Publications by authors named "Ya Hou"

43 Publications

Efficacy and Safety of Sea Salt-Derived Physiological Saline Nasal Spray as Add-On Therapy in Patients with Acute Upper Respiratory Infection: A Multicenter Retrospective Cohort Study.

Med Sci Monit 2021 May 11;27:e929714. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Jiangxi Provincial People's Hospital Affiliated to Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi, China (mainland).

BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of seawater on nasal congestion and runny nose symptoms in adults with an acute upper respiratory infection (URI). MATERIAL AND METHODS This was a multicenter retrospective cohort trial of patients with acute URI and symptoms of nasal congestion and runny nose. The patients were assigned to 2 groups and were administered regular non-drug supportive treatment or supportive treatment with nasal irrigation with sea salt-derived physiological saline. The primary efficacy endpoint was the effective rate (percentage of patients with ≥30% symptom score reduction from baseline for nasal congestion and runny nose). RESULTS In total, 144 patients were enrolled, including 72 in each group, and 143 patients completed the study. Both groups had similar demographics and vital signs. The effective rates for nasal congestion and runny nose were significantly increased in the seawater group compared with patients in the control group (87.3% vs 59.7% for nasal congestion; 85.9% vs 61.1% for runny nose; both P<0.001). In addition, the 2 groups showed markedly different degrees of patient symptom score improvement in sleep quality and appetite (both P<0.01), but not in cough and fatigue (both P>0.05). There were no adverse events in either group. CONCLUSIONS The sea salt-derived physiological saline nasal spray device satisfactorily improved nasal congestion, runny nose, sleep quality, and appetite in adults with URI, with no adverse effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/MSM.929714DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8122848PMC
May 2021

Amelioration of diabetic retinopathy in db/db mice by treatment with different proportional three active ingredients from Tibetan medicine Berberis dictyophylla F.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Aug 6;276:114190. Epub 2021 May 6.

Innovative Institute of Chinese Medicine and Pharmacy, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, 611137, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Berberis dictyophylla F., a famous Tibetan medicine, has been used to prevent and treat diabetic retinopathy (DR) for thousands of years in clinic. However, its underlying mechanisms remain unclear.

Aim Of The Study: The present study was designed to probe the synergistic protection and involved mechanisms of berberine, magnoflorine and berbamine from Berberis dictyophylla F. on the spontaneous retinal damage of db/db mice.

Materials And Methods: The 14-week spontaneous model of DR in db/db mice were randomly divided into eight groups: model group, calcium dobesilate (CaDob, 0.23 g/kg) group and groups 1-6 (different proportional three active ingredients from Berberis dictyophylla F.). All mice were intragastrically administrated for a continuous 12 weeks. Body weight and fasting blood glucose (FBG) were recorded and measured. Hematoxylin-eosin and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) stainings were employed to evaluate the pathological changes and abnormal angiogenesis of the retina. ELISA was performed to assess the levels of IL-6, HIF-1α and VEGF in the serum. Immunofluorescent staining was applied to detect the protein levels of CD31, VEGF, p-p38, p-JNK, p-ERK and NF-κB in retina. In addition, mRNA expression levels of VEGF, Bax and Bcl-2 in the retina were monitored by qRT-PCR analysis.

Results: Treatment with different proportional three active ingredients exerted no significant effect on the weight, but decreased the FBG, increased the number of retinal ganglionic cells and restored internal limiting membrane. The results of PAS staining demonstrated that the drug treatment decreased the ratio of endothelial cells to pericytes while thinned the basal membrane of retinal vessels. Moreover, these different proportional active ingredients can markedly downregulate the protein levels of retinal CD31 and VEGF, and serum HIF-1α and VEGF. The gene expression of retinal VEGF was also suppressed. The levels of retinal p-p38, p-JNK and p-ERK proteins were decreased by drug treatment. Finally, drug treatment reversed the proinflammatory factors of retinal NF-κB and serum IL-6, and proapoptotic Bax gene expression, while increased antiapoptotic Bcl-2 gene expression.

Conclusions: These results indicated that DR in db/db mice can be ameliorated by treatment with different proportional three active ingredients from Berberis dictyophylla F. The potential vascular protection mechanisms may be involved in inhibiting the phosphorylation of the MAPK signaling pathway, thus decreasing inflammatory and apoptotic events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2021.114190DOI Listing
August 2021

Targeting P2 receptors in purinergic signaling: a new strategy of active ingredients in traditional Chinese herbals for diseases treatment.

Purinergic Signal 2021 Jun 22;17(2):229-240. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Innovative Institute of Chinese Medicine and Pharmacy, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, China.

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and its metabolites adenosine diphosphate, adenosine monophosphate, and adenosine in purinergic signaling pathway play important roles in many diseases. Activation of P2 receptors (P2R) channels and subsequent membrane depolarization can induce accumulation of extracellular ATP, and furtherly cause kinds of diseases, such as pain- and immune-related diseases, cardiac dysfunction, and tumorigenesis. Active ingredients of traditional Chinese herbals which exhibit superior pharmacological activities on diversified P2R channels have been considered as an alternative strategy of disease treatment. Experimental evidence of potential ingredients in Chinese herbs targeting P2R and their pharmacological activities were outlined in the study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11302-021-09774-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8155138PMC
June 2021

The status and model of children primary nephrotic syndrome in continuing nursing.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 Mar 22;10(3):2398-2407. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Department of Outpatient, Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong First Medical University, Jinan, China; Department of Outpatient, Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan, China.

Background: Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is a common glomerular disease in children. Nursing during hospitalization alone cannot solve the psychological, physiological and social health problems of children. Continuing care models may provide patients with more continuous and efficient care services. Therefore, the present study aimed to provide theoretical support for the implementation and development of children's primary nephrotic syndrome (PNS) and children's chronic disease continuing nursing through the construction of a children's PNS continuing nursing model.

Methods: Each item of the transitional care model for children with PNS was demonstrated using the Delphi method for two rounds of correspondence. The main items included four components: the composition of personnel, the responsibilities of each member, the content of work, and the evaluation indicators.

