Publications by authors named "Y Bettarel"

38 Publications

Does the Composition of the Gut Bacteriome Change during the Growth of Tuna?

Microorganisms 2021 May 27;9(6). Epub 2021 May 27.

MARBEC, University Montpellier, CNRS, Ifremer, IRD, 34095 Montpellier, France.

In recent years, a growing number of studies sought to examine the composition and the determinants of the gut microflora in marine animals, including fish. For tropical tuna, which are among the most consumed fish worldwide, there is scarce information on their enteric bacterial communities and how they evolve during fish growth. In this study, we used metabarcoding of the 16S rDNA gene to (1) describe the diversity and composition of the gut bacteriome in the three most fished tuna species (skipjack, yellowfin and bigeye), and (2) to examine its intra-specific variability from juveniles to larger adults. Although there was a remarkable convergence of taxonomic richness and bacterial composition between yellowfin and bigeyes tuna, the gut bacteriome of skipjack tuna was distinct from the other two species. Throughout fish growth, the enteric bacteriome of yellowfin and bigeyes also showed significant modifications, while that of skipjack tuna remained relatively homogeneous. Finally, our results suggest that the gut bacteriome of marine fish may not always be subject to structural modifications during their growth, especially in species that maintain a steady feeding behavior during their lifetime.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9061157DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8229391PMC
May 2021

Exceptional but vulnerable microbial diversity in coral reef animal surface microbiomes.

Proc Biol Sci 2020 05 13;287(1927):20200642. Epub 2020 May 13.

MARBEC, Université de Montpellier, CNRS, Ifremer, IRD, Montpellier, France.

Coral reefs host hundreds of thousands of animal species that are increasingly threatened by anthropogenic disturbances. These animals host microbial communities at their surface, playing crucial roles for their fitness. However, the diversity of such microbiomes is mostly described in a few coral species and still poorly defined in other invertebrates and vertebrates. Given the diversity of animal microbiomes, and the diversity of host species inhabiting coral reefs, the contribution of such microbiomes to the total microbial diversity of coral reefs could be important, yet potentially vulnerable to the loss of animal species. Analysis of the surface microbiome from 74 taxa, including teleost fishes, hard and soft corals, crustaceans, echinoderms, bivalves and sponges, revealed that more than 90% of their prokaryotic phylogenetic richness was specific and not recovered in surrounding plankton. Estimate of the total richness associated with coral reef animal surface microbiomes reached up to 2.5% of current estimates of Earth prokaryotic diversity. Therefore, coral reef animal surfaces should be recognized as a hotspot of marine microbial diversity. Loss of the most vulnerable reef animals expected under present-day scenarios of reef degradation would induce an erosion of 28% of the prokaryotic richness, with unknown consequences on coral reef ecosystem functioning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2020.0642DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7287350PMC
May 2020

Therapeutic Potential of a New Jumbo Phage That Infects , a Widespread Coral Pathogen.

Front Microbiol 2018 24;9:2501. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Sorbonne Universités UPMC Paris 06, CNRS, UMR7144 Adaptation et Diversité en Milieu Marin, Station Biologique de Roscoff, Roscoff, France.

Biological control using bacteriophages is a promising approach for mitigating the devastating effects of coral diseases. Several phages that infect , a widespread coral pathogen, have been isolated, suggesting that this bacterium is permissive to viral infection and is, therefore, a suitable candidate for treatment by phage therapy. In this study, we combined functional and genomic approaches to evaluate the therapeutic potential of BONAISHI, a novel phage, which was isolated from the coral reef in Van Phong Bay (Vietnam). BONAISHI appears to be strictly lytic for several pathogenic strains of and remains infectious over a broad range of environmental conditions. This candidate has an unusually large dsDNA genome (303 kb), with no genes that encode known toxins or implicated in lysogeny control. We identified several proteins involved in host lysis, which may offer an interesting alternative to the use of whole bacteriophages for controlling . A preliminary therapy test showed that adding BONAISHI to an infected culture of sp. cells reduced the impact of on sp. photosynthetic activity. This study showed that BONAISHI is able to mitigate infections, making it a good candidate for phage therapy for coral disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2018.02501DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6207643PMC
October 2018

Skin microbiome of coral reef fish is highly variable and driven by host phylogeny and diet.

Microbiome 2018 08 24;6(1):147. Epub 2018 Aug 24.

Marine Biodiversity, Exploitation and Conservation (MARBEC), Université de Montpellier, CNRS, IRD, IFREMER, Place Eugène Bataillon, Case 093, 34 095, Montpellier Cedex 5, France.

Background: The surface of marine animals is covered by abundant and diversified microbial communities, which have major roles for the health of their host. While such microbiomes have been deeply examined in marine invertebrates such as corals and sponges, the microbiomes living on marine vertebrates have received less attention. Specifically, the diversity of these microbiomes, their variability among species, and their drivers are still mostly unknown, especially among the fish species living on coral reefs that contribute to key ecosystem services while they are increasingly affected by human activities. Here, we investigated these knowledge gaps analyzing the skin microbiome of 138 fish individuals belonging to 44 coral reef fish species living in the same area.

Results: Prokaryotic communities living on the skin of coral reef fishes are highly diverse, with on average more than 600 OTUs per fish, and differ from planktonic microbes. Skin microbiomes varied between fish individual and species, and interspecific differences were slightly coupled to the phylogenetic affiliation of the host and its ecological traits.

Conclusions: These results highlight that coral reef biodiversity is greater than previously appreciated, since the high diversity of macro-organisms supports a highly diversified microbial community. This suggest that beyond the loss of coral reefs-associated macroscopic species, anthropic activities on coral reefs could also lead to a loss of still unexplored host-associated microbial diversity, which urgently needs to be assessed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40168-018-0530-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6109317PMC
August 2018

Hordes of Phages in the Gut of the Tilapia Sarotherodon melanotheron.

Sci Rep 2018 07 27;8(1):11311. Epub 2018 Jul 27.

MARBEC, Univ. Montpellier, CNRS, Ifremer, IRD, Montpellier, France.

Preliminary studies conducted on the human gastro-intestinal tract have revealed that enteric viral communities play a preponderant role in microbial homeostatis. However to date, such communities have never been investigated in the fish gut. Herein, we examined the main ecological traits of viruses in the digestive tract of a euryhaline fish, the tilapia Sarotherodon melanotheron. Individuals were collected at 8 different sites in Senegal covering a salinity gradient from 3 to 104‰, and showing large disparities in their organic pollutant concentrations. Results showed that the gut of S. melanotheron is home to a highly abundant viral community (0.2-10.7 × 10 viruses ml), distinct from the surrounding water, and essentially composed of phages of which a substantial proportion is temperate (the fraction of lysogenized cells-FLC ranging from 8.1 to 33.0%). Also, a positive and significant correlation was detected between FLC and the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in sediment, while no clear relationships were found between salinity and any of the microbial parameters considered. Finally, our data suggest that virus-bacteria interactions within the fish intestine are likely sensitive to the presence of particular xenobiotics, which may compromise the balance in the gut microbiota, and subsequently affect the health of their host.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-29643-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6063890PMC
July 2018
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