Publications by authors named "Ya Wang"

1,066 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

C/EBPβ promotes poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor resistance by enhancing homologous recombination repair in high-grade serous ovarian cancer.

Oncogene 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Cancer Biology Research Center (Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education), Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, People's Republic of China.

PARP inhibitors (PARPi) are efficacious in treating high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HG-SOC) with homologous recombination (HR) deficiency. However, they exhibit suboptimal efficiency in HR-proficient cancers. Here, we found that the expression of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ), a transcription factor, was inversely correlated with PARPi sensitivity in vitro and in vivo, both in HR-proficient condition. High C/EBPβ expression enhanced PARPi tolerance; PARPi treatment in turn induced C/EBPβ expression. C/EBPβ directly targeted and upregulated multiple HR genes (BRCA1, BRIP1, BRIT1, and RAD51), thereby inducing restoration of HR capacity and mediating acquired PARPi resistance. C/EBPβ is a key regulator of the HR pathway and an indicator of PARPi responsiveness. Targeting C/EBPβ could induce HR deficiency and rescue PARPi sensitivity accordingly. Our findings indicate that HR-proficient patients may benefit from PARPi via targeting C/EBPβ, and C/EBPβ expression levels enable predicting and tracking PARPi responsiveness during treatment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41388-021-01788-4DOI Listing
May 2021

Myelinated Retinal Nerve Fiber Progression in a 10-Year Follow-Up. The Beijing Eye Study 2001/2011.

Am J Ophthalmol 2021 May 2. Epub 2021 May 2.

Beijing Institute of Ophthalmology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences Key Laboratory, Beijing, China; Department of Ophthalmology, Medical Faculty Mannheim of the Ruprecht-Karls-University Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany; Institute of Clinical and Scientific Ophthalmology and Acupuncture Jonas & Panda, Heidelberg, Germany; Institute of Molecular and Clinical Ophthalmology Basel, Switzerland.

Purpose: To assess the prevalence of myelinated retinal nerve fibers (MRNFs), the rate of their change in a 10-year follow-up, and associations with ocular and systematic parameters in a population-based cohort.

Design: Longitudinal population-based cohort study.

Methods: The Beijing Eye study including 4439 participants aged 40+ years in 2001 and was repeated in 2011, with 2695 individuals (66.4% of the surviving) being re-examined in 2011. All participants underwent detailed physical and ocular examinations. MRNFs were diagnosed on fundus photographs and their change was assessed using a flicker method of fundus photographs.

Results: Out of 35 eyes (29 participants) with detected MRNFs at baseline (mean prevalence:0.4±0.26% per eye or 0.7%±0.41% per individual), 23 eyes from 20 individuals (17 (85%) participants with unilateral MRNFs) were re-examined in 2011. MRNF enlargement was detected in all 19 eyes (100%) with clear fundus photographs. The mean MRNF area increased from 4233±3670 µm (range:178-11643 µm) at baseline to 5243±4092 µm (range:196-13297µm) at follow-up (P<0.001), by 1010±1026 µm (18-3967 µm) or by 47%±74% (9-315%). A larger MRNF increase was associated with an MRNF location distant from the optic disc as compared to a juxtapapillary location (P=0.001, standardized regression coefficient beta:-0.53), smaller MRNF area at baseline (P=0.006, beta:-0.34), and higher serum concentration of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) (P<0.001, beta:0.57).

Conclusions: MRNFs (mean prevalence per eye:0.4%) showed, in association with higher LDL serum concentration and peripheral located MRNF, an enlargement during a 10-year follow-up, while in the same period no new MRNFs were detected in the total study cohort.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajo.2021.04.018DOI Listing
May 2021

Efficient Dual-Band White-Light Emission with High Color Rendering from Zero-Dimensional Organic Copper Iodide.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

School of Optical and Electronic Information, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan, Hubei 430074, China.

Broad-band white-light emissions from organic-inorganic lead halide hybrids have attracted considerable attention in energy-saving solid-state lighting (SSL) applications. However, the toxicity of lead in these hybrids hinders their commercial prospects, and the low photoluminescence quantum yields (PLQYs) cannot meet the requirements for efficient lighting. Here, we report a highly efficient dual-band white-light emission from organic copper iodide, (CHN)CuI, which exhibits a high PLQY of 54.3% and excellent air stability. The single-crystalline (CHN)CuI possesses a unique zero-dimensional (0D) structure, in which the isolated [CuI] dimers are periodically embedded in the wide band gap organic framework of CHN. This perfect 0D structure can cause significant quantum confinement and strong electron-phonon coupling, which contributes to efficient emissions from self-trapped excitons (STEs). Photophysical studies revealed the presence of two self-trapped emitting states in [CuI] dimers, whose populations are highly sensitive to the temperature that governs the molecular environment for [CuI] dimers and the thermal activation energy of STEs. An ultraviolet (UV) excited white light-emitting diode fabricated using this single-phase white-light emitter exhibits a high color rendering index (CRI) of 78. The new material provides a promising emitter, having a high PLQY and a high CRI simultaneously, for SSL and display applications.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c03881DOI Listing
May 2021

Global Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy and Projection of Burden through 2045: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Ophthalmology 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore, Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore; Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore; Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore. Electronic address:

Objective: To provide updated estimates on the global prevalence and number of people with diabetic retinopathy (DR) through 2045.

Clinical Relevance: The International diabetes federation (IDF) estimated the global population with diabetes mellitus (DM) to be 463 million in 2019 and 700 million in 2045. DR remains a common complication of DM and a leading cause of preventable blindness in the adult working population.

Methods: We conducted a systematic review using PubMed, Medline, Web of Science and Scopus for population-based studies, published up to March 2020. Random effect meta-analysis with logit transformation was performed to estimate global and regional prevalence of DR, vision-threatening DR (VTDR), and clinically significant macular edema (CSME). Projections of DR, VTDR and CSME burden were based on population data from the IDF Atlas 2019.

