Publications by authors named "Yılmaz Bülbül"

53 Publications

[The cost of pulmonary thromboembolism treatment].

Tuberk Toraks 2020 Sep;68(3):293-304

Clinic of Chest Diseases, Çakmak Erdem Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey.

Introduction: Primary aim of this study is to determine the financial burden of Vitamin K Antagonists (VKA), low molecular weight heparins (LMWH) and new oral anticoagulants (NOAC) which are used in the treatment of the pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE). Secondary aim is to show long term complications of the treatment options.

Materials And Methods: The patients who are diagnosed with PTE between May 2016 and March 2018 at Faculty of Medicine Karadeniz Technical University Hospital were observed prospectively. Hospitalization costs were calculated on patients who were treated only for PTE by hospitalized in the Chest Diseases Service in the acute period. Maintenance costs were calculated over all patients who regulary admitted to our outpatient clinic with the diagnosis of PTE. Data were presented as mean ± SD and median ± interquartilee range. A p-value of <0.05 was accepted to be significant.

Result: Fifty five (37.2%) of the patients were male, 93 (62.8%) were female and the median age was 68 (range 18-95). The median hospitalization time and cost of patients who are discharged with VKA (n: 22) compared with patients discharged with LMWH (n: 22) was found to be increased (1316.82 TL 7,5 days / 803.36 TL, 5 days p<0.001). Statistical analysis could not be performed with NOAC (n: 2). In the analysis of sixth month costs, LMWH cost was found to be higher than VKA cost (6.927.15 ± 2.687.67 TL/698.29 ± 483.51 TL p<0.001). However VKA treatment tended to be less expensive than treatment with NOACs (698.29 ± 483.51 TL/1.050.81 ± 300.28 TL p= 0.140).

Conclusions: In the acute period of PTE, VKA increases the length of hospitalization and hospital costs in patients treated at the hospital. In the maintenance period, VKA tends to have a lower cost compared to NOACs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5578/tt.70104DOI Listing
September 2020

Can artificial intelligence distinguish between malignant and benign mediastinal lymph nodes using sonographic features on EBUS images?

Curr Med Res Opin 2020 Dec 24;36(12):2019-2024. Epub 2020 Oct 24.

Pulmonary Medicine, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon, Turkey.

Aims: This study aimed to develop a new intelligent diagnostic approach using an artificial neural network (ANN). Moreover, we investigated whether the learning-method-guided quantitative analysis approach adequately described mediastinal lymphadenopathies on endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) images.

Methods: In total, 345 lymph nodes (LNs) from 345 EBUS images were used as source input datasets for the application group. The group consisted of 300 and 45 textural patterns as input and output variables, respectively. The input and output datasets were processed using MATLAB. All these datasets were utilized for the training and testing of the ANN.

Results: The best diagnostic accuracy was 82% of that obtained from the textural patterns of the LNs pattern (89% sensitivity, 72% specificity, and 78.2% area under the curve). The negative predictive values were 81% compared to the corresponding positive predictive values of 83%. Due to the application group's pattern-based evaluation, the LN pattern was statistically significant ( = .002).

Conclusions: The proposed intelligent approach could be useful in making diagnoses. Further development is required to improve the diagnostic accuracy of the visual interpretation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03007995.2020.1837763DOI Listing
December 2020

[Bronchiectasis in Turkey: Under the light of national publications].

Tuberk Toraks 2020 Mar;68(1):48-65

Clinic of Chest Diseases, Yedikule Chest Diseases and Chest Surgery Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey.

In this review, we aimed to determine the etiopathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis in the light of scientific studies conducted in our country. For this purpose, Pubmed, Web of Science ve Ulakbim TR Dizin were searched and the publications available as of July 2019 were evaluated and the findings of these studies were summarized and presented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5578/tt.69231DOI Listing
March 2020

[A rare disease; Erdheim-Chester disease presenting with spontaneous pneumothorax].

Tuberk Toraks 2019 Sep;67(3):225-230

Department of Chest Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon, Turkey.

Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) is a rare non-Langerhans histiocytosis of unknown etiology, it is characterized by organ infiltration of foamy histiocytes. Diagnosis of ECD involves the analysis of histiocytes in tissue biopsies: these are typically CD68+ CD1a-. These characteristic histiocytes may be found in almost any tissue in cases of ECD. We present an interesting case of ECD that was presented by spontaneous pneumothorax and neurological involvement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5578/tt.68541DOI Listing
September 2019

Regional distribution of genetic mutation in lung cancer in Turkey (REDIGMA).

Tuberk Toraks 2019 Sep;67(3):197-204

Department of Chest Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon, Turkey.

Introduction: The results of standard chemotherapy in lung cancer are not very satisfactory, so it is important to identify genetic mutations that provide targeted therapies. Recent reports have suggested influences of racial difference on the frequency of mutation in lung cancer. We aimed to determine the frequency and regional distribution of genetic mutations of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in Turkey.

Materials And Methods: Regional distribution of genetic mutations in lung cancer in Turkey (REDIGMA) study was carried out as a prospective, cross-sectional, observational study in a large number of centers in which lung cancer patients were followed and could perform genetic mutation analysis on patients' biopsy materials.

Result: The 703 patients (77.7% male, mean age 63.3 ± 12.5 years) who were diagnosed as NSCLC from 25 different centers were included in the study. Tumor samples from patients were reported as 87.1% adenocarcinoma, 6.4% squamous cell carcinoma and 6.5% other. Mutation tests were found to be positive in 18.9% of these patients. The mutations were 69.9% EGFR, 26.3% ALK, 1.6% ROS and 2.2% PDL. Mutations were higher in women and non-smokers (p<0.000, p<0.001). Again, the frequency of mutations in adenocarcinoma was higher in metastatic disease. There was no difference between the patient's age, area of residence, comorbidity and clinical stage and mutation frequency.