Results: A transitional care model for children with PNS was formed. The expert judgment coefficient of two rounds of correspondence was 0.84, the familiarity degree coefficient was 0.76, the authority degree coefficient was 0.80, the coefficient of variation was between 0.02 and 0.23, and the coordination coefficient was 0.458 and 0.327, respectively (P<0.01).

Conclusions: The experts in the present research were highly motivated, had a high degree of authority, and presented consistent opinions. Hence, the construction of a transitional care model for children with PNS is scientifically feasible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/apm-19-480DOI Listing
March 2021

Tibetan medicine Duoxuekang ameliorates hypobaric hypoxia-induced brain injury in mice by restoration of cerebrovascular function.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Apr 25;270:113629. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

School of Ethnic Medicine, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, 611137, China; Ethnic Medicine Academic Heritage Innovation Research Center, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, 611137, China; NMPA Key Laboratory for Quality Evaluation of Traditional Chinese Medicine (Traditional Chinese Patent Medicine), Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, 611137, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Duoxuekang (DXK, ཁྲག་འཕེལ་བདེ་བྱེད།) is a clinical experience prescription of CuoRu-Cailang, a famous Tibetan medicine master, which has effective advantages in the treatment of hypobaric hypoxia (HH)-induced brain injury. However, its underlying mechanisms remain unclear.

Aim Of The Study: The present study was designed to investigate the effects of DXK on cerebrovascular function of HH-induced brain injury in mice.

Materials And Methods: DSC-MR imaging was used to evaluate the effect of DXK on the brain blood perfusion of patients with hypoxic brain injury. HPLC analysis was used to detect the content of salidroside, gallic acid, tyrosol, corilagin, ellagic acid, isorhamnetin, quercetin and gingerol in DXK. The model of HH-induced brain injury in mice was established by an animal hypobaric and hypoxic chamber. The BABL/c mice were randomly divided into six groups: control group, model group, Hongjingtian oral liquid group (HOL, 3.3 ml/kg) and DXK groups (0.9, 1.8 and 3.6 g/kg). All mice (except the control group) were intragastrically administrated for a continuous 7 days and put into the animal hypobaric and hypoxic chamber after the last intragastric administration. Hematoxylin-eosin staining was employed to evaluate the pathological changes of brain tissue. Masson and Weigert stainings were used to detect the content of collagen fibers and elastic fibers of brain, respectively. Routine blood test and biochemical kits were used to analyze hematological parameters and oxidative stress indices. Immunofluorescence staining was applied to detect the protein levels of VEGF, CD31/vWF and α-SMA.

Results: The results of DSC-MR imaging confirmed that DXK can increased CBV in the left temporal lobe while decreased MTT in the right frontal lobe, right temporal lobe and right occipital lobe of the brain. DXK contains salidroside, gallic acid, tyrosol, corilagin, ellagic acid, isorhamnetin, quercetin and gingerol. Compared with the model group, DXK can ameliorate the atrophy and deformation, and increase the number of pyramidal neurons in hippocampal CA3 area and cortical neurocytes. Masson and Weigert stainings results revealed that DXK can significantly increase the content of collagen fibers and elastic fibers in brain. Routine blood test results demonstrated that DXK can dramatically decrease the levels of WBC, MCH and MCHC, while increase RBC, HGB, HCT, MCV and PLT in the blood samples. Biochemical results revealed that DXK can markedly increase SOD, CAT and GSH activities, while decrease MDA activity. Immunofluorescence revealed that DXK can notably increase the protein levels of VEGF, CD31/vWF and α-SMA.

Conclusions: In conclusion, this study proved that DXK can ameliorate HH-induced brain injury by improving brain blood perfusion, increasing the number of collagen and elastic fibers and inhibiting oxidative stress injury. The underlying mechanisms may be involved in maintaining the integrity of cerebrovascular endothelial cells and vascular function. However, further in vivo and in vitro investigations are still needed to elucidate the mechanisms of DXK on regulating cerebral blood vessels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2020.113629DOI Listing
April 2021

Gallic acid: Pharmacological activities and molecular mechanisms involved in inflammation-related diseases.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Jan 16;133:110985. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

Innovative Institute of Chinese Medicine and Pharmacy, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, 611137, China; Ethnic Medicine Academic Heritage Innovation Research Center, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, 611137, China. Electronic address:

Gallic acid (GA), also known as 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, is a natural secondary metabolite and widely isolated from various fruits, plants and nuts. In recent years, GA has received increasing attention for its powerful anti-inflammatory properties. The purpose of this review is to clearly illuminate the pharmacological activities and related molecular mechanisms of GA in inflammatory diseases. After consulting a large number of literatures, we made a comprehensive exposition on the chemical characteristics, plant origins, pharmacokinetics and toxicity of GA, especially its pharmacological activities and mechanisms of action. Although the plant source of GA is very rich, its lower extraction rate limits the application of GA in development. It is worth mentioning that GA can not only be separated from many plants, but also be produced in large quantities through biological and chemical synthesis. According to pharmacokinetic studies, the absorption and elimination of GA after oral administration are fast, while the structural optimization or dosage form adjustment of GA is beneficial to increase its bioavailability. Promisingly, toxicity studies have shown that GA scarcely has obvious toxicity or side effects in a variety of animal experiments and clinical trials. The results show that the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of GA mainly involved MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways. It thus weakens the inflammatory response by reducing the release of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, adhesion molecule and cell infiltration. Due to its excellent pharmacological activities, GA is expected to be a potential candidate for the treatment of various inflammation-related diseases. This paper will provide theoretical basis for the clinical application of GA and guide the future research and medicinal development of GA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2020.110985DOI Listing
January 2021

A review of traditional Chinese medicine on treatment of diabetic retinopathy and involved mechanisms.

Biomed Pharmacother 2020 Dec 13;132:110852. Epub 2020 Oct 13.

