Publications by authors named "Xuyang Wang"

75 Publications

Enhancement of diatom growth and phytoplankton productivity with reduced O availability is moderated by rising CO.

Commun Biol 2022 Jan 14;5(1):54. Epub 2022 Jan 14.

State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science & College of Ocean and Earth Sciences, Xiamen University, 361005, Xiamen, China.

Many marine organisms are exposed to decreasing O levels due to warming-induced expansion of hypoxic zones and ocean deoxygenation (DeO). Nevertheless, effects of DeO on phytoplankton have been neglected due to technical bottlenecks on examining O effects on O-producing organisms. Here we show that lowered O levels increased primary productivity of a coastal phytoplankton assemblage, and enhanced photosynthesis and growth in the coastal diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii. Mechanistically, reduced O suppressed mitochondrial respiration and photorespiration of T. weissflogii, but increased the efficiency of their CO concentrating mechanisms (CCMs), effective quantum yield and improved light use efficiency, which was apparent under both ambient and elevated CO concentrations leading to ocean acidification (OA). While the elevated CO treatment partially counteracted the effect of low O in terms of CCMs activity, reduced levels of O still strongly enhanced phytoplankton primary productivity. This implies that decreased availability of O with progressive DeO could boost re-oxygenation by diatom-dominated phytoplankton communities, especially in hypoxic areas, with potentially profound consequences for marine ecosystem services in coastal and pelagic oceans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s42003-022-03006-7DOI Listing
January 2022

Involvement of Small Colony Variant-Related Heme Biosynthesis Genes in Persister Formation .

Front Microbiol 2021 23;12:756809. Epub 2021 Dec 23.

Department of Infectious Diseases, National Medical Center for Infectious Diseases, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Infectious Diseases and Biosafety Emergency Response, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Persisters are important reasons for persistent infections, and they can lead to antibiotic treatment failure in patients and consequently chronic infection. small colony variants (SCVs) have been shown to be related to persistent infection. Mutations in the genes of the heme biosynthesis pathway lead to the formation of SCVs. However, the relationship between heme production genes and persister has not been tested. and were knocked out by allelic replacement from strain USA500 separately, and then, the heme deficiency was complemented by overexpression of related genes and the addition of hemin. The stress-related persister assay was conducted. RNA-sequencing was performed to find genes and pathways involved in heme-related persister formation, and relative genes and operons were further knocked out and overexpressed to confirm their role in each process. We found that heme biosynthesis deficiency can lead to decreased persister. After complementing the corresponding genes or hemin, the persister levels could be restored. RNA-seq on knockout strains showed that various metabolic pathways were influenced, such as energy metabolism, amino acid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, and membrane transport. Overexpression of and operon could restore USA500∆ persister formation under acid stress. Knocking out operon in USA500∆ could further reduce USA500∆ persister formation under acid and oxidative stress. Heme synthesis has a role in persister formation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.756809DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8733728PMC
December 2021

Comparative Metabolomics Reveals Two Metabolic Modules Affecting Seed Germination in Rice ().

Metabolites 2021 Dec 17;11(12). Epub 2021 Dec 17.

National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement and National Center of Plant Gene Research (Wuhan), Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China.

The process of seed germination is crucial not only for the completion of the plant life cycle but also for agricultural production and food chemistry; however, the underlying metabolic regulation mechanism involved in this process is still far from being clearly revealed. In this study, one variety (, with rapid germination) and one variety (, with slow germination) in rice were used for in-depth analysis of the metabolome at different germination stages (0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h after imbibition, HAI) and exploration of key metabolites/metabolic pathways. In total, 380 annotated metabolites were analyzed by using a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-based targeted method combined with a nontargeted metabolic profiling method. By using bioinformatics and statistical methods, the dynamic changes in metabolites during germination in the two varieties were compared. Through correlation analysis, coefficient of variation analysis and differential accumulation analysis, 74 candidate metabolites that may be closely related to seed germination were finally screened. Among these candidates, 29 members belong to the ornithine-asparagine-polyamine module and the shikimic acid-tyrosine-tryptamine-phenylalanine-flavonoid module. As the core member of the second module, shikimic acid's function in the promotion of seed germination was confirmed by exogenous treatment. These results told that nitrogen flow and antioxidation/defense responses are potentially crucial for germinating seeds and seedlings. It deepens our understanding of the metabolic regulation mechanism of seed germination and points out the direction for our future research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/metabo11120880DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8707830PMC
December 2021

Negative bias effects during audiovisual emotional processing in major depression disorder.

Hum Brain Mapp 2021 Dec 10. Epub 2021 Dec 10.

The Clinical Hospital of Chengdu Brain Science Institute, High-Field Magnetic Resonance Brain Imaging Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, School of Life Science and Technology, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, P. R. China.