Results: We included 59 population-based studies. Amongst individuals with diabetes, global prevalence was 22.27% (95% confidence interval [CI], 19.73-25.03%) for DR, 6.17% (95%CI 5.43 - 6.98%) for VTDR and 4.07% (95%CI 3.42 - 4.82%) for CSME. In 2020, the number of adults worldwide with DR, VTDR and CSME was estimated to be 103.12, 28.54 and 18.83 million, respectively; and by 2045, is projected to increase to 160.50, 44.82 and 28.61 million, respectively. DR prevalence was highest in Africa (35.90%), and North American and Caribbean regions (33.30%); and lowest in South and Central America region (13.37%). In meta-regression models adjusting for habitation type, response rate, study year and DR diagnostic method, Hispanics (odds ratio [OR], 2.92; 95% CI, 1.22-6.98) and Middle Easterners (OR, 2.44; 95% CI, 1.51-3.94) with diabetes were more likely to have DR, compared to Asians.

Conclusions: The global DR burden is expected to remain high through 2045, disproportionately affecting countries in Middle East and North Africa, and Western Pacific. These updated estimates may guide DR screening, treatment, and public healthcare strategies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ophtha.2021.04.027DOI Listing
April 2021

Controllable Spin Switching in a Single-Molecule Magnetic Tunneling Junction.

Nanoscale Res Lett 2021 May 1;16(1):77. Epub 2021 May 1.

School of Automotive Engineering, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu, China.

A new type of spin-current filter is proposed that consists of a single-molecule magnet (SMM) coupled to two normal metal electrodes. It is shown that this tunneling junction can generate a highly spin-polarized current, whose spin polarization can be switched by means of magnetic fields and gate voltages applied to the SMM. This spin switching in the SMM tunnel junction arises from spin-selective single-electron resonant tunneling via the lowest unoccupied molecular orbit of the SMM. The electron current spectrum is still spin polarized in the absence of an external magnetic field, which can help to judge whether the molecule's spin state has reached the ground-state doublet [Formula: see text]. This device can be realized with current technologies and may have practical use in spintronics and quantum information.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s11671-021-03531-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8088424PMC
May 2021

Associations of short-term PM exposures with nasal oxidative stress, inflammation and lung function impairment and modification by GSTT1-null genotype: A panel study of the retired adults.

Environ Pollut 2021 Apr 24;285:117215. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

School of Public Health, Xinxiang Medical University, Xinxiang, Henan Province, 453003, China. Electronic address:

PM (particulate matter ≤2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter) is a major urban air pollutant worldwide. Its effects on the respiratory system of the susceptible population have been less characterized. This study aimed to estimate the association of short-term PM exposure with respiratory outcomes of the retired adults, and to examine whether these associations were stronger among the subjects with GSTT-null genotype. 32 healthy subjects (55-77 years) were recruited for five follow-up examinations. Ambient concentrations of PM were monitored consecutively for 7 days prior to physical examination. Pulmonary outcomes including forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV), peak expiratory flow (PEF), and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), and nasal fluid concentrations of 8-epi-prostaglandin F2 alpha (8-epi-PGF2α), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-8 (IL-8) and IL-1β were measured. A linear mixed-effect model was introduced to evaluate the associations of PM concentrations with respiratory outcomes. Additionally, GSTT1 genotype-based stratification was performed to characterize modification on PM-related respiratory outcomes. We found that a 10 μg/m increase in PM was associated with decreases of 0.52 L (95% confidence interval [CI]: -1.04, -0.002), 0.64 L (95% CI: -1.13, -0.16), 0.1 (95% CI: -0.23, 0.04) and 2.87 L/s (95% CI: -5.09, -0.64) in FVC, FEV, FEV/FVC ratio and PEF at lag 2, respectively. Meanwhile, marked increases of 80.82% (95% CI: 5.13%, 156.50%) in IL-8, 77.14% (95% CI: 1.88%, 152.40%) in IL-1β and 67.87% (95% CI: 14.85%, 120.88%) in 8-epi-PGF2α were observed as PM concentration increased by 10 μg/m at lag 2. Notably, PM-associated decreases in FVC and PEF and increase in FeNO were stronger among the subjects with GSTT1-null genotype. In summary, short-term exposure to PM is associated with nasal inflammation, oxidative stress and lung function reduction in the retired subjects. Lung function reduction and inflammation are stronger among the subjects with GSTT1-null genotype.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.117215DOI Listing
April 2021

Whole-genome sequencing reveals rare off-target mutations in CRISPR/Cas9-edited grapevine.

Hortic Res 2021 May 1;8(1):114. Epub 2021 May 1.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology in Arid Areas, College of Horticulture, Northwest A&F University, 712100, Yangling, Shaanxi, China.

The CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-associated protein 9 (Cas9) system is a powerful tool for targeted genome editing, with applications that include plant biotechnology and functional genomics research. However, the specificity of Cas9 targeting is poorly investigated in many plant species, including fruit trees. To assess the off-target mutation rate in grapevine (Vitis vinifera), we performed whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of seven Cas9-edited grapevine plants in which one of two genes was targeted by CRISPR/Cas9 and three wild-type (WT) plants. In total, we identified between 202,008 and 272,397 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and between 26,391 and 55,414 insertions/deletions (indels) in the seven Cas9-edited grapevine plants compared with the three WT plants. Subsequently, 3272 potential off-target sites were selected for further analysis. Only one off-target indel mutation was identified from the WGS data and validated by Sanger sequencing. In addition, we found 243 newly generated off-target sites caused by genetic variants between the Thompson Seedless cultivar and the grape reference genome (PN40024) but no true off-target mutations. In conclusion, we observed high specificity of CRISPR/Cas9 for genome editing of grapevine.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41438-021-00549-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8087786PMC
May 2021

Identification of Hub Genes Associated With Sensitivity of 5-Fluorouracil Based Chemotherapy for Colorectal Cancer by Integrated Bioinformatics Analysis.