Conclusions: Our study revealed that the EGFR mutation rate in Turkey with NSCLC was similar to East European, African-American and Caucasian patients, and was lower than in East Asia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5578/tt.68707DOI Listing
September 2019

Work-Related Symptoms of Patients with Asthma: A Multicenter Study.

Turk Thorac J 2019 10 19;20(4):241-247. Epub 2019 Aug 19.

Department of Chest Diseases, Karadeniz Technical University School of Medicine, Trabzon, Turkey.

Objectives: It is considered that occupational exposure accounts for up to 25% of all cases of adult asthma. We need detailed individual-level data regarding the relationship between asthma, occupation, and work-related symptoms in Turkey to inform policies on workplace safety. This study aimed to investigate the association between asthma symptoms, occupation type, and workplace exposure in patients with asthma.

Materials And Methods: In this cross-sectional multicenter study, adult patients with asthma were investigated by a questionnaire in terms of relationship between asthma symptoms and workplace exposure. The study population was adult patients who had been diagnosed with asthma for at least six months prior to study and who were under follow-up in Ankara, İstanbul, Erzurum, Düzce, Trabzon, Denizli, and Diyarbakır.

Results: The mean age of the 345 cases (188 females) was 41±13 years. The majority of the patients (36.8%) were "housewives"; other common occupations were office workers (6.7%), textile workers (4%), students (3.8%), hospital staff (3.5%), and cleaners (2.9%). Thirty-five percent of patients described worsening of asthma during working periods. Among patients with a history of increased symptoms in workplace, 100 (83%) developed asthma after starting work, while 20 patients (17%) had pre-existing asthma. Half of the patients described workplace exposure to dust, fume, and gases. Exposure to cleaning supplies at home was present in 43% of the subjects. Of all housewives, 12% (n=15) described an increase in their asthma symptoms during housework. The frequency of bleach or hydrochloric acid use alone among housewives was 60% and 34%, which was significantly higher than other occupations. The FEV/FVC ratio of housewives who frequently used hydrochloric acid (FEV/FVC=71.5) was lower than that of non-users (FEV/FVC=74.9) (p=0.024).

Conclusion: Patients with asthma experience significant workplace exposures that exacerbate their symptoms. Housewives experience significant exposure that triggers allergic and asthma symptoms. It is important to raise awareness about the prevalence and risks of occupational (including in-home) exposures in asthmatics patients and physicians to minimize asthma triggers and exacerbations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5152/TurkThoracJ.2018.18123DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6777655PMC
October 2019

Immunization status in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A multicenter study from Turkey.

Ann Thorac Med 2019 Jan-Mar;14(1):75-82

Chest Disease Clinic, Afyon State Hospital, Afyon, Turkey.

Objective: The purpose of this study is to detect the prevalence and the factors associated with influenza and pneumococcal vaccination and outcomes of vaccination during 2013-2014 season in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Turkey.

Methods: This was a multicenter retrospective cohort study performed in 53 different centers in Turkey.

Results: During the study period, 4968 patients were included. COPD was staged as GOLD 1-2-3-4 in 9.0%, 42.8%, 35.0%, and 13.2% of the patients, respectively. Influenza vaccination rate in the previous year was 37.9%; and pneumococcus vaccination rate, at least once during in a life time, was 13.3%. Patients with older age, higher level of education, more severe COPD, and comorbidities, ex-smokers, and patients residing in urban areas had higher rates of influenza vaccination. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that advanced age, higher education levels, presence of comorbidities, higher COPD stages, and exacerbation rates were associated with both influenza and pneumococcal vaccination. The number of annual physician/outpatient visits and hospitalizations due to COPD exacerbation was 2.73 ± 2.85 and 0.92 ± 1.58 per year, respectively. Patients with older age, lower education levels, more severe COPD, comorbid diseases, and lower body mass index and patients who are male and are residing in rural areas and vaccinated for influenza had significantly higher rates of COPD exacerbation.

Conclusions: The rates of influenza and pneumococcal vaccination in COPD patients were quite low, and the number of annual physician/outpatient visits and hospitalizations due to COPD exacerbation was high in Turkey. Advanced age, higher education levels, comorbidities, and higher COPD stages were associated with both influenza and pneumococcal vaccination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/atm.ATM_145_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6341858PMC
February 2019

Sleep disturbances in patients with lung cancer in Turkey.

Tuberk Toraks 2018 Dec;66(4):297-303

Department of Chest Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Bolu Abant Izzet Baysal University, Bolu, Turkey.

Introduction: Sleep quality is known to be associated with the distressing symptoms of cancer. The purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of cancer symptoms on insomnia and the prevalence of sleep-related problems reported by the patients with lung cancer in Turkey.

Materials And Methods: Assesment of Palliative Care in Lung Cancer in Turkey (ASPECT) study, a prospective multicenter study conducted in Turkey with the participation of 26 centers and included all patients with lung cancer, was re-evaluated in terms of sleep problems, insomnia and possible association with the cancer symptoms. Demographic characteristics of patients and information about disease were recorded for each patient by physicians via face-to-face interviews, and using hospital records. Patients who have difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep (DIMS) is associated with daytime sleepiness/fatigue were diagnosed as having insomnia. Daytime sleepiness, fatigue and lung cancer symptoms were recorded and graded using the Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale.

