Publications by authors named "Xun Hu"

245 Publications

Production of methyl levulinate from cellulose over cobalt disulfide: The importance of the crystal facet (111).

Bioresour Technol 2021 Nov 27:126436. Epub 2021 Nov 27.

Joint International Research Laboratory of Biomass Energy and Materials, Co-Innovation Center of Efficient Processing and Utilization of Forest Resources, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210037, China.

The conversion of cellulose to platform chemicals has attracted much attention because of its renewability. This work proposed an earth-abundant cobalt disulfide as a heterogeneous catalyst for methyl levulinate production from cellulose. The highest yield of methyl levulinate reached 61 mol% under the tested conditions of 200 °C, 2 MPa initial pressure, 0.45 catalyst/cellulose mass ratio, and 3 h reaction time. The XRD and TEM analyses demonstrated the crystal facet (111) of cobalt disulfide as a robust active site, which was in good agreement with the highest acidity of the crystal facet (111) calculated by the work functions. The XPS characterization showed that the main chemical valence of cobalt disulfide responsible for the methyl levulinate production was the surface Co species. This study is valuable for the development of a recoverable catalyst for the cellulose to methyl levulinate process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.126436DOI Listing
November 2021

LINC00839/miR-519d-3p/JMJD6 axis modulated cell viability, apoptosis, migration and invasiveness of lung cancer cells.

Folia Histochem Cytobiol 2021 Nov 4. Epub 2021 Nov 4.

The Second Affiliated Hospital of Jiaxing University, Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Jiaxing, China.

Introduction: Long noncoding RNAs are associated with progressions of lung cancer. LINC00839 has been dysregulated in osteosarcoma, breast cancer and lung cancer (LC). As an upregulated lncRNA, the roles of LINC00839 in lung cancer remain unclear.

Material And Methods: RNA expressions of LINC00839, miR-519d-3p and JMJD6 were assessed using RT-qPCR and JMJD6 protein expressions were analyzed through Western blot. Meanwhile, viabilities of A549 and H460 LC cells transfected by siNC, siLINC00839, oeNC, oeLINC00839, NC mimics, miR-519d-3p mimics and oeLINC00839 with siJMJD6 were examined with CCK-8 assay while apoptosis was examined using flow cytometry. Meanwhile, migration and invasiveness were analyzed using transwell assays. Bindings between LINC00839 and miR-519d-3p, miR-519d-3p and JMJD6 were measured by luciferase reporter assays.

Results: LINC00839 was upregulated in LC cells and its knockdown resulted in reduced cell viability, migratory ability and invasion but increased cell apoptosis. MiR-519d-3p was the target gene of LINC00839 and its expression was reduced by LINC00839 overexpression. JMJD6 was directly targeted and suppressed at the level of mRNA and protein expression by miR-519d-3p. Moreover, miR-519d-3p overexpression resulted in low LC cell viability, migration, invasiveness but a high apoptosis rate. Furthermore, mRNA and protein expressions of JMJD6 were upregulated by LINC00839 overexpression. LINC00839 competitively sponged miR-519d-3p, increasing JMJD6 expression, LC cell viability, invasion, migratory abilities and decreasing apoptosis rates in A549 and H460 lung cancer cells, which were hindered after JMJD6 knockdown.

Conclusions: LINC00839/miR-519d-3p/JMJD6 axis mediated cell viability, apoptosis, and migration and invasiveness of lung cancer cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/FHC.a2021.0022DOI Listing
November 2021

MicroRNA-106a-5p alleviated the resistance of cisplatin in lung cancer cells by targeting Jumonji domain containing 6.

Transpl Immunol 2021 Dec 2;69:101478. Epub 2021 Oct 2.

The Second Affiliated Hospital of Jiaxing University, Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, No. 1518, north Huancheng Road Nanhu District, Jiaxing, Zhejiang Province 314000, PR China. Electronic address:

Background: Cisplatin (DDP) is used for lung cancer therapy. MicroRNAs, small non-coding RNAs, may contribute to tumorigenesis as well as to drug resistance. We examined regulatory functions of miR-106a-5p in DDP-resistant lung cancer cells.

Methods: Differentially expressed miRNAs were provided by Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) datasets and RT-qPCR examined RNA levels of miR-106a-5p and Jumonji domain-containing protein 6 (JMJD6), an enzyme causing lysine hydroxylation and arginine demethylation. Bindings were determined by luciferase reporter assay. Additionally, the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC) of DDP was determined through Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) after treated by DDP (0, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50 and 75 μM) and apoptosis rates were analyzed using flow cytometry. Besides that, migratory ability and invasiveness were examined by transwell. Western blot was for measuring protein levels of Bcl-2, Bax in apoptosis and E-cadherin, N-cadherin in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT).

Results: The IC value of DDP-resistant A549 (A549/DDP) cells was higher, so were migration, invasion and N-cadherin in EMT while the apoptosis and E-cadherin in EMT were lower versus the parental A549 cells (no DDP resistance). MiR-106a-5p was low expressed in A549/DDP cells while its overexpression caused decreased migration, invasiveness and EMT but promoted apoptosis. JMJD6 was directly targeted and negatively regulated by miR-106a-5p. Inhibited JMJD6 decreased migratory ability, invasion and EMT but improved apoptosis. Moreover, knockdown of miR-106a-5p induced high level of JMJD6, migration, invasiveness and EMT but low apoptosis rates, which were restrained by JMJD6 suppression.

