual trial outcomes and estimate pooled effect. The study will use the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation to assess the certainty of evidence.

Results: This study will provide high-quality evidence for treatment of TAVR in terms of effectiveness and safety.

Conclusion: This systematic review aims to provide evidence for treatment of TAVR in different antiplatelet therapies.

Registration: The systematic review and meta-analysis is registered in the OSF REGISTRIES (10.17605/OSF.IO/Q42TE) international prospective register.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000024550DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7886480PMC
February 2021

Association between microRNA-146a, -499a and -196a-2 SNPs and non-small cell lung cancer: a case-control study involving 2249 subjects.

Biosci Rep 2021 02;41(2)

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Fujian Medical University Cancer Hospital, Fujian Cancer Hospital, Fuzhou, Fujian Province, China.

MicroRNA (miR) acts as a negative regulator of gene expression. Many literatures have suggested that miRs may be involved in the process of cell proliferation, inflammation, oxidative stress, energy metabolism and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Thus, miRs may be implicated in the occurrence of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In the current investigation, we included 2249 subjects (1193 NSCLC patients and 1056 controls) and designed a study to identify the relationship of miR-146a rs2910164 C/G, -499a rs3746444 A/G and -196a-2 rs11614913 T/C with the risk of NSCLC. The risk factors (e.g., body mass index (BMI), sex, smoking, drinking and age) was used to adjust the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). After conducting a power value assessment, we did not confirm that the miR-single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotypic distributions were different in NSCLC cases and controls. However, the association of miR-196a-2 rs11614913 with a decreased risk of NSCLC was identified in the female subgroup (adjusted P=0.005, power = 0.809 for TC vs. TT, and adjusted P=0.004, power = 0.849 for CC/TC vs. TT). In addition, gene-gene interaction analysis showed that rs11614913 TC/3746444 AA and rs11614913 CC/rs3746444 AA could also reduce the susceptibility to NSCLC (rs11614913 TC/rs3746444 AA vs. rs11614913 TT/rs3746444 AA, P=0.001, power = 0.912 and rs11614913 CC/rs3746444 AA vs. rs11614913 TT/rs3746444 AA, P=0.003, power = 0.836). In conclusion, in overall comparisons, we did not confirm that the rs2910164, rs3746444, and rs11614913 SNPs genotypic distributions were different in NSCLC cases and controls. However, this case-control study demonstrates that miR-196a-2 rs11614913 may be a protective factor for the development of NSCLC among female patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BSR20201158DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7890400PMC
February 2021

Adults with current asthma but not former asthma have higher all-cause and cardiovascular mortality: a population-based prospective cohort study.

Sci Rep 2021 01 14;11(1):1329. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Department of Structural Heart Disease, Xi'an Jiaotong University Medical College First Affiliated Hospital, Xi'an, 710061, Shaanxi Province, China.

Higher mortality in asthmatics has been shown previously. However, evidence on different asthma phenotypes on long-term mortality risk is limited. The aim was to evaluate the impact of asthma phenotypes on mortality in general population. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2001-2002 to 2013-2014 linked mortality files through December 31, 2015, were used (N = 37,015). Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate the risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, smoking, body mass index, and chronic conditions. During the mean follow-up time of 7.5 years, 4326 participants died from a variety of causes. Current asthma, but not former asthma was associated with increased all-cause mortality (current asthma: HR = 1.37; 95% CI 1.20-1.58; Former asthma: HR = 0.93; 95% CI 0.73-1.18); as well as mortality from cardiovascular disease (HR = 1.41; 95% CI 1.08-1.85) and chronic lower respiratory diseases (HR = 3.17; 95% CI 1.96-5.14). In addition, we found that the HR for cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality was slightly greater in people with childhood-onset asthma than those with adult-onset asthma. The HR for chronic lower respiratory diseases (CLRD) mortality was greater in people with adult-onset asthma than those with childhood-onset asthma. However, the differences were not statistically significant. Our study suggested that current asthma but not former asthma was associated with increased all-cause, CLRD and CVD mortality. Future well-designed studies with larger sample are required to demonstrate the association and clarify the potential mechanisms involved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-79264-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7809422PMC
January 2021

Adults with current asthma but not former asthma have higher all-cause and cardiovascular mortality: a population-based prospective cohort study.

Sci Rep 2021 01 14;11(1):1329. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Department of Structural Heart Disease, Xi'an Jiaotong University Medical College First Affiliated Hospital, Xi'an, 710061, Shaanxi Province, China.

