Publications by authors named "Xun Wang"

859 Publications

First Detection in West Africa of a Mutation That May Contribute to Artemisinin Resistance .

Front Genet 2021 8;12:701750. Epub 2021 Oct 8.

Department of Pathogen Biology and Immunology, Kunming Medical University, Kunming, China.

The spread of drug resistance has seriously impacted the effective treatment of infection with the malaria parasite, . Continuous monitoring of molecular marker polymorphisms associated with drug resistance in parasites is essential for malaria control and elimination efforts. Our study describes mutations observed in the resistance genes , and in imported malaria and identifies additional potential drug resistance-associated molecular markers. Chinese patients infected in Africa with were treated with intravenous (IV) injections of artesunate 240-360 mg for 3-5 days while hospitalized and treated with oral dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHP) for 3 days after hospital discharge. Blood samples were collected and PCR sequencing performed on genes , and from all isolates. We analyzed a total of 225 patients from Guangxi, China with malaria acquired in Africa between 2016 and 2018. All patients were cured completely after treatment. The F446I mutation of the gene was detected for the first time from samples of West African , with a frequency of 1.0%. Five haplotypes of that encode residues 72-76 were found, with the wild-type CVMNK sequence predominating (80.8% of samples), suggesting that the parasites might be chloroquine sensitive. For , N86 (13.1%) and Y184 (58.8%) were the most prevalent, suggesting that artemether-lumefantrine may not, in general, be a suitable treatment for the group. For the first time, this study detected the F446I mutation of the gene from Africa parasites that lacked clinical evidence of resistance. This study provides the latest data for molecular marker surveillance related to antimalarial drug resistance genes , and imported from Africa, in Guangxi, China from Chinese migrate workers. ChiCTROPC17013106.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2021.701750DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8531651PMC
October 2021

Comparison of the Distinct, Host-Specific Response of Three Hosts Induced by .

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Oct 12;22(20). Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Department of Plant Pathology, College of Plant Protection, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China.

Three hosts (TSHs), , and , represent the three major phylogenetic clades of plants infected by , which causes late blight, one of the most devastating diseases seriously affecting crop production. However, details regarding how different hosts respond to are lacking. Here, we conducted RNA-seq to analyze the transcriptomic data from the TSHs at 12 and 24 h post inoculation to capture early expression effects. Macroscopic and microscopic observations showed faster infection processes in than in and under the same conditions. Analysis of the number of genes and their level of expression indicated that distinct response models were adopted by the TSHs in response to . The host-specific infection process led to overlapping but distinct in GO terms and KEGG pathways enriched for differentially expressed genes; many were tightly linked to the immune response in the TSHs. showed the fastest response and strongest accumulation of reactive oxygen species compared with and , which also had similarities and differences in hormone regulation. Collectively, our study provides an important reference for a better understanding of late blight response mechanisms of different host interactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms222011000DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8537708PMC
October 2021

How dam construction affects the activity of alkaline phosphatases in reservoir sediments: A study of two highly regulated rivers.

Environ Res 2021 Oct 20:112236. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resource Department on Shallow Lakes, Ministry of Education, College of Environment, Hohai University, 1 Xikang Road, Nanjing, 210098, PR China.

Dam construction causes phosphorus (P) accumulation in reservoir sediments and significantly affects the generation of available P. However, the effect of dam construction on the activity of sediment alkaline phosphatase (ALP), which is encoded by the bacterial phoD gene and participates in P mineralization, in river sediments remains unclear. Here, we investigated the ALP activities in 78 sediment samples collected from the cascade reservoir regions located in the Lancang River and the Jinsha River, two highly regulated rivers in southwestern China. The abundance and community composition of phoD-harboring bacteria were determined based on the phoD gene using quantitative real-time PCR and MiSeq sequencing, respectively. Comparison of control and affected sites indicated that dam construction significantly increased sediment ALP activity in both rivers. The abundances of phoD-harboring bacteria increased and their community compositions varied in response to dam construction; the relative abundances of the dominant genera Methylobacterium and Bradyrhizobium were particularly higher in affected site than control site. Co-occurrence network analyses revealed much higher network connectivity and relative abundances of keystone species in affected sites. Some microbial factors including phoD-harboring bacterial abundances, network clustering coefficients, and relative abundance of keystone species were positively correlated with ALP activity. The relative abundance of keystone species was identified as the most important microbial factor contributing to variation in ALP activity based on structural equation modeling analysis. These findings enhance our understanding of how dam construction affects the functions of phoD-harboring bacteria and their role in the P biogeochemical cycle in highly regulated rivers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.112236DOI Listing
October 2021

Advances About Immunoinflammatory Pathogenesis and Treatment in Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy.

Front Pharmacol 2021 4;12:748193. Epub 2021 Oct 4.

Department of Neurology, The Third People's Hospital of Dalian, Non-Directly Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian, China.

