Publications by authors named "Ya Gao"

400 Publications

TLR4 Agonist Combined with Trivalent Protein JointS of Provides Immunological Protection in Animals.

Vaccines (Basel) 2021 Feb 22;9(2). Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China.

() serotype 2 (SS2) is the causative agent of swine streptococcosis and can cause severe diseases in both pigs and humans. Although the traditional inactive vaccine can protect pigs from SS2 infection, novel vaccine candidates are needed to overcome its shortcomings. Three infection-associated proteins in -muramidase-released protein (MRP), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and DLD, a novel putative dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase-have been previously identified by immunoproteomic assays. In this study, the effective immune protection of the recombinant trivalent protein GAPDH-MRP-DLD (JointS) against SS2, SS7, and SS9 was determined in zebrafish. To improve the immune efficacy of JointS, monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) as a TLR4 agonist adjuvant, which induces a strong innate immune response in the immune cells of mice and pigs, was combined with JointS to immunize the mice. The results showed that immunized mice could induce the production of a high titer of anti- antibodies; as a result, 100% of mice survived after SS2 infection. Furthermore, JointS provides good protection against virulent SS2 strain infections in piglets. Given the above, there is potential to develop JointS as a novel subunit vaccine for piglets to prevent infection by SS2 and other serotypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9020184DOI Listing
February 2021

Sleep Timing May Predict Congestive Heart Failure: A Community-Based Cohort Study.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 Mar 5:e018385. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Critical Care Medicine The Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University Shaanxi China.

Background Previous studies have suggested that sleep timing is associated with cardiovascular risk factors. However, there is no evidence on the relationship between sleep timing and congestive heart failure (CHF). We aimed to examine this relationship in this study. Methods and Results We recruited 4765 participants (2207 men; mean age, 63.6±11.0 years) from the SHHS (Sleep Heart Health Study) database in this multicenter prospective cohort study. Follow-up was conducted until the first CHF diagnosis between baseline and the final censoring date. Sleep timing (bedtimes and wake-up times on weekdays and weekends) was based on a self-reported questionnaire. Cox proportional hazard models were constructed to investigate the association between sleep timing and CHF. During the mean follow-up period of 11 years, 519 cases of CHF (10.9%) were reported. The multivariable Cox proportional hazards models revealed that participants with weekday bedtimes >12:00 am (hazard ratio [HR], 1.56; 95% CI, 1.15-2.11; =0.004) and from 11:01 pm to 12:00 am (HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.00-1.56; =0.047) had an increased risk of CHF compared with those with bedtimes from 10:01 pm to 11:00 pm. After stratified analysis, the association was intensified in participants with a self-reported sleep duration of 6 to 8 hours. Furthermore, wake-up times >8:00 am on weekdays (HR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.07-2.17; =0.018) were associated with a higher risk of incident CHF than wake-up times ≤6:00 am. Conclusions Delayed bedtimes (>11:00 pm) and wake-up times (>8:00 am) on weekdays were associated with an increased risk of CHF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.018385DOI Listing
March 2021

Dietary Taxifolin Protects Against Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis NF-κB Signaling, Enhancing Intestinal Barrier and Modulating Gut Microbiota.

Front Immunol 2020 16;11:631809. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

College of Animal Sciences and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China.

Taxifolin is a natural antioxidant polyphenol with various bioactivities and has many beneficial effects on human gut health. However, little is known of its function on colitis. In this study, the protective effects of taxifolin on colitis symptoms, inflammation, signaling pathways, and colon microbiota were investigated using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mice. Intriguingly, pre-administration of taxifolin alleviated the colitis symptoms and histological changes of the DSS-challenged mice. Supplementation of taxifolin significantly inhibited the secretions of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 and significantly increased the secretions of IL-10, secretory immunoglobulin A, superoxide dismutase, and immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG, and IgM) in DSS-induced colitis mice. In addition, the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-B; p65 and IB) signaling was significantly suppressed by taxifolin supplementation. The expression of tight junction proteins (claudin-1 and occludin) was significantly increased by taxifolin. Moreover, 16S rDNA sequencing revealed that the DSS-induced changes of colon microbiota composition and microbial functions (amino acid metabolism and MAPK signaling) were restored by taxifolin, including the decreases of the abundances of , , , , and the ratio of /, and the increases of the abundances of and at species level. In conclusion, these results revealed that dietary taxifolin has a great potential to prevent colitis by inhibiting the NF-B signaling pathway, enhancing intestinal barrier, and modulating gut microbiota.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.631809DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7921741PMC
February 2021

Ciliary neuropeptidergic signaling dynamically regulates excitatory synapses in postnatal neocortical pyramidal neurons.

Elife 2021 Mar 2;10. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of Biology, Brandeis University, Waltham, United States.

Primary cilia are compartmentalized sensory organelles present on the majority of neurons in the mammalian brain throughout adulthood. Recent evidence suggests that cilia regulate multiple aspects of neuronal development, including the maintenance of neuronal connectivity. However, whether ciliary signals can dynamically modulate postnatal circuit excitability is unknown. Here we show that acute cell-autonomous knockdown of ciliary signaling rapidly strengthens glutamatergic inputs onto cultured rat neocortical pyramidal neurons, and increases spontaneous firing. This increased excitability occurs without changes to passive neuronal properties or intrinsic excitability. Further, the neuropeptide receptor somatostatin receptor 3 (SSTR3) is localized nearly exclusively to excitatory neuron cilia both and in culture, and pharmacological manipulation of SSTR3 signaling bidirectionally modulates excitatory synaptic inputs onto these neurons. Our results indicate that ciliary neuropeptidergic signaling dynamically modulates excitatory synapses, and suggest that defects in this regulation may underlie a subset of behavioral and cognitive disorders associated with ciliopathies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.65427DOI Listing
March 2021

The Conceptualization of Emotions across Cultures: A Model Based on Interoceptive Neuroscience.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2021 Feb 22. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

College of Foreign Languages, Shanghai Maritime University, Shanghai, China.