Innovative Institute of Chinese Medicine and Pharmacy, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, 611137, China. Electronic address:

As a common ocular complication and microangiopathy of type 2 diabetic mellitus, diabetic retinopathy (DR) can lead to vision loss or even blindness in diabetic patients. At present, the treatment methods of DR mainly include laser and anti-VEGF therapies. Nevertheless, the higher cost and obvious side effects seriously disturb the normal life of DR patients. Promisingly, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been demonstrated to be effective in treating DR by tonifying Qi and nourishing Yin, as well clearing heat and breeding body fluids, thus activating blood and removing blood stasis. Therefore, we screened the literatures on TCM treatment of DR through the web of science, ScienceDirect, PubMed, Google scholar and CNKI online databases. The representative prescriptions, herbs and extracts, and identified compounds for treatment of DR were further summarized and analyzed. Moreover, the detailed mechanisms and involved network pathways of herbs-compounds-targets were visualized by Cytoscape software. Meanwhile, we discussed the existing limitations and deficiencies of TCM on treatment of DR and gave corresponding measures. In conclusion, TCM could significantly ameliorate DR via anti-inflammation, anti-oxidative stress, anti-angiogenesis and anti-apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2020.110852DOI Listing
December 2020

Potential applications of microfluidics based blood brain barrier (BBB)-on-chips for in vitro drug development.

Biomed Pharmacother 2020 Dec 12;132:110822. Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Innovative Institute of Chinese Medicine and Pharmacy, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu 611137, China. Electronic address:

The human blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a complex multi-dimensional reticular barrier system composed of cerebral microvascular endothelial cells, pericytes, astrocytes and a variety of neurons. The conventional in vitro cell culture model fails to truly present the dynamic hemodynamics of BBB and the interaction between neurons. And it is even more impossible to explore brain-related multi-organ diseases, which brings huge obstacles to explore diseases of the central nervous system and the interaction between brain-related multi-organs, and evaluate drug efficacy. Miniaturized microfluidics based BBB chips are being commonly used to co-culture a variety of cells on a small-sized chip to construct a three-dimensional (3D) BBB or BBB-related organ disease models. By combining with other electrophysiological, biochemical sensors or equipment and imaging systems, it can in real time and quickly screen disease-related markers and evaluate drug efficacy. This review systematically summarized the research progress of in vitro BBB and BBB-related organ chips, and analyzed the obstacles of BBB models in depth. Parallelly combined with the current research trends and hot spots, we give the further improvement measures of microfluidic BBB chips.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2020.110822DOI Listing
December 2020

ameliorates exhaustive exercise-induced fatigue in mice by suppressing mitophagy in skeletal muscle.

Exp Ther Med 2020 Oct 29;20(4):3161-3173. Epub 2020 Jul 29.

Ethnic Medicine Academic Heritage Innovation Research Center, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, Sichuan 611137, P.R. China.

The aim of present study was to evaluate the potential effects of oral liquid (RCOL) on exhaustive exercise (EE)-induced fatigue in mice. Male Institute of Cancer Research mice from five treatment groups (n=10 per group) were orally administered with sterilized water for the Control and EE groups and/or RCOL at doses of 1.02, 3.03 and 6.06 ml/kg/day, once daily for 2 weeks. Anti-fatigue activity was subsequently evaluated by measuring the levels of creatine kinase (CK), lactic acid (LA), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and total anti-oxidative capability (T-AOC). Histopathology was assessed using hematoxylin and eosin staining. Ultrastructures of mitochondria were observed by transmission electron microscopy. Energy supply capacity was assessed using citrate synthase (CS), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), Na-K-ATPase, and liver and quadriceps glycogen content assays. Expression levels of mRNA and protein associated with mitophagy in the skeletal muscle were measured by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR and western blotting, respectively. RCOL was observed to markedly inhibit fatigue-induced oxidative stress by increasing the activities of SOD, CAT and T-AOC, whilst reducing the accumulation of LA, CK, LDH and MDA. Histological analysis of the quadriceps femoris tissue suggested increased numbers of muscle fibers in the RCOL groups compared with those in the EE group. RCOL administration was found to reverse EE-induced mitochondrial structural damage and alleviated defects inflicted onto the energy supply mechanism by increasing CS, SDH, Na-K-ATPase and glycogen levels. Additionally, RCOL reduced the protein expression of PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1), Parkin, microtubule-associated proteins 1A/1B light chain 3, sequestosome 1 and ubiquitin, whilst lowering the gene expression of PINK1 and Parkin. Taken together, results from the present study clarified the anti-fatigue effect of RCOL, where the underlying mechanism may be associated with increased antioxidant activity, enhanced energy production and the inhibition of mitophagy by suppressing the PINK1/Parkin signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2020.9072DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7444336PMC
October 2020

The role of GLP-1/GIP receptor agonists in Alzheimer's disease.

Adv Clin Exp Med 2020 06;29(6):661-668

Department of Geriatrics, Second Affiliated Hospital of the Harbin Medical University, China.

Background: New glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogues developed in recent years have a long half-life and offer further prospects for clinical application. At present, the neuroprotection of GLP-1 analogues in Alzheimer's disease (AD) has just begun to be explored.

Objectives: To investigate how glucagon-like peptide-1 (liraglutide) plays a protective role in AD by regulating tau activation and BACE1 expression.

Material And Methods: Human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y cells were cultured in vitro and pretreated with different concentrations of liraglutide, and then treated with different concentrations of okadaic acid (OA) in order to observe the apoptosis of the SH-SY5Y cells. After liraglutide treatment, the apoptosis of neurons in AD rats was detected using flow cytometry, and tau activation and β-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) expression were detected using western blot.

Results: Different concentrations of OA were able to induce apoptosis of SH-SY5Y cells in a dose-dependent manner. Different concentrations of liraglutide were used to pretreat SH-SY5Y cells, which were able to protect the SH-SY5Y cells from apoptosis induced by OA. Okadaic acid significantly increased tau activation and BACE1 expression in the SH-SY5Y cells, which was blocked with liraglutide pretreatment. The results of a water maze experiment showed that liraglutide had significant protective effects on memory and cognitive ability in AD rats induced with OA, inhibited apoptosis of neural cells in AD rats, and inhibited tau activation and BACE1 expression of neural cells in AD rats induced with OA.

Conclusions: Liraglutide has a protective effect on AD in vivo and in vitro, which may be mediated by preventing neuronal apoptosis and inhibiting the activation of tau and the expression of BACE1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17219/acem/121007DOI Listing
June 2020

Atmospheric environmental regulation and industrial total factor productivity: the mediating effect of capital intensity.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Sep 11;27(26):33112-33126. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

School of Economics and Trade, Hunan University, Changsha, 410006, People's Republic of China.