Most diabetic patients develop diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). DPN is related to the increase of inflammatory cells in peripheral nerves, abnormal cytokine expression, oxidative stress, ischemia ,and pro-inflammatory changes in bone marrow. We summarized the progress of immune-inflammatory mechanism and treatment of DPN in recent years. Immune inflammatory mechanisms include TNF-α, HSPs, PARP, other inflammatory factors, and the effect of immune cells on DPN. Treatment includes tricyclic antidepressants and other drug therapy, immune and molecular therapy, and non-drug therapy such as exercise therapy, electrotherapy, acupuncture, and moxibustion. The pathogenesis of DPN is complex. In addition to strictly controlling blood glucose, its treatment should also start from other ways, explore more effective and specific treatment schemes for various causes of DPN, and find new targets for treatment will be the direction of developing DPN therapeutic drugs in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.748193DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8520901PMC
October 2021

UbiBrowser 2.0: a comprehensive resource for proteome-wide known and predicted ubiquitin ligase/deubiquitinase-substrate interactions in eukaryotic species.

Nucleic Acids Res 2021 Oct 20. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

State Key Laboratory of Proteomics, Beijing Proteome Research Center, National Center for Protein Sciences (Beijing), Beijing Institute of Lifeomics, Beijing 102206, China.

As an important post-translational modification, ubiquitination mediates ∼80% of protein degradation in eukaryotes. The degree of protein ubiquitination is tightly determined by the delicate balance between specific ubiquitin ligase (E3)-mediated ubiquitination and deubiquitinase-mediated deubiquitination. In 2017, we developed UbiBrowser 1.0, which is an integrated database for predicted human proteome-wide E3-substrate interactions. Here, to meet the urgent requirement of proteome-wide E3/deubiquitinase-substrate interactions (ESIs/DSIs) in multiple organisms, we updated UbiBrowser to version 2.0 (http://ubibrowser.ncpsb.org.cn). Using an improved protocol, we collected 4068/967 known ESIs/DSIs by manual curation, and we predicted about 2.2 million highly confident ESIs/DSIs in 39 organisms, with >210-fold increase in total data volume. In addition, we made several new features in the updated version: (i) it allows exploring proteins' upstream E3 ligases and deubiquitinases simultaneously; (ii) it has significantly increased species coverage; (iii) it presents a uniform confidence scoring system to rank predicted ESIs/DSIs. To facilitate the usage of UbiBrowser 2.0, we also redesigned the web interface for exploring these known and predicted ESIs/DSIs, and added functions of 'Browse', 'Download' and 'Application Programming Interface'. We believe that UbiBrowser 2.0, as a discovery tool, will contribute to the study of protein ubiquitination and the development of drug targets for complex diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkab962DOI Listing
October 2021

Ternary hybrid CuO-PMA-Ag sub-1 nm nanosheet heterostructures.

Chem Sci 2021 Sep 26;12(34):11490-11494. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Key Lab of Organic Optoelectronics and Molecular Engineering, Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University Beijing 100084 China

Multi-component two-dimensional (2D) hybrid sub-1 nm heterostructures could potentially possess many novel properties. Controlling the site-selective distribution of nanoparticles (NPs) at the edge of 2D hybrid nanomaterial substrates is desirable but it remains a great challenge. Herein, we realized for the first time the preparation of ternary hybrid CuO-phosphomolybdic acid-Ag sub-1 nm nanosheet heterostructures (CuO-PMA-Ag THSNHs), where the Ag NPs selectively distributed at the edge of 2D hybrid CuO-PMA sub-1 nm nanosheets (SNSs). And the obtained CuO-PMA-Ag THSNHs as the catalyst exhibited excellent catalytic activity in alkene epoxidation. Furthermore, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations demonstrated that the SNSs interact with Ag NPs to form stable nanoheterostructures. This work would pave the way for the synthesis and broader applications of multi-component 2D hybrid sub-1 nm heterostructures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1sc02548aDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8447927PMC
September 2021

Evaluation of photodegradation performance by paper microzones.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Oct 13:150916. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

School of Urban Construction, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430065, China. Electronic address:

Currently, the performance evaluation of catalysts usually requires expensive instruments. Hence, it is imperative to develop an alternative, green and sustainable method to investigate the photocatalytic reaction processes. Herein, the variation of degradation performance of different wastewaters with different dosage of P25 TiO was evaluated to verify the reliability of the paper microzones method (PMZs). The optimum P25 TiO dosage of 1 g/L for the degradation of methylene blue (MB) (UV light for 6 mins) and 0.5 g/L for the degradation of fuchsin basic (FB) (UV light for 5 mins) was obtained by the PMZs method. For the photocatalytic degradation of trivalent iron ion complexed salicylic acid (Fe(III)-SA) solution, the R values of 0.904 and 0.801 were obtained for the photocatalytic reaction kinetics by PMZs and spectrophotometry, respectively, which again indicated the high reliability of PMZs. The accuracy of the results obtained by PMZs method relative to the spectrophotometric method ranged from 68.80% to 87.54% when degrading MB, FB, mixture of MB and FB, and Fe(III)-SA by P25 TiO. Therefore, the PMZs method is all in line with the requirements of low-carbon environmental protection and green chemistry, and has broad application prospects in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.150916DOI Listing
October 2021

Visualizing the Spatial Heterogeneity of Electron Transfer on a Metallic Nanoplate Prism.