Result: Among 1245 cases, 48.4% reported DIMS, 60.8% reported daytime sleepiness and 82.1% reported fatigue. The prevalence of insomnia was 44.7%. Female gender, patients with stage 3-4 disease, patients with metastases, with comorbidities, and with weight loss > 5 kg had higher rates of insomnia. Also, patients with insomnia had significantly higher rates of pain, nausea, dyspnea, and anxiety. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that patients with moderate to severe pain and dyspnea and severe anxiety had 2-3 times higher rates of insomnia.

Conclusions: In conclusion, our results showed a clear association between sleep disturbances and cancer symptoms. Because of that, adequate symptom control is essential to maintain sleep quality in patients with lung cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5578/tt.67689DOI Listing
December 2018

[Causes of mediastinal/hilar granulomatous lymphadenitis].

Tuberk Toraks 2018 Sep;66(3):212-216

Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Karadeniz Teknik University, Trabzon, Turkey.

Introduction: Granulomatous lung disease (GLD) is caused by a wide range of conditions and it is challenge for pulmonologist. A detailed history of exposures is fundamental in GDL and has been found pivotal to reach a precise diagnosis.

Materials And Methods: Between September 2014 and December 2016, the distribution of patients diagnosed with granulomatous lymphadenitis in the mediastinal/hilar lymph nodes by endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) or mediastinoscopy was analyzed. To be listed as 'confident', a diagnosis of sarcoidosis required compatible histological, radiological and clinical findings in conjunction with negative cultures. Infectious entities listed as 'confident' had either microorganisms in tissue section, positive culture, positive serology or positive antigen detection in a consistent clinical pathological setting.

Result: Granulomatous lymphadenitis was detected in 110 patients. The included 110 cases consisted of 70.9% women and median age of 53 (range 44-61) years. The final diagnosis of the patients was accepted to be sarcoidosis in 79 (71.8%), sarcoid like granulomas in 7 (6.4%), tuberculosis in 4 (3.6%), silicosis in 4 (3.6%), drug-associated granuloma in 2 (1.8%), hypersensitivity pneumonitis in 1 (0.9%), Chron disease in 1 (0.9%), unspecified in 12 (10.9%). Three patients were classified as tuberculosis based on culture.

Conclusions: In this study, we found that the most common cause of granulomatous lymphadenitis was sarcoidosis. Contrary to expectations, the number of patients diagnosed with tuberculosis was very low.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5578/tt.67018DOI Listing
September 2018

Does the Incidence and Mortality of Pulmonary Thromboembolism Change Over the Years?

Turk Thorac J 2017 Jul 1;18(3):78-81. Epub 2017 Jul 1.

Department of Chest Diseases, Karadeniz Technical University School of Medicine, Trabzon, Turkey.

Objectives: In the last 20 years, with the use of computed tomography (CT) angiography, the number of patients diagnosed with pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) has increased. At the same time, data show that pulmonary embolism mortality has also reduced in this duration.

Material And Methods: In this study, we analyzed records of patients with PTE (using ICD's) in the hospital automation system from 2001 to 2013. Data regarding age, sex, date of diagnosis, diagnosis of cancer, hemodynamic status, initial and maintenance treatment, hospital length of stay, and hospital mortality were recorded. Primary endpoints of the study were hospital length of stay and all-cause hospital mortality.

Results: The total number of patients included in the study was 1185. The median age was 61 years in 2001 and 71 years in 2013. The number of patients who were diagnosed using CT increased from 10% to 92.8%. Between 2001 and 2013, the number of patients diagnosed with PTE increased, and of all patients with PTE, 13.7% was diagnosed in 2009. The hospital length of stay of 13 days declined to 9 days. The use of a vena cava filter in 2007 was 1.1% and that in 2013 was 4.6%. Mortality rate was 15%, however hospital mortality did not significantly differ over the years but varied between 9.4% and 18.8%. Increased use of thrombolytics in patients with massive PTE has been observed over the years. Massive PTE ratio in 2006 was 8.5% and thrombolytic use was 5.8%, however in 2013, these ratios were 2.6%, 6% respectively (p=0.017).

Conclusion: Finally, despite the increased number of patients diagnosed with PTE over the years, the mortality rate was not observed to have changed from 2001 to 2013.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5152/TurkThoracJ.2017.16050DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5783086PMC
July 2017

[Bilateral total lung lavage in a patient with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis].

Tuberk Toraks 2017 Sep;65(3):249-254

Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Karadeniz Tecnical University, Trabzon, Turkey.

Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare pulmonary disease characterised by alveolar accumulation of surfactant composed of proteins and lipids. Three main categories of PAP have been defined depending on the aetiology: primer/idiopathic, neonatal/congenital, secondary and exogenous/environmental exposure. Radiologically diffuse ground glass opacities, interlobular and intralobular septal thickening is seen. Although open lung biopsy is accepted as the gold standard in diagnosis, it can be diagnosed by showing bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid with a milky appearance and periodic acid-schiff (PAS) positive globules in biopsy with clinical and radiological findings. Theraphy for PAP are supportive care (oxygen), total lung lavage, inhale/subcutaneous granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), rituximab, plasmapheresis, lung transplantation. We report a case of PAP presented with cough and shortness of breath, diagnosed with BAL and transbronchial lung biopsy, treated by total lung lavage by reviewing literature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5578/tt.50708DOI Listing
September 2017

Prognostic Value of Uric Acid for Pulmonary Thromboembolism.

Respir Care 2017 Aug 20;62(8):1091-1096. Epub 2017 Jun 20.

Department of Pulmonary Medicine.

Background: Pulmonary thromboembolism is a serious cardiovascular condition with considerable morbidity and mortality. Clinical studies have indicated that hyperuricemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular events. The aim of this study was to investigate possible value of the serum levels of uric acid (UA) in predicting 30-d pulmonary thromboembolism-related mortality.