Higher mortality in asthmatics has been shown previously. However, evidence on different asthma phenotypes on long-term mortality risk is limited. The aim was to evaluate the impact of asthma phenotypes on mortality in general population. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2001-2002 to 2013-2014 linked mortality files through December 31, 2015, were used (N = 37,015). Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate the risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, smoking, body mass index, and chronic conditions. During the mean follow-up time of 7.5 years, 4326 participants died from a variety of causes. Current asthma, but not former asthma was associated with increased all-cause mortality (current asthma: HR = 1.37; 95% CI 1.20-1.58; Former asthma: HR = 0.93; 95% CI 0.73-1.18); as well as mortality from cardiovascular disease (HR = 1.41; 95% CI 1.08-1.85) and chronic lower respiratory diseases (HR = 3.17; 95% CI 1.96-5.14). In addition, we found that the HR for cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality was slightly greater in people with childhood-onset asthma than those with adult-onset asthma. The HR for chronic lower respiratory diseases (CLRD) mortality was greater in people with adult-onset asthma than those with childhood-onset asthma. However, the differences were not statistically significant. Our study suggested that current asthma but not former asthma was associated with increased all-cause, CLRD and CVD mortality. Future well-designed studies with larger sample are required to demonstrate the association and clarify the potential mechanisms involved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-79264-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7809422PMC
January 2021

Improving Polar-Coded SCMA System by Information Coupling and Parity Check.

Authors:
Xi Wu Yafeng Wang

Sensors (Basel) 2020 Nov 25;20(23). Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Key Laboratory of Universal Wireless Communications, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Post and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876, China.

In this paper, the uplink information-coupled polar-coded sparse code multiple access (PC-SCMA) system is proposed. For this system, we first design the encoding method of systematic joint parity check and CRC-aided (PCCA) polar code. Using the systematic PCCA-polar code as base code, the partially information-coupled (PIC) polar code is constructed. Then, a joint iterative detection and successive cancellation list (SCL)-decoding receiver is proposed for the PC-SCMA system. For the receiver, the coupled polar decoder's extrinsic messages are calculated by the Bayes rule and soft cancellation (SCAN) algorithm. Based on the extrinsic information transfer (EXIT) idea, the PIC PCCA-polar code is optimized. Simulation results demonstrate that the PIC PCCA-PC-SCMA system outperforms the other polar (or LDPC) coded SCMA systems at various code rates and channel configurations. Additionally, compared with an uncoupled PC-SCMA system with SCL decoder, the complexity of PIC PCCA-PC-SCMA is reduced at a high Eb/N0.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s20236740DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7728081PMC
November 2020

Luminal polyethylene glycol solution delays the onset of preservation injury in the human intestine.

Am J Transplant 2021 06 18;21(6):2220-2230. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

The Transplant Institute, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.

The organ damage incurred during the cold storage (CS) of intestinal grafts has short and long-term consequences. Animal studies suggest that additional luminal preservation (LP) with polyethylene glycol (PEG) may alleviate this damage. This study aims to validate these findings using human intestines. Ileal segments, perfused intravascularly with IGL-1 solution, were procured from 32 multiorgan donors and divided into two parts: one containing a PEG 3350-based solution introduced luminally (LP group) and another one without luminal treatment (control). Sampling was performed after 4 h, 8 h, 14 h, and 24 h of CS. Histology was assessed using the Chiu/Park score. Tight junctions (TJ), several inflammatory markers, and transcription factors were examined by immunofluorescence, ddPCR, and western blot. Tissue water content (edema) was also measured. Apoptotic activity was assessed with caspase -2, -3, and -9 assays. LP significantly lowered mucosal injury at all time points. Redistribution of TJ proteins occurred earlier and more severely in the control group. After 24 h of CS, LP intestines showed an emerging unfolding protein response. Increased caspase-3 and -9 activity was found in the control group. The current results indicate that luminal PEG is safe and effective in reducing damage to the intestinal epithelium during CS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajt.16418DOI Listing
June 2021

Measurements of the leachability of potentially hazardous trace elements from solid coal gasification wastes in China.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Mar 10;759:143463. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Department of Geosciences, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75080, USA.