Front Oncol 2021 12;11:604315. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Institute of Molecular Precision Medicine and Hunan Key Laboratory of Molecular Precision Medicine, Department of General Surgery, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignant tumors. 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) has been used for the standard first-line treatment for CRC patients for several decades. Although 5-FU based chemotherapy has increased overall survival (OS) of CRC patients, the resistance of CRC to 5-FU based chemotherapy is the principal cause for treatment failure. Thus, identifying novel biomarkers to predict response to 5-FU based chemotherapy is urgently needed. In the present study, the gene expression profile of GSE3964 from the Gene Expression Omnibus database was used to explore the potential genes related to intrinsic resistance to 5-FU. A gene module containing 81 genes was found to have the highest correlation with chemotherapy response using Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis (WGCNA). Then a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed and ten hub genes (, , , , , , , , , and ) were identified using the CytoHubba plugin of Cytoscape. Seven of these hub genes showed significant differences in expression between chemotherapy-sensitive and chemotherapy-resistant samples. The prognostic value of these seven genes was evaluated using TCGA COAD (Colorectal Adenocarcinoma) data. The results showed that TGFBI was highly expressed in chemotherapy-sensitive patients, and patients with high TGFBI expression have better survival.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.604315DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8071956PMC
April 2021

Elongation of the disc-fovea distance and retinal vessel straightening in high myopia in a 10-year follow-up of the Beijing eye study.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 26;11(1):9006. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Beijing Institute of Ophthalmology, Beijing Tongren Eye Center, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing Ophthalmology and Visual Science Key Laboratory, Beijing, China.

To assess changes in the disc-fovea distance (DFD) in highly myopic eyes in a 10-year population-based follow-up study. The case control study included all highly myopic eyes (myopic refractive error ≥ - 6.0 diopters or axial length ≥ 26.0 mm) and a randomized group of non-highly myopic eyes examined in the population-based Beijing Eye Study 2001 and 2011. Using fundus photographs and optical coherence tomographic images, we assessed changes in DFD, parapapillary gamma zone, angle kappa (angle between the temporal arterial arcades), and course of papillo-macular retinal vessels. The study included 89 highly myopic eyes and 86 non-highly myopic eyes. DFD elongation, gamma zone widening, angle kappa decrease and straightening of papillo-macular retinal vessels were detected more often (all P < 0.001) in the highly myopic group than in the non-highly myopic group (63/89 versus 9/86;75/89 versus 18/86;61/89 versus 9/86; and 58/89 versus 7/86,respectively). Gamma zone enlargement, angle kappa reduction and papillo-macular retinal vessel straightening were significantly (all P < 0.001) associated with DFD elongation. The length of macular Bruch's membrane on the disc-fovea line and the vertical distance between the temporal arterial arcade did not change during follow-up. DFD elongation (10-year incidence 70.8% in highly myopic eyes) was associated with gamma zone enlargement, while macular Bruch's membrane length remained unchanged. It supports the notion of a temporal shift of an otherwise stable posterior Bruch's membrane in axially elongated eyes. Straightening of the papillo-macular vessels with increasing gamma zone width suggests a coincident stretching of the papillo-macular retinal nerve fibers and inner limiting membrane.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-88579-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8076186PMC
April 2021

CtIP suppresses primary microRNA maturation and promotes metastasis of colon cancer cells in a xenograft mouse model.

J Biol Chem 2021 Apr 23:100707. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Beijing Key Laboratory of DNA Damage Response and College of Life Sciences, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048, China. Electronic address:

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of eukaryotic gene expression. The post-transcriptional maturation of miRNAs is controlled by the Drosha-DGCR8 microprocessor. Dysregulation of miRNA biogenesis has been implicated in the pathogenesis of human diseases, including cancers. CtIP is a well-known DNA repair factor that promotes the processing of DNA double-strand break (DSB) to initiate homologous-recombination-mediated DSB repair. However, it was unclear whether CtIP has other unknown cellular functions. Here, we aimed to uncover the roles of CtIP in miRNA maturation and cancer cell metastasis. We found that CtIP is a potential regulatory factor that suppresses the processing of miRNA primary transcripts (pri-miRNA). CtIP directly bound to both DGCR8 and pri-miRNAs through a conserved Sae2-like domain, reduced the binding of Drosha to DGCR8 and pri-miRNA substrate and inhibited processing activity of Drosha complex. CtIP depletion significantly increased the expression levels of a subset of mature miRNAs, including miR-302 family members which are associated with tumor progression and metastasis in several cancer types. We also found that CtIP-inhibited miRNAs, such as miR-302 family members, are not crucial for DSB repair. However, increase of miR-302b levels or loss of CtIP function severely suppressed HCT116 tumor cell metastasis in a mouse xenograft model. These studies reveal a previously unrecognized mechanism of CtIP in miRNA processing and tumor metastasis that represents a new function of CtIP in cancer.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbc.2021.100707DOI Listing
April 2021

Deep Learning-Based Estimation of Axial Length and Subfoveal Choroidal Thickness From Color Fundus Photographs.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 9;9:653692. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Intraocular Tumor Diagnosis and Treatment, Beijing Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences Key Laboratory, Medical Artificial Intelligence Research and Verification Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, Beijing Tongren Eye Center, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

This study aimed to develop an automated computer-based algorithm to estimate axial length and subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) based on color fundus photographs. In the population-based Beijing Eye Study 2011, we took fundus photographs and measured SFCT by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and axial length by optical low-coherence reflectometry. Using 6394 color fundus images taken from 3468 participants, we trained and evaluated a deep-learning-based algorithm for estimation of axial length and SFCT. The algorithm had a mean absolute error (MAE) for estimating axial length and SFCT of 0.56 mm [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.53,0.61] and 49.20 μm (95% CI: 45.83,52.54), respectively. Estimated values and measured data showed coefficients of determination of = 0.59 (95% CI: 0.50,0.65) for axial length and = 0.62 (95% CI: 0.57,0.67) for SFCT. Bland-Altman plots revealed a mean difference in axial length and SFCT of -0.16 mm (95% CI: -1.60,1.27 mm) and of -4.40 μm (95% CI, -131.8,122.9 μm), respectively. For the estimation of axial length, heat map analysis showed that signals predominantly from overall of the macular region, the foveal region, and the extrafoveal region were used in the eyes with an axial length of < 22 mm, 22-26 mm, and > 26 mm, respectively. For the estimation of SFCT, the convolutional neural network (CNN) used mostly the central part of the macular region, the fovea or perifovea, independently of the SFCT. Our study shows that deep-learning-based algorithms may be helpful in estimating axial length and SFCT based on conventional color fundus images. They may be a further step in the semiautomatic assessment of the eye.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.653692DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8063031PMC
April 2021

Association between Vitamin D Levels and the Risk of Metabolic Syndrome in a Rural Chinese Population.