Methods: Pulmonary thromboembolism was confirmed by computed tomography pulmonary angiography, demographic data, troponin, systolic pressure and pulse on admission, and simplified pulmonary embolism severity index assessment. UA levels were analyzed on admission. The primary end point was all-cause mortality during the first 30 d.

Results: A total of 337 acute pulmonary thromboembolism subjects, of whom 59% were females, were enrolled. The median (interquartile range) serum UA level was 5.35 (4.1-7.3) mg/dL. Serum UA levels of deceased subjects were higher than those of alive subjects during the study period (6.9 [4.6-10.0] mg/dL vs 5.2 [4.1-7.0] mg/dL, = .038). In the receiver operating characteristic analysis, the area under the curve was 0.650 (CI 0.732-0.960) for UA levels for all-cause mortality. A level of serum UA ≥ 5 mg/dL showed 73% sensitivity and 88% negative predictive value for all-cause 30-d mortality. A weak correlation was determined between the UA levels and age (r = 0.25, < .001) and any troponin (r = 0.267, < .001). Serum UA level was an independent predictor of short-term mortality in pulmonary thromboembolism (odds ratio 1.2, = .002).

Conclusions: Serum UA levels may be a potential biomarker for predicting outcome in patients with acute pulmonary thromboembolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4187/respcare.05433DOI Listing
August 2017

Platelet indices in obstructive sleep apnea: the role of mean platelet volume, platelet distribution widht and plateletcrit.

Tuberk Toraks 2016 Sep;64(3):206-210

Department of Chest Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon, Turkey.

Introduction: Because studies report controversial findings of mean platelet volume (MPV) and platelet distribution width (PDW), we aimed to investigate platelet indices in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).

Materials And Methods: One hundred seventy three patients with OSA and 43 control subjects included in analyses. Patients with an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ≥ 5 were considered to have OSA and an AHI < 5 were considered as control. Platelet indices (MPV, PDW, plateletcrit) were obtained from routine analysis of blood samples using an automated blood cell counter.

Result: Among platelet indices, only PDW was higher in patients with OSA, especially in severe OSA when compared to control group (16.80 ± 0.56 vs. 16.21 ± 1.51, p= 0.015 and 16.82 ± 0.06 vs.16.21 ± 1.51, p= 0.014, respectively). Correlation analysis showed a significant but a weak correlation between the PDW and AHI (r= 0.161, p= 0.018) and the PDW and the desaturation index (r= 0.171, p= 0.016). The ROC curve analysis showed that the optimal cut-off value, distinguishing patients with OSA from those in control group, for PDW was 16.62 (sensitivity 57.8%, specificity 58.1%, AUROC 0.60, p= 0.042). After the exclusion of patients with comorbid diseases (cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and chronic inflammatory diseases), we also found weak but a significant correlation between PDW and AHI (r= 0.179, p= 0.040).

Conclusions: In conclusion, among the platelet indices, only PDW was found to be higher in patients with OSA, especially in severe OSA. PDW was also correlated with apnea-hypopnea index and oxygen desaturation index.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5578/tt.29170DOI Listing
September 2016

[Inflammatory bowel disease and pulmonary embolism: Because of 3 cases].

Tuberk Toraks 2016 Dec;64(4):310-314

Department of Chest Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon, Turkey.

Thromboembolic complications are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Thromboembolic events are observed more frequently during acute flare of the disease, especially patients received steroid therapy. Increase in awareness and especially anticoagulation prophylaxis in these patients are extremely important. In this article, three cases with diagnosed pulmonary thromboembolism (PE) were presented accompanied by the current literature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5578/tt.10745DOI Listing
December 2016

Relationship between lymphovascular invasion and clinicopathological features of papillary thyroid carcinoma.

Bosn J Basic Med Sci 2017 May 20;17(2):144-151. Epub 2017 May 20.

Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Trakya University, Edirne, Turkey.

Lymphovascular invasion (LVI) is an important prognostic factor in various solid tumors, however, data on the association between LVI and thyroid carcinomas are limited. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between LVI and clinicopathological features of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Six hundred seventy-eight patients diagnosed with PTC between 2012 and 2015 were included into the study. Patients were classified based on the presence or absence of LVI. Gender, age, ultrasonography (US), tumor size and multifocality, BRAFV600E mutation, perineural and capsular invasion, extrathyroid extension (ETE), nodal metastasis, and recurrences were evaluated, and risk analysis was performed for each parameter. The number of patients with LVI [LVI (+)] was 63, while the number of patients without LVI [LVI (-)] was 615. The female/male ratio was 564/114. LVI was present in 18.4% of male patients and in 7.4 % of female patients. In the age group between 17-25 years LVI was detected in 6/13 patients, and this result was statistically significant compared to other age groups (p = 0.004). Suspicious lymph nodes upon US, perineural or capsular invasion, ETE, tumor size, and nodal metastasis were significantly more frequent in LVI (+) group (p < 0.001). The frequency of BRAFV600E mutation was also significantly higher in LVI (+) group (p < 0.001). Overall, the presence of LVI was associated with gender, tumor size, age, lymph node metastasis, pathological lymph nodes, perineural and capsular invasion, ETE, and BRAFV600E mutation. These results suggest that in PTC patients undergoing thyroidectomy, the presence of LVI should be considered as an indicator of aggressive clinicopathological features and those patients should be followed up carefully for recurrences and metastasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17305/bjbms.2017.1924DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5474108PMC
May 2017

The Significance of the Relative Lymphocyte Count as an Independent Predictor of Cardiovascular Disease in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome.

Med Princ Pract 2016;25(5):455-60. Epub 2016 Jun 20.

Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon, Turkey.

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine whether or not relative lymphocyte count (RLC) is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS).