Aberrant affective neural processing and negative emotional bias are trait-marks of major depression disorders (MDDs). However, most research on biased emotional perception in depression has only focused on unimodal experimental stimuli, the neural basis of potentially biased emotional processing of multimodal inputs remains unclear. Here, we addressed this issue by implementing an audiovisual emotional task during functional MRI scanning sessions with 37 patients with MDD and 37 gender-, age- and education-matched healthy controls. Participants were asked to distinguish laughing and crying sounds while being exposed to faces with different emotional valences as background. We combined general linear model and psychophysiological interaction analyses to identify abnormal local functional activity and integrative processes during audiovisual emotional processing in MDD patients. At the local neural level, MDD patients showed increased bias activity in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) while listening to negative auditory stimuli and concurrently processing visual facial expressions, along with decreased dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) activity in both the positive and negative visual facial conditions. At the network level, MDD exhibited significantly decreased connectivity in areas involved in automatic emotional processes and voluntary control systems during perception of negative stimuli, including the vmPFC, dlPFC, insula, as well as the subcortical regions of posterior cingulate cortex and striatum. These findings support a multimodal emotion dysregulation hypothesis for MDD by demonstrating that negative bias effects may be facilitated by the excessive ventral bottom-up negative emotional influences along with incapability in dorsal prefrontal top-down control system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hbm.25735DOI Listing
December 2021

Novel electrolyte additive of graphene oxide for prolonging the lifespan of zinc-ion batteries.

Nanotechnology 2021 Dec 24;33(12). Epub 2021 Dec 24.

Faculty of Physics, Moscow State University, Leninskie gory 1, Moscow, 119991, Russia.

Aqueous zinc-ion batteries have attracted the attention of the industry due to their low cost, good environmental friendliness, and competitive gravimetric energy density. However, zinc anodes, similar to lithium, sodium and other alkali metal anodes, are also plagued by dendrite problems. Zinc dendrites can penetrate through polymer membranes, and even glass fiber membranes which seriously hinders the development and application of aqueous zinc-ion batteries. To resolve this issue, certain additives are required. Here we have synthesized an electrochemical graphene oxide with novel electrolyte based on tryptophan, which allows to obtain few-layered sheets with a remarkably uniform morphology, good aqueous solution dispersion, easy preparation and environmental friendliness. We used this electrochemical graphene oxide as an additive to the electrolyte for aqueous zinc-ion batteries. The results of phase-field model combined with experimental characterization revealed that the addition of this material effectively promotes the uniform distribution of the electric field and the Zn-ion concentration field, reduces the nucleation overpotential of Zn metal, and provides a more uniform deposition process on the metal surface and improved cyclability of the aqueous Zn-ion battery. The resultant Zn∣Zn symmetric battery with the electrochemical graphene oxide additive affords a stable Zn anode, which provided service for more than 500 h at 0.2 mA cmand even more than 250 h at 1.0 mA cm. The Coulombic efficiency (98.7%) of Zn∣Cu half-cells and thus cyclability of aqueous Zn-ion batteries using electrochemical graphene oxide is significantly better compared to the additive-free electrolyte system. Therefore, our approach paves a promising avenue to foster the practical application of aqueous Zn-ion batteries for energy storage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/ac40bfDOI Listing
December 2021

Identification and expression analysis of candidate genes related to seed dormancy and germination in the wheat GATA family.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2021 Dec 20;169:343-359. Epub 2021 Nov 20.

College of Agronomy, Anhui Agricultural University, Key Laboratory of Wheat Biology and Genetic Improvement on Southern Yellow & Huai River Valley, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Hefei, 230036, Anhui, China. Electronic address:

GATA transcription factors have been reported to function in plant growth and development and during various biotic/abiotic stresses in Arabidopsis and rice. However, the functions of wheat GATAs, particularly in the regulation of seed dormancy and germination, remain unclear. Here, we identified 78 TaGATAs in wheat and divided them into five subfamilies. Sixty-four paralogous pairs and 52 orthologous pairs were obtained, and Ka/Ks ratios showed that the TaGATAs had undergone strong purifying election during the evolutionary process. Triplet analysis indicated that a high homologue retention rate could explain the large number of TaGATAs in wheat. Gene structure analysis revealed that most members of the same subfamily had similar structures, and subcellular localization prediction indicated that most TaGATAs were located in the nucleus. Gene ontology annotation results showed that most TaGATAs had molecular functions in DNA and zinc binding, and promoter analysis suggested that they may play important roles in growth, development, and biotic/abiotic stress response. We combined three microarray datasets with qRT-PCR expression data from wheat varieties of contrasting dormancy and pre-harvest sprouting resistance levels during imbibition in order to identify ten candidate genes (TaGATA17/-25/-34/-37/-40/-46/-48/-51/-72/-73) that may be involved in the regulation of seed dormancy and germination in wheat. These findings provide valuable information for further dissection of TaGATA functions in the regulation of seed dormancy and germination, thereby enabling the improvement of wheat pre-harvest sprouting resistance by gene pyramiding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2021.11.012DOI Listing
December 2021

Basal ganglia atrophy-associated causal structural network degeneration in Parkinson's disease.

Hum Brain Mapp 2022 Feb 18;43(3):1145-1156. Epub 2021 Nov 18.