Solid wastes from commercial coal gasification plants are a significant environmental issue in China because of the large quantities produced. In recent years, with the rapid development of coal gasification technologies in China, more and more coal gasification residues are being disposed of in landfills because of the low utilization of the residues. In the present study, the column leaching procedure M1314 developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency was used to evaluate the potential for environmental pollution by potentially hazardous trace elements (Be, V, Mn, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sr, Mo, Cd, Sb, Cs, Ba, Tl, Pb, Hg, Th, and U) in the coarse and fine gasification residues from two plants using General Electric (GE) and Gaskombinat Schwarze Pumpe (GSP) coal gasification technologies in northwest China. The potentially hazardous trace elements in the residues show different release patterns with the liquid-solid ratio increasing. The cumulative leached concentrations of the potentially hazardous trace elements from the coal gasification residues were generally low, and only Mo in the leachate of GSP fine residue was moderately soluble. V in the GSP coal gasification residues showed an increasing leachability in the leaching procedure. As, Se, Mo, Sb, and Tl in some leachates exceeded their thresholds in Level III of the Chinese Quality Standard for Groundwater and/or the Maximum Contaminant Levels of the U.S. National Primary Drinking Water Regulations. According to the risk assessment code, Se in the GE fine residue and Mo in the GE and GSP fine residues had medium risk to the ecosystem. Those data indicated that the potential for environmental pollution by those elements from coal gasification plants should be given consideration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.143463DOI Listing
March 2021

Associations between Intensity, Frequency, Duration, and Volume of Physical Activity and the Risk of Stroke in Middle- and Older-Aged Chinese People: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 11 20;17(22). Epub 2020 Nov 20.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Health Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071, China.

Context: Persuasive evidence has shown the inverse associations between physical activity (PA) and the risk of stroke. However, few studies have investigated the associations between different dimensions (intensity, frequency, duration, volume) of PA and the risk of stroke.

Objective: To investigate the associations between different dimensions of PA and the risk of stroke in total participants and subgroups.

Method: This study included 6250 individuals aged 45 years old and above from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS). PA was divided into vigorous PA (VPA), moderate PA (MPA), and light PA (LPA), and described in different dimensions (intensity, frequency, duration, volume). Stroke was defined on the basis of self-reported diagnosis and related treatments. Binary logistic regression models were established to assess the associations between different dimensions of PA and the risk of stroke in total participants and subgroups stratified by sex.

Results: Individuals taking VPA with a frequency of 3-5 d/w, duration of ≥240 min/d, volume of ≥300 min/w had lower risks of strokes in total participants (Odds ratio (OR) = 0.32, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.13, 0.75; OR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.38, 0.94; OR = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.46, 0.99, respectively). However, significant associations of VPA with the risk of stroke in men were only observed in the duration of ≥240 min/d and volume of ≥300 min/w (OR = 0.53, 95% CI: 0.30, 0.93; OR = 0.61, 95% CI: 0.38, 0.99, respectively) whereas no significance in women. Compared with individuals taking no MPA, inverse significant associations between the risk of stroke and any level of frequency, duration and volume in MPA were observed in total sample (OR ranging from 0.16-0.40, all < 0.05), whereas significant associations between the risk of stroke and MPA were found in men except the duration of 10-29 min/d and volume of 150-299 min/w (OR ranging from 0.26-0.35, all < 0.05), and in women except the frequency of 1-2 d/w and duration of ≥240 min/d (OR ranging from 0.14-0.49, all < 0.05). No significant associations could be observed in total participants and subgroups between LPA and the risk of stroke.

Conclusion: This study revealed some significant associations between different dimensions of PA, especially MPA, and the risk of stroke. Furthermore, the difference of association was observed in the groups with different sex. Further prospective study is needed to determine deeper associations between PA and the risk of stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17228628DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7699744PMC
November 2020

Association of Physical Activity Intensity With Mortality: A National Cohort Study of 403 681 US Adults.

JAMA Intern Med 2021 Feb;181(2):203-211

Departamento de Medicina Preventiva, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina, São Paulo, Brazil.

Importance: It is unclear whether, for the same amount of total physical activity, a higher proportion of vigorous physical activity (VPA) to total physical activity is associated with a greater reduction in mortality.

Objective: To examine the association of the proportion of VPA to total physical activity (defined as moderate to vigorous physical activity [MVPA]) with all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease mortality, and cancer mortality.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This cohort study included 403 681 adults from the National Health Interview Survey 1997-2013 who provided data on self-reported physical activity and were linked to the National Death Index records through December 31, 2015. Statistical analysis was performed from May 15, 2018, to August 15, 2020.