Subjects And Methods: In this study, 141 patients diagnosed with OSAS using polysomnography were enrolled. Patients were classified according to the severity of OSAS as determined by the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and presence of CVD. Lymphocyte count and other hematological parameters at complete blood count were determined and compared between patients with and without CVD. Multivariate regression analysis was used to estimate the associated factors for presence of CVD.

Results: Absolute and relative lymphocyte counts were lower in the OSAS patients with CVD compared to those without CVD (mean absolute lymphocyte counts: 2.0 × 103 vs. 2.5 × 103 µl, p = 0.004, and mean RLC: 28.3 vs. 33.9%, p = 0.001, respectively). OSAS patients with CVD (14.2) had higher red cell distribution width values than the patients without CVD (13.4) (p = 0.005). Multivariate analysis identified RLC as an independent predictor of CVD in patients with OSAS (odds ratio = 0.9, 95% CI: 0.85-1.0, p = 0.042).

Conclusion: RLC was identified as an independent predictor of CVD in patients with OSAS. Since RLC is a widely available diagnostic tool with no additional costs over the routinely performed complete blood count, it can be used for predicting CVD in patients with OSAS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000447697DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5588447PMC
August 2017

Association of Fragmented QRS with Subclinical Left Ventricular Dysfunction in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

Med Princ Pract 2015 27;24(4):376-81. Epub 2015 May 27.

Department of Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine, Karabuk University Hospital, Karabuk University, Karabuk, Turkey.

Objective: We aimed to investigate whether fragmented QRS (fQRS) is associated with subclinical left ventricular (LV) dysfunction in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).

Subjects And Methods: A total of 141 patients with OSA who had normal LV ejection fraction (LVEF) were included in the study. The fQRS was defined as the presence of an additional R wave, notching of R or S wave or the presence of fragmentation in 2 contiguous electrocardiography (ECG) leads. Subclinical LV dysfunction was defined as the presence of a tissue Doppler-derived Tei index of ≥ 0.5 in the absence of impaired LVEF (<50%) as assessed by transthoracic echocardiography.

Results: Of the 141 patients, 71 (50.4%) had subclinical LV dysfunction. Overall, the prevalence of the fQRS was 61% (86/141). Patients with fQRS had significantly higher Tei indices than those without fQRS [median 0.66, interquartile range (IQR) 0.39 vs. median 0.40, IQR 0.15, p < 0.001]. The presence of fQRS on ECG predicted subclinical LV dysfunction in univariate logistic regression analysis [odds ratio (OR) 6.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.10-14.43]. The association remained significant after adjusting for all potential confounders (OR 4.59, 95% CI 1.94-10.87).

Conclusion: fQRS on ECG was an independent predictor of subclinical LV dysfunction in patients with OSA. This simple tool might help to identify OSA patients who could be at risk for developing overt cardiac dysfunction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000382077DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5588233PMC
April 2016

A Rare Cause of Chylothorax: Hennekam Syndrome.

Turk Thorac J 2015 Jan 5;16(1):33-35. Epub 2014 Nov 5.

Department Chest Diseases, Karadeniz Technical University Faculty of Medicine, Trabzon, Turkey.

Hennekam syndrome was defined as a syndrome characterized by a new autosomal recessive, severe lymphedema in legs, face and genitalia with intestinal lymphangiectasia, various face anomalies and severe mental retardation. A 21 years old male patient was examined due to bilateral pleural effusion. There were edema in both legs and eyelids, swelling in the scrotum and operation scar, broad forehead and face, depressed nasal bridge, epicanthal folds and micrognathia in the physical examination. Chylothorax was diagnosed due to level of pleural triglyceride (650 mg/dL). Lymphatic flow delayed in both lower extremities in lymphoscintigraphy. The patient was diagnosed as Hennekam syndrome due to face anomalies, lymphedema, epilepsy, chylothorax and mild mental retardation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5152/ttd.2014.3988DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5783044PMC
January 2015

Frequency and predictors of obesity hypoventilation in hospitalized patients at a tertiary health care institution.

Ann Thorac Med 2014 Apr;9(2):87-91

Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon, Turkey.

Objectives: Patients with obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) have significant morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis and treatment is important and there are limited data on its prevalence and predictive factors. The objective of this observational study was to determine the frequency and predictors of OHS in hospitalized patients at a tertiary health care institution.

Materials And Methods: All blood gas analyses of hospitalized adult (age over 18 years) patients were prospectively recruited from the biochemistry laboratory at a tertiary health care center between August 2009 and July 2010. Patients who had hypercapnia (PaCO2 ≥ 45 mmHg) while breathing room air were included and clinical and laboratory data were obtained from hospital records. A standard questionnaire was also filled by face-to-face interview with patients and/or relatives.

Results: A total of 9480 patients' arterial blood gases were evaluated and 330 patients (3.4%) who met the selection criteria were included in the analysis during the study period. Hypoventilation was associated with acute diseases in 64.2% and chronic diseases in 35.8% of the patients. Of the chronic hypoventilation patients, 24.4% had OHS. Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that, female gender, body mass index (BMI), smoking, PaO2, SaO2 and a PaCO2/BMI <1.5 were significantly related to OHS. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, BMI >35 kg/m(2), SaO2 <91.4% and PaCO2 /BMI <1.5 were significantly related to OHS. A PaCO2/BMI <1.5 was an independent variable strongly predictive of OHS (odds ratio: 36.9, 95% of the confidence interval: 2.75-492.95, P = 0.007).

Conclusions: OHS is a common cause of chronic alveolar hypoventilation. A careful examination PaCO2 /BMI ratio may prevent misdiagnoses among hypercapnic patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1817-1737.128851DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4005167PMC
April 2014

Red cell distribution width: a new predictor for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension after pulmonary embolism.