Mental processes are recognized to be embodied, hence dependent upon functions of the body. Interoception (i.e., the sense of the internal bodily physiology) underpinning motivational states and emotional feelings, however, are mostly ignored within present sensory-motor accounts of embodiment. The inclusion of interoception within models of embodiment is important both for health psychology and for theories of cognition. Here, we deduce that reference to visceral organs, in language describing emotion concepts, should be viewed as metonymy (i.e., the mental mapping wherein a component is used to describe the whole), rather than metaphor (i.e., one familiar and concrete concept used to describe another unfamiliar and/or abstract concept that shares some similarities). This view contrasts with a dominant assumption within cognitive linguistics. We further argue that conceptual differences in the assumption about the body-mind-emotion relationship or emotional somatization, evident when comparing Chinese to standard English, is culturally and cognitively determined (e.g., by divergent Western and Chinese philosophical, medical traditions and meaning systems). We propose a new model in which two contending variables, bodily transparency and cognitive granularity, define cultural differences in emotion conceptualization, capturing the dynamic multidimensional interaction between body, mind, brain, language, and society.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2021.02.023DOI Listing
February 2021

Streptochlorin analogues as potential antifungal agents: Design, synthesis, antifungal activity and molecular docking study.

Bioorg Med Chem 2021 Feb 14;35:116073. Epub 2021 Feb 14.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Pesticide Science, College of Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China. Electronic address:

Streptochlorin is a small molecule of indole alkaloid isolated from marine Streptomyces sp., it is a promising lead compound due to its potent bioactivity in preventing many phytopathogens in our previous study, but further structural modifications are required to improve its antifungal activity. Our work in this paper focused on the replacement of oxazole ring in streptochlorin with the imidazole ring, to discover novel analogues. Based on this design strategy, three series of streptochlorin analogues were efficiently synthesized through sequential Vilsmeier-Haack reaction, Van Leusen imidazole synthesis and halogenation reaction. Some of the analogues displayed excellent activity in the primary assays, and this is highlighted by compounds 4g and 4i, the growth inhibition against Alternaria Leaf Spot and Rhizoctorzia solani under 50 μg/mL are 97.5% and 90.3%, respectively, even more active than those of streptochlorin, pimprinine and Osthole. Molecular docking models indicated that streptochlorin binds with Thermus thermophiles Leucyl-tRNA Synthetase in a similar mode to AN2690, offering a perspective on the mode of action study for antifungal activities of streptochlorin derivatives. Further study is still ongoing with the aim of discovering synthetic analogues, with improved antifungal activity and clear mode of action.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmc.2021.116073DOI Listing
February 2021

Influences of Lipid A Types on LPS Bilayer Properties.

J Phys Chem B 2021 Mar 18;125(8):2105-2112. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Departments of Biological Sciences, Chemistry, Bioengineering, and Computer Science and Engineering, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015, United States.

Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) present in the outer leaflet of Gram-negative bacterial outer membranes protect the bacteria from external threats and influence antibiotic permeability as well as immune system recognition. The structure of lipid A, the anchor of an LPS molecule to the outer membrane, can make direct influences on membrane properties. Particularly, in a Gram-negative bacterium responsible for cholera, a severe diarrheal disease, modifications of lipid A structures grant antibiotic resistance and are a primary factor that led to the current cholera pandemic. However, the difference in structural properties incurred by such modifications has not been fully explored. In this work, five symmetric bilayer systems comprised of distinct lipid A structures of LPS with O1 O-antigen were modeled and simulated to explore influences of different lipid A types on membrane properties. All-atom molecular dynamics simulations reveal that membrane properties such as hydrophobic thickness, acyl chain order parameter, and area per lipid are largely impacted by lipid A modifications due to differences in composition and acyl chain distortions. The modified lipid A is also less negatively charged, which possibly reveals a resistance mechanism to cationic antimicrobial peptide evasion. These findings present a possible explanation for 's immune system evasion properties and establish the differences between the lipid A types, which should be of use for any future study of the Gram-negative bacteria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpcb.0c09144DOI Listing
March 2021

Associating the risk of three urinary cancers with obesity and overweight: an overview with evidence mapping of systematic reviews.

Syst Rev 2021 Feb 17;10(1):58. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Evidence-Based Nursing Centre, School of Nursing, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou City, 730000, China.

Background: The relationship between cancer with overweight and obesity has been extensively reported. However, the association between urinary cancers with these risk factors remains unclear, with existing reports showing conflicting findings. The current review, therefore, sought to clarify the latter association by assessing the methodological and reporting quality of existing systematic reviews on the subject.

Methods: We first screened PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases for relevant literature and subjected the resulting articles to meta-analysis. We adopted the AMSTAR-2 and PRISMA checklists for assessing methodological and reporting quality, respectively, then performed meta-analyses to determine the relationship between incidence and mortality of three types of urinary cancers with obesity and overweight. Indirect comparisons were also done across subgroups.

Results: All systematic reviews (SRs) were of critically low methodological quality. Seventeen SRs had minimal reporting flaws, and 11 SRs had minor reporting flaws. We found an association between obesity with an incidence of kidney (RR = 1.68, 95% CI 1.47-1.92), bladder (RR = 1.1, 95% CI 1.07-1.13), and prostate (RR = 1.02, 95% CI 0.91, 1.13) cancers. Similarly, overweight was associated with the incidence of the three types of cancer, recording RR values of 1.37 (95% CI 1.26-1.48), 1.07 (95% CI 1.03-1.1), and 1 (95% CI 0.93, 1.07) for kidney, bladder, and prostate cancers, respectively. With regard to the dose analysis, the RR of BMI (per 5 kg/m increase) was associated with kidney (RR = 1.24, 95% CI 1.2-1.28), bladder (RR = 1.03, 95% CI 1.02-1.05), and prostate (RR = 1.02, 95% CI 1.01, 1.03) cancers.