Exposures: Proportion of VPA to total physical activity among participants performing any MVPA.

Main Outcomes And Measures: All-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease mortality, and cancer mortality. Cox proportional hazards regression models were performed to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs, adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle risk factors, and total physical activity.

Result: Among the 403 681 individuals (225 569 women [51.7%]; mean [SD] age, 42.8 [16.3] years) in the study, during a median 10.1 years (interquartile range, 5.4-14.6 years) of follow-up (407.3 million person-years), 36 861 deaths occurred. Mutually adjusted models considering the recommendations of moderate physical activity (MPA; 150-299 vs 0 minutes per week) and VPA (≥75-149 vs 0 minutes per week) showed similar associations for all-cause mortality (MPA: HR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.80-0.87; and VPA: HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.76-0.84) and cardiovascular disease mortality (MPA: HR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.68-0.83; and VPA: HR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.70-0.91). For the same contrasts, VPA (HR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.80-0.99) showed a stronger inverse association with cancer mortality compared with MPA (HR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.86-1.02). Among participants performing any MVPA, a higher proportion of VPA to total physical activity was associated with lower all-cause mortality but not with cardiovascular disease and cancer mortality. For instance, compared with participants with 0% of VPA (no vigorous activity), participants performing greater than 50% to 75% of VPA to total physical activity had a 17% lower all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.78-0.88), independent of total MVPA. The inverse association between proportion of VPA to total physical activity and all-cause mortality was consistent across sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle risk factors, and chronic conditions at baseline.

Conclusions And Relevance: This study suggests that, for the same volume of MVPA, a higher proportion of VPA to total physical activity was associated with lower all-cause mortality. Clinicians and public health interventions should recommend 150 minutes or more per week of MVPA but also advise on the potential benefits associated with VPA to maximize population health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.6331DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7684516PMC
February 2021

Constitutive PGC-1α Overexpression in Skeletal Muscle Does Not Contribute to Exercise-Induced Neurogenesis.

Mol Neurobiol 2021 Apr 16;58(4):1465-1481. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

Center for Brain Repair and Rehabilitation, Institute for Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Physical exercise can improve age-dependent decline in cognition, which in rodent is partly mediated by restoration of an age-dependent decline in neurogenesis. Exercise-inducible myokines in the circulation present a link in muscle-brain crosstalk. The transcription factor PGC-1α regulates the release of such myokines with neurotrophic properties into the circulation. We study how chronic muscular overexpression of PGC-1α could contribute to exercise-induced effects on hippocampal neurogenesis and if this effect could be enhanced in a running wheel paradigm. We used 3- and 11-month-old transgenic mice with overexpression of PGC-1α under the control of muscle creatinine kinase promoter (MCK-PGC-1α), which have a constitutively developed endurance muscle phenotype. Wild-type and MCK-PGC-1α mice were single housed with free access to running wheels. Four weeks of running in female animals increased the levels of newborn cells, immature neurons, and, for young animals, new mature neurons, compared to sedentary controls. However, no difference in these parameters was observed between wild-type and transgenic mice under sedentary or running conditions. Multiplex analysis of serum cytokines, chemokines, and myokines suggested several differences in serum protein concentrations between genotypes with musclin found to be significantly upregulated 4-fold in male MCK-PGC-1α animals. We conclude that constitutive muscular overexpression of PGC-1α, despite systemic changes and difference in serum composition, does not translate into exercise-induced effects on hippocampal neurogenesis, independent of the age of the animal. This suggests that chronic activation of PGC-1α in skeletal muscle is by itself not sufficient to mimic exercise-induced effects or to prevent decline of neurogenesis in aging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-020-02189-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7932943PMC
April 2021

Cranial irradiation alters neuroinflammation and neural proliferation in the pituitary gland and induces late-onset hormone deficiency.