Nano Lett 2021 Oct 14. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

State Key Laboratory of Catalysis, Dalian National Laboratory for Clean Energy, The Collaborative Innovation Centre of Chemistry for Energy Materials, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Zhongshan Road 457, Dalian 116023, China.

The involvement between electron transfer (ET) and catalytic reaction at the electrocatalyst surface makes the electrochemical process challenging to understand and control. Even ET process, a primary step, is still ambiguous because it is unclear how the ET process is related to the nanostructured electrocatalyst. Herein, locally enhanced ET current dominated by mass transport effect at corner and edge sites bounded by {111} facets on single Au triangular nanoplates was clearly imaged. After decoupling mass transport effect, the ET rate constant of corner sites was measured to be about 2-fold that of basal {111} plane. Further, we demonstrated that spatial heterogeneity of local inner potential differences of Au nanoplates/solution interfaces plays a key role in the ET process, supported by the linear correlation between the logarithm of rate constants and the potential differences of different sites. These results provide direct images for heterogeneous ET, which helps to understand and control the nanoscopic electrochemical process and electrode design.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.1c03529DOI Listing
October 2021

Research Progress About Glioma Stem Cells in the Immune Microenvironment of Glioma.

Front Pharmacol 2021 23;12:750857. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Department of Neurosurgery, The Third People's Hospital of Dalian, Non-Directly Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian, China.

Gliomas are the most common primary tumors of the central nervous system. Due to the existence of the blood-brain barrier and its unique regional immune characteristics, the study of the immune microenvironment of gliomas is particularly important. Glioma stem cells are an important cause of initiating glioma, promoting tumor progression and leading to tumor recurrence. Immunotherapeutic strategies targeting glioma stem cells have become the focus of current research. This paper will focus on the research progress of glioma stem cells in the immune microenvironment of glioma to provide the basis for the immunotherapy of glioma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.750857DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8495125PMC
September 2021

Ultrabroadband and ultrathin absorber based on an encapsulated T-shaped metasurface.

Opt Express 2021 Sep;29(20):31311-31323

Ultrabroadband absorbers are vital for applications such as solar energy harvesting and integrated optoelectronic devices. Herein, we design, fabricate and characterize a novel ultrabroadband and ultrathin absorber based on the encapsulated T-shaped metasurface (ETM). The ETM consists of a 20 nm Cr film and a Cr substrate sandwiched by the T-shaped polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) arrays. The Cr film provides a robust absorptive surface with improved impedance matching, and ultrabroadband absorption can be achieved via the excitation of the localized surface plasmon (LSP) of this ultrathin film. The average absorption of simulated and experimental results of the ETM in the visible range of 400-800 nm for the TM (TE) polarization are 96.4% (96.3%) and 90.6% (89.4%), respectively. Three-dimensional (3D) power dissipation density distributions of the proposed structure have been investigated, which indicates that the synergistic absorption effect of different parts of the T-shaped ultrathin Cr film contributes to the major absorption enhancement. The absorption of the ETM is very robust to the changes of geometrical parameters and the symmetry of the structure, and it can be maintained almost the same even if T-shaped profiles are changed to L-shaped profiles. Moreover, the absorption performance of the ETM exhibits polarization-insensitive and wide-angle features, which has advantages for many potential applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.435371DOI Listing
September 2021

Redox Targeting of Energy Materials for Energy Storage and Conversion.

Adv Mater 2021 Oct 1:e2104562. Epub 2021 Oct 1.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore, 117576, Singapore.

The redox-targeting (RT) process or redox-mediated process, which provides great operation flexibility in circumventing the constraints intrinsically posed by the conventional electrochemical systems, is intriguing for various energy storage and conversion applications. Implementation of the RT reactions in redox-flow cells, which involves a close-loop electrochemical-chemical cycle between an electrolyte-borne redox mediator and an energy storage or conversion material, not only boosts the energy density of flow battery system, but also offers a versatile research platform applied to a wide variety of chemistries for different applications. Here, the recent progress of RT-based energy storage and conversion systems is summarized and great versatility of RT processes for various energy-related applications is demonstrated, particularly for large-scale energy storage, spatially decoupled water electrolysis, electrolytic N reduction, thermal-to-electrical conversion, spent battery material recycling, and more. The working principle, materials aspects, and factors dictating the operation are highlighted to reveal the critical roles of RT reactions for each application. In addition, the challenges lying ahead for deployment are stated and recommendations for addressing these constraints are provided. It is anticipated that the RT concept of energy materials will provide important implications and eventually offer a credible solution for advanced large-scale energy storage and conversion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202104562DOI Listing
October 2021

Community-Based Management and Treatment Services for Psychosis - China, 2019.

China CDC Wkly 2020 Oct;2(41):791-796

Peking University Sixth Hospital, Peking University Institute of Mental Health, NHC Key Laboratory of Mental Health (Peking University), National Clinical Research Center for Mental Disorders (Peking University Sixth Hospital), Beijing, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.46234/ccdcw2020.217DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8393145PMC
October 2020

CTR-DB, an omnibus for patient-derived gene expression signatures correlated with cancer drug response.