The Clinical Hospital of Chengdu Brain Science Institute, MOE Key Laboratory for Neuroinformation, High-Field Magnetic Resonance Brain Imaging Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, School of Life Science and Technology, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, China.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by both motor and non-motor symptoms. A convergent pathophysiological hallmark of PD is an early selective vulnerability within the basal ganglia circuit. However, the causal interactions between basal ganglia atrophy and progressive structural network alterations in PD remain unaddressed. Here, we adopted voxel-based morphometry method to measure gray matter (GM) volume for each participant (n = 84 PD patients and n = 70 matched healthy controls). Patients were first divided into three stages according to the Hoehn and Yahr (H&Y) and the Part III of Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale scores respectively to analyze the stage-specific GM atrophy patterns. Then, the modulation of early caudate atrophy over other brain structures was evaluated using the whole-brain voxel-wise and region-of-interest-wise causal structural covariance network approaches. We found that GM atrophy progressively expands from the basal ganglia to the angular gyrus, temporal areas, and eventually spreads through the subcortical-cortical networks as PD progresses. Notably, we identified a shared caudate-associated degeneration network including the basal ganglia, thalamus, cerebellum, sensorimotor cortex, and cortical association areas with the PD progressive factors. These findings suggest that the early structural vulnerability of basal ganglia in PD may play a pivotal role in the modulation of motor and non-motor circuits at the structural level. Our work provides evidence for a novel mechanism of network degeneration that underlies the pathology of PD and may have potential clinical applications in the development of early predictors of PD onset and progress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hbm.25715DOI Listing
February 2022

Corrigendum to 'Evaluation of the membrane damage mechanism of protocatechualdehyde against Yersinia enterocolitica and simulation of growth inhibition in pork' [Food Chem. 363 (2021) 130340].

Food Chem 2022 Mar 9;373(Pt A):131203. Epub 2021 Nov 9.

College of Food and Bioengineering, Shaanxi University of Science and Technology, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710021, China. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.131203DOI Listing
March 2022

A Robust and Fast Method for Sidescan Sonar Image Segmentation Based on Region Growing.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Oct 20;21(21). Epub 2021 Oct 20.

School of Integrated Circuits, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.

For high-resolution side scan sonar images, accurate and fast segmentation of sonar images is crucial for underwater target detection and recognition. However, due to the characteristics of low signal-to-noise ratio () and complex environmental noise of sonar, the existing methods with high accuracy and good robustness are mostly iterative methods with high complexity and poor real-time performance. For this purpose, a region growing based segmentation using the likelihood ratio testing method (RGLT) is proposed. This method obtains the seed points in the highlight and the shadow regions by likelihood ratio testing based on the statistical probability distribution and then grows them according to the similarity criterion. The growth avoids the processing of the seabed reverberation regions, which account for the largest proportion of sonar images, thus greatly reducing segmentation time and improving segmentation accuracy. In addition, a pre-processing filtering method called standard deviation filtering () is proposed to improve the and remove the speckle noise. Experiments were conducted on three sonar databases, which showed that RGLT has significantly improved quantitative metrics such as accuracy, speed, and segmentation visual effects. The average accuracy and running times of the proposed segmentation method for 100 × 400 images are separately 95.90% and 0.44 s.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21216960DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8588333PMC
October 2021

Endothelial repair by stem and progenitor cells.

J Mol Cell Cardiol 2021 Oct 29;163:133-146. Epub 2021 Oct 29.

Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China. Electronic address:

The integrity of the endothelial barrier is required to maintain vascular homeostasis and fluid balance between the circulatory system and surrounding tissues and to prevent the development of vascular disease. However, the origin of the newly developed endothelial cells is still controversial. Stem and progenitor cells have the potential to differentiate into endothelial cell lines and stimulate vascular regeneration in a paracrine/autocrine fashion. The one source of new endothelial cells was believed to come from the bone marrow, which was challenged by the recent findings. By administration of new techniques, including genetic cell lineage tracing and single cell RNA sequencing, more solid data were obtained that support the concept of stem/progenitor cells for regenerating damaged endothelium. Specifically, it was found that tissue resident endothelial progenitors located in the vessel wall were crucial for endothelial repair. In this review, we summarized the latest advances in stem and progenitor cell research in endothelial regeneration through findings from animal models and discussed clinical data to indicate the future direction of stem cell therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yjmcc.2021.10.009DOI Listing
October 2021

GNG7 and ADCY1 as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for pancreatic adenocarcinoma through bioinformatic-based analyses.

Sci Rep 2021 10 14;11(1):20441. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Department of Organ Transplantation, Jiangxi Provincial People's Hospital Affiliated To Nanchang University, No. 92 The Aiguo Road, Nanchang, 330006, Jiangxi Province, People's Republic of China.

Pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAAD) is one of the most lethal malignant tumors in the world. The GSE55643 and GSE15471 microarray datasets were downloaded to screen the diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for PAAD. 143 downregulated genes and 118 upregulated genes were obtained. Next, we performed gene ontology (GO) and The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis on these genes and constructed a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. We screened out two important clusters of genes, including 13 upregulated and 5 downregulated genes. After the survival analysis, 3 downregulated genes and 10 upregulated genes were identified as the selected key genes. The KEGG analysis on 13 selected genes showed that GNG7 and ADCY1 enriched in the Pathway in Cancer. Next, the diagnostic and prognostic value of GNG7 and ADCY1 was investigated using independent cohort of the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), GSE84129 and GSE62452. We observed that the expression of the GNG7 and ADCY1 was decreased in PAAD. The diagnostic receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis indicated that the GNG7 and ADCY1 could serve as sensitive diagnostic markers in PAAD. Survival analysis suggested that expression of GNG7, ADCY1 were significantly associated with PAAD overall survival (OS). The multivariate cox regression analysis showed that the expression of GNG7, ADCY1 were independent risk factors for PAAD OS. Our study indicated GNG7 and ADCY1 may be potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in patients with PAAD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-99544-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8516928PMC
October 2021

Integrating Multilevel Functional Characteristics Reveals Aberrant Neural Patterns during Audiovisual Emotional Processing in Depression.

Cereb Cortex 2021 Nov;32(1):1-14

The Clinical Hospital of Chengdu Brain Science Institute, MOE Key Laboratory for Neuroinformation, High-Field Magnetic Resonance Brain Imaging Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, 610054, PR China.

Emotion dysregulation is one of the core features of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, most studies in depression have focused on unimodal emotion processing, whereas emotional perception in daily life is highly dependent on multimodal sensory inputs. Here, we proposed a novel multilevel discriminative framework to identify the altered neural patterns in processing audiovisual emotion in MDD. Seventy-four participants underwent an audiovisual emotional task functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning. Three levels of whole-brain functional features were extracted for each subject, including the task-evoked activation, task-modulated connectivity, combined activation and connectivity. Support vector machine classification and prediction models were built to identify MDD from controls and evaluate clinical relevance. We revealed that complex neural networks including the emotion regulation network (prefrontal areas and limbic-subcortical regions) and the multisensory integration network (lateral temporal cortex and motor areas) had the discriminative power. Moreover, by integrating comprehensive information of local and interactive processes, multilevel models could lead to a substantial increase in classification accuracy and depression severity prediction. Together, we highlight the high representational capacity of machine learning algorithms to characterize the complex network abnormalities associated with emotional regulation and multisensory integration in MDD. These findings provide novel evidence for the neural mechanisms underlying multimodal emotion dysregulation of depression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhab185DOI Listing
November 2021

Analysis of changes in population's cross-city travel patterns in the pre- and post-pandemic era: A case study of China.

Cities 2021 Oct 5:103472. Epub 2021 Oct 5.

Columbia University, 116th and Broadway, New York, NY 10027, United States.

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak has immensely changed people's travel behaviour. The changes in travel behaviour have had a huge impact on different industries, such as consumption, entertainment, commerce, office, and education. This study investigates the impact of COVID-19 on population travel patterns from three aspects: total trips, travel recovery degree, and travel distance. The result indicates that COVID-19 has reduced the total number of cross-city trips and flexible non-work travel; in the post-pandemic era, cross-city travel is mainly short-distance (distance <100 km). This study has significant policymaking implications for governments in countries where the population shares a similar change in travel behaviour.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cities.2021.103472DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8491987PMC
October 2021

Beneficial Effects of Quercetin on Microcystin-LR Induced Tight Junction Defects.

Front Pharmacol 2021 10;12:733993. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Department of Physiology, School of Medicine & Holistic Integrative Medicine, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, China.

Quercetin has numerous functions including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. The beneficial effect of quercetin against microcystin-LR (MC-LR)-induced testicular tight junctions (TJs) defects and were investigated. Significant reductions in transepithelial electrical resistance, occludin, and zonula occludens-1(ZO-1) levels were detected in the MC-LR-treated TM4 cells, and quercetin attenuated these effects. Interestingly, quercetin suppressed MC-LR-induced phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT). It effectively inhibited the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells stimulated by MC-LR. In addition, ROS inhibitors blocked the TJ damage that is dependent on the AKT signaling pathway induced by MC-LR. In conclusion, our results suggest that alleviates MC-LR-impaired TJs by suppressing the ROS-regulated activation of the AKT pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.733993DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8462518PMC
September 2021

Ultra-Rapid Drug Susceptibility Testing for Clinical Isolates in 60 Min by SYBR Green I/Propidium Iodide Viability Assay.

Front Microbiol 2021 26;12:694522. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Shanghai Key Laboratory Infectious Diseases and Biosafety Emergency Response, Department of Infectious Diseases, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Background: We aimed to optimize and validate the drug susceptibility test (DST) assay by SYBR Green I/PI (SG-PI) method using a panel of 89 clinical isolates in comparison with the conventional DST method to three most important antibiotics used for treatment of this bacterial infection, including imipenem, cefmetazole, and gentamicin.

Methods: By staining with SYBR Green I and PI dyes, green fluorescence and red fluorescence, which linearly correlated with the percentages of live and dead or membrane damaged cells, respectively, were used to produce two standard curves to calculate the relative cell membrane impermeable rates for each log and stationary phase cultures. Stationary phase cells were used in imipenem and cefmetazole SG-PI DST assay whereas log phase cells were used in the gentamicin assay. The conventional broth microdilution method was used as a gold standard for DST for comparison.