Conclusions: This comprehensive quantitative analysis provides an affirmation that overweight and obesity are strong risk factors for kidney cancer, owing to a strong association between them. Conversely, a weak association between overweight and obesity with bladder and prostate cancers confirms their status as mild risk factors for the 2 types of cancer. But due to the low quality of included SRs, the results need to be interpreted with caution.

Systematic Review Registration: PROSPERO CRD42019119459.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13643-021-01606-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7888186PMC
February 2021

Nervous system diseases are associated with the severity and mortality of patients with COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Epidemiol Infect 2021 Feb 15:1-38. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Evidence-Based Medicine Centre, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou730000, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268821000376DOI Listing
February 2021

Cavin1 intrinsically disordered domains are essential for fuzzy electrostatic interactions and caveola formation.

Nat Commun 2021 02 10;12(1):931. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Institute for Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia, QLD, Australia.

Caveolae are spherically shaped nanodomains of the plasma membrane, generated by cooperative assembly of caveolin and cavin proteins. Cavins are cytosolic peripheral membrane proteins with negatively charged intrinsically disordered regions that flank positively charged α-helical regions. Here, we show that the three disordered domains of Cavin1 are essential for caveola formation and dynamic trafficking of caveolae. Electrostatic interactions between disordered regions and α-helical regions promote liquid-liquid phase separation behaviour of Cavin1 in vitro, assembly of Cavin1 oligomers in solution, generation of membrane curvature, association with caveolin-1, and Cavin1 recruitment to caveolae in cells. Removal of the first disordered region causes irreversible gel formation in vitro and results in aberrant caveola trafficking through the endosomal system. We propose a model for caveola assembly whereby fuzzy electrostatic interactions between Cavin1 and caveolin-1 proteins, combined with membrane lipid interactions, are required to generate membrane curvature and a metastable caveola coat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-21035-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7875971PMC
February 2021

Temporal persistence of residual fetal cell-free DNA from a deceased cotwin after selective fetal reduction in dichorionic diamniotic twin pregnancies.

Prenat Diagn 2021 Jan 13. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

BGI-Shenzhen, Shenzhen, China.

Objectives: To determine the temporal persistence of the residual cell-free DNA (cfDNA) of the deceased cotwin in maternal circulation after selective fetal reduction and evaluate its long persistence in noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT).

Methods: Dichorionic diamniotic twins (N = 5) undergoing selective fetal reduction because of a trisomy were recruited. After informed consent, maternal blood was collected immediately before reduction and periodically after reduction until birth. The plasma cfDNA of each sample was sequenced and analyzed for fetal aneuploidy and fetal fractions.

Results: In all pregnancies, the fetal fraction of the cfDNA of the deceased fetus increased to peak at 7-9 weeks after fetal reduction, and subsequently decreased gradually to almost undetectable during the late third trimester. The NIPT T-scores persistently reflected the detection of fetal trisomy up to 16 (median 9.5) weeks after fetal reduction.

Conclusions: Residual cfDNA from the deceased cotwin after selective reduction at 14-17 gestational weeks led to the persistent generation of false-positive NIPT results for up to 16 weeks postdemise. Thus, providing NIPT for pregnancies with a cotwin demise in early second trimester is prone to misleading results and not recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pd.5898DOI Listing
January 2021

Dimeric capsules self-assembled through halogen and chalcogen bonding.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 Feb 2;57(13):1543-1549. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Center for Supramolecular Chemistry & Catalysis and Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Shanghai University, 99 Shang-Da Road, Shanghai, 200444, China.

Supramolecular capsules are nanoscale containers useful for the study of molecular behavior in confined spaces. They offer practical applications in catalysis, molecular transport, drug delivery, and materials science. Self-assembly has proven to be an effective approach in constructing supramolecular capsules and a variety of well-known noncovalent interactions including hydrogen bonding, metal coordination and ionic interactions have been deployed. Bowl-shaped cavitand structures built up from resorcinarenes have particular advantages for the construction of supramolecular capsules, and this highlight discusses the unconventional self-assembly of molecular capsules held together by halogen and chalcogen bonds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cc07784dDOI Listing
February 2021

Automatic rat brain image segmentation using triple cascaded convolutional neural networks in a clinical PET/MR.

Phys Med Biol 2021 Feb 2;66(4):04NT01. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044, People's Republic of China.

The purpose of this work was to develop and evaluate a deep learning approach for automatic rat brain image segmentation of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images in a clinical PET/MR, providing a useful tool for analyzing studies of the pathology and progression of neurological disease and to validate new radiotracers and therapeutic agents. Rat brain PET/MR images (N = 56) were collected from a clinical PET/MR system using a dedicated small-animal imaging phased array coil. A segmentation method based on a triple cascaded convolutional neural network (CNN) was developed, where, for a rectangular region of interest covering the whole brain, the entire brain volume was outlined using a CNN, then the outlined brain was fed into the cascaded network to segment both the cerebellum and cerebrum, and finally the sub-cortical structures within the cerebrum including hippocampus, thalamus, striatum, lateral ventricles and prefrontal cortex were segmented out using the last cascaded CNN. The dice score coefficient (DSC) between manually drawn labels and predicted labels were used to quantitatively evaluate the segmentation accuracy. The proposed method achieved a mean DSC of 0.965, 0.927, 0.858, 0.594, 0.847, 0.674 and 0.838 for whole brain, cerebellum, hippocampus, lateral ventricles, striatum, prefrontal cortex and thalamus, respectively. Compared with the segmentation results reported in previous publications using atlas-based methods, the proposed method demonstrated improved performance in the whole brain and cerebellum segmentation. In conclusion, the proposed method achieved high accuracy for rat brain segmentation in MRI images from a clinical PET/MR and enabled the possibility of automatic rat brain image processing for small animal neurological research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6560/abd2c5DOI Listing
February 2021

Intradermal administration of green synthesized nanosilver (NS) through film-coated PEGDA microneedles for potential antibacterial applications.