Nucleic Acids Res 2021 Sep 27. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

State Key Laboratory of Proteomics, Beijing Proteome Research Center, National Center for Protein Sciences (Beijing), Beijing Institute of Lifeomics, Beijing 102206, China.

To date, only some cancer patients can benefit from chemotherapy and targeted therapy. Drug resistance continues to be a major and challenging problem facing current cancer research. Rapidly accumulated patient-derived clinical transcriptomic data with cancer drug response bring opportunities for exploring molecular determinants of drug response, but meanwhile pose challenges for data management, integration, and reuse. Here we present the Cancer Treatment Response gene signature DataBase (CTR-DB, http://ctrdb.ncpsb.org.cn/), a unique database for basic and clinical researchers to access, integrate, and reuse clinical transcriptomes with cancer drug response. CTR-DB has collected and uniformly reprocessed 83 patient-derived pre-treatment transcriptomic source datasets with manually curated cancer drug response information, involving 28 histological cancer types, 123 drugs, and 5139 patient samples. These data are browsable, searchable, and downloadable. Moreover, CTR-DB supports single-dataset exploration (including differential gene expression, receiver operating characteristic curve, functional enrichment, sensitizing drug search, and tumor microenvironment analyses), and multiple-dataset combination and comparison, as well as biomarker validation function, which provide insights into the drug resistance mechanism, predictive biomarker discovery and validation, drug combination, and resistance mechanism heterogeneity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkab860DOI Listing
September 2021

Membrane curvature and connective fiber alignment in guinea pig round window membrane.

Acta Biomater 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Columbia University, 220 Mudd Building 500 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027, USA; Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY 10032, USA. Electronic address:

The round window membrane (RWM) covers an opening between the perilymph fluid-filled inner ear space and the air-filled middle ear space. As the only non-osseous barrier between these two spaces, the RWM is an ideal candidate for aspiration of perilymph for diagnostics purposes and delivery of medication for treatment of inner ear disorders. Routine access across the RWM requires the development of new surgical tools whose design can only be optimized with a thorough understanding of the RWM's structure and properties. The RWM possesses a layer of collagen and elastic fibers so characterization of the distribution and orientation of these fibers is essential. Confocal and two-photon microscopy were conducted on intact RWMs in a guinea pig model to characterize the distribution of collagen and elastic fibers. The fibers were imaged via second-harmonic-generation, autofluorescence, and Rhodamine B staining. Quantitative analyses of both fiber orientation and geometrical properties of the RWM uncovered a significant correlation between mean fiber orientations and directions of zero curvature in some portions of the RWM, with an even more significant correlation between the mean fiber orientations and linear distance along the RWM in a direction approximately parallel to the cochlear axis. The measured mean fiber directions and dispersions can be incorporated into a generalized structure tensor for use in the development of continuum anisotropic mechanical constitutive models that in turn will enable optimization of surgical tools to access the cochlea. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: The Round Window Membrane (RWM) is the only non-osseous barrier separating the middle and inner ear spaces, and thus is an ideal portal for medical access to the cochlea. An understanding of RWM structure and mechanical response is necessary to optimize the design of surgical tools for this purpose. The RWM geometry and the connective fiber orientation and dispersion are measured via confocal and 2-photon microscopy. A region of the RWM geometry is characterized as a hyperbolic paraboloid and another region as a tapered parabolic cylinder. Predominant fiber directions correlate well with directions of zero curvature in the hyperbolic paraboloid region. Overall fiber directions correlate well with position along a line approximately parallel to the central axis of the cochlea's spiral.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2021.09.036DOI Listing
September 2021

ZnO-POM Cluster Sub-1 nm Nanosheets as Robust Catalysts for the Oxidation of Thioethers at Room Temperature.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 Oct 21;143(39):16217-16225. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Key Lab of Organic Optoelectronics and Molecular Engineering, Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.

Two-dimensional (2D) zinc oxides have attracted more and more research interests due to their unique properties. Yet, it remains a great challenge to limit the thickness to the sub-1 nm scale and further combine with other components to obtain 2D hybrid zinc oxide (ZnO)-based sub-1 nm materials. Herein, a versatile strategy was successfully developed to realize the controllable preparation of ZnO-polyoxometalate (POM)-based 2D hybrid sub-1 nm nanosheet (HSNS) superstructures by incorporating three kinds of molybdenum-based POM clusters into the zinc oxide system. Molecular dynamics simulation results demonstrated that POM clusters interact with ZnO/Zn(OH) molecules and coassembled into stable 2D HSNSs. Significantly, theses materials as robust catalysts showed excellent catalytic activity, selectivity, and stability in the oxidation of thioethers at room temperature, which partly can be attributed to the special 2D sub-1 nm nanostructures with large specific areas leading to the full exposure of active sites. Meanwhile, the synergetic effect of multiple components also played an important role during the catalytic process. Thus, this work would pave the way for the precise synthesis of multicomponent 2D hybrid sub-1 nm materials for widespread applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.1c07477DOI Listing
October 2021

Influence of electrical part of traction transmission on dynamic characteristics of railway vehicles based on electromechanical coupling model.