Results: Data showed that after antibiotic treatment for 30-60 min, the antibiotic-resistant strains had significantly higher numbers of surviving cells than the susceptible strains at different concentrations of imipenem, cefmetazole, and gentamicin, where the average relative membrane impermeable rates were 88.5, 92.5, and 103.8% for resistant clinical strains, respectively, and 9.1, 49.3, and 71.5% for susceptible strains, respectively. Overall, the total concordances between the ultra-rapid SG-PI method and conventional minimal inhibitory concentration assay in diagnosing imipenem, cefmetazole and gentamicin resistance were high and were 96.6% (86/89), 95.4% (83/87), and 95.5% (85/89), respectively.

Conclusion: We demonstrate that our novel SG-PI assay can accurately and stably detect resistance to different antibiotics in clinical isolates of in an ultra-fast manner in 60-90 min.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.694522DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8431398PMC
August 2021

Motor Circuit and Superior Temporal Sulcus Activities Linked to Individual Differences in Multisensory Speech Perception.

Brain Topogr 2021 11 4;34(6):779-792. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

The Clinical Hospital of Chengdu Brain Science Institute, High-Field Magnetic Resonance Brain Imaging Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, School of Life Science and Technology, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, 611731, People's Republic of China.

Integrating multimodal information into a unified perception is a fundamental human capacity. McGurk effect is a remarkable multisensory illusion that demonstrates a percept different from incongruent auditory and visual syllables. However, not all listeners perceive the McGurk illusion to the same degree. The neural basis for individual differences in modulation of multisensory integration and syllabic perception remains largely unclear. To probe the possible involvement of specific neural circuits in individual differences in multisensory speech perception, we first implemented a behavioral experiment to examine the McGurk susceptibility. Then, functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 63 participants to measure the brain activity in response to non-McGurk audiovisual syllables. We revealed significant individual variability in McGurk illusion perception. Moreover, we found significant differential activations of the auditory and visual regions and the left Superior temporal sulcus (STS), as well as multiple motor areas between strong and weak McGurk perceivers. Importantly, the individual engagement of the STS and motor areas could specifically predict the behavioral McGurk susceptibility, contrary to the sensory regions. These findings suggest that the distinct multimodal integration in STS as well as coordinated phonemic modulatory processes in motor circuits may serve as a neural substrate for interindividual differences in multisensory speech perception.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10548-021-00869-7DOI Listing
November 2021

Variations in seasonal and inter-annual carbon fluxes in a semi-arid sandy maize cropland ecosystem in China's Horqin Sandy Land.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2022 Jan 21;29(4):5295-5312. Epub 2021 Aug 21.

Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 320 Donggang West Road, Lanzhou, 730000, China.

Sandy cropland ecosystems are major terrestrial ecosystems in semi-arid regions of northern China's Horqin Sandy Land, where they play an important role in the regional carbon balance. Continuous observation of the CO flux was conducted from 2014 to 2018 using the eddy covariance technique in a sandy maize cropland ecosystem in the Horqin Sandy Land. We analyzed carbon fluxes (the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO, ecosystem respiration (R), and the gross primary productivity (GPP) and their responses to environmental factors at different temporal scales using Random Forest models and correlation analysis. We found that the sandy cropland was a carbon sink, with an annual mean NEE of -124.4 g C m yr. However, after accounting for carbon exports and imports, the cropland became a net carbon source, with net biome production ranging from -501.1 to -266.7 g C m yr. At a daily scale, the Random Forest algorithm revealed that photosynthetic photon flux density, soil temperature, and soil moisture were the main drivers for variation of GPP, R, and NEE at different integration periods. At a monthly scale, GPP and R increased with increasing leaf area index (LAI), so the maize ecosystem's carbon sequestration capacity increased with increasing LAI. At an annual scale, water availability (precipitation and irrigation) played a dominant role in explaining inter-annual variability of GPP and R. Affected by climate (e.g., precipitation) and field management (e.g., cultivation, irrigation), carbon fluxes differed greatly between years in the maize system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-15751-zDOI Listing
January 2022

Security analysis of continuous variable quantum key distribution based on entangled states with biased correlations.

Opt Express 2021 Jul;29(14):22623-22635

Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) entangled states can significantly enhance the secret key rate and secure distance of continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CV-QKD). In practical imperfections always exist in the preparation of two-mode squeezing (entangled states), which present an asymmetrical variance for the two quadratures. The imperfections induced by the bias effect of the entangled states are commonly treated as part of the untrusted channel to decrease the performance of the system. Here, we theoretically quantify the influence of bias effect on the secret key rate and secure distance, and propose a solution of generating unbiased entangled states protocol. The results demonstrated that the unbiased entangled states protocol guarantees the longest secure distance and highest key rate compared to that of coherent and biased entangled states.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.426089DOI Listing
July 2021

Variation in Soil Microbial Communities Along an Elevational Gradient in Alpine Meadows of the Qilian Mountains, China.

Front Microbiol 2021 25;12:684386. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, China.

Bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryota diversity in mountainous areas varies along elevational gradients, but details remain unclear. Here, we use a next-generation sequencing method based on 16S/18S rRNA to reveal the soil microbial diversity and community compositions of alpine meadow ecosystems along an elevation span of nearly 2,000 m (1,936-3,896 m) in China's Qilian Mountains. Both bacterial and eukaryota diversity increased linearly with increasing elevation, whereas archaeal diversity increased, but not significantly. The diversity patterns of several phyla in the bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryota communities were consistent with the overall elevational trend, but some phyla did not follow this pattern. The soil microbial community compositions were shaped by the coupled effects of regional climate and local soil properties. Intradomain links were more important than interdomain links in the microbial network of the alpine meadows, and these links were mostly positive. The bacteria formed more connections than either archaea or eukaryota, but archaea may be more important than bacteria in building the soil microbial co-occurrence network in this region. Our results provide new visions on the formation and maintenance of soil microbial diversity along an elevational gradient and have implications for microbial responses to climate change in alpine ecosystems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.684386DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8270674PMC
June 2021

The complete chloroplast genome sequence of , a species endemic to China.

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2021 Jun 15;6(7):1906-1908. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Wetland Management Department of Yunnan Forestry and Grassland Bureau, Kunming, PR China.

, widely distributed in central to southwest of China, is an economically important forest tree. The chloroplast genome is 159,861 bp in length with a typical circular quadripartite structure, containing 129 genes (84 protein-coding genes, 37 tRNAs, and eight rRNAs). Our phylogenetic result clearly showed that and have the closest relationship.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2021.1935338DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8208118PMC
June 2021

Dapagliflozin alleviates cardiac fibrosis through suppressing EndMT and fibroblast activation via AMPKα/TGF-β/Smad signalling in type 2 diabetic rats.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 08 25;25(16):7642-7659. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

The Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Chinese Ministry of Education, Chinese National Health Commission and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, The State and Shandong Province Joint Key Laboratory of Translational Cardiovascular Medicine, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, China.

Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is one of the leading causes of heart failure in patients with diabetes mellitus, with limited effective treatments. The cardioprotective effects of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2(SGLT2) inhibitors have been supported by amounts of clinical trials, which largely fills the gap. However, the underlying mechanism still needs to be further explored, especially in terms of its protection against cardiac fibrosis, a crucial pathophysiological process during the development of DCM. Besides, endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) has been reported to play a pivotal role in fibroblast multiplication and cardiac fibrosis. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of SGLT2 inhibitor dapagliflozin (DAPA) on DCM especially for cardiac fibrosis and explore the underlying mechanism. In vivo, the model of type 2 diabetic rats was built with high-fat feeding and streptozotocin injection. Untreated diabetic rats showed cardiac dysfunction, increased myocardial fibrosis and EndMT, which was attenuated after treatment with DAPA and metformin. In vitro, HUVECs and primary cardiac fibroblasts were treated with DAPA and exposed to high glucose (HG). HG-induced EndMT in HUVECs and collagen secretion of fibroblasts were markedly inhibited by DAPA. Up-regulation of TGF-β/Smad signalling and activity inhibition of AMPKα were also reversed by DAPA treatment. Then, AMPKα siRNA and compound C abrogated the anti-EndMT effects of DAPA in HUVECs. From above all, our study implied that DAPA can protect against DCM and myocardial fibrosis through suppressing fibroblast activation and EndMT via AMPKα-mediated inhibition of TGF-β/Smad signalling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.16601DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8358881PMC
August 2021

Evaluation of the membrane damage mechanism of protocatechualdehyde against Yersinia enterocolitica and simulation of growth inhibition in pork.

Food Chem 2021 Nov 9;363:130340. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

College of Food and Bioengineering, Shaanxi University of Science and Technology, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710021, China. Electronic address:

This study sought to explore the antibacterial mechanism associated with membrane damage in Yersinia enterocolitica by protocatechualdehyde (PCA), thus providing improved knowledge of whether PCA is suitable for pork preservation. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of PCA was determined by micro-broth dilution. We then characterized functional and morphological changes of Y. enterocolitica treated with PCA. Finally, the growth inhibition model of PCA against Y. enterocolitica in pork was established using the response surface method. Accordingly, the MIC of PCA against Y. enterocolitica was found to be 0.3125 mg/mL. Significant observations incorporated membrane depolarization, a markedly decreased intracellular ATP and pH, and morphological changes induced by PCA treatment. After PCA treatment under low temperatures, the average Y. enterocolitica count in pork decreased by two log cycles. According to the obtained findings, PCA exhibited satisfactory performances as a food preservative to control the growth and reproduction of Y. enterocolitica in pork.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.130340DOI Listing
November 2021

Soil microbial community responses to short-term nitrogen addition in China's Horqin Sandy Land.

PLoS One 2021 20;16(5):e0242643. Epub 2021 May 20.

Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, China.