Biomater Sci 2021 Jan 29. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

School of Materials and Energy, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China.

Skin infections caused by pathogens, including bacteria, fungi and viruses, are difficult to completely eliminate through standard topical administration, owing to the restricted drug permeation into the epidermis layer. Herein, we developed a poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) microneedle patch with surface coating of a nanosilver (NS) encapsulated gelatin/sucrose film for antibacterial applications, by virtue of enhanced skin permeation by microneedle penetration and efficient drug delivery through rapid film dissolving. NS was facilely synthesized through a green process based on the bioinspired crystallization of ionic state silver in the presence of a silk fibroin (SF) template. A gelatin/sucrose polymeric film encapsulating NS was dressed on the surface of the mold cavity, and film-coated PEGDA (PEGDA/film-NS) microneedles were subsequently fabricated through standard ultraviolet (UV) light-induced polymerization. To demonstrate their advantages for therapeutic applications, the physicochemical properties of the as-developed microneedles were characterized in terms of their morphology, composition, mechanical strength, etc. Moreover, rapid NS release from PEGDA@film-NS microneedles driven by the aqueous environment was demonstrated under physiological conditions. Additionally, such film-coated microneedles exhibited good mechanical strength for skin penetration, and their antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus) as well as Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) was verified using bacterial suspension in vitro. Altogether, such a minimally invasive strategy exhibited good potential for realizing a broad-spectrum antibacterial effect, which may provide a practical methodology for the management of polymicrobial skin infection during clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0bm02136aDOI Listing
January 2021

Difference of DCE-MRI Parameters at Different Time Points and Their Predictive Value for Axillary Lymph Node Metastasis of Breast Cancer.

Acad Radiol 2021 Jan 25. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Department of Radiology, the First Hospital of Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China. Electronic address:

Rationale And Objectives: To assess differences of dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) parameters at different postcontrast time points (TPs), and to explore the predictive value of DCE-MRI parameters for axillary lymph node (ALN) metastasis of breast cancer.

Materials And Methods: A total of 107 breast cancer patients were included retrospectively, and 50 phases were collected on DCE-MRI for each patient. DCE-MRI parameters Ktrans, Kep, Ve, TTP, Peak, Washin, Washout, and AUC were extracted from the images at 67.8 seconds, 128.5 seconds, 189.2 seconds, 249.9 seconds, and 310.5 seconds (regard as TP1, 2, 3, 4, and 5). Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare DCE-MRI parameters at different postcontrast TPs. Logistic regression was performed to analyze the predictive value of DCE-MRI parameters for ALN metastasis of breast cancer, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was constructed to evaluate the predictive performance.

Results: The difference of DCE-MRI parameters between TP1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 was statistically significant (p < 0.01) in breast cancer. The TPs are considered as the optimal TPs when DCE-MRI parameters values reach the maximum. The optimal TPs of Ktrans, Kep, and Ve were respectively at TP2, TP2, and TP4 (Ktrans, Kep, and Ve). The optimal TPs of TTP, Peak, and AUC were at TP5 (TTP, Peak, and AUC). AUC showed the ability to predict ALN metastasis of breast cancer (area under ROC curve = 0.656, p < 0.05).

Conclusions: DCE-MRI parameters values were different at different postcontrast TPs. AUC may be an independent predictor of ALN metastasis in breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acra.2021.01.013DOI Listing
January 2021

Role of PVT1 polymorphisms in the glioma susceptibility and prognosis.

Eur J Cancer Prev 2021 Jan 11. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Department of Anesthesiology Department of Pediatric Surgery, Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710004, China.

Background: Genetic factors play a crucial role in the glioma risk and prognosis of glioma patients. To explore the role of plasmacytoma variant translocation 1 (PVT1) polymorphism in the susceptibility and survival of glioma in the Chinese Han population, we conducted a case-control study.

Methods: The three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in PVT1 were genotyped using Agena MassARRAY from 575 patients with glioma and 500 healthy controls. We used the χ2 test to analyze the differences in distribution of allele and genotype between the cases and controls. Odds ratio and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated by logistic regression analysis to evaluate the association SNPs with glioma risk. The effects of polymorphisms and clinical features on survival of glioma patients were evaluated using the log-rank test, Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analysis.

Results: We found that rs13255292 was associated with a decreased risk of glioma in the recessive model in overall or male; and rs4410871 was significantly associated with an increased the risk of glioma in age ≤40 years old or female. Moreover, the extent of resection and chemotherapy were found to be key prognostic factors in survival of glioma patients. However, the gender, age, tumor grade, radiotherapy and PVT1 polymorphisms have no effect on prognosis of glioma patients.

Conclusions: Our results indicated that PVT1 polymorphisms (rs13255292 and rs4410871) were associated with glioma susceptibility, but have no effect on prognosis of glioma patients. Further studies with large samples are required to confirm the results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CEJ.0000000000000636DOI Listing
January 2021

CHARMM-GUI Supports Hydrogen Mass Repartitioning and Different Protonation States of Phosphates in Lipopolysaccharides.