Biomed Environ Sci 2021 Apr;34(4):330-333

Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, College of Public Health of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, Henan, China.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3967/bes2021.043DOI Listing
April 2021

Retinal photograph-based deep learning algorithms for myopia and a blockchain platform to facilitate artificial intelligence medical research: a retrospective multicohort study.

Lancet Digit Health 2021 05;3(5):e317-e329

Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing, China.

Background: By 2050, almost 5 billion people globally are projected to have myopia, of whom 20% are likely to have high myopia with clinically significant risk of sight-threatening complications such as myopic macular degeneration. These are diagnoses that typically require specialist assessment or measurement with multiple unconnected pieces of equipment. Artificial intelligence (AI) approaches might be effective for risk stratification and to identify individuals at highest risk of visual loss. However, unresolved challenges for AI medical studies remain, including paucity of transparency, auditability, and traceability.

Methods: In this retrospective multicohort study, we developed and tested retinal photograph-based deep learning algorithms for detection of myopic macular degeneration and high myopia, using a total of 226 686 retinal images. First we trained and internally validated the algorithms on datasets from Singapore, and then externally tested them on datasets from China, Taiwan, India, Russia, and the UK. We also compared the performance of the deep learning algorithms against six human experts in the grading of a randomly selected dataset of 400 images from the external datasets. As proof of concept, we used a blockchain-based AI platform to demonstrate the real-world application of secure data transfer, model transfer, and model testing across three sites in Singapore and China.

Findings: The deep learning algorithms showed robust diagnostic performance with areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves [AUC] of 0·969 (95% CI 0·959-0·977) or higher for myopic macular degeneration and 0·913 (0·906-0·920) or higher for high myopia across the external testing datasets with available data. In the randomly selected dataset, the deep learning algorithms outperformed all six expert graders in detection of each condition (AUC of 0·978 [0·957-0·994] for myopic macular degeneration and 0·973 [0·941-0·995] for high myopia). We also successfully used blockchain technology for data transfer, model transfer, and model testing between sites and across two countries.

Interpretation: Deep learning algorithms can be effective tools for risk stratification and screening of myopic macular degeneration and high myopia among the large global population with myopia. The blockchain platform developed here could potentially serve as a trusted platform for performance testing of future AI models in medicine.

Funding: None.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2589-7500(21)00055-8DOI Listing
May 2021

Molecular simulation, characteristics and mechanism of thermal-responsive acetylated amylose V-type helical complexes.

J Mater Chem B 2021 Apr 6;9(15):3389-3400. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of the Ministry of Education, School of Life Science and Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, P. R. China.

To explore the thermal-responsive characteristics of acetylated amylose-guest V-type helical complexes (AAGHCs) and their potential use as thermal-responsive drug carriers, different types of AAGHCs were built, in which acetylated amylose was used as a host, and iodine, propofol, or hexane was utilized as the guest molecule. Their thermal-responsive characteristics were investigated through molecular dynamic (MD) simulation and corresponding experiments. MD simulation showed that the thermal-responsive helix-unfolding and guest-release behavior in AAGHCs, and the complete unfolding of AAGHC could be divided into brewing, triggering and collapsing periods. Energy analysis revealed that the Lana-Jones potential is an important binding energy that bridges host and guest molecules and enhances the stability of the helix. The various types or number of guests showed different binding energies. The stronger the binding energy, higher is the temperature required to trigger the unfolding of the helix and the releasing of guests. FT-IR and X-ray diffraction analyses confirmed the structures of AAGHCs. The change in hydrated size, and UV-VIS absorption of AAGHCs at high temperatures both confirmed the thermal-responsiveness of AAGHCs. The fluorescence fluctuation of loaded 7-hydroxycoumarin reflected the same thermal-responsive process and mechanism as MD simulation. This study provides meaningful theoretical guidance for the design of thermal-responsive drug carriers based on acetylated amylose-guest V-type helical complexes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1tb00102gDOI Listing
April 2021

Superparamagnetic iron oxide-gold nanoparticles conjugated with porous coordination cages: Towards controlled drug release for non-invasive neuroregeneration.

Nanomedicine 2021 Apr 16:102392. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Chemistry, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA; Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA. Electronic address:

This paper reports a smart intracellular nanocarrier for sustainable and controlled drug release in non-invasive neuroregeneration. The nanocarrier is composed by superparamagnetic iron oxide-gold (SPIO-Au) core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) conjugated with porous coordination cages (PCCs) through the thiol-containing molecules as bridges. The negatively charged PCC-2 and positively charged PCC-3 are compared for intracellular targeting. Both types result in intracellular targeting via direct penetration across cellular membranes. However, the pyrylium (Py)-PEG-SH bridge enabled functionalization of SPIO-Au NPs with PCC-3 exhibits higher interaction with PC-12 neuron-like cells, compared with the rhodamine B (RhB)-PEG-SH bridge enabled case and the stand-alone SPIO-Au NPs. With neglectable toxicities to PC-12 cells, the proposed SPIO-Au-RhB(Py)-PCC-2(3) nanocarriers exhibit effective drug loading capacity of retinoic acid (RA) at 13.505 μg/mg of RA/NPs within 24 h. A controlled release of RA is achieved by using a low-intensity 525 nm LED light (100% compared to 40% for control group within 96 h).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nano.2021.102392DOI Listing
April 2021

An ERP study on proactive and reactive response inhibition in individuals with schizotypy.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 16;11(1):8394. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Neuropsychology and Applied Cognitive Neuroscience Laboratory, CAS Key Laboratory of Mental Health, Institute of Psychology, Beijing, China.