J Cell Mol Med 2020 12 10;24(24):14571-14582. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Henan Key Laboratory of Child Brain Injury, Institute of Neuroscience and Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

Cranial radiotherapy induces endocrine disorders and reproductive abnormalities, particularly in long-term female cancer survivors, and this might in part be caused by injury to the pituitary gland, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of cranial irradiation on the pituitary gland and related endocrine function. Female Wistar rat pups on postnatal day 11 were subjected to a single dose of 6 Gy whole-head irradiation, and hormone levels and organ structure in the reproductive system were examined at 20 weeks after irradiation. We found that brain irradiation reduced cell proliferation and induced persistent inflammation in the pituitary gland. The whole transcriptome analysis of the pituitary gland revealed that apoptosis and inflammation-related pathways were up-regulated after irradiation. In addition, irradiation led to significantly decreased levels of the pituitary hormones, growth hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone and the reproductive hormones testosterone and progesterone. To conclude, brain radiation induces reduction of pituitary and reproduction-related hormone secretion, this may due to reduced cell proliferation and increased pituitary inflammation after irradiation. Our results thus provide additional insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying complications after head irradiation and contribute to the discovery of preventive and therapeutic strategies related to brain injury following irradiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.16086DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7754041PMC
December 2020

Effect of carbon nanotexture on the synthesis, initial growth mechanism and photoluminescence properties of SiC nanowires.

Nanotechnology 2021 Feb;32(8):085601

National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology for National Defence on High-strength Structural Materials, Central South University, Changsha 410083, People's Republic of China.

Although the spontaneous vapor-solid growth of SiC nanowires is a well-established phenomenon, the exact mechanism by which nanowires grow on substrates is still poorly understood. Here, we studied the initial growth of SiC nanowires on carbon sources with different nanotextures via a catalyst-free vapor reaction between a polyacrylonitrile-based carbon fiber and a silicon powder. The results revealed that the SiC nanowires were preferentially formed on the carbon fiber with a higher degree of graphitization. Detailed analyses suggested that the growth behavior of the underlying SiC film formed on the carbon fibers, which is strongly affected by the microstructures of the carbon fibers, plays an important role in the formation of nanowires. In addition, the photoluminescence spectrum of SiC nanowires showed strong ultraviolet-visible emission peaks at an excitation wavelength of 250 nm, which may provide potential applications in the field of optoelectronic devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/abc8b4DOI Listing
February 2021

Associations of long-term exposure to ambient nitrogen dioxide with indicators of diabetes and dyslipidemia in China: A nationwide analysis.

Chemosphere 2021 Apr 24;269:128724. Epub 2020 Oct 24.

School of Public Health, Key Lab of Public Health Safety of the Ministry of Education and NHC Key Lab of Health Technology Assessment, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200032, China.

Background: The associations between ambient NO and diabetes and dyslipidemia have been controversial, and data is especially lacking in developing countries.

Objective: This study aimed to assess the associations of long-term exposure to NO with diabetes and dyslipidemia in China.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study including 13,013 participants from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHRLS). The annual average concentrations of NO were estimated based on the residential addresses of participants. We applied logistic regression models to evaluate the associations of NO with diabetes and dyslipidemia, and linear regression models to assess the associations with blood biomarkers.

Results: A total of 1933 diabetes cases (14.85%) and 1935 (14.87%) dyslipidemia cases were identified. Significant associations were observed between NO and risk of diabetes and dyslipidemia independent of PM and O. For an interquartile range (IQR) increase in NO (12.39 μg/m), we observed a 13% [odds ratio (OR): 1.13; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01, 1.26] increased risk of diabetes, 1.48% (95%CI: 0.51%, 2.46%) increase in glucose, 0.74% (95%CI: 0.19%, 1.29%) increase in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), 17% (OR: 1.17; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.31) increased risk of dyslipidemia, 4.62% (95%CI: 2.49%, 6.79%) increase in triglyceride, and a decrease of 2.96% (95%CI: 2.13%, 3.79%) in high-density lipoprotein. The associations of NO with glucose disorders were stronger among smokers.

Conclusions: Our study indicated long-term exposure to NO might contribute to the development of diabetes and dyslipidemia, and the associations were potentially independent of O and PM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.128724DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7904633PMC
April 2021

Physical Activity Dimensions and Its Association with Risk of Diabetes in Middle and Older Aged Chinese People.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 10 25;17(21). Epub 2020 Oct 25.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Health Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071, China.