J Chem Inf Model 2021 Feb 14;61(2):831-839. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Department of Biological Sciences, Department of Chemistry, Department of Bioengineering, and Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015, United States.

Hydrogen mass repartitioning (HMR) that permits time steps of all-atom molecular dynamics simulation up to 4 fs by increasing the mass of hydrogen atoms has been used in protein and phospholipid bilayers simulations to improve conformational sampling. Molecular simulation input generation via CHARMM-GUI now supports HMR for diverse simulation programs. In addition, considering ambiguous pH at the bacterial outer membrane surface, different protonation states, either -2e or -1e, of phosphate groups in lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are also supported in CHARMM-GUI . To examine the robustness of HMR and the influence of protonation states of phosphate groups on LPS bilayer properties, eight different LPS-type all-atom systems with two phosphate protonation states are modeled and simulated utilizing both OpenMM 2-fs (standard) and 4-fs (HMR) schemes. Consistency in the conformational space sampled by standard and HMR simulations shows the reliability of HMR even in LPS, one of the most complex biomolecules. For systems with different protonation states, similar conformations are sampled with a PO or PO group, but different phosphate protonation states make slight impacts on lipid packing and conformational properties of LPS acyl chains. Systems with PO have a slightly smaller area per lipid and thus slightly more ordered lipid A acyl chains compared to those with PO, due to more electrostatic repulsion between PO even with neutralizing Ca ions. HMR and different protonation states of phosphates of LPS available in CHARMM-GUI are expected to be useful for further investigations of biological systems of diverse origin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jcim.0c01360DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7902386PMC
February 2021

Increasing serum ammonia level is a risk factor for the prognosis of critically ill patients: A multicenter retrospective cohort study.

J Crit Care 2020 Dec 31;62:218-222. Epub 2020 Dec 31.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China. Electronic address:

Purpose: To assess the association between serum ammonia level upon admission during the initial intensive care unit (ICU) stay and mortality.

Materials And Methods: This retrospective cohort study included 2703 adult patients in eICU Collaborative Research Database. The ICU mortality within ammonia deciles were assessed. Logistic regression analyses were performed to analyze the relationship between ammonia and mortality.

Results: We defined three ammonia categories: <47, 47-111, and ≥111 μg/dL, corresponding to low, intermediate, and high ICU mortality. Increased ammonia was significantly associated with increased ICU mortality (per 10 μg/dL increase: odds ratio, 1.070 [95% confidence intervals, 1.05-1.09]; intermediate vs. low: 1.90 [1.41-2.56]; high vs. low: 4.38 [2.99-6.41]) and in-hospital mortality (1.06 [1.04-1.08]; 1.45 [1.13-1.87]; 3.41 [2.43-4.79]). Adding ammonia to the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) IV score improved the area under the curve from 0.826 to 0.839 (P < 0.001) and from 0.806 to 0.813 (P = 0.001) for ICU and in-hospital mortality, respectively. Interaction and subgroup analyses demonstrated consistent results in patients with different APACHE IV scores, with or without hepatic diseases.

Conclusions: Elevated serum ammonia level in critically ill patients upon admission was an early risk factor for higher ICU and in-hospital mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrc.2020.12.028DOI Listing
December 2020

De Novo and Divergent Synthesis of Highly Functionalized Furans by Cascade Reactions of 2-Hydroxy-1,4-diones with Nucleophiles.

Chemistry 2021 Jan 11. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Pesticide Science, and Department of, Chemistry, College of Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, 1 Weigang Road, Xuanwu District, Nanjing, 210095, P.R. China.

Herein, a divergent synthesis of a variety of 2α- and 5α-substituted furan derivatives from 2-hydroxy-1,4-diones is reported. By using appropriate substrates and an acid catalyst, the reactions occurred selectively through cyclization/1,6-conjugate addition or cyclization/Friedel-Crafts-type cascade reactions. A broad range of nucleophilic reagents (>10 types for the 1,6-conjugate addition for 5α substitution and >20 types for the Friedel-Crafts-type cascade reaction for 2α substitution), including alcohols, amides, furan, thiophene, pyrrole, indole, phenols, and many others, can successfully participate in the reactions, providing a universal strategy for a diversity-oriented synthesis of α-substituted furan derivatives. Deuteriation experiments and DFT calculations were carried out to support the proposed reaction mechanisms. Antifungal activity experiments revealed that products with an indole or 4-hydroxycoumarin core substituted at the 2α position showed moderate activities against Rhizoctorzia solani and Botrytis cinerea, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/chem.202005098DOI Listing
January 2021

Early T-Cell Precursor Leukemia Has a Higher Risk of Induction-Related Infection among T-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Adult.

Mediators Inflamm 2020 23;2020:8867760. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Department of Hematology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Rd 1838 North Guangzhou Avenue, Guangzhou 510515, China.

Background: Infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). However, the reports regarding risk factors of induction-related infection are roughly unknown/limited in adult T-ALL during induction chemotherapy.

Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study for the prevalence and risk predictors of induction-related infection among consecutive T-ALL patients ( = 97) enrolled in a PDT-ALL-LBL clinical trial. Of 97 patients with T-ALL enrolled in the trial, 46 were early T-cell precursor (ETP) ALL and 51 were non-ETP ALL.