Schizotypy, a subclinical group at risk for schizophrenia, has been found to show impairments in response inhibition. However, it remains unclear whether this impairment is accompanied by outright stopping (reactive inhibition) or preparation for stopping (proactive inhibition). We recruited 20 schizotypy and 24 non-schizotypy individuals to perform a modified stop-signal task with electroencephalographic (EEG) data recorded. This task consists of three conditions based on the probability of stop signal: 0% (no stop trials, only go trials), 17% (17% stop trials), and 33% (33% stop trials), the conditions were indicated by the colour of go stimuli. For proactive inhibition (go trials), individuals with schizotypy exhibited significantly lesser increase in go response time (RT) as the stop signal probability increasing compared to non-schizotypy individuals. Individuals with schizotypy also exhibited significantly increased N1 amplitude on all levels of stop signal probability and increased P3 amplitude in the 17% stop condition compared with non-schizotypy individuals. For reactive inhibition (stop trials), individuals with schizotypy exhibited significantly longer stop signal reaction time (SSRT) in both 17% and 33% stop conditions and smaller N2 amplitude on stop trials in the 17% stop condition than non-schizotypy individuals. These findings suggest that individuals with schizotypy were impaired in both proactive and reactive response inhibition at behavioural and neural levels.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-87735-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8052443PMC
April 2021

Enhanced Written vs. Verbal Recall Accuracy Associated With Greater Prefrontal Activation: A Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study.

Front Behav Neurosci 2021 30;15:601698. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Third Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Changzhou, China.

Memory efficiency is influenced by the modalities of acquisition and retrieval. The recall accuracy of read or voiced material differs depending on whether the recall is given verbally or in writing. The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is critical for both attentional allocation and short-term memory, suggesting that different short-term memory recall modalities are associated with distinct mPFC processes and activation patterns. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to monitor mPFC oxygenation parameters of 30 healthy subjects during acquisition and recall tasks as a measure of neural activity. Oxygenation parameters and recall accuracy were compared between oral and written answers and the potential correlations were analyzed. Written responses were more accurate than verbal responses to the same questions and evoked greater changes in mPFC oxyhemoglobin (oxyHb) and total Hb (total-Hb). Furthermore, there were significant positive correlations between recall accuracy and both Δ[oxyHb] and Δ[total-Hb] in the mPFC. Memory accuracy of written material is greater when responses are also written rather than verbal. In both cases, recall accuracy was correlated with the degree of mPFC activity. This NIRS-based learning and memory paradigm may be useful for monitoring training efficacy, such as in patients with cognitive impairment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnbeh.2021.601698DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8042156PMC
March 2021

Peaks ofcircumpapillary retinal nerve fibre layer and associations in healthy eyes: the Beijing Eye Study 2011.

Br J Ophthalmol 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Beijing Institute of Ophthalmology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital University of Medical Science, Beijing Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences Key Laboratory, Beijing, China.

Aims: To investigate the distribution and associations of the circumpapillary retinal nerve fibre layer thickness (RNFLT) profile, characterised as peak height and peak position, in healthy eyes.

Methods: 667 healthy participants (294 male) were randomly selected from the Beijing Eye Study 2011. RNFLT was measured at 768 points at 3.4 mm circumpapillary position using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). The location and height of the superior temporally peak (Peak), superior nasal peak (Peak) and inferior temporal peak (Peak) were assessed.

Results: The RNFLT was thickest at Peak (194±25 µm; location: 288±12°), followed by Peak (182±25 µm; 73±10°) and Peak (125±23 µm; 135°±13°). In multivariable analysis, peak RNFLT decreased with longer axial length (p<0.001; correlation coefficient beta: -0.18 to -0.15; all peaks), older age (all p<0.01, beta: -0.10; Peak and Peak), female gender (p=0.026, beta: -0.09; Peak), and larger parapapillary gamma zone and beta zone width (p≤0.004, beta: -0.16 to-0.11; Peak). The temporal peaks were located more closely to the horizontal line in women (p≤0.020, beta: 0.09-0.11) and with longer axial length (p<0.001, beta: 0.27-0.31), while they were located more inferiorly in eyes with larger Bruch's membrane openings (BMOs) (p≤0.01, beta:0.10~0.11).

Conclusions: Peak RNFLT decreased by 0.34 µm for each increase of year in age (Peak and Peak), by 3.2-3.5 µm for each 1 mm increase in axial length (all three peaks), and was 4.5 µm thinner in women than in men. The position of temporal peaks depended on gender, axial length and BMO diameter. These associations should be taken into count in OCT-based RNFLT assessment for disease finding, especially in glaucoma evaluation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjophthalmol-2021-318869DOI Listing
April 2021

Individual-level socioeconomic status and contact or familiarity with people with mental illness: a cross-sectional study in Wuhou District, Chengdu, Southwest China.

BMC Fam Pract 2021 Apr 9;22(1):71. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Chengdu Dekang Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610041, China.

Background: People with mental illness (PWMI) often suffer from public stigma, which can make them unwilling to seek help and reduce access to early treatment. The aims of this study were to determine attitudes towards PWMI among the general public in a Chinese sample and to explore the relationships with sociodemographic characteristics.

Methods: A community-based, cross-sectional study was conducted from March to June 2019. The participants' attitudes towards PWMI were evaluated by the Chinese version of the Social Distance Scale (SDSC). An independent-sample T-test and one-way ANOVA were used to determine the association of categorical variables with the outcome variable. Multiple linear regression and Spearman correlations were computed to explore the correlation between SDSC scores and individual-level socioeconomic status (SES).

Results: A total of 1437 participants were recruited, and their total SDSC score was 12.53 (SD: 3.11). Univariate analysis results showed that age, education level, educational attainment, and individual-level SES as well as whether they were caregivers/family members of PWMI were correlated with SDSC scores. The results of regression analysis showed a significant effect caused by contact or familiarity with PWMI (B = -1.134, β = -.190, P < 0.001), as well as for individual-level SES (B = -.339, β = -.110, P < 0.001). Spearman correlation results showed that SDSC scores were negatively correlated with individual-level SES (r = -.078, p < 0.01) and contact or familiarity with PWMI (r = -.168, p < 0.001).

Conclusion: This study reveals that public stigma towards PWMI is common in Southwest China. Individuals who are not a family member or a caregiver of PWMI or have low education level or low individual-level SES need to be provided more anti-stigma interventions. Contacting with PWMI is also a potentially beneficial measure to reduce social distance.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12875-021-01422-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8035729PMC
April 2021

Immunophenotyping of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells in Septic Shock Patients With High-Dimensional Flow Cytometry Analysis Reveals Two Subgroups With Differential Responses to Immunostimulant Drugs.