Diabetes and physical inactivity are prevalent worldwide. Risk of diabetes is known to be related with insufficient physical activity (PA), but associations with the respective dimensions of PA is unclear. To describe the patterns of physical activity among Chinese middle- and older-aged individuals and figure out their associations with diabetes risk in different dimensions. Extracting self-reported data from China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS, 2015), this study included 6196 participants. Multivariate logistic regression was conducted to determine the association between diabetes risk and PA dimensions such as intensity, frequency, duration, and volume. Concerning frequency, lower diabetes risk was associated with performing vigorous PA at any frequency overall. For duration, smaller odds of diabetes were observed in performing vigorous PA 2-4 h/day (OR 0.46, 95%CI 0.30 to 0.71), moderate PA ≥4 h/day (OR 0.59, 95%CI 0.42 to 0.82) and light PA ≥4 h/day (OR 0.59, 95%CI 0.41 to 0.85) overall. For volume, lower diabetes risk was associated with performing moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) ≥2250 METs/week (OR 0.58, 95%CI 0.42 to 0.81) in middle-aged group (45-64 years), whereas no significant associations between MVPA and diabetes risk were found in older aged group (≥65 years). Our results revealed that physical inactivity is prevalent in China, with a greater proportion in the diabetes group. Lower risk of diabetes was associated with higher frequency, longer duration and longer volume of PA at higher intensity in middle-aged respondents and similar associations at lower intensity for the older adults. Additionally, further well-designed prospective studies are needed to confirm our findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17217803DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7663282PMC
October 2020

Anemia and Kidney Function Decline among the Middle-Aged and Elderly in China: A Population-Based National Longitudinal Study.

Biomed Res Int 2020 5;2020:2303541. Epub 2020 Oct 5.

Renal Division, Department of Medicine, Peking University First Hospital, Peking University Institute of Nephrology, Beijing, China.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a public health burden, and anemia is common among patients with CKD. However, less is known regarding the longitudinal association between anemia and deterioration of kidney function among the general population. The China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study is a nationally representative survey for households with members aged ≥ 45 years. Participants without creatinine and demographic data in 2011 and 2015 were excluded. Anemia was defined according to definitions of the World Health Organization. Rapid decline in kidney function was defined as a ≥16.9% (quartile 3) decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), calculated using the CKD-EPI equation during 2011-2015. Multivariate logistic regression and restricted cubic splines were used to explore their relationship. Altogether, 7210 eligible participants were included in the analysis, with a mean age of 58.6 ± 8.8 years. Rapid decline in kidney function occurred among 1802 (25.0%) participants. Those with kidney function decline were more likely to be older, male, and have anemia, lower eGFRs, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease ( < 0.05). Anemia, or hemoglobin, was independently associated with rapid decline in kidney function after adjusting for potential confounding factors (OR = 1.64, 95% CI, 1.32-2.04; OR = 0.90, 95% CI, 0.87-0.94, respectively). Restricted cubic splines showed a nonlinear relationship between hemoglobin and rapid decline in kidney function, especially for men with anemia ( < 0.05). In conclusion, anemia is an independent risk factor for progression of kidney function among the middle-aged and elderly population. Attentive management and intervention strategies targeting anemia could be effective to reduce the risk of kidney failure and improve the prognosis of the general population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/2303541DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7556055PMC
May 2021

Sex differences in clinical characteristics and risk factors for mortality among severe patients with COVID-19: a retrospective study.

Aging (Albany NY) 2020 Oct 13;12(19):18833-18843. Epub 2020 Oct 13.

Department of Anesthesiology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) became a global pandemic. Males, compared to females, seem to be more susceptible to COVID-19, but related evidence is scarce, especially in severe patients. We explored sex differences in clinical characteristics and potential risk factors for mortality in severe COVID-19 patients. In this retrospective cohort study, we included all severe COVID-19 patients admitted to Eastern Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China, with a definitive clinical outcome as of Apr 10, 2020. Of the included 651 patients, 332 were male, and 319 were female. Males and females did not differ in age and underlying comorbidities. Males were more likely than females to report fever and develop serious complications, including acute respiratory distress syndrome, secondary infection, acute cardiac injury, coagulopathy, acute kidney injury and arrhythmia. Further, males had much higher mortality relative to females. Multivariable regression showed neutrophilia (odds ratio 6.845, 95% CI 1.227-38.192, =0.028), thrombocytopenia (19.488, 3.030-25.335, =0.002), hypersensitive troponin I greater than 0.04 pg/mL (6.058, 1.545-23.755, =0.010), and procalcitonin greater than 0.1 ng/mL (6.350, 1.396-28.882, =0.017) on admission were associated with in-hospital death. With either of these risk factors, the cumulative survival rate was relatively lower in males than in females. In conclusion, males are more likely than females to develop serious complications and progress to death. The potential risk factors of neutrophilia, thrombocytopenia, hypersensitive troponin I greater than 0.04 pg/mL and procalcitonin more than 0.1 ng/mL may help clinicians to identify patients with poor outcomes at an early stage, especially in males.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.103793DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7732274PMC
October 2020

Association between kidney function and the risk of cancer: Results from the China Health and Retirement longitudinal study (CHARLS).