Chron Respir Dis 2014 May 4;11(2):73-81. Epub 2014 Mar 4.

1Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon, Turkey.

The most important long-term complication of pulmonary thromboembolism is chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) that is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. It is uncertain why some patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE) develop CTEPH and others do not. Elevated red cell distribution width (RDW) has been associated with adverse outcomes of heart failure, PE, and idiopathic pulmonary hypertension. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether RDW might be a predictor of CTEPH in PE patients or not. This study is a retrospective cohort study. A total of 203 consecutive patients with acute PE were included. The RDW was higher in the CTEPH patients than the patients without CTEPH (17.04 ± 3.46, 14.64 ± 1.82, respectively, p = 0.015). RDW was also higher in the CTEPH patients at the time of diagnosis of CTEPH during follow-up compared with the baseline RDW level at the time of PE diagnosis (18.63 ± 3.58, 17.02 ± 3.59, respectively, p = 0.014). The optimal cutoff value of the RDW for predicting CTEPH was 14.65. The area under the curve of RDW for the prediction of CTEPH was 0.735 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.600-0.869); in cases with RDW levels >14.65%, the specificity, sensitivity, and negative predictive value for CTEPH were 62% (95% CI: 0.55-0.69), 75% (95% CI: 0.47-0.92), and 96.7% (95% CI: 0.91-0.99), respectively. A multivariate regression analysis showed that RDW, hazard ratio: 1.58 (95% CI: 1.09-2.30), was a predictor of CTEPH (p = 0.016). High level of RDW was an independent predictor of CTEPH in PE patients. Therefore, RDW levels may provide a prediction for CTEPH in PE patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1479972314525057DOI Listing
May 2014

Predictive value of troponins and simplified pulmonary embolism severity index in patients with normotensive pulmonary embolism.

Multidiscip Respir Med 2013 May 28;8(1):34. Epub 2013 May 28.

Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Karadeniz Technical University, School of Medicine, Trabzon, Turkey.

Background: To investigate whether 2 cardiac troponins [conventional troponin-T(cTnT) and high sensitive troponin-T(hsTnT)] combined with simplified pulmonary embolism severity index (sPESI), or either test alone are useful for predicting 30-day mortality and 6 months adverse outcomes in patients with normotensive pulmonary embolism(PE).

Methods: The prospective study included 121 consecutive patients with normotensive PE confirmed by computerized tomographic(CT) pulmonary angiography. The primary end point of the study was the 30-day all-cause mortality. The secondary end point included the 180-day all-cause mortality, the nonfatal symptomatic recurrent PE, or the nonfatal major bleeding.

Results: Overall, 16 (13.2%) out of 121 patients died during the first month of follow up. The predefined hsTnT cutoff value of 0.014 ng/mL combined with a sPESI ≥1 'point(s) were the most significant predictor for 30-day mortality [OR: 27.6 (95% CI: 3.5-217) in the univariate analysis. Alone, sPESI ≥1 point(s) had the highest negative predictive value for both 30-day all-cause mortality and 6-months adverse outcomes,100% and 91% respectively.

Conclusions: The hsTnT assay combined with the sPESI may provide better predictive information than the cTnT assay for early death of PE patients. Low sPESI (0 points) may be used for identifying the outpatient treatment for PE patients and biomarker levels seem to be unnecessary for risk stratification in these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/2049-6958-8-34DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3668152PMC
May 2013

General Characteristics and Prognostic Factors of Pneumonia Cases Developed During Pandemic (H1N1) Influenza-A Virus Infection in Turkey.

Balkan Med J 2013 Mar 1;30(1):68-73. Epub 2013 Mar 1.

Department of Chest Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, İstanbul, Turkey.

Objective: Unlike seasonal influenza, seen in previous years, the strain identified in the 2009 influenza-A pandemic involved high mortality. In this study, prognostic factors and general characteristics of pneumonia cases developed in Turkey during the H1N1 pandemic between October 2009 and January 2010 were analyzed.

Study Design: Multicenter retrospective study.

Material And Methods: This multicentric retrospective study was conducted between August and October 2010 and patients' data were collected by means of standard forms.

Results: The study included 264 pneumonia cases, collected from 14 different centers. Mean age was 47.5±18.6 years. Nineteen patients (7.2%) were pregnant or had a new birth and comorbid diseases were detected in 52.3% of all patients. On admission, 35 (13.8%) cases had altered mental status. Overall, 32.6% were treated in intensive care units (ICU) and invasive/non-invasive mechanical ventilation was performed in 29.7%. The mean duration of ICU stay was 2.9±6.2 and total hospital stay was 12.0±9.4 days. Mortality rate was 16.8% (43-cases). The length of ICU treatment, total hospital stay, and mortality were significantly higher in H1N1-confirmed patients. Mortality was significantly higher in patients with dyspnea, cyanosis, and those who had altered mental status on admission. Patients who died had significantly higher rate of peripheral blood neutrophils, lower platelet counts, higher BUN, and lower SaO2 levels.

Conclusion: This study showed that pneumonia developed during H1N1 pandemic in our country had resulted in a high mortality. Mortality was especially high among patients with cyanosis, altered mental state and those with lower SaO2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5152/balkanmedj.2012.089DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4116019PMC
March 2013

Relationship between cardiac troponin-T and right ventricular Tei index in patients with hemodynamically stable pulmonary embolism: an observational study.

Anadolu Kardiyol Derg 2012 Dec 11;12(8):659-65. Epub 2012 Sep 11.

Department of Chest Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Karadeniz Teknik University, Trabzon-Turkey.