Front Immunol 2021 22;12:634127. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Nepean Hospital, Penrith, NSW, Australia.

Sepsis is associated with a dysregulated inflammatory response to infection. Despite the activation of inflammation, an immune suppression is often observed, predisposing patients to secondary infections. Therapies directed at restoration of immunity may be considered but should be guided by the immune status of the patients. In this paper, we described the use of a high-dimensional flow cytometry (HDCyto) panel to assess the immunophenotype of patients with sepsis. We then isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with septic shock and mimicked a secondary infection by stimulating PBMCs for 4 h with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with or without prior exposure to either IFN-γ, or LAG-3Ig. We evaluated the response by means of flow cytometry and high-resolution clustering cum differential analysis and compared the results to PBMCs from healthy donors. We observed a heterogeneous immune response in septic patients and identified two major subgroups: one characterized by hypo-responsiveness (Hypo) and another one by hyper-responsiveness (Hyper). Hypo and Hyper groups showed significant differences in the production of cytokines/chemokine and surface human leukocyte antigen-DR (HLA-DR) expression in response to LPS stimulation, which were observed across all cell types. When pre-treated with either interferon gamma (IFN-γ) or lymphocyte-activation gene 3 (LAG)-3 recombinant fusion protein (LAG-3Ig) prior to LPS stimulation, cells from the Hypo group were shown to be more responsive to both immunostimulants than cells from the Hyper group. Our results demonstrate the importance of patient stratification based on their immune status prior to any immune therapies. Once sufficiently scaled, this approach may be useful for prescribing the right immune therapy for the right patient at the right time, the key to the success of any therapy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.634127DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8019919PMC
March 2021

Beyond Sociodemographic and COVID-19-Related Factors: The Association Between the Need for Psychological and Information Support from School and Anxiety and Depression.

Med Sci Monit 2021 Apr 7;27:e929280. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

West China School of Nursing/West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China (mainland).

BACKGROUND In addition to sociodemographic and COVID-19- related factors, the needs of school support, including material, psychological and information support, have seldom been discussed as factors influencing anxiety and depression among college students during the COVID-19 pandemic. MATERIAL AND METHODS In this cross-sectional study, 3351 college students from China were surveyed through questionnaires about their sociodemographic and COVID-19 characteristics, the needs of school support, and their experiences with anxiety and depression. RESULTS Anxiety and depression were reported by 6.88% and 10.50% of students, respectively. Married, higher education, non-medical, and urban students had significantly higher risks of anxiety or depression. Additionally, symptoms such as cough and fever, especially when following a possible contact with suspected individuals, quarantine history of a personal contact, going out 1-3 times a week, not wearing a mask, and spending 2-3 hours browsing COVID-19-related information were significantly associated with the occurrence of anxiety or depression. Those who used methods to regulate their emotional state, used a psychological hotline, and who had visited a psychiatrist showed higher anxiety or depression. Those who used online curricula and books, used preventive methods for COVID-19, and who had real-time information about the epidemic situation of the school showed lower anxiety and depression. CONCLUSIONS In addition to sociodemographic and COVID-19-related aspects, students' needs for psychological assistance and information from schools were also associated with anxiety and depression among college students.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/MSM.929280DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8040519PMC
April 2021

Fabrication a controlled-release pesticide for improving UV-shielding properties and reducing toxicity via coating polydopamine.

J Environ Sci Health B 2021 Apr 5:1-10. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

College of Plant Protection, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha, China.

Controlled-release formulations (CRFs) have potential applications in modern agriculture, for it can not only prolong the duration of agrochemicals but also alleviate the adverse effect on non-target organism. In this study, we constructed pyraclostrobin@SiO@polydopamine microcapsule (Pyr@SiO@PDA MC). The resulting microcapsule is a near-rod shape (about 1.15 μm), which has a drug-loading efficiency of 55%. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TG) revealed the successful entrapment of the pesticide. The coating of polydopamine (PDA) endowing the microcapsule with superior UV-shielding properties than pyraclostrobin@SiO microcapsule (Pyr@SiO MC). Compared with pyraclostrobin emulsifiable concentrate (EC), the Pyr@SiO@PDA MC exhibited 9.07-, 5.50-, 4.93- and 4.16-fold higher fungicidal activity against Rice blast fungus ( oryzae) at concentrations of 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 mg/L. Moreover, acute toxicity tests demonstrated that the sample on zebrafish with lower toxicity on the first day. These results showed that the obtained microcapsule may process broader application potential in agriculture.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03601234.2021.1908799DOI Listing
April 2021

Phosphorous doped g-CN supported cobalt phthalocyanine: An efficient photocatalyst for reduction of CO under visible-light irradiation.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Jul 7;594:658-668. Epub 2021 Feb 7.

Institute of Chemical and Industrial Bioengineering, Jilin Engineering Normal University, Changchun 130052, China.

The photoreduction of the green-house gas CO into carbon monoxide (CO) is a growing process due to the use of CO for the production of methanol in the Fischer-Tropsch process and the synthesis of many of the bulk chemicals. Here, we have synthesized phosphorous doped graphitic carbon nitride (P-g-CN) sensitized by the cobalt phthalocyanine complex for the molecular reduction of CO into CO under visible-light irradiation-the doping of phosphorous improved the stability as well as the harvesting of the visible region. The CoPc@P-g-CN hybrid photocatalyst exhibited the highest efficiency for the photoreduction of CO with a high yield of 295 μmol-g for CO under the experimental conditions. Also, hydrogen with low concentration was identified as a by-product under the experimental conditions. The photocatalyst had stability for six consecutive runs with negligible loss of the activity and no leaching of the cobalt content at the end of the sixth run of the photoreduction experiment. The stability of the photocatalysts is an advantage, which made it a suitable candidate for the current reaction system.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2021.02.005DOI Listing
July 2021

Risk factors for postoperative hypocalcaemia after thyroidectomy: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Int Med Res 2021 Mar;49(3):300060521996911

Department of Nursing, School of Medicine, Huzhou University, Huzhou, Zhejiang Province, China.

Objective: A meta-analysis to investigate the risk factors for postoperative hypocalcaemia after thyroidectomy in adult patients.