Results: When compared with non-ETP, ETP ALL subtype was characterized with lower neutrophil count (1.35 × 10/L vs. 8.7 × 10/L, < 0.001) and lower myeloid percentage in the bone marrow (13.35% vs. 35.31%, = 0.007). Additionally, ETP ALL had longer neutropenia before diagnosis ( < 0.001), as well as during induction chemotherapy ( < 0.001). Notably, the ETP cohort experienced higher cumulative incidence of clinically documented infections (CDI; 33.33%, = 0.001), microbiologically documented infections (MDI; 45.24%, = 0.006), resistant infection (11.9%, = 0.013), and mixed infection (21.43%, = 0.003), respectively, than those of the non-ETP cohort. Furthermore, multivariable analysis revealed that T-ALL mixed infection was more likely related to chemotherapy response (OR, 0.025; 95% CI 0.127-0.64; = 0.012) and identified myeloid percentage as a predictor associated with ETP-ALL mixed infection (OR, 0.915; 95% CI 0.843-0.993; = 0.033), with ROC-defined cut-off value of 2.24% in ETP cohorts.

Conclusions: Our data for the first time demonstrated that ETP-ALL characterized with impaired myelopoiesis were more susceptible to induction-related infection among T-ALL populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/8867760DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7775137PMC
December 2020

Facile Method for Surface-Grafted Chitooligosaccharide on Medical Segmented Poly(ester-urethane) Film to Improve Surface Biocompatibility.

Membranes (Basel) 2021 Jan 4;11(1). Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Shandong Tianming Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Jinan 250100, China.

In the paper, the chitooligosaccharide (CHO) was surface-grafted on the medical segmented poly(ester-urethane) (SPU) film by a facile two-step procedure to improve the surface biocompatibility. By chemical treatment of SPU film with hexamethylene diisocyanate under mild reaction condition, free -NCO groups were first introduced on the surface with high grafting density, which were then coupled with -NH groups of CHO to immobilize CHO on the SPU surface (SPU-CHO). The CHO-covered surface was characterized by FT-IR and water contact angle test. Due to the hydrophilicity of CHO, the SPU-CHO possessed higher surface hydrophilicity and faster hydrolytic degradation rate than blank SPU. The almost overlapping stress-strain curves of SPU and SPU-CHO films demonstrated that the chemical treatments had little destruction on the intrinsic properties of the substrate. In addition, the significant inhibition of platelet adhesion and protein adsorption on CHO-covered surface endowed SPU-CHO an outstanding surface biocompatibility (especially blood compatibility). These results indicated that the CHO-grafted SPU was a promising candidate as blood-contacting biomaterial for biomedical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/membranes11010037DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7824666PMC
January 2021

Particulate matter air pollution and reduced heart rate variability: How the associations vary by particle size in Shanghai, China.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Jan 8;208:111726. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

School of Public Health, Key Lab of Public Health Safety of the Ministry of Education and NHC Key Lab of Health Technology Assessment, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China.

Background: It remains unclear which size of particles has the strongest effects on heart rate variability (HRV).

Objective: To explore the association between HRV parameters and daily variations of size-fractionated particle number concentrations (PNCs).

Methods: We conducted a longitudinal repeated-measure study among 78 participants with a 24-h continuous ambulatory Holter electrocardiographic recorder in Shanghai, China, from January 2015 to June 2019. Linear mixed-effects models were employed to evaluate the changes of HRV parameters associated with PNCs of 7 size ranges from 0.01 to 10 μm after controlling for environmental and individual confounders.

Results: On the concurrent day, decreased HRV parameters were associated with increased PNCs of 0.01-0.3 μm, and smaller particles showed greater effects. For an interquartile range increase in ultrafine particles (UFP, those < 0.1 μm, 2453 particles/cm), the declines in very-low-frequency power, low-frequency power, high-frequency power, standard deviation of normal R-R intervals, root mean square of the successive differences between R-R intervals and percentage of adjacent normal R-R intervals with a difference ≥ 50 ms were 5.06% [95% confidence interval (CI): 2.09%, 7.94%], 7.65% (95%CI: 2.73%, 12.32%), 9.49% (95%CI: 4.64%, 14.09%), 5.10% (95%CI: 2.21%, 7.91%), 8.09% (95%CI: 4.39%, 11.65%) and 24.98% (95%CI: 14.70%, 34.02%), respectively. These results were robust to the adjustment of criteria air pollutants, temperature at different lags, and the status of heart medication.

Conclusions: Particles less than 0.3 μm (especially UFP) may dominate the acute effects of particulate air pollution on cardiac autonomic dysfunction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2020.111726DOI Listing
January 2021

Dicke state generation via selective interactions in a Dicke-Stark model.

Opt Express 2020 Dec;28(26):39574-39585

We propose a method to create selective interactions with Dicke-Stark model by means of a time-dependent perturbation theory. By choosing the proper rotating framework, we find that the time oscillating terms depend on the number of atomic excitations and the number of photonic excitations. Consequently, the Rabi oscillation between selective states can be realized by properly choosing the frequency of the two-level system. The second order selective interactions can also be studied with this method. Then various states, such as Dicke states, superposition of Dicke states and GHZ states, can be created by means of such selective interactions. The numerical results show that high fidelity Dicke states and Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states can be created by choosing the proper frequency of the two-level system and controlling the evolution time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.412914DOI Listing
December 2020

Study on the protective effect and mechanism of Dicliptera chinensis (L.) Juss (Acanthaceae) polysaccharide on immune liver injury induced by LPS.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Feb 25;134:111159. Epub 2020 Dec 25.