Sci Rep 2021 Sep 15;11(1):18409. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

State Key Laboratory of Traction Power, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

With the continuous development of rail transit industry and the acceleration of train speed, higher requirements are established for the operation quality of high-speed trains and the reliability of transmission system. In the process of train running, speed fluctuation and vibrations from various parts of the driving devices are common, which could be greatly affected by the traction torque. During traction transmission, the harmonic vibration torque exists in traction motor due to that the motor is connected with non-sinusoidal alternating current. In order to study the vibration influence of the electrical component of traction transmission system on the rail vehicles, i.e., bogie and car-body, an electro-mechanical coupling dynamic model for rail transit vehicles was established by explicitly incorporating the electric-induced traction into the transmission model. The dynamics responses of the vertical, lateral and longitudinal acceleration on vehicle components, such as axle box and car-body were quantitative analyzed. By comparison with field test, it was observed that there was a vibration peak of 12-times of the fundamental rotor frequency on the bogie frame and axle box, which existed at conditions of traction, uniform speed and braking. However, the vibration acceleration exhibit nearly little difference with or without traction force, especially at low frequency domain < 100 Hz.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-97650-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8443618PMC
September 2021

Preparation of molecularly imprinted Ag-TiO for photocatalytic removal of ethyl paraben.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

School of Urban Construction, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430065, China.

Herein, MI-Ag-TiO was prepared by one-step sol-gel method, and its photocatalytic and characterization performance were fully analyzed. Within 120 min, the photocatalytic degradation rate of MI-Ag-TiO to ethyl paraben was 93.4%, which was 1.48 times that of naked TiO. Compared with Ag-TiO, MI-TiO, and TiO, the photocatalytic selectivity of MI-Ag-TiO to target pollutants increased by 24.5%, 31.5%, and 100%, respectively. Hence, the one-step molecular imprinting method can simply and quickly improve the photocatalytic performance of TiO. This research may help to further promote the practical application of molecularly imprinted photocatalysts in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-16168-4DOI Listing
September 2021

The alteration of gut microbiome community play an important role in mercury biotransformation in largemouth bass.

Environ Res 2021 Sep 9;204(Pt A):112026. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Joint Laboratory of Guangdong Province and Hong Kong Region on Marine Bioresource Conservation and Exploitation, College of Marine Sciences, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510642, China. Electronic address:

Mercury (Hg) biotransformation is an important process that can affect the speciation and bioaccumulation of Hg in fish. The intestinal microbiota has been suggested to take part in this process. However, Hg biotransformation in fish is still unclear and the responses of gut microbiota to different Hg exposure scenarios have not been well addressed. The present study investigated the bioaccumulation and biotransformation of Hg in a freshwater fish (Micropterus salmoides) and characterized the gut microbiome community under dietary inorganic Hg (IHg) or methylmercury (MeHg) exposure, aiming to evaluate the effects of gut microbiome's activities on the internal-handling and fate of Hg in fish. Significant Hg methylation was observed in fish under IHg exposure, whereas there was no demethylation occurred in MeHg-treated fish. Both IHg and MeHg could significantly alter the community composition of gut microbiome. The administrated IHg in the food could enhance the growth of methylators, resulting in additional MeHg production in fish gut. However, abundance of demethylators was greatly decreased under either IHg or MeHg exposure, leading the demethylation process to be negligible. The results strongly suggested that the behaviors of gut bacterial community played an important role in the presence or absence of biotransformation processes. This study elucidated the importance of gut microbiome in Hg biotransformation process, and helped to develop a novel perspective to understand the Hg bioaccumulation of fish in realistic environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.112026DOI Listing
September 2021

Cu-induced spermatogenesis disease is related to oxidative stress-mediated germ cell apoptosis and DNA damage.

J Hazard Mater 2021 08 16;416:125903. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Sichuan Agricultural University, Wenjiang, Chengdu 611130, China.

Copper is considered as an indispensable trace element for living organisms. However, over-exposure to Cu can lead to adverse health effects on human. In this study, CuSO decreased sperm concentration and motility, increased sperm malformation rate. Concurrently, testicular damage including testicular histopathological aberrations and reduction of testis relative weight were observed. Then, the mechanism underlying Cu-induced testicular toxicity was explored. According to the results, CuSO elevated ROS production while reducing antioxidant function. Additionally, CuSO induced apoptosis which was featured by MMP depolarization and up-regulated levels of cleaved-caspase-3, cleaved-caspase-8, cleaved-caspase-9, caspase-12, cleaved-PARP and Bax, whereas down-regulated Bcl-2 expression. Meanwhile, CuSO caused testis DNA damage (up-regulation of γ-H2AX protein expression) and suppressed DNA repair pathways including BER, NER, HR, MMR, together with the NHEJ repair pathways, yet did not affect MGMT. To investigate the role of oxidative stress in CuSO-induced apoptosis and DNA damage, the antioxidant NAC was co-treated with CuSO. NAC attenuated CuSO-induced ROS production, inhibited apoptosis and DNA damage. Furthermore, the spermatogenesis disorder was also abolished in the co-treatment with CuSO and NAC group. Altogether, abovementioned results indicated that CuSO-induced spermatogenesis disorder is related to oxidative stress-mediated DNA damage and germ cell apoptosis, impairing male reproductive function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.125903DOI Listing
August 2021

Ultrathin PdAuBiTe Nanosheets as High-Performance Oxygen Reduction Catalysts for a Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Device.