Anthropogenic nitrogen (N) addition has increased soil nutrient availability, thereby affecting ecosystem processes and functions in N-limited ecosystems. Long-term N addition decreases plant biodiversity, but the effects of short-term N addition on soil microbial community is poorly understood. The present study examined the impacts of short-term N addition (NH4NO3) on these factors in a sandy grassland and semi-fixed sandy land in the Horqin Sandy Land. We measured the responses of soil microbial biomass C and N; on soil β-1,4-glucosidase (BG) and β-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAG) activity; and soil microflora characteristics to N additions gradient with 0 (control), 5 (N5), 10 (N10), and 15 (N15) g N m-2 yr-1. The soil microbial biomass indices, NAG activity, and soil microflora characteristics did not differ significantly among the N levels, and there was no difference at the two sites. The competition for N between plants and soil microbes was not eliminated by short-term N addition due to the low soil nutrient and moisture contents, and the relationships among the original soil microbes did not change. However, N addition increased BG activity in the N5 and N10 additions in the sandy grassland, and in the N5, N10, and N15 additions in the semi-fixed sandy land. This may be due to increased accumulation and fixation of plant litter into soils in response to N addition, leading to increased microbial demand for a C source and increased soil BG activity. Future research should explore the relationships between soil microbial community and N addition at the two sites.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0242643PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8143696PMC
October 2021

Quantum random number generator with discarding-boundary-bin measurement and multi-interval sampling.

Opt Express 2021 Apr;29(8):12440-12453

A quantum random number generator (QRNG) provides a reliable means for the generation of true random numbers. The inherent randomness of the vacuum fluctuations makes the quantum vacuum state a superior source of entropy. However, in practice, the raw sequences of QRNG are inevitably contaminated by classical technical noise, which compromises the security of the QRNG. Min-entropy conditioned on the classical noise is a useful method that can quantify the side-information independent randomness. To improve the extractable randomness from the raw sequences arising from the quantum vacuum-based QRNG, we propose and experimentally demonstrate two approaches, discarding-boundary-bin measurement and multi-interval sampling. The first one increases the conditional min-entropy at a low quantum-to-classical-noise ratio. The latter exploits parallel sampling using multiple analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) and effectively overcomes the finite resolution limit and uniform sampling of a single ADC. The maximum average conditional min-entropy can reach 9.2 per sample when combining these two approaches together in contrast to 6.93 with a single 8-bit ADC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.419756DOI Listing
April 2021

Application of an emotional classification model in e-commerce text based on an improved transformer model.

PLoS One 2021 5;16(3):e0247984. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

School of Computer and Communication of the Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou City, Gansu Province, China.

With the rapid development of the mobile internet, people are becoming more dependent on the internet to express their comments on products or stores; meanwhile, text sentiment classification of these comments has become a research hotspot. In existing methods, it is fairly popular to apply a deep learning method to the text classification task. Aiming at solving information loss, weak context and other problems, this paper makes an improvement based on the transformer model to reduce the difficulty of model training and training time cost and achieve higher overall model recall and accuracy in text sentiment classification. The transformer model replaces the traditional convolutional neural network (CNN) and the recurrent neural network (RNN) and is fully based on the attention mechanism; therefore, the transformer model effectively improves the training speed and reduces training difficulty. This paper selects e-commerce reviews as research objects and applies deep learning theory. First, the text is preprocessed by word vectorization. Then the IN standardized method and the GELUs activation function are applied based on the original model to analyze the emotional tendencies of online users towards stores or products. The experimental results show that our method improves by 9.71%, 6.05%, 5.58% and 5.12% in terms of recall and approaches the peak level of the F1 value in the test model by comparing BiLSTM, Naive Bayesian Model, the serial BiLSTM_CNN model and BiLSTM with an attention mechanism model. Therefore, this finding proves that our method can be used to improve the text sentiment classification accuracy and effectively apply the method to text classification.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0247984PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7935313PMC
October 2021

Organocatalytic Asymmetric Synthesis of Aza-Spirooxindoles via Michael/Friedel-Crafts Cascade Reaction of 1,3-Nitroenynes and 3-Pyrrolyloxindoles.

Org Lett 2021 Mar 3;23(6):2273-2278. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Key Laboratory of Functionalized Molecular Solids, Ministry of Education, Anhui Key Laboratory of Molecule-Based Materials (State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base), College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu 241002, Anhui, P. R. China.

An asymmetric [3+3] cyclization of nitroenynes and 3-pyrrolyloxindoles has been realized with a chiral bifunctional squaramide catalyst. This Michael/Friedel-Crafts cascade strategy provides a facile and efficient access to enantioenriched polycyclic aza-spirooxindoles with 32-95% isolated yields and excellent stereocontrol under mild reaction conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.orglett.1c00409DOI Listing
March 2021

Efficient FPGA implementation of high-speed true random number generator.

Rev Sci Instrum 2021 Feb;92(2):024706

State Key Laboratory of Quantum Optics and Quantum Optics Devices, Institute of Opto-Electronics, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006, China and Collaborative Innovation Center of Extreme Optics, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006, China.

High-speed true random number generator is a building block in the modern information security system. We propose and demonstrate an efficient high-speed true random number generator based on multiple parallel self-timed rings (STRs). To improve the security, we evaluate the randomness of the entropy source by min-entropy and exploit the information-theoretically provable Toeplitz-hashing extractor. To minimize the consumption of hardware resources of a field programmable gate array at a predetermined high throughput and maximize the throughput with the limited hardware resources, we systematically derive and investigate the dependence of the data throughput and the total consumed resources of the random number generator on the system parameters. On this basis, we make a joint optimization for the degree of parallelism of the STRs and the extraction efficiency of the extractor. A 10-Gbps true random number generator is implemented efficiently, so that the output random bits can pass all the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and Dieharder test suites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/5.0035519DOI Listing
February 2021

Leucine heptad motifs within transmembrane domains affect function and oligomerization of human organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1.

Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr 2021 04 8;1863(4):183554. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

College of Life Sciences, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, China; Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Protein Function and Regulation in Agricultural Organisms, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) are transmembrane proteins responsible for the uptake of a wide range of endogenous compounds and clinically important drugs. The liver-specific OATP1B1 serves crucial roles in the removal of many orally administered drugs. The proper function of the transporter hence is essential for the pharmacokinetics of various therapeutic agents. Membrane proteins tend to form oligomers that are important for their stability, targeting and/or interactions with the substrates. Previous study in our laboratory revealed that OATP1B1 may form homo-oligomers and that a GXXXG motif localized at transmembrane domain 8 (TM8) may affect its oligomerization. In the current study, three short-form leucine heptad repeats within the transmembrane domains of OATP1B1 were investigated. It was found that the disruption of leucine heptad repeats within TM3 dramatically reduced the uptake function and protein-protein association of OATP1B1; while within TM8, only L378 is essential for the function of OATP1B1 and alanine replacement of L378 exhibited no effect on the oligomerization. The fragmental expression of TM3 interfered with the association of OATP1B1 homo-oligomers as well as its association with OATP1B3, which is also selectively expressed at human hepatocytes, suggesting that the region may be shared by both transporters for their protein-protein interactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbamem.2021.183554DOI Listing
April 2021

The co-treatment of rosuvastatin with dapagliflozin synergistically inhibited apoptosis via activating the PI3K/AKt/mTOR signaling pathway in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury rats.

Open Med (Wars) 2021 11;15(1):47-57. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

The Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Chinese Ministry of Education, Chinese National Health Commission and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, The State and Shandong Province Joint Key Laboratory of Translational Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Qilu Hospital, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, No. 107 WenHuaXi Road, Jinan, Shandong 250012, China.

Objective: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the role of co-treatment of rosuvastatin (RSV) and dapagliflozin (DGZ) preconditioning in myocardium ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and to further investigate the underlying mechanism.

Methods: Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats ( = 25) were divided into five groups randomly: (1) Sham, (2) I/R, (3) I/R + RSV (10 mg/kg), (4) IR + DGZ (1 mg/kg), and (5) I/R + RSV (10 mg/kg) + DGZ (1 mg/kg). The I/R model was induced with 30 min of left anterior descending occlusion followed by 120 min of reperfusion.

Results: pretreatment with RSV and DGZ, respectively, showed a significant reduction of infarction size, a significant increase in the levels of left ventricular systolic pressure, and maximal rate increase in left ventricular pressure (+d/d ), decrease in the levels of left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP), maximal rate of decrease of left ventricular pressure (-d/d ) and activity of cardiac enzymes of creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase MB isoenzymes (CK-MB), and hyper-tensive cardiac troponin I compared with the I/R group. H9C2 cells were exposed to hypoxia/reoxygenation to simulate an I/R model. administration of 25 µM RSV and 50 µM DGZ significantly enhanced cell viability, upregulated the expression levels of p-PI3K, p-Akt, p-mTOR, and Bcl-2, whereas it downregulated cleaved-caspase3, Bax. TUNEL assay indicated that pretreatment with RSV and DGZ decreased the apoptosis of H9C2 cells.

Conclusion: The combination of RSV and DGZ significantly enhances the cardioprotective effects compared with RSV or DGZ alone. RSV and DGZ have the potential cardioprotective effects against I/R injury by activating the PI3K/AKt/mTOR signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/med-2021-0005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7754177PMC
December 2020

Effects of Nitrogen Addition and Reproductive Effort on Nutrient Resorption of a Sand-Fixing Shrub.

Front Plant Sci 2020 15;11:588865. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Naiman Desertification Research Station, Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, China.

is a sand-fixing leguminous shrub with strong resistance to drought, cold, and low soil fertility. As a result, it plays an essential role in combating desertification in northern China, but little is known about its nutrient budget. Nutrient resorption is a key process in plant nutrient conservation and has marked ecological implications for plant fitness and ecosystem nutrient cycling. We studied the effects of both nitrogen (N) addition and reproductive effort on leaf N resorption of in a temperate semi-arid sandy land in China. The results showed that sprouting of the early leaves from over-wintered buds employs a strategy for slow returns on nutrient investment with smaller specific leaf area () and higher N resorption efficiency, whereas the late leaves, which sprout from current-year buds, employ a strategy for quick returns on nutrient investment with higher SLA and lower N resorption efficiency. N addition significantly increased the N resorption efficiency from early leaves while exerting no impact on late leaves, suggesting that the increased N recovery from early leaves is done to sustain the high N demands of late leaves. Reproductive effort did not affect the N resorption from early or late leaves due to the temporal separation between fruit production and leaf senescence. Taken together, our results demonstrate that has evolved different investment strategies for leaf N in early and late leaves to conserve nutrients and facilitate its growth in desertified environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2020.588865DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7769775PMC
December 2020
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