Publications by authors named "Y Y Zhao"

53,101 Publications

Sum frequency generation spectroscopy of the attachment disc of a spider.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2021 Jul 9;263:120161. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

School of Electronic and Computer Science, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ, UK.

The pyriform silk of the attachment disc of a spider was studied using infrared-visible vibrational sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy. The spider can attach dragline and radial lines to many kinds of substrates in nature (concrete, alloy, metal, glass, plant branches, leaves, etc.) with the attachment disc. The adhesion can bear the spider's own weight, and resist the wind on its orb web. From our SFG spectroscopy study, the NH group of arginine side chain and/or NH group of arginine and glutamine side chain in the amino acid sequence of the attachment silk proteins are suggested to be oriented in the disc. It was inferred from the observed doublet SFG peaks at around 3300 cm that the oriented peptide contains two kinds of structures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2021.120161DOI Listing
July 2021

Two newly isolated GVI lineage infectious bronchitis viruses in China show unique molecular and pathogenicity characteristics.

Infect Genet Evol 2021 Jul 19:105006. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Key Laboratory of Animal Epidemiology of the Ministry of Agriculture, College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China. Electronic address:

During 2016 to 2020, GVI-1 type infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strains were sporadically reported across China, indicating a new epidemic trend of the virus. Here we investigated the molecular characteristics and pathogenicity of two newly isolated GVI-1 type IBV virus strains (CK/CH/TJ1904 and CK/CH/NP2011) from infected chicken farms in China. Genetic evolution analysis of the S1 gene showed the highest homology with the GVI-1 representative strain, TC07-2. Phylogenetic analysis and recombination analysis of the virus genomes indicated that newly isolated strains in China may be independently derived from recombination events that occurred between GI-19 and GI-22 strains and early GVI-1 viruses. Interestingly, unlike the deduced parental GI-19 or GI-22 strains, CK/CH/TJ1904 and CK/CH/NP2011 showed affinity for the trachea rather than the kidney and were less pathogenic. This difference may be because of recombination events that occurred during the long co-existence of the GVI-1 viruses with prevalent GI-19 and GI-22 strains. Considering the new trend, it is very important to permanently monitor circulating strains and to develop new vaccines to counteract emerging new-type IBVs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2021.105006DOI Listing
July 2021

Geographical variations in maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy associated with birth weight in Shaanxi province, Northwestern China.

PLoS One 2021 22;16(7):e0254891. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Xi'an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi'an, Shaanxi, P.R. China.

The geographical variation of maternal dietary patterns related to birth outcomes is important for improving the health of mothers and children; however, it is currently unknown. Thus, the objective of the study was to investigate geographical variations of maternal dietary pattern during pregnancy, and evaluate the spatial varying association of maternal dietary patterns in pregnancy with abnormal birth weight. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Shaanxi province in Northwest China in 2013 to evaluate the relationship between abnormal birth weight and dietary pattern using the Geographically Weighted Logistic Regression (GWLR). Three dietary patterns during pregnancy were extracted through factor analysis, explaining approximately 45.8% of the variability of food intake. Approximately 81.6% of mothers with higher scores on the equilibrium pattern was more unlikely to have small for gestational age (SGA) infants, with the lower OR observed in Central and South Shaanxi. The snacks pattern was positively associated with low birth weight (LBW) for 23.2% of participants, with the highest OR in Central Shaanxi. Among about 80.0% of participants with higher scores on the snacks pattern living in South and Central Shaanxi, there was a higher risk for SGA. The OR values tend to descend from South to North Shaanxi. The OR values of the negative association between prudent pattern and LBW decreased from South to North Shaanxi among approximately 59.3% of participants. The prudent pattern was also negatively associated with the increasing risk of fetal macrosomia among 19.2% of participants living mainly in South Shaanxi. The association of maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy with abnormal birth weight varied geographically across Shaanxi province. The findings emphasize the importance of geographical distribution to improve the dietary patterns among disadvantaged pregnant women.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0254891PLOS
July 2021

Exosomal miRNA-205 promotes breast cancer chemoresistance and tumorigenesis through E2F1.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 Jul 22;13(undefined). Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Thyroid and Breast III, Cangzhou Central Hospital, Cangzhou, Hebei, China.

Breast cancer (BC) is a common malignant tumor in females. The challenge in treating BC is overcoming chemoresistance. Exosome-mediated transfer of miRNAs is a molecule-shuttle in intercellular communication. Thus, we aimed to investigate whether exosomal miRNA-205 could affect chemoresistance and tumorigenesis in recipient tumor cells and to elucidate the underlying mechanism and . Microarray and qRT-PCR assays demonstrated that miRNA-205 was upregulated in tamoxifen resistance MCF-7/TAMR-1 (M/T) cells and M/T cell-derived exosomes (M/T-Exo). The M/T-Exo was internalized by human BC cells (BCCs), causing increased expression of miRNA-205 in BCCs. Coculturing with M/T-Exo promoted tamoxifen resistance, proliferation, migration, and invasion while suppressed apoptosis in recipient BCCs, which were associated with activating the caspase pathway and phosphorylating Akt. Luciferase reporter assays showed that miRNA-205 directly targeted E2F Transcription Factor 1 (E2F1) in BCCs. Furthermore, knockdown of miRNA-205 or overexpression of E2F1 reversed the roles of M/T-Exo in BCCs. experiments showed that the intratumoral injection of M/T-Exo caused greater tamoxifen resistance and larger tumor size relative to mice treated with miRNA-205-knockdown or E2F1-overexpressing BCCs. Together, the results suggest that exosomal miRNA-205 may promote tamoxifen resistance and tumorigenesis in BC through targeting E2F1 and .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.203298DOI Listing
July 2021

Structural Insights into Notum Covalent Inhibition.

J Med Chem 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Division of Structural Biology, Wellcome Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7BN, U.K.

The carboxylesterase Notum hydrolyzes a palmitoleate moiety from Wingless/Integrated(Wnt) ligands and deactivates Wnt signaling. Notum inhibitors can restore Wnt signaling which may be of therapeutic benefit for pathologies such as osteoporosis and Alzheimer's disease. We report the identification of a novel class of covalent Notum inhibitors, 4-(indolin-1-yl)-4-oxobutanoate esters. High-resolution crystal structures of the Notum inhibitor complexes reveal a common covalent adduct formed between the nucleophile serine-232 and hydrolyzed butyric esters. The covalent interaction in solution was confirmed by mass spectrometry analysis. Inhibitory potencies vary depending on the warheads used. Mechanistically, the resulting acyl-enzyme intermediate carbonyl atom is positioned at an unfavorable angle for the approach of the active site water, which, combined with strong hydrophobic interactions with the enzyme pocket residues, hinders the intermediate from being further processed and results in covalent inhibition. These insights into Notum catalytic inhibition may guide development of more potent Notum inhibitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.1c00701DOI Listing
July 2021