Adv Mater 2021 Oct 31;33(42):e2103383. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Key Lab of Organic Optoelectronics & Molecular Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, P. R. China.

Ultrathin 2D metal nanostructures have sparked a lot of research interest because of their improved electrocatalytic properties for fuel cells. So far, no effective technique for preparing ultrathin 2D Pd-based metal nanostructures with more than three compositions has been published. Herein, a new visible-light-induced template technique for producing PdAuBiTe alloyed 2D ultrathin nanosheets is developed. The mass activity of the PdAuBiTe nanosheets against the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is 2.48 A mg , which is 27.5/17.7 times that of industrial Pd/C/Pt/C, respectively. After 10 000 potential cyclings, there is no decrease in ORR activity. The PdAuBiTe nanosheets exhibit high methanol tolerance and in situ anti-CO poisoning properties. The PdAuBiTe nanosheets, as cathode electrocatalysts in direct methanol fuel cells, can thus give significant improvement in terms of power density and durability. In O /air, the power density can be increased to 235.7/173.5 mW cm , higher than that reported in previous work, and which is 2.32/3.59 times higher than Pt/C.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202103383DOI Listing
October 2021

Understanding heavy metal accumulation in roadside soils along major roads in the Tibet Plateau.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Aug 24;802:149865. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

College of Resources and Environment, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China. Electronic address:

The heavy metal accumulation in the Tibet Plateau (TP) poses a serious ecologic risk to the health of human and the other biota. Given the TP far away from the large anthropogenic emission sources, the rapid development of traffic activities during last several decades possibly leads to the elevated heavy metal concentration in the roadside soils. Therefore, we comprehensively assessed the heavy metal distribution in the 0-5 cm and 15-20 cm depth soils located at 5 m, 50 m, and 100 m distance to the edge of two major roads among the different vegetation covers and climatic conditions in the TP to verify this hypothesis. Results show that most of heavy metal concentrations in soils of different distance to the major road display an insignificant difference. The Nemero Synthesis indexes which represent the risk of pollution for these regions almost range 1 to 2 (low pollution risk), except 12.7 (extreme pollution risk) at one site. These indicate the limited impacts from the traffic activities for the whole region, but at some specific sites with the elevated traffic pollution. The forest cover at the altitude of 3700-4100 m has the highest mercury accumulation due to the vegetation and climatic factors induced the higher atmospheric depositions and stronger complexation with the organic matters. The statistical analysis finally suggests the geogenic weathering processes, climate, terrain and vegetation play an important role in shaping heavy metal distribution along the roadside of the TP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.149865DOI Listing
August 2021

Quantification of Atmospheric Mercury Deposition to and Legacy Re-emission from a Subtropical Forest Floor by Mercury Isotopes.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 09 27;55(18):12352-12361. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang 550081, China.

Air-soil exchange of elemental mercury vapor (Hg) is an important component in the budget of the global mercury cycle. However, its mechanistic detail is poorly understood. In this study, stable Hg isotopes in air, soil, and pore gases are characterized in a subtropical evergreen forest to understand the mechanical features of the air-soil Hg exchange. Strong Hg reduction in soil releases Hg to pore gas during spring-autumn but diminishes in winter, limiting the evasion in cold seasons. ΔHg in air modified by the Hg efflux during flux chamber measurement exhibit seasonality, from -0.33 ± 0.05‰ in summer to -0.08 ± 0.05‰ in winter. The observed seasonal variation is caused by a strong pore-gas driven soil efflux caused by photoreduction in summer, which weakens significantly in winter. The annual Hg gross deposition is 42 ± 33 μg m yr, and the corresponding Hg evasion from the forest floor is 50 ± 41 μg m yr. The results of this study, although still with uncertainty, offer new insights into the complexity of the air-surface exchange of Hg over the forest land for model implementation in future global assessments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.1c02744DOI Listing
September 2021

Polyoxometalate Interlayered Zinc-Metallophthalocyanine Molecular Layer Sandwich as Photocoupled Electrocatalytic CO Reduction Catalyst.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 Sep 24;143(34):13721-13730. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

Key Lab of Organic Optoelectronics and Molecular Engineering, Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China.