Objective: The role of increased troponin level in risk stratification of acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is well documented. However, relation between right ventricular (RV) myocardial performance (Tei) index and cardiac troponin-T (cTn-T) has not been well investigated. The purpose of this observational prospective study was to assess the relationship between the RV Tei index and cTn-T in patients with acute normotensive PE.

Methods: Thirty-eight patients with acute PE diagnosed by computed spiral tomography pulmonary angiography were enrolled to this prospective observational study. All study population underwent a comprehensive echocardiographic study including tissue Doppler imaging within first 12 hours of admission. cTn-T levels were measured on admission. Follow-up echocardiography was performed routinely at the 7th day of hospitalization. Echocardiographic evaluation was repeated at 90 days in patients with insufficient improvement of RV Tei index. The difference between the baseline and follow-up data was analyzed using the paired sample t-test or Wilcoxon test according to normality of distribution.

Results: The mean of the RV Tei index was 0.46 ± 0.14 and the mean systolic pulmonary artery pressure (sPAP) was 40 ± 20 mmHg. Increased cTn-T level was detected in 37% of the patients (normal value 0.01< ng/mL). Significant correlations were observed between RV Tei index and sPAP with cTn-T levels (r=0.467 and r=0.468, p<0.001, respectively). In logistic regression analysis, RV Tei index was associated with positive cTn-T values (OR-136, 95% CI: 1.3-14657, p=0.039). After the anticoagulant treatment, RV Tei index and sPAP were significantly improved.

Conclusion: RV Tei index is frequently impaired in patients with acute PE and a significant recovery is seen after the treatment. Therefore, RV Tei index may be used both the diagnosis of RV dysfunction and the assessment of treatment effectiveness. RV Tei index is may predict myocardial injury in PE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5152/akd.2012.218DOI Listing
December 2012

Red cell distribution width in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

Lung 2012 Jun 7;190(3):319-26. Epub 2012 Feb 7.

Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon, Turkey.

Background: Red cell distribution width (RDW) has been shown to be associated with adverse outcomes in left-sided heart failure, pulmonary hypertension, and in patients in the ICU. However, the role of RDW is unknown in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), especially in OSAS patients with cardiovascular diseases.

Methods: One hundred thirty-seven patients were investigated by polysomnography (PSG) for OSAS. The patients were classified as a control group or as the OSAS group according to the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). The RDW, hemoglobin level, and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) were determined. C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were measured.

Results: The RDW values were higher in the OSAS group than in the controls [13.6% (12-23%) vs. 12.9% (11.7-14.5%), p=0.003]. The RDW values were higher in patients with cardiovascular diseases [13.7% (11.7-23.2%) vs. 13.2% (12-16.9%), p=0.001]. RDW ≥ 13.6% (odds ratio [OR] =1.5 [95% CI = 1.0-2.0], p = 0.014) was found to be associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease in patients with OSAS on multivariate analysis. It was also shown that there was a significant correlation between the RDW and the AHI (r=0.272), age (r=0.362), mean SaO(2) (r=0.375), systolic pulmonary artery pressure (r=0.435), and CRP level (r=0.275) in study population.

Conclusions: RDW is a newly recognized and widely available diagnostic tool with no additional cost over the routinely performed hemogram. RDW is independently associated with cardiovascular disease in patients with OSAS in our cross-sectional study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00408-012-9376-xDOI Listing
June 2012

Long-term outcomes in acute pulmonary thromboembolism: the incidence of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension and associated risk factors.

Clin Appl Thromb Hemost 2012 Jun 23;18(3):281-8. Epub 2012 Jan 23.

Department of Chest Diseases, Karadeniz Technical University, School of Medicine, Trabzon, Turkey.

The long-term outcomes of pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) and/or incidence of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) are not well documented. Three hundred twenty-five consecutive cases objectively diagnosed with PTE monitored for an average 16.3 months (6-50.7 months) were investigated. Data concerning recurrence, residual thrombus, mortality, and CTEPH in particular were collected. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension frequency acute first episode of PTE was 4.6%. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension developed within 12 months after PTE attack in approximately 80% of patients and it did not occur after 2 years. Residual chronic thrombus was determined at the 3rd month in 48% of cases post-PTE, at the 6th month in 27.4%, and at the 12th month in 18.2%. At multivariate regression analysis, systolic pulmonary arterial pressure > 50 mm Hg, hazard ratio: 10.1 (95% confidence interval: 4.1-71.2) were predictors of CTEPH. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension develops as a serious complication in a significant number of cases with PTE. Closer monitoring of high-risk cases in particular is important in terms of early diagnosis and treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1076029611431956DOI Listing
June 2012

[Fondaparinux treatment in heparin induced thrombocytopenia:a case report].

Tuberk Toraks 2011 ;59(2):178-83

Department of Chest Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon, Turkey.

Heparin induced thrombocytopenia is a serious complication of heparin therapy that has a high levels of morbidity and mortality due to thrombotic complications. Heparin induced thrombocytopenia usually develops between days 5 and 14 (inclusive) following initiation of heparin. When heparin induced thrombocytopenia is suspected, heparin should be discontinued and treatment with a direct thrombin inhibitor should be initiated. Heparin induced thrombocytopenia occurs more frequently with unfractionated heparin than with low molecular weight heparin. In this manuscript, we presented a case diagnosis with heparin induced thrombocytopenia who was given low molecular weight heparin for prophylaxis. We tried to make an overview of new treatment choices along with current literature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5578/tt.1692DOI Listing
February 2012

Prognostic significance of PaO2/PaCO2 ratio in normotensive patients with pulmonary embolism.

Clin Respir J 2012 Apr 19;6(2):104-11. Epub 2011 Jul 19.

Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon, Turkey.