Balancing economic growth, resource conservation, and atmospheric environmental protection has topped the agenda of academics and policy makers. The article takes the panel data of 37 Chinese industrial sectors from 2003 to 2016 as the research object to explore the impact of atmospheric environmental regulation on industrial total factor productivity and the possible path of capital intensity. Furthermore, to analyze the possible industry heterogeneity of the above results, the article classifies the industrial sectors into heavy polluting industries and light polluting industries, based on their air pollution emission intensity. The key discoveries of this study are as follows: (1) Generally, the regulation of atmospheric environment has a significant inhibitory effect on industrial total factor productivity. However, if measured by industry group, atmospheric environmental regulation has a significant inhibitory effect on industrial total factor productivity in the light polluted industry group, while in the heavy polluted industry group, the impact is less significant. (2) Across all the industries and especially the light polluted industry group, the capital intensity is a partial intermediate variable of the influence of atmospheric environmental regulation on industrial total factor productivity, but the mediating effect is not significant in the heavy polluted industry group. Finally, policy suggestions are given from the following three aspects: promoting accurate industrial governance, selecting environmental regulation methods and improving supporting policies, which provide practical and feasible solutions for improving the current atmospheric environment governance and promoting the improvement of industrial total factor productivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-09523-4DOI Listing
September 2020

Mitochondrial MPTP: A Novel Target of Ethnomedicine for Stroke Treatment by Apoptosis Inhibition.

Front Pharmacol 2020 25;11:352. Epub 2020 Mar 25.

Ethnic Medicine Academic Heritage Innovation Research Center, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, China.

Mammalian mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP), across the inner and outer membranes of mitochondria, is a nonspecific channel for signal transduction or material transfer between mitochondrial matrix and cytoplasm such as maintenance of Ca homeostasis, regulation of oxidative stress signals, and protein translocation evoked by some of stimuli. Continuous MPTP opening has been proved to stimulate neuronal apoptosis in ischemic stroke. Meanwhile, inhibition of MPTP overopening-induced apoptosis has shown excellent efficacy in the treatment of ischemic stroke. Among of which, the potential molecular mechanisms of drug therapy for stroke has also been gradually revealed by researchers. The characteristics of multi-components or multi-targets for ethnic drugs also provide the possibility to treat stroke from the perspective of mitochondrial MPTP. The advantages mentioned above make it necessary for us to explore and clarify the new perspective of ethnic medicine in treating stroke and to determine the specific molecular mechanisms through advanced technologies as much as possible. In this review, we attempt to uncover the relationship between abnormal MPTP opening and neuronal apoptosis in ischemic stroke. We further summarized currently authorized drugs, ethnic medicine prescriptions, herbs, and identified monomer compounds for inhibition of MPTP overopening-induced ischemic neuron apoptosis. Finally, we strive to provide a new perspective and enlightenment for ethnic medicine in the prevention and treatment of stroke by inhibition of MPTP overopening-induced neuronal apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.00352DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7109312PMC
March 2020

To Elucidate the Inhibition of Excessive Autophagy of Rhodiola crenulata on Exhaustive Exercise-Induced Skeletal Muscle Injury by Combined Network Pharmacology and Molecular Docking.

Biol Pharm Bull 2020 Feb 29;43(2):296-305. Epub 2019 Nov 29.

Ethnic Medicine Academic Heritage Innovation Research Center, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine.

Autophagy can remodel skeletal muscle in response to exercise. However, excessive autophagy can have adverse effects on skeletal muscle. Although Rhodiola crenulata (R. crenulata) is thought to regulate autophagy, its active ingredients and mechanisms of action remain unclear. In this study, molecular docking and network pharmacology were used to screen for autophagy-related targets of R. crenulata. Subsequently, protein-protein interaction (PPI) analysis was used to find the relationships between the inverse docking targets and autophagy-related targets and therefore highlight the key targets. And then the Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) database was recruited to explain the functions and enrichment pathways of the target proteins. Finally, the potential targets were validated by immunohistochemistry of a mouse model of exhaustive exercise-induced skeletal muscle injury. We found a network of 15 major constituents of R. crenulata with 30 autophagy-related and 105 inverse-docking targets by molecular docking and network pharmacology. The results of PPI analysis indicated that 16 inverse-docking targets interacted 8 autophagy-related proteins. Further pathway analysis showed that R. crenulata could regulate exercise-induced skeletal muscle autophagy through mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) and Forkhead box protein O (FoxO). The results of our animal experiments indicated that R. crenulata could suppress the expression of Ubiquitin-like protein ATG12 (ATG12), Beclin-1 (BECN1), and Serine/threonine-protein kinase ULK1 (ULK1), while increasing the expression of MTOR, NAD-dependent protein deacetylase sirtuin-1 (SIRT1), and Microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT). In conclusion, this study demonstrated that R. crenulata may protect skeletal muscle injury induced by exhaustive exercise via regulating the mTOR, AMPK, and FoxO singling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1248/bpb.b19-00627DOI Listing
February 2020

Longzhibu disease and its therapeutic effects by traditional Tibetan medicine: Ershi-wei Chenxiang pills.

J Ethnopharmacol 2020 Mar 24;249:112426. Epub 2019 Nov 24.

Ethnic Medicine Academic Heritage Innovation Research Center, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, 611137, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Ershi-wei Chenxiang pills (ECP) or Aga Nixiu wan (ཨ་གར་ཉི་ཤུ།), composed of 20 Tibetan medicines, has the effect of promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis. As a common and frequent prescription used by traditional Tibetan medicine in clinical treatment of Longzhibu disease (cerebral ischemia sequelae), it has a significant effect. However, its anti-cerebral ischemia mechanism is still unclear.

Materials And Methods: The chemical components of ECP were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. SD rats were randomly divided into Sham, MCAO, Nim (20.00 mg/kg), and ECP (1.33 and 2.00 g/kg) groups, with 13 animals in each group. After 14 days of oral administration, we established a model of cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury by blocking the middle cerebral artery of rats. After 24 h of reperfusion injury, we evaluated the protective effect of ECP on ischemic brain by neural function score, TTC, H&E and Nissl staining. TUNEL fluorescence, western blot and immunohistochemistry were used to detect the phenomenon of apoptosis and the expression of apoptosis-related proteins Bax, Bcl-2, Cyto-c and activated Caspase-3. Furthermore, western blot, qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry were employed to detect CaMKⅡ, ATF4 and c-Jun gene and protein expression.