Developing efficient and robust heterogeneous metallophthalocyanine electrocatalysts for CO reduction remains a challenge. Here, a general synthetic method of zinc-metallophthalocyanine (MPc) molecular layer/polyoxometalate (POM) sandwich lamellar material is developed, and thus improved performance of electrocatalytic and photocoupled electrocatalytic CO reduction is achieved. The incorporation of POM could prevent the packing of MPc molecular layers from aggregation, which would be favorable to the exposure of active sites. The molecular layer sandwich catalyst presents superior CO reduction activity, delivering the highest CO Faradaic efficiency (FE) of 96.1% at -0.7 V vs RHE in dark field. Under light irradiation, over 93% FE is achieved in a broad potential range from -0.6 to -0.9 V vs RHE with a maximum of 96.2%, and the carbon monoxide turnover frequency could exceed 2060 h. Photoelectrochemical tests and luminescence characterizations reveal the molecular layer is beneficial for carrier separation during light irradiation; density functional theory calculations and electron paramagnetic resonance indicated a 2-fold enhancement of the external light field on the catalytic performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.1c05580DOI Listing
September 2021

Recent Developments About the Pathogenesis of Dry Eye Disease: Based on Immune Inflammatory Mechanisms.

Front Pharmacol 2021 5;12:732887. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

Department of Ophthalmology, The Third People's Hospital of Dalian, Non-Directly Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian, China.

Dry eye disease is a common and frequently occurring ophthalmology with complex and diverse causes, and its incidence is on the upward trend. The pathogenesis of DED is still completely clear. However, the immune response based on inflammation has been recognized as the core basis of this disease. In this review, we will systematically review the previous research on the treatment of DED in immune inflammation, analyze the latest views and research hotspots, and provide reference for the prevention and treatment of DED.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.732887DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8375318PMC
August 2021

[Application Effect of Four Typical Submerged Macrophytes on Removing Cadmium from Polluted Sediment].

Huan Jing Ke Xue 2021 Sep;42(9):4311-4318

College of Environment, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China.

In this study, four typical submerged macrophytes, namely , , , and , were tested for their chlorophyll content and antioxidant enzyme activity, to analyze their cadmium tolerance. The biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) and plant transport factor (TF) were utilized to understand the accumulation capacity of the plants. Finally, the distribution of cadmium in submerged macrophytes was revealed through phytohistochemical methods, to provide theoretical support for the practical application of submerged macrophytes. The results showed that three of the plants, excluding , exhibited varying tolerances to cadmium pollution in sediments, among which the tolerance of and were the strongest. had the strongest accumulation capacity (BSAF was 2.32) at relatively low pollution levels (≤20 mg·kg). In this study, because of its weak root system, the BSAF of was less than 1.0, indicating that macrophyte roots play an important role in phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated sediments. Comparing the TF of different plants, it can be found that the roots of had the strongest above-ground cadmium transport capacity, while mainly accumulated cadmium in its roots. At the same time, when the cadmium concentration was 50 mg·kg, cadmium was found to be evenly distributed in the stem organelles of , in contrast to the other plants. Based on the cadmium tolerance and accumulation mechanism of the plants, and in consideration of real-world factors, and were selected as ideal plants for repairing cadmium-containing sediments. Meanwhile, based on the different transport capabilities of plants, it is recommended that only the above-ground part of should be removed, while should be uprooted regularly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13227/j.hjkx.202012300DOI Listing
September 2021

The C2H2-type zinc finger transcription factor MdZAT10 negatively regulates drought tolerance in apple.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2021 Oct 10;167:390-399. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

National Key Laboratory of Crop Biology, Shandong Collaborative Innovation Center of Fruit & Vegetable Quality and Efficient Production, College of Horticulture Science and Engineering, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai-An, Shandong, 271018, China. Electronic address:

Various abiotic stressors, particularly drought stress, affect plant growth and yield. Zinc finger proteins play an important role in plant abiotic stress tolerance. Here, we isolated the apple MdZAT10 gene, a C2H2-type zinc finger protein, which is a homolog of Arabidopsis STZ/ZAT10. MdZAT10 was localized to the nucleus and highly expressed in leaves and fruit. Promoter analysis showed that MdZAT10 contained several response elements and the transcription level of MdZAT10 was induced by abiotic stress and hormone treatments. MdZAT10 was responsive to drought treatment both at the transcriptional and post-translational levels. MdZAT10-overexpressing apple calli decreased the expression level of MdAPX2 and increased sensitivity to PEG 6000 treatment. Moreover, ectopically expressed MdZAT10 in Arabidopsis reduced the tolerance to drought stress, and exhibited higher water loss, higher malondialdehyde (MDA) content and higher reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation under drought stress. In addition, MdZAT10 reduced the sensitivity to abscisic acid in apple. Ectopically expressed MdZAT10 in Arabidopsis promoted seed germination and seedling growth. These results indicate that MdZAT10 plays a negative regulator in the drought resistance, which can provide theoretical basis for further molecular mechanism research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2021.08.014DOI Listing
October 2021

UBE2D3 contributes to myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury by regulating autophagy in dependence of p62/SQSTM1.