College of Pharmacy, Guilin Medical University, Guilin 541004, Guangxi, China; College of Pharmacy, Gansu University of Chinese Medicine, Lanzhou, 730000, Gansu, China. Electronic address:

The purpose of this study is to use Dicliptera chinensis (L.) Juss (Acanthaceae) polysaccharide (DCP) to act on the NF-κB inflammatory pathway and Fas/FasL ligand system, in order to find a new method to improve immune liver injury. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was used to establish an injury model in vivo (Kunming mice) and in vitro (LO2 cells). In this experiment, hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining and related biochemical indicators were used to observe the pathological changes of liver tissues, oxidative stress and inflammatory reactions. Immunohistochemistry, ELISA, RT-PCR and Western blot were used to detect protein or mRNA expressions associated with inflammation response and apoptosis. The experimental results show that the model group has obvious liver cell damage and inflammatory infiltration. After DCP intervention, it could significantly reduce the levels of ALT, AST, ALP, TBIL and MDA in serum, and increase the content of SOD and GSH-Px. In addition, DCP can reduce the expression level of NF-κB in the liver and reduce the release of downstream inflammatory factors TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β, thereby reducing the inflammation. At the same time, DCP can significantly inhibit the expression of Fas/FasL ligand system and apoptosis related-proteins and mRNA, which in turn can reduce cell apoptosis. In conclusion, DCP can alleviate liver injury by inhibiting liver inflammation and apoptosis, which provides a new strategy for clinical treatment of immune liver injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2020.111159DOI Listing
February 2021

The acute effects of temperature variability on heart rate variability: A repeated-measure study.

Environ Res 2020 Dec 29;194:110655. Epub 2020 Dec 29.

School of Public Health, Key Lab of Public Health Safety of the Ministry of Education and Key Lab of Health Technology Assessment of the Ministry of Health, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200032, China; Shanghai Typhoon Institute/CMA, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Meteorology and Health, Shanghai, 200030, China. Electronic address:

Background: The impacts of temperature variability on cardiac autonomic function remain unclear.

Objective: To explore the short-term associations between daily temperature variability and parameters of heart rate variability (HRV).

Methods: This is a repeated-measure study among 78 eligible participants in Shanghai, China. We defined temperature variability as diurnal temperature range (DTR), the standard-deviation of temperature (SDT) and temperature variability (TV). We evaluated 3 frequency-domain HRV parameters (VLF, LF and HF) and 4 time-domain parameters (SDNN, SDANN, rMSSD and pNN50). We used linear mixed-effect models to analyze the data after controlling for environmental and individual confounders.

Results: Temperature variability was significantly associated with decreased HRV, especially on the concurrent day. The exposure-response relationships were almost inversely linear for most parameters. Every one interquartile range (IQR) increase of DTR was associated with a decrease of 3.92% for VLF, 6.99% for LF, 5.88% for HF, 3.94% for rMSSD and 1.30% for pNN50. Each IQR increase of SDT was associated with a decline of 6.48% for LF, 5.91% for HF, 4.26% for rMSSD and 1.87% for pNN50. Every IQR increase of SDT was associated with a decrease of 4.39% for VLF, 7.67% for LF, 6.52% for HF, 3.22% for SDNN, 2.98% for SDANN, 4.05% for rMSSD, and 1.41% for pNN50. The decrements in HRV associated with temperature variability were more prominent in females.

Conclusion: Temperature variability on the concurrent day could significantly decrease cardiac autonomic function, especially in females.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2020.110655DOI Listing
December 2020

New ent-kaurane diterpenes from the roasted arabica coffee beans and molecular docking to α-glucosidase.

Food Chem 2021 May 7;345:128823. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650201, Yunnan, People's Republic of China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Ten new (1-10) and five known (11-15) ent-kaurane diterpene derivatives were identified from the roasted beans of coffea arabica. Their structures were established by extensive spectroscopic analysis including 1D, 2D NMR (HSQC, HMBC, COSY, and ROESY), HRESIMS, and X-ray diffraction analysis. Compounds 1-3 were three types of rearranged ent-kaurane diterpenes, and compounds 4 and 5 were diterpene esters with a rare 6-hydroxyhexanoyl at C-17. Compounds 6, 8, 14, and 15 showed moderate inhibitory effect on α-glucosidase with IC values of 149.92 ± 2.52, 23.23 ± 1.03, 54.58 ± 4.21, 54.16 ± 3.95 μM, respectively, compared to the positive control (60.71 ± 16.45 μM). The results of activity assay showed that diterpenes with the double bond between C-15 and C-16 exhibited stronger α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Further molecular docking experiments were adopted to discuss the mechanism of activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.128823DOI Listing
May 2021

Simultaneous detection of fetal aneuploidy, de novo FGFR3 mutations and paternally derived β-thalassemia by a novel method of noninvasive prenatal testing.

Prenat Diagn 2020 Dec 19. Epub 2020 Dec 19.

BGI-Shenzhen, Shenzhen, China.

Objective: The aim is to develop a novel noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) method that simultaneously performs fetal aneuploidy screening and the detection of de novo and paternally derived mutations.

Methods: A total of 68 pregnancies, including 26 normal pregnancies, 7 cases with fetal aneuploidies, 7 cases with fetal achondroplasia or thanatophoric dysplasia, 18 cases with fetal skeletal abnormalities, and 10 cases with β-thalassemia high risk were recruited. Plasma cell-free DNA was amplified by Targeted And Genome-wide simultaneous sequencing (TAGs-seq) to generate around 99% of total reads covering the whole-genome region and around 1%  covering the target genes. The reads on the whole-genome region were analyzed for fetal aneuploidy using a binary hypothesis T-score and the reads on target genes were analyzed for point mutations by calculating the minor allelic frequency of loci on FGFR3 and HBB. TAGs-seq results were compared with conventional NIPT and diagnostic results.

Results: In each sample, TAGs-seq generated 44.7-54 million sequencing reads covering the whole-genome region of 0.1-3× and the target genes of >1000×depth. All cases of fetal aneuploidy and de novo mutations of achondroplasia/thanatophoric dysplasia were identified with high sensitivities and specificities except for one false-negative paternal mutation of β-thalassemia.