J Cancer 2020 13;11(21):6429-6436. Epub 2020 Sep 13.

Renal Division, Department of Medicine, Peking University First Hospital; Institute of Nephrology, Peking University; Key Laboratory of Renal Disease, National Health and Family Planning Commission of the People's Republic of China; Key Laboratory of Chronic Kidney Disease Prevention and Treatment, Ministry of Education, Beijing, China.

Increased cancer risk after dialysis or transplantation has been recognized, but studies of cancer in pre-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) are extremely limited. Therefore, we aim to investigate the risk of cancer in individuals with reduced kidney function. This study was based on China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS), a nationally representative population aged ≥ 45 years old. We included 11 508 (5364 male) individuals with measurement of serum creatinine and without history of cancer at baseline. Incident cancer cases were documented in the biennial questionnaire. The mean age was 58.7 ± 9.8 years. Participants with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥ 90 ml/min/1.73m, 60 to 89 ml/min/1.73m, and eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73m accounted for 62.9%, 33.7% and 3.4%, respectively. During 42 895 person-years' follow-up, 217 new cases of cancer were recorded. In participants with eGFR < 90 ml/min/1.73m, cubic spline showed linear relationship between the risk of cancer and eGFR, while remained stable and no association in participants with eGFR > 90 ml/min/1.73m. Compared to participants with eGFR ≥ 90 ml/min/1.73m, those with eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73m was associated with the increased risk of cancer in the fully adjusted model (hazard ratio 2.08; 95% confidence interval 1.22-3.53); and the risk for kidney and lung cancers was higher among those with eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73m. Reduced kidney function is associated with a higher risk of cancer and should be integrated into risk-stratification of cancer screening and management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/jca.47175DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7532505PMC
September 2020

The mortality of lung cancer attributable to smoking among adults in China and the United States during 1990-2017.

Cancer Commun (Lond) 2020 11 8;40(11):611-619. Epub 2020 Oct 8.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Health Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei, 430071, P. R. China.

Background: Statistical data on the burden and relevant risk factors of lung cancer are valuable for policy-making. This study aimed to compare the mortality of lung cancer attributable to smoking stratified by sex and age among adults in China and the United States (US).

Methods: We extracted age-standardized mortality rates of lung cancer during 1990-2017 using the comparative risk assessment framework of the 2017 Global Burden of Disease study. We performed an age-period-cohort analysis to estimate time trend of lung cancer mortality attributable to smoking.

Results: During 1990-2017, the age-standardized mortality rate of lung cancer was increasing in China but decreasing in the US for both sexes. The mortality attributable to smoking in China showed a generally increasing trend, while a continuous decrease was observed in the US. The age-period-cohort analysis showed a similar trend of age effect among adults between China and the US: the mortality substantially increased from the 30-34 to 80-84 age group and subsequently decreased in the 90-94 age group. However, the period effect rapidly increased in Chinese adults during 1990-2017, while it tended to be stable in the US although it was still slightly increasing in women. The cohort effect generally peaked in the earlier cohort born in 1902-1906 in the two countries.

Conclusions: During 1990-2017, the lung cancer mortality attributable to smoking and the period effect are generally increasing in Chinese adults; the mortality attributable to smoking is decreasing in the US adults, but the period effect tends to be stable. The rapid aging and prevalence of smoking may intensify the increasing mortality of lung cancer in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cac2.12099DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7668493PMC
November 2020

Spatially resolved electrochemistry enabled by thin-film optical interference.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2020 Oct;56(82):12359-12362

Institute of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China.

Herein, we report an approach with sub-micrometer spatial resolution for studying local electrochemistry based on thin-film optical interference. The spatial resolution is achieved by successive interferometric imaging of a nanochannel membrane coated electrode during an electrochemical (EC) reaction. The EC reaction of redox molecules on the electrode induces variation of the refractive index of the nanochannel membrane, leading to changes of the intensity of interferometric light. Local EC reactions thus can be studied from the optical signal. The refractometry-based approach is versatile and label-free, and has promising application in nanosensing and nanocatalysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cc05265eDOI Listing
October 2020
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