Cell Signal 2021 Nov 12;87:110118. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

Technology Transfer Center, Kunming Medical University, Kunming 650500, China. Electronic address:

The impairment of autophagic flux has been widely recognized in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, but its underlying mechanism contributing to impaired autophagic flux is poorly understood. As celluar major degradation systems, autophagy and ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) participate in the multitudinous progression of disease by interactive relationship. Especially UBE2D3, one of the ubiquitin-binding enzyme E2 family, is closely related to the regulation impairment of autophagic flux under I/R in our study. Therefore, this study aims to further explore the regulatory mechanism of UBE2D3 in I/R induced autophagy. We determined interference with UBE2D3 alleviated injury of myocardial cells both in vivo and in vitro. Conversely, when inhibiting proteasome function by injecting MG-132, myocardial infarct size of rats became increasingly enhanced, along with the high expression levels of LDH and CK-MB in serum, compared with myocardial I/R injury without treatment of MG-132. This had been caused by UBE2D3 promoting p62/SQSTM1(p62) ubiquitination(Ub), which lead to worsen the impairment of autophagic flux induced by myocardial I/R injury. In addition, UBE2D3 could also participate in the regulation of autophagy by negatively regulating mTOR. But more surprisingly, this mechanism was independent of the known mTOR-beclin1 pathway. These results suggested that in myocardial I/R injury, UBE2D3 promoted p62 ubiquitination to aggravate the impairment of autophagic flux. Moreover, mTOR was also involved in its regulation of autophagic flux in a way escaped from beclin1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cellsig.2021.110118DOI Listing
November 2021

Development and validation of a deep learning system to classify aetiology and predict anatomical outcomes of macular hole.

Br J Ophthalmol 2021 Aug 4. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Guangdong Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, Guangdong Provincial People's Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, China

Aims: To develop a deep learning (DL) model for automatic classification of macular hole (MH) aetiology (idiopathic or secondary), and a multimodal deep fusion network (MDFN) model for reliable prediction of MH status (closed or open) at 1 month after vitrectomy and internal limiting membrane peeling (VILMP).

Methods: In this multicentre retrospective cohort study, a total of 330 MH eyes with 1082 optical coherence tomography (OCT) images and 3300 clinical data enrolled from four ophthalmic centres were used to train, validate and externally test the DL and MDFN models. 266 eyes from three centres were randomly split by eye-level into a training set (80%) and a validation set (20%). In the external testing dataset, 64 eyes were included from the remaining centre. All eyes underwent macular OCT scanning at baseline and 1 month after VILMP. The area under the receiver operated characteristic curve (AUC), accuracy, specificity and sensitivity were used to evaluate the performance of the models.

Results: In the external testing set, the AUC, accuracy, specificity and sensitivity of the MH aetiology classification model were 0.965, 0.950, 0.870 and 0.938, respectively; the AUC, accuracy, specificity and sensitivity of the postoperative MH status prediction model were 0.904, 0.825, 0.977 and 0.766, respectively; the AUC, accuracy, specificity and sensitivity of the postoperative idiopathic MH status prediction model were 0.947, 0.875, 0.815 and 0.979, respectively.

Conclusion: Our DL-based models can accurately classify the MH aetiology and predict the MH status after VILMP. These models would help ophthalmologists in diagnosis and surgical planning of MH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjophthalmol-2021-318844DOI Listing
August 2021

Anthropogenic disturbances on antibiotic resistome along the Yarlung Tsangpo River on the Tibetan Plateau: Ecological dissemination mechanisms of antibiotic resistance genes to bacterial pathogens.

Water Res 2021 Sep 20;202:117447. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resource Development on Shallow Lakes, Ministry of Education, College of Environment, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China.

Human activities can accelerate the antibiotic resistome prevalence and pose threats to ecological safety and public health globally. However, antibiotic resistance gene (ARG) mobility and dissemination into bacterial pathogens under anthropogenic disturbances are still poorly understood. Here, we used a metagenomic approach to profile the biogeography of ARGs and pathogenic antibiotic resistant bacteria (PARB) under anthropogenic disturbances along the Yarlung Tsangpo River. Results showed the ARGs was dominated by bacA gene along the Yarlung Tsangpo River on the Tibetan Plateau. The ARG composition was differently impacted by rapid urbanization and dam construction, which urbanization could promote ARGs resistant to sulfonamide and tetracycline, whereas dam construction could elevate the resistance to chloramphenicol and aminoglycoside. Land use pattern was identified as a critical factor influencing ARG composition under anthropogenic disturbances, as it could directly reflect the land degradation level and indicate the inputs of ARG-selective chemicals of different human activities. Moreover, despite of the lack of variation in ARG relative abundance, PARB were highly promoted by anthropogenic activities, indicating increasing ARG dissemination to pathogen. We found that human-impacted environments harbored high proportion of mobile genetic elements (MGEs), and the MGE carrying ARGs also increased under anthropogenic disturbances in the pathogenic hosts, which confirmed that anthropogenic activities could promote ARG horizontal gene transfer. Furthermore, anthropogenic activities could influence PARB assembly processes. Basically, stochastic processes dominated PARB assembly along the river, and with increasing level of anthropogenic activities, these processes shifted from undominated stochastic processes to dispersal limitation. In summary, this study provides useful strategies in watershed resistome management and reduction of ARG dissemination to pathogens, which should consider the mode and intensity of human activity and its potential influence on horizontal gene transfer and assembly processes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2021.117447DOI Listing
September 2021
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