Conclusions: TAGs-seq is a novel NIPT method that combines the fetal aneuploidy screening and the detection of de novo FGFR3 mutations and paternal HBB mutations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pd.5879DOI Listing
December 2020

The ESCRT-I Subunit Tsg101 Plays Novel Dual Roles in Entry and Replication of Classical Swine Fever Virus.

J Virol 2021 Feb 24;95(6). Epub 2021 Feb 24.

MOE Joint International Research Laboratory of Animal Health and Food Safety, College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China

Classical swine fever (CSF), caused by classical swine fever virus (CSFV), is a highly contagious disease of swine with high morbidity and mortality that negatively affects the pig industry worldwide, in particular in China. Soon after the endocytosis of CSFV, the virus makes full use of the components of host cells to complete its life cycle. The endocytosis sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) system is a central molecular machine for membrane protein sorting and scission in eukaryotic cells that plays an essential role in many physiological metabolic processes, including invasion and egress of envelope viruses. However, the molecular mechanism that ESCRT uses to regulate the replication of CSFV is unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that the ESCRT-I complex Tsg101 protein participates in clathrin-mediated endocytosis of CSFV and is also involved in CSFV trafficking. Tsg101 assists the virus in entering the host cell through the late endosome (Rab7 and Rab9) and finally reaching the lysosome (Lamp-1). Interestingly, Tsg101 is also involved in the viral replication process by interacting with nonstructural proteins 4B and 5B of CSFV. Finally, confocal microscopy showed that the replication complex of Tsg101 and double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) or NS4B and NS5B protein was close to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), not the Golgi, in the cytoplasm. Collectively, our finding highlights that Tsg101 regulates the process of CSFV entry and replication, indicating that the ESCRT plays an important role in the life cycle of CSFV. Thus, ESCRT molecules could serve as therapeutic targets to combat CSFV infection. CSF, caused by CSFV, is a World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) notifiable disease and causes significant financial losses to the pig industry globally. The ESCRT machinery plays an important regulatory role in several members of the genera and within the family , such as hepatitis C virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, and dengue virus. Previous reports have shown that assembling and budding of these viruses require ESCRT. However, the role of ESCRT in infection remains to be elucidated. We determined the molecular mechanisms of the regulation of CSFV infection by the major subunit Tsg101 of ESCRT-I. Interestingly, Tsg101 plays an essential regulatory role in both clathrin-mediated endocytosis and genome replication of CSFV. Overall, the results of this study provide further insights into the molecular function of ESCRT-I complex protein Tsg101 during CSFV infection, which may serve as a molecular target for pestivirus inhibitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01928-20DOI Listing
February 2021

Surgery combined with iodine-125 interstitial brachytherapy for treatment of parotid adenoid cystic carcinoma: A single-institution experience.

Brachytherapy 2020 Dec 9. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Peking University School of Stomatology, Beijing, China.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze the effectiveness and safety of the combination of surgery plus postoperative iodine-125 interstitial brachytherapy for treatment of adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of the parotid.

Methods And Materials: This study included a retrospective analysis of the data of patients who underwent postoperative iodine-125 interstitial brachytherapy for histology-confirmed ACC of the parotid between January 2002 and November 2018 in Peking University Hospital of Stomatology. Acute and long-term radiation-related toxicities were assessed by the criteria of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group and European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer. Multivariate analysis was used to identify the factors affecting overall survival, disease-free survival (DFS), and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS).

Results: A total of 86 patients (53 women; median age 50 years, SD = 13.1) were included. Median followup was for 45.5 months. About half the patients (44/86, 51.3%) had clinical stage IV disease. Local recurrence occurred in 11 of 86 (12.8%) patients. No patient had nodal metastases in the followup period. The five- and 10-year DFS rates were 74.8% and 66.6%, respectively. The mean DMFS was 60.6 months. On multivariate analysis, preoperative facial palsy, type of surgery, perineural spread (PNS), and distant metastases were independent prognostic factors for DFS; preoperative facial palsy, nodal metastases, and PNS were independent prognostic factors for overall survival; and preoperative facial palsy, type of surgery, PNS, and pathological type were independent prognostic factor for DMFS.

Conclusions: The combination of surgery and iodine-125 interstitial brachytherapy appears to be an effective and safe treatment for primary ACC of the parotid.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brachy.2020.09.017DOI Listing
December 2020

H NMR-based chemometric metabolomics characterization of soymilk fermented by Bacillus subtilis BSNK-5.

Food Res Int 2020 12 11;138(Pt A):109686. Epub 2020 Oct 11.

Institute of Food Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, No. 2 Yuan Ming Yuan West Road, Beijing 100193, China. Electronic address:

Microbial fermentation can endow food with unique flavors, increase its nutritional value and enhance functional characteristics. Our previous research has shown that liquid fermentation of soymilk by Bacillus subtilis BSNK-5 imparted new functional properties of to the fermented product via production of nattokinase. In this study, in order to further investigate the changes in the flavor, nutritional quality and functional characteristics of soymilk during fermentation using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (H NMR) metabolomics to monitor the metabolite profile of BSNK-5-fermented soymilk. A total of 44 differential metabolites were identified between BSNK-5-fermented soymilk and uninoculated/unfermented soymilk, among which the levels of flavor-related substances (acetate, isovalerate and 2-methylbutyrate), nutrient-related substances (12 free amino acids), and functional substances (taurine, GABA and genistein) significantly increased after fermentation. These metabolites were closely associated with eight potential metabolic pathways. This work highlighted the significance of BSNK-5 strain in improving the nutritional quality and functional characteristics of fermented soymilk; however, the use of the strain also caused flavor deterioration. This study lays a theoretical foundation for the improvement and development of fermented soy products via liquid fermentation with B. subtilis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2020.109686DOI Listing
December 2020