Results: ECP contains agarotetrol, eugenol, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, dehydrodiisoeugenol, hydroxysafflor yellow A, kaempferide, gallic acid, alantolactone, isoalantolactone, costunolide, dehydrocostus lactone, brucine, strychnine, echinacoside, bilirubin and cholic acid. Compared with MCAO group, ECP can significantly ameliorate the neurological deficit of cerebral ischemia in rats and reduce the volume of cerebral infarction. Pathological and Nissl staining results showed that ECP sharply inhibited the inflammatory infiltration injury of neurons and increased the activity of neurons in comparation with the MCAO group. TUNEL fluorescence apoptosis results confirmed that ECP obviously inhibited the apoptosis of neurons. Meanwhile, the results of immunohistochemistry and western blot demonstrated that EPC can dramatically inhibit the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins Bax, Cyto-c and activated Caspase-3, while increase the level of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. In addition, compared with MCAO group, CaMK Ⅱ gene and protein expression were improved significantly by ECP administration. while, the expression of ATF4 and c-Jun genes and proteins were decreased.

Conclusions: In conclusion, this study preliminarily demonstrated that the protective effect of ECP on ischemic brain is related to the improvement of neurological deficit, reducing the size of cerebral infarction, improving the activity of neurons, inhibiting the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway by regulating the protein expression of CaMKⅡ, ATF4 and c-Jun. However, further in vivo and in vitro investigations are still needed to clarify the underlying mechanism of ECP in treating cerebral ischemia sequelae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2019.112426DOI Listing
March 2020

Amelioration of dry eye syndrome in db/db mice with diabetes mellitus by treatment with Tibetan Medicine Formula Jikan Mingmu Drops.

J Ethnopharmacol 2019 Sep 29;241:111992. Epub 2019 May 29.

Tibetan Medical College, Qinghai University, Xining, 810001, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Jikan Mingmu Drops (JMD), a traditional Tibetan medicine containing six herbs, has been used to treat dry eye syndrome (DES) in individuals with diabetes mellitus.

Aim Of Study: However, the activity of JMD ameliorates DES with diabetes mellitus has not been previously examined. The aim of the study is to investigate the molecular mechanism of JMD on db/db mice.

Materials And Methods: The main chemical constituents of JMD were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. DES was then induced in db/db mice by applying 0.2% benzalkonium chloride to the ocular surface for 7 days. Eye drops containing JMD (0.25, 0.5, or 1 g/mL) or vehicle subsequently were administered three times daily for another 7 days, and the therapeutic effects were evaluated by phenol red thread tear and sodium fluorescein tests. Conjunctival specimens were subjected to hematoxylin and eosin staining and periodic acid-Schiff staining to examine pathological changes and number of goblet cells. ELISA was performed to assess the levels of various inflammatory cytokines.

Results: JMD contains hydroxysafflor yellow A, magnoflorine, jatrorrhizine hydrochloride, palmatine hydrochloride, berberine hydrochloride, gallic acid, ellagic acid, tauroursodeoxycholic acid, camphor, isoborneol, borneol, trans-cinnamic acid, and muscone. JMD treatment significantly increased the tear volume, decreased the corneal fluorescein staining score, restored the morphology and structure of conjunctival epithelial cells, and markedly downregulated the levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-17α, IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, and vascular endothelial growth factor in the conjunctiva. Further data showed that these protective effects were accompanied by inhibition of inflammation in a dose-dependent manner.

Conclusions: Amelioration of DES in db/db mice with diabetes mellitus by treatment with Tibetan medicine formula JMD maybe related to its anti-inflammatory effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2019.111992DOI Listing
September 2019

Rhodiola crenulata attenuates apoptosis and mitochondrial energy metabolism disorder in rats with hypobaric hypoxia-induced brain injury by regulating the HIF-1α/microRNA 210/ISCU1/2(COX10) signaling pathway.

J Ethnopharmacol 2019 Sep 13;241:111801. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

School of Pharmacy, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, PR China; Innovative Institute of Chinese Medicine and Pharmacy, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, PR China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Rhodiola crenulata, a traditional Tibetan medicine, has shown promise in the treatment of hypobaric hypoxia (HH)-induced brain injury. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study investigated the protective effects of R. crenulata aqueous extract (RCAE) on HH-induced brain injury in rats.

Materials And Methods: An animal model of high-altitude hypoxic brain injury was established in SD rats using an animal decompression chamber for 24 h. Serum and hippocampus levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were then determined using commercial biochemical kits. Neuron morphology and vitality were also evaluated using H&E and Nissl staining, and TUNEL staining was used to examine apoptosis. Gene and protein expression of HIF-1α, microRNA 210, ISCU1/2, COX10, Apaf-1, cleaved Caspase-3, Caspase-3, Bax, Bcl-2, and Cyto-c were determined by western blot, immunohistochemical and qRT-PCR analysis.

Results: RCAE administration attenuated HH-induced brain injury as evidenced by decreased levels of MDA, LDH, and GSSG, increased GSH and SOD, improvements in hippocampus histopathological changes, increased cell vitality and ATP level, and reduced apoptotic cell numbers. RCAE treatment also enhanced HIF-1α, ISCU1/2, COX10, and Bcl-2 protein expression, while dramatically inhibiting expression of Apaf-1, Bax, Cyto-c, and cleaved Caspase-3. Treatment also increased gene levels of HIF-1α, microRNA 210, ISCU1/2, and COX10, and decreased Caspase-3 gene production.

Conclusions: RCAE attenuated HH-induced brain injury by regulating apoptosis and mitochondrial energy metabolism via the HIF-1α/microRNA 210/ISCU1/2 (COX10) signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2019.03.028DOI Listing
September 2019

Association between Coronary Atherosclerotic Plaque Composition and Cardiovascular Disease Risk.