Introduction: Risk stratification remains controversial in patients with normotensive pulmonary embolism (PE). The debate has recently focused right ventricular dysfunction detected by echocardiography or spiral computed tomography (CT) and cardiac biomarkers.

Objectives: The utility of the PaO(2)/PaCO(2) ratio to predict the short-term prognosis of PE is not currently known and that is the aim of the present study.

Materials And Methods: This study retrospectively enrolled 99 (34 males, 65 females, 67 ± 15 years) consecutive patients with acute PE, diagnosed by spiral chest tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA). On admission, cardiac troponin T (cTn-T) was measured and on CTPA both right ventricle diameter and left ventricle diameter was calculated (RV/LV ratio). During the first 24 h after admission, all the patients had initial arterial blood gas collected under room air. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to determine the optimal PaO(2)/PaCO(2), RV/LV ratio and cTn-T cutoff level with regard to prognosis.

Results: In-hospital mortality was 12.1% and all-cause 90-day mortality was 15.2%. Ten of 15 patients who died had a PaO(2)/PaCO(2) ≤ 1.8 based on ROC analysis (P < 0.014).The cutoff level of PaO(2)/PaCO(2) ≤ 1.8 had a high negative predictive value of 93% for mortality. Multivariable analysis revealed that PaO(2)/PaCO(2) ≤ 1.8 Hazard Ratio (HR): 16.8 [95% CI: 2.6-108, P < 0.003] was the most significant independent predictor, whereas cTn-T, pO(2) < 60 mmHg and cardiac failure were nonsignificant factors. In addition, PaO(2)/PaCO(2) ≤ 1.8 showed significant survival differences for overall mortality rates in Kaplan-Meier analysis (P < 0.012).

Conclusion: The PaO(2)/PaCO(2) measurement is a highly useful and practical measurement to predict prognosis in patients with acute PE. Moreover, it appears to be a more accurate predictor than RV/LV ratio and cTn-T levels in patients with normotensive PE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-699X.2011.00253.xDOI Listing
April 2012

C-reactive protein alone or combined with cardiac troponin T for risk stratification of respiratory intensive care unit patients.

Respir Care 2011 Jul 21;56(7):1002-8. Epub 2011 Feb 21.

Department of Chest Diseases, Karadeniz Technical University School of Medicine, Trabzon, Turkey.

Background: Mortality is high among patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs). Several prognostic markers have been described in such patients, but the literature contains no data comparing C-reactive protein (CRP) and cardiac troponin T (cTn-T), nor of a combination of CRP and cTn-T in the same patient group in the ICU.

Methods: This was a retrospective electronic data review of patients who presented to the emergency department for respiratory reasons between December 2007 and December 2009 and in whom CRP and cTn-T levels were measured. Patients with a diagnosis of pulmonary embolism and acute coronary syndrome were excluded. We recorded demographics, chronic diseases, admission diagnosis, Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPS II), ICU stay, and CRP and cTn-T concentrations.

Results: We included the records of 158 patients. Mean ICU stay was 9.9 days (range 1-65 d), and mean hospital stay was 14.1 days (range 1-72 d). For predicting mortality, receiver operating characteristic analysis gave a CRP cutoff value of ≥ 10 mg/dL, and a CTn-T cutoff value of ≥ 0.01 ng/mL. For CRP the mortality area under the curve was 0.691 (95% CI 0.608-0.775), the sensitivity was 65%, and the specificity was 70%. For cTn-T the mortality area under the curve was 0.733 (95% CI 0.655-0.812), the sensitivity was 78%, and the specificity was 56%. Of the patients who died, 65% had CRP ≥ 10 mg/dL and 78% had cTn-T ≥ 0.01 ng/mL. On multivariable regression analysis, CRP ≥ 10 mg/dL was associated with 6.6-fold higher (95% CI 1.7-21.3) ICU mortality. There was no advantage for models that combined CRP and cTn-T. CRP alone was more valuable in predicting ICU mortality than in combination with troponin or SAPS II.

Conclusions: Elevated CRP is an independent early prognostic marker of mortality risk in ICU patients. We suspect that a CRP-based prognosis strategy may be useful.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4187/respcare.01007DOI Listing
July 2011

Effect of early or delayed administration of warfarin with heparin on thrombosis in pulmonary thromboembolism.

Med Princ Pract 2011 20;20(2):181-6. Epub 2011 Jan 20.

Department of Chest Diseases, School of Medicine, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon, Turkey.

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of early or delayed warfarin administration with unfractionated heparin (UFH) on coagulation parameters in pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE).

Patients And Methods: This study was performed between November 2006 and July 2007. Thirty-three patients with PTE were sequentially slotted to early (n = 16) and delayed (n = 17) warfarin treatment groups. In the early group, both UFH infusion and warfarin were started simultaneously and in the delayed group, warfarin was added (1-3 days later) based on when partial thromboplastin time reached the therapeutic level with UFH. The proteins C and S, D-dimer, hematocrit levels, and platelet counts for all patients were studied prior to treatment and 6, 24, and 48 h after warfarin treatment. In order to determine the overall effect of early and delayed warfarin treatment on clot formation, a thromboelastogram was performed simultaneously.

Results: In both groups, a similar chronological decrease in protein C levels reaching maximum at 24 h with warfarin treatment was observed. However, intragroup or intergroup decreases in protein S levels were not different. On thromboelastogram, INTEM and EXTEM clotting times were significantly prolonged chronologically, but this prolongation was not different between groups.

Conclusion: The suppressor effect of warfarin on proteins C and S in the early period of double anticoagulant treatment did not appear to aggravate the risk of thrombosis in patients with PTE in whom warfarin was started simultaneously with UFH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000319767DOI Listing
May 2011