Methods: A systematic search of publications in the electronic databases (PubMed®, The Cochrane Library, Web of Science, OVID and Embase®) from inception to June 2020 was conducted. Screening of titles, abstracts and full texts and data extraction were independently performed by two authors. The OR was selected as the pooled estimate.

Results: The analysis included 23 studies. Twelve significant risk factors for postoperative hypocalcaemia were identified: hypoparathyroidism, OR 5.58; total thyroidectomy, OR 3.59; hypomagnesaemia, OR 2.85; preoperative vitamin D deficiency, OR 2.32; female sex, OR 1.49; thyroid malignancy, OR 1.85; thyroiditis, OR 1.48; substernal multinodular goitres, OR 1.70; parathyroidectomy, OR 1.58; central compartment neck dissection, OR 1.17; modified radical neck dissection, OR 1.57; and central neck dissection, OR 1.54.

Conclusions: This meta-analysis provides moderate-to-high quality evidence that the 12 risk factors were predictive of postoperative hypocalcaemia, which should be monitored closely before thyroidectomy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0300060521996911DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8010841PMC
March 2021

Physarum polycephalum macroplasmodium exhibits countermeasures against TiO nanoparticle toxicity: A physiological, biochemical, transcriptional, and metabolic perspective.

Environ Pollut 2021 Jun 12;279:116936. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Microbial Genetic Engineering, Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Marine Bioresource and Eco-environmental Science, College of Life Sciences and Oceanography, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, 518060, China. Electronic address:

Concerns about the environmental and human health implications of TiO nanoparticles (nTiO) are growing with their increased use in consumer and industrial products. Investigations of the underlying molecular mechanisms of nTiO tolerance in organisms will assist in countering nTiO toxicity. In this study, the countermeasures exhibited by the slime mold Physarum polycephalum macroplasmodium against nTiO toxicity were investigated from a physiological, transcriptional, and metabolic perspective. The results suggested that the countermeasures against nTiO exposure include gene-associated metabolic rearrangements in cellular pathways involved in amino acid, carbohydrate, and nucleic acid metabolism. Gene-associated nonmetabolic rearrangements involve processes such as DNA repair, DNA replication, and the cell cycle, and occur mainly when macroplasmodia are exposed to inhibitory doses of nTiO. Interestingly, the growth of macroplasmodia and mammal cells was significantly restored by supplementation with a combination of responsive metabolites identified by metabolome analysis. Taken together, we report a novel model organism for the study of nTiO tolerance and provide insights into countermeasures taken by macroplasmodia in response to nTiO toxicity. Furthermore, we also present an approach to mitigate the effects of nTiO toxicity in cells by metabolic intervention.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.116936DOI Listing
June 2021

The development and validation of the perceived safety of intelligent connected vehicles scale.

Accid Anal Prev 2021 May 23;154:106092. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Baidu Intelligent Driving Experience Design Center, Beijing, China.

Whether the public feels psychologically safe about intelligent connected vehicles (ICVs) is crucial for this new technology to prevail. While researchers have realized the importance of perceived safety, a direct and psychometrically sound measure is still needed. This paper aimed to develop and validate a scale to measure the perceived safety of ICVs. In Study 1, an 8-item scale of the perceived safety was developed based on a literature review and used with a sample from Beijing (n = 373), among the people who are very likely to be the first wave of users. Exploratory factor analysis retained six items and found that a two-dimensional model (three items for cognitive safety and three items for emotional safety) best suited the data. Correlational analyses suggested that the two components may have unique causes and consequences. In Study 2, using a different sample from Shenzhen (n = 352), confirmatory factor analysis consolidated the two-factor model. Further correlational analyses showed that the scale had good criterion-related validity. Across two studies, cognitive safety was related to perceived controllability, the tendency to seek new technologies, ICV driving experience, perceived government support, drive intention and intention to be other road users. Emotional safety was correlated with social support, familiarity, benefit perception, purchase and recommend intention. These results suggest that the scale developed in this study is a useful and reliable tool to measure perceived safety. Implications for future studies and relevant policies are discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2021.106092DOI Listing
May 2021

Magneto-Electrically Enhanced Intracellular Catalysis of FePt-FeC Heterostructures for Chemodynamic Therapy.

Adv Mater 2021 Apr 23;33(17):e2100472. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry and Chemical Processes, School of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, East China Normal University, Shanghai, 200062, China.

Intracellular catalytic reactions can tailor tumor cell plasticity toward high-efficiency treatments, but the application is hindered by the low efficiency of intracellular catalysis. Here, a magneto-electronic approach is developed for efficient intracellular catalysis by inducing eddy currents of FePt-FeC heterostructures in mild alternating magnetic fields (frequency of f = 96 kHz and amplitude of B ≤ 70 mT). Finite element simulation shows a high density of induced charges gathering at the interface of FePt-FeC heterostructure in the alternating magnetic field. As a result, the concentration of an essential coenzyme-β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-in cancer cells is significantly reduced by the enhanced catalytic hydrogenation reaction of FePt-FeC heterostructures under alternating magnetic stimulation, leading to over 80% of senescent cancer cells-a vulnerable phenotype that facilitates further treatment. It is further demonstrated that senescent cancer cells can be efficiently killed by the chemodynamic therapy based on the enhanced Fenton-like reaction. By promoting intracellular catalytic reactions in tumors, this approach may enable precise catalytic tumor treatment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202100472DOI Listing
April 2021

High-fidelity single-shot readout of single electron spin in diamond with spin-to-charge conversion.

Nat Commun 2021 Mar 9;12(1):1529. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, China.

High fidelity single-shot readout of qubits is a crucial component for fault-tolerant quantum computing and scalable quantum networks. In recent years, the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond has risen as a leading platform for the above applications. The current single-shot readout of the NV electron spin relies on resonance fluorescence method at cryogenic temperature. However, the spin-flip process interrupts the optical cycling transition, therefore, limits the readout fidelity. Here, we introduce a spin-to-charge conversion method assisted by near-infrared (NIR) light to suppress the spin-flip error. This method leverages high spin-selectivity of cryogenic resonance excitation and flexibility of photoionization. We achieve an overall fidelity > 95% for the single-shot readout of an NV center electron spin in the presence of high strain and fast spin-flip process. With further improvements, this technique has the potential to achieve spin readout fidelity exceeding the fault-tolerant threshold, and may also find applications on integrated optoelectronic devices.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-21781-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7943573PMC
March 2021

Peripheral Monocyte Count and Age-Related Macular Degeneration. The Tongren Health Care Study.