Biomed Environ Sci 2019 Feb;32(2):75-86

National Clinical Research Center for Metabolic Diseases, Shanghai Institute of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, and Department of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Rui-Jin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao-Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025, China.

Objective: The objective of this study is to determine whether coronary atherosclerotic plaque composition is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in Chinese adults.

Methods: We performed a cross-sectional analysis in 549 subjects without previous diagnosis or clinical symptoms of CVD in a community cohort of middle-aged Chinese adults. The participants underwent coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography for the evaluation of the presence and composition of coronary plaques. CVD risk was evaluated by the Framingham risk score (FRS) and the 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk score.

Results: Among the 549 participants, 267 (48.6%) had no coronary plaques, 201 (36.6%) had noncalcified coronary plaques, and 81 (14.8%) had calcified or mixed coronary plaques. The measures of CVD risk including FRS and ASCVD risk score and the likelihood of having elevated FRS significantly increased across the groups of participants without coronary plaques, with noncalcified coronary plaques, and with calcified or mixed coronary plaques. However, only calcified or mixed coronary plaques were significantly associated with an elevated ASCVD risk score [odds ratio (OR) 2.41; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09-5.32] compared with no coronary plaques, whereas no significant association was found for noncalcified coronary plaques and elevated ASCVD risk score (OR 1.25; 95% CI 0.71-2.21) after multivariable adjustment.

Conclusion: Calcified or mixed coronary plaques might be more associated with an elevated likelihood of having CVD than noncalcified coronary plaques.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3967/bes2019.012DOI Listing
February 2019

[Research Advances in Interventions on Subjective Cognitive Decline].

Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao 2019 Feb;41(1):124-128

School of Acupuncture-Moxibustion and Tuina,Beijing University of Chinese Medicine,Beijing 100029,China.

Subjective cognitive decline(SCD),a clinical condition in the early stage of Alzheimer's disease,manifests as a continuous decrease in the individual's self-conscious cognitive function but with normal objective cognitive indicators. Research on SCD helps to identify individuals at high risk of senile dementia and explore the effective prevention and intervention strategies. This article reviews the recent research advances in SCD,with an attempt to provide evidence for early intervention in patients with SCD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3881/j.issn.1000-503X.10829DOI Listing
February 2019

Cysteinyl-tRNA Synthetase Mutations Cause a Multi-System, Recessive Disease That Includes Microcephaly, Developmental Delay, and Brittle Hair and Nails.

Am J Hum Genet 2019 03 26;104(3):520-529. Epub 2019 Feb 26.

Department of Clinical Genetics, Erasmus Medical Center, University Medical Center, 3015 GD Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (ARSs) are essential enzymes responsible for charging tRNA molecules with cognate amino acids. Consistent with the essential function and ubiquitous expression of ARSs, mutations in 32 of the 37 ARS-encoding loci cause severe, early-onset recessive phenotypes. Previous genetic and functional data suggest a loss-of-function mechanism; however, our understanding of the allelic and locus heterogeneity of ARS-related disease is incomplete. Cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase (CARS) encodes the enzyme that charges tRNA with cysteine in the cytoplasm. To date, CARS variants have not been implicated in any human disease phenotype. Here, we report on four subjects from three families with complex syndromes that include microcephaly, developmental delay, and brittle hair and nails. Each affected person carries bi-allelic CARS variants: one individual is compound heterozygous for c.1138C>T (p.Gln380) and c.1022G>A (p.Arg341His), two related individuals are compound heterozygous for c.1076C>T (p.Ser359Leu) and c.1199T>A (p.Leu400Gln), and one individual is homozygous for c.2061dup (p.Ser688Glnfs2). Measurement of protein abundance, yeast complementation assays, and assessments of tRNA charging indicate that each CARS variant causes a loss-of-function effect. Compared to subjects with previously reported ARS-related diseases, individuals with bi-allelic CARS variants are unique in presenting with a brittle-hair-and-nail phenotype, which most likely reflects the high cysteine content in human keratins. In sum, our efforts implicate CARS variants in human inherited disease, expand the locus and clinical heterogeneity of ARS-related clinical phenotypes, and further support impaired tRNA charging as the primary mechanism of recessive ARS-related disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2019.01.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6407526PMC
March 2019

Establishment and evaluation of a simulated high‑altitude hypoxic brain injury model in SD rats.

Mol Med Rep 2019 Apr 5;19(4):2758-2766. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Department of Pharmacology of Chinese Materia Medica, School of Pharmacy, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Wenjiang, Chengdu, Sichuan 611137, P.R. China.

This study was conducted to establish a stable hypobaric hypoxia brain injury model. SD rats were randomly separated into control and model groups, and placed outside or inside of a hypobaric chamber, respectively. Subsequent to 24 h anoxic exposure, plasma superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured using commercial biochemical kits. Hematoxylin‑eosin (H&E), Nissl's and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining were used to observe the morphology of neurons in the hippocampus. The protein expression levels of apoptotic protease activating factor‑1 (Apaf‑1), hypoxia inducible factor‑1α (HIF‑1α), caspase‑3, cleaved caspase‑3, Bcl‑2‑associated X protein (Bax) and cytochrome c (cyto‑c) were detected using western blot and immunohistochemistry analyses. Hypoxic substantially induced morphological lesions in the hippocampus concomitant with the physical behavioral performance deficit. Furthermore, hypoxia markedly exacerbated the levels of MDA, LDH and GSSG, and restrained GSH (P<0.01) and SOD (P<0.05) levels compared with the control group. In addition, hypoxia significantly induced the protein expression of Apaf‑1, HIF‑1α, caspase‑3, cleaved caspase‑3, Bax and Cyto‑c (P<0.01) compared with the control group. Finally, a lower number and volume of Nissl bodies were verified in the hypoxic group. TUNEL results demonstrated a greater number of apoptotic cells in the hypoxic group. The present study demonstrates a model of rat hypoxic brain injuries induced by a hypobaric chamber at 9,000 m for 24 h. Furthermore, the redox enzyme, HIF‑1α and mitochondrial apoptosis‑associated protein, along with H&E and Nissl's staining, may be applied to evaluate the degree of injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2019.9939DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6423628PMC
April 2019

Chemical Differentiation of Pseudostellariae Radix from Different Cultivated Fields and Germplasms by UPLC-Triple TOF-MS/MS Coupled with Multivariate Statistical Analysis.

Nat Prod Commun 2016 Dec;11(12):1827-1831

To explore rapidly the potential chemical markers for differentiating Pseudostellariae Radix from different cultivated fields :and germplasms, a method is proposed based on ultra-performance liquid chromatographytriple time-of-flight mass/mass spectrometry (UPLC-Triple TOF-MS/MS) coupled with multivariate statistical analysis. Peak matching, peak alignment, and noise filtering were used in analyzing mass spectrometric data. Accurate m/z value analysis of MS data based on software of database search and MS/MS fragment analysis were applied to identify constituents. The obtained. data were statistically analyzed with hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), principal component analysis (PCA), and partial least squared-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) to compare the differences among these samples. The PLS-DA loading plot obtained from all mass data showed that 21 compounds were identified as the potential chemical markers to characterize the samples. The results provide experimental data to reveal the influence of ecological environments and germplasms on metabolite biosynthesis in Pseudostellariae Radix.
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December 2016

Comparison of Chemical Compositions in Pseudostellariae Radix from Different Cultivated Fields and Germplasms by NMR-Based Metabolomics.

Molecules 2016 Nov 15;21(11). Epub 2016 Nov 15.

College of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210023, China.

Pseudostellariae Radix (PR) is an important traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), which is consumed commonly for its positive health effects. However, the chemical differences of PR from different cultivated fields and germplasms are still unknown. In order to comprehensively compare the chemical compositions of PR from different cultivated fields, in this study, ¹H-NMR-based metabolomics coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were used to investigate the different metabolites in PR from five germplasms (jr, zs1, zs2, sb, and xc) cultivated in traditional fields (Jurong, Jiangsu, JSJR) and cultivated fields (Zherong, Fujian, FJZR). A total of 34 metabolites were identified based on ¹H-NMR data, and fourteen of them were found to be different in PR from JSJR and FJZR. The relative contents of alanine, lactate, lysine, taurine, sucrose, tyrosine, linolenic acid, γ-aminobutyrate, and hyperoside in PR from JSJR were higher than that in PR from FJZR, while PR from FJZR contained higher levels of glutamine, raffinose, xylose, unsaturated fatty acid, and formic acid. The contents of Heterophyllin A and Heterophyllin B were higher in PR from FJZR. This study will provide the basic information for exploring the influence law of ecological environment and germplasm genetic variation on metabolite biosynthesis of PR and its quality formation mechanism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules21111538DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6273876PMC
November 2016

[Correlation Between Index Components and Climatic Factors of Pseudostellariae Radix].

Zhong Yao Cai 2016 Aug;39(8):1723-7

Objective: To analyze the correlation between index components and climatic factors of Pseudostellariae Radix.

Methods: Correlation analysis ( CA), partial least square (PLS) and PCA ordination were applied to analyze the correlation of index components in Pseudostellariae Radix and climatic factors, and to explore the main climatic factors affecting the accumulation of index components in Pseudostellariae Radix.

Results: The origin and harvest time had influence on index components. The monthly minimum temperature, monthly average humidity, monthly precipitation and the annual precipitation were the dominant factors influencing the content of index components.

Conclusion: Through the positive and negative correlation between climatic factors and index components, it could explain the rationality of traditional harvest time and the reason of high content of heterophyllin B in Pseudostellariae Radix from Jiangsu Jurong.
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August 2016

iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analysis of cultivated Pseudostellaria heterophylla and its wild-type.

J Proteomics 2016 Apr 4;139:13-25. Epub 2016 Mar 4.

School of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210023, China.

Unlabelled: Pseudostellaria heterophylla is an important traditional Chinese herbal medicine with vast clinical consumption because of its positive effects. To date, changes in the metabolite composition of P. heterophylla have been well documented; however, the molecular differences between cultivated P. heterophylla and its wild-type are still unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in cultivated and wild P. heterophylla. Due to the lack of a genomic database, we used high-throughput transcriptomic and proteomic technologies to identify proteins in the herb. Isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) MS/MS were used to detect statistically significant changes between cultivated and wild P. heterophylla. We detected 3775 proteins; 332 showed differential accumulations across two different ecotypes of P. heterophylla. 71 significant differential expressions of proteins were selected based on GO annotations, KEGG, STRING analysis, and expression level. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis confirmed the authenticity and accuracy of the proteomic analysis. The results indicated that the carbohydrate and cellular amino acid metabolisms in cultivated P. heterophylla were weaker than those in its wild-type; seven important proteins were found to regulate sucrose and amino acids. This will provide the basic information for exploring the cause of differences in secondary metabolites in different ecotypes of P. heterophylla and the protein mechanism of its quality formation.

Biological Significance: This study combined a transcriptome, proteome, and metabolism approach for analyzing differentially expressed proteins of cultivated and wild P. heterophylla and established the relationship between significantly differentially expressed proteins and differential chemical components in non-model plants. The results of proteomic analysis provide the basic information for exploring the quality forming process, which will demonstrate, and provide guidance for, the study of effective constituents of P. heterophylla and its quality formation mechanism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jprot.2016.02.027DOI Listing
April 2016

[iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics of cultivated Pseudostellaria heterophylla and its wild type].

Yao Xue Xue Bao 2016 Mar;51(3):475-85

This work was designed to investigate proteins differentially expressed in cultivated Pseudostellaria heterophylla and its wild type using i TRAQ proteomics approach. The extracted proteins were digested using FASP method and identified by i TRAQ coupled with LC-MS/MS technology and then analyzed by Protein Pilot 5.0 search engine. Proteins differentially expressed were searched through comparison of relatively quantified proteins. The analysis was conducted using GO(gene ontology), KEGG and STRING. A total of 3 775 proteins were detected, among them, 3 676 proteins can be quantified, of which 127 proteins were up-regulated and 205 were down-regulated in cultivated Pseudostellaria heterophylla. We found 71 significantly differentially expressed proteins for further analysis. These proteins were classified into nine categories: heat shock proteins, transferases, oxidoreductases, lyases, isomerases, ligases, hydrolases, tubulin and translocases. The results indicated that the carbohydrate and cellular amino acids metabolism of cultivated Pseudostellaria heterophylla were weaker than its wild type and its ability of responding to stress was much stronger. GWD1, PHS1, GBE1, PGM, and BAM1 are the important proteins to regulate sucrose; met E and CYS are the key proteins that regulate amino acids in cultivated and wild Pseudostellaria heterophylla. This will provide the basic information for exploring the cause of secondary metabolites differences in different ecotype of Pseudostellaria heterophylla and the protein mechanism of its quality formation.
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March 2016

[Dynamic Changes of Nucleosides and Nucleobases in Different Harvest Periods of Polygoni Multiflori Radix by UPLC-QTRAP-MS/MS].