Am J Ophthalmol 2021 Mar 15;227:143-153. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

From the Beijing Institute of Ophthalmology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences Key Laboratory, Beijing, China (C.C.X., Y.X.W., J.B.J.); Department of Ophthalmology, Medical Faculty Mannheim of the Ruprecht-Karls-University Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany (J.B.J.); Institute of Clinical and Scientific Ophthalmology and Acupuncture Jonas & Panda, Heidelberg, Germany; Institute of Molecular and Clinical Ophthalmology, Basel, Switzerland (J.B.J.).

Purpose: To assess potential associations between the prevalence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and systemic parameters in a Chinese population.

Design: Cross-sectional study.

Methods: The Tongren Health Care Study included individuals attending regular health care check-up examinations in the Beijing Tongren Hospital from 2017 to 2019. Detailed medical examinations and ophthalmic examinations were applied, including fundus photography. AMD was evaluated according to the Beckman Initiative guidelines.

Results: The study included 7,719 participants (mean age: 60.5 ± 8.1 years; range: 50-97 years). The prevalence of any, early, intermediate, and late AMD was 1,607 of 7,719 (20.8%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 20.1%, 21.9%), 832 of 7,719 (10.8%; 95% CI: 10.1%, 11.5%), 733 of 7,719 (9.5%; 95% CI: 8.9%, 10.2%), and 42 of 7,719 (0.50%; 95% CI: 0.40%, 0.70%), respectively. In multivariate analysis, the prevalence of any AMD increased with higher blood monocyte count (odds ratio [OR]:3.49; 95% CI: 2.26, 5.38; P < .001), after adjusting for older age (OR: 1.06; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.07; P < .001), higher serum concentration of calcium (OR: 2.52; 95% CI: 1.32, 4.84; P = .005), high-density lipoproteins (OR: 1.39; 95% CI: 1.19, 1.61; P < .001), and lower lipoprotein a (OR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.98, 0.99; P = .02). Similar findings were obtained for the prevalence of intermediate and late AMD combined. The association between higher monocyte count and higher AMD prevalence showed the highest odds ratio for the age group of 50-59 years (any AMD: OR: 4.35, P < .001; intermediate and late AMD: OR: 6.14, P < .001). Individuals with a monocyte count of ≥0.5 × 10/L as compared to participants with a monocyte of 0.1-0.4 × 10/L had a 1.45-fold increased risk for any AMD (OR: 1.45; 95% CI: 1.27, 1.64; P < .001) and 1.58 fold increase risk for intermediate/late AMD (OR: 1.58; 95% CI: 1.33, 1.87; P < .001).

Conclusion: A higher prevalence of early AMD, intermediate AMD, late AMD, and any AMD was associated with a higher peripheral monocyte count. In agreement with previous studies, the observation suggests monocytes playing a role in the pathogenesis of AMD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajo.2021.03.010DOI Listing
March 2021

Referral for disease-related visual impairment using retinal photograph-based deep learning: a proof-of-concept, model development study.

Lancet Digit Health 2021 01;3(1):e29-e40

Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore; Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore; Department of Ophthalmology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore. Electronic address:

Background: In current approaches to vision screening in the community, a simple and efficient process is needed to identify individuals who should be referred to tertiary eye care centres for vision loss related to eye diseases. The emergence of deep learning technology offers new opportunities to revolutionise this clinical referral pathway. We aimed to assess the performance of a newly developed deep learning algorithm for detection of disease-related visual impairment.

Methods: In this proof-of-concept study, using retinal fundus images from 15 175 eyes with complete data related to best-corrected visual acuity or pinhole visual acuity from the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases Study, we first developed a single-modality deep learning algorithm based on retinal photographs alone for detection of any disease-related visual impairment (defined as eyes from patients with major eye diseases and best-corrected visual acuity of <20/40), and moderate or worse disease-related visual impairment (eyes with disease and best-corrected visual acuity of <20/60). After development of the algorithm, we tested it internally, using a new set of 3803 eyes from the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases Study. We then tested it externally using three population-based studies (the Beijing Eye study [6239 eyes], Central India Eye and Medical study [6526 eyes], and Blue Mountains Eye Study [2002 eyes]), and two clinical studies (the Chinese University of Hong Kong's Sight Threatening Diabetic Retinopathy study [971 eyes] and the Outram Polyclinic Study [1225 eyes]). The algorithm's performance in each dataset was assessed on the basis of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC).

Findings: In the internal test dataset, the AUC for detection of any disease-related visual impairment was 94·2% (95% CI 93·0-95·3; sensitivity 90·7% [87·0-93·6]; specificity 86·8% [85·6-87·9]). The AUC for moderate or worse disease-related visual impairment was 93·9% (95% CI 92·2-95·6; sensitivity 94·6% [89·6-97·6]; specificity 81·3% [80·0-82·5]). Across the five external test datasets (16 993 eyes), the algorithm achieved AUCs ranging between 86·6% (83·4-89·7; sensitivity 87·5% [80·7-92·5]; specificity 70·0% [66·7-73·1]) and 93·6% (92·4-94·8; sensitivity 87·8% [84·1-90·9]; specificity 87·1% [86·2-88·0]) for any disease-related visual impairment, and the AUCs for moderate or worse disease-related visual impairment ranged between 85·9% (81·8-90·1; sensitivity 84·7% [73·0-92·8]; specificity 74·4% [71·4-77·2]) and 93·5% (91·7-95·3; sensitivity 90·3% [84·2-94·6]; specificity 84·2% [83·2-85·1]).

Interpretation: This proof-of-concept study shows the potential of a single-modality, function-focused tool in identifying visual impairment related to major eye diseases, providing more timely and pinpointed referral of patients with disease-related visual impairment from the community to tertiary eye hospitals.

Funding: National Medical Research Council, Singapore.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2589-7500(20)30271-5DOI Listing
January 2021