Zhong Yao Cai 2015 May;38(5):919-22

Objective: To analyze the dynamic changes of nucleosides and nucleobases in Polygoni Multiflori Radix harvested in different periods.

Methods: UPLC-QTRAP-MS/MS method was applied for the analysis of nine kinds of nucleosides and nucleobases in Polygoni Multiflori Radix.

Results: The content of uridine, adenine, guanosine and cytidine was higher in Polygoni Multiflori Radix harvested in different periods and assumed some difference. The trends of nucleosides and nucleobases from Polygoni Multiflori Radix according to the peak valley shape changed. The highest contents of them were in December.

Conclusion: The accumulation of nucleosides and nucleobases in Polygoni Multiflori Radix is closely related to its growth cycle. It is found to be basically the same as that obtained when the herb is collected during the conventional collecting time.
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May 2015

Dynamic accumulation analysis on bioactive constituents of Polygonum multiflorum in different collection periods.

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2015 Jul;40(13):2565-70

To study the dynamic change law of bioactive constituents from Polygonum multiflorum, and to explore the optimal harvest period of P. multiflorum. Determination of stilhene glucoside, anthraquinones and catechin from P. multiflorum in different harvest times by MEKC-DAD, and principal component analysis (PCA) was used to comprehensive evaluation for bioactive constituents. There are obvious differences among the contents of active ingredients in various collecting periods samples, the content of stilbene glucoside was the highest in November, the total content of combined anthraquinone was the highest in November and December, the content of catechin was the highest in September. The comprehensive evaluation index obtained with principal component analysis showed that the sample collected in November is significantly higher than those with other samples. The optimal harvest period of P. multiflorum is November.
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July 2015

[QTRAP LC-MS/MS Analytical Study on Nucleosides and Nucleobases of Pseudostellariae Radix Cultivated in Different Idioplasm Resources].

Zhong Yao Cai 2015 Apr;38(4):711-4

Objective: To analyze nucleosides and nucleobases of Pseudostellariae Radix cultivated in different idibplasni resources and to compare the differences.

Methods: QTRAP LC-MS/MS method was applied for the analysis of 13 kinds of nucleosides and nucleobases in Pseudostellariae Radix and the data obtained was analyzed by SPSS 16. 0 software.

Results: There were some differences between Pseudostellariae Radix cultivated in different idioplasm resources. The highest amount of nucleosides and nucleobases was ZS2 which came from Zherong in Fujian Province. The total content of nucleosides and nucleobases in the sample from Shibing in Guizhou Province was the lowest. There was little difference between ZS1 (Zherong in Fujian Province) and XC(Xuancheng in Anhui Province).

Conclusion: This study provides evidence for the influence of eco-environment on the metabolites of Pseudostellariae Radix.
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April 2015

[Study on Chemical Constituents of Fermented Antrodia camphorata Powder].

Zhong Yao Cai 2015 Feb;38(2):294-7

Objective: To study the chemical constituents of fermented Antrodia camphorata powder.

Methods: 15 compounds were isolated from Antrodia camphorata by Silica gel column chromatography, ODS column chromatography, gel column chromatography, preparative liquid phase chromatography separation technique, as well as recrystallization.

Results: On the basis of their physical and chemical properties and spectral data,their structures were identified as Ferulic acid (1), Inositol (2), β-Sitosterol (3),Vanillin (4),Vanillic acid (5), Butyric acid (6), Daucosterol (7), p-Hydroxycinnamic acid (8), Lauric acid (9), Inosine (10), Uridine (11), Adenine (12), D(+)-Sucrose (13), Arachidic acid (14) and Guanosine (15).

Conclusion: Compounds 1, 5, 6 and 8-15 are isolated from fermented powder for the first time.
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February 2015

Distinct expression patterns of Toll-like receptor 7 in tumour cells and fibroblast-like cells in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

Histopathology 2015 Nov 19;67(5):730-9. Epub 2015 May 19.

Nanjing Stomatological Hospital, Medical School and The State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Division of Immunology, Nanjing university, Nanjing, China.

Aims: Toll-like receptor (TLR)-7 agonists have been used in cancer immunotherapy, but tumour heterogeneity means that TLR-7 activity is variable in different components of the tumour microenvironment and the characteristics of TLR-7 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) are unclear.

Methods And Results: Twenty healthy oral tissues, 50 oral leukoplakia tissues and 166 retrospective primary OSCC samples were collected for immunohistochemical staining of TLR-7 and showed up-regulated expression during carcinogenesis. Moreover, patients with high expression of TLR-7 in tumour cells (TCs) had poor differentiation and prognosis. Interestingly, patients with high expression of TLR-7 in stroma fibroblast-like cells (FLCs) had low tumour stage, no lymph node metastasis (LNM) and better prognosis. Furthermore, Ki-67, CD3, CD4, CD8 and forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3)(+) tumour-infiltrated lymphocytes were assessed and we found that TLR-7(high) TCs were infiltrated by fewer CD3(+) CD4(+) but more FoxP3(+) lymphocytes. Importantly, patients with TLR-7(low) TCs and TLR-7(high) FLCs had less FoxP3(+) lymphocyte infiltration and longer survival time than those with TLR-7(high) TCs/TLR-7(low) FLCs, although TLR-7 was not an independent prognostic factor for OSCC.

Conclusions: The low expression of TLR-7 in tumour and high expression of TLR-7 in stroma predict a good clinical outcome for OSCC patients, and stroma FLCs might be amenable to immunotherapy by a TLR-7 agonist.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/his.12703DOI Listing
November 2015