Conclusion: MiR-106a-5p/JMJD6 axis accelerated cell apoptosis and suppressed invasiveness, migration and EMT in A549/DDP cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trim.2021.101478DOI Listing
December 2021

Exploration of the HO Oxidation Process and Characteristic Evaluation of Humic Acids from Two Typical Lignites.

ACS Omega 2021 Sep 9;6(37):24051-24061. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, Yunnan 650500, China.

To study the effect of HO on the content and properties of humic acids (HAs) in lignites, the experimental conditions including oxidation time, HO concentration, and the solid-liquid ratio were investigated. Under the optimum oxidation conditions, the contents of HAs of YL and HB lignite were 45.4 and 40.9%, respectively. The HAs extracted from oxidized and raw lignites were characterized and compared. The results showed that the HAs extracted from oxidized lignites contain more total acidic groups, carboxyl groups, and aliphatic carbon than that in HAs extracted from raw lignites, and their hydrophilic-hydrophobic index value is higher and thermooxidative stability is better than those in HAs extracted from raw lignites. In addition, the composition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and fluorophore types in HAs extracted from oxidized lignites are similar to the HAs extracted from raw lignites. The results indicated that the oxidation operation can increase the content of HAs in lignites, and simultaneously increase the content of oxygen-containing functional groups and biological activity of HAs, which provided a reference for the subsequent application of HAs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.1c03257DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8459424PMC
September 2021

In situ characterization of functional groups of biochar in pyrolysis of cellulose.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Dec 31;799:149354. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

School of Material Science and Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022, PR China. Electronic address:

Heating rate, an important parameter in pyrolysis, not only impacts distribution of pyrolysis products, but also affects evolution of functionality of biochar and further application of the biochar. In this study, an in situ Diffuse Reflection Infrared Fourier Transform Spectra (DRIFTS) technique was used to probe transformation of functional groups of the biochar derived from pyrolysis of cellulose at varied heating rate of 5, 10, 15 and 20 °C/min, aiming to draw an overall picture for the change of functional groups of the biochar versus the heating rate and pyrolysis temperature. The results showed the abundance of -OH, CH and CO experienced a maximum in 410 to 450 °C, depending on the specific heating rates, and then decreased with further increasing temperature via the conversion routes including dehydration, dehydrogenation and cracking. This led to carbonization of the biochar with monotonous increase of abundance of =C-H and CC functionality. Formation of the =C-H had a very close correlation with the removal of -C-H and -OH, especially the -C-H. Cracking of CO was one of the decisive factors for formation of CC. Nevertheless, cracking of C-O-C was much more difficult to be removed than that of CO and -OH, deterring the carbonization and leading to the retainment oxygen in the biochar.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.149354DOI Listing
December 2021

Exosomal miR-218-5p/miR-363-3p from Endothelial Progenitor Cells Ameliorate Myocardial Infarction by Targeting the p53/JMY Signaling Pathway.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 16;2021:5529430. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Key Laboratory on Assisted Circulation, Ministry of Health, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510080, China.

Accumulating evidence has shown that endothelial progenitor cell-derived exosomes (EPC-Exos) can ameliorate myocardial fibrosis. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of EPC-Exos-derived microRNAs (miRNAs) on myocardial infarction (MI). A miRNA-Seq dataset of miRNAs differentially expressed between EPCs and exosomes was collected. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to validate the miRNA expression indicated by miRNA-Seq. Immunofluorescence, cell proliferation, and angiogenesis assays were employed to investigate the effects of miRNAs on cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) . Interactions between miRNAs and their respective targets were examined via immunoblotting, qRT-PCR, and luciferase reporter assays. An MI rat model was constructed, and various staining and immunohistochemical assays were performed to explore the mechanisms underlying the miRNA-mediated effects on MI. miR-363-3p and miR-218-5p were enriched in EPC-Exos, and miR-218-5p and miR-363-3p mimic or inhibitor enhanced or suppressed CF proliferation and angiogenesis, respectively. miR-218-5p and miR-363-3p regulated p53 and junction-mediating and regulatory protein (JMY) by binding to the promoter region of p53 and the 3' untranslated region of JMY. Additionally, treatment of CFs with Exo-miR-218-5p or Exo-miR-363-3p upregulated p53 and downregulated JMY expression, promoted mesenchymal-endothelial transition, and inhibited myocardial fibrosis. Administration of exosomes containing miR-218-5p mimic or miR-363-3p mimic ameliorated left coronary artery ligation-induced MI and restored myocardial tissue integrity in the MI model rats. In summary, these results show that the protective ability of EPC-Exos against MI was mediated by the shuttled miR-218-5p or miR-363-3p via targeting of the p53/JMY signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/5529430DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8302385PMC
July 2021

Mitochondrial malic enzyme 2 promotes breast cancer metastasis via stabilizing HIF-1α under hypoxia.

Chin J Cancer Res 2021 Jun;33(3):308-322

Cancer Institute (Key Laboratory for Cancer Intervention and Prevention, China National Ministry of Education, Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Medical Sciences), The Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou 310000, China.

Objective: α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) is the substrate to hydroxylate collagen and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), which are important for cancer metastasis. Previous studies have shown that the upregulation of collagen prolyl 4-hydroxylase in breast cancer cells stabilizes the expression of HIF-1α by depleting α-KG levels. We hypothesized that mitochondrial malic enzyme 2 (ME2) might also affect HIF-1α expression via modulating α-KG levels in breast cancer cells.

Methods: We evaluated ME2 protein expression in 100 breast cancer patients using immunohistochemistry and correlated with clinicopathological indicators. The effect of ME2 knockout on cancer metastasis was evaluated using an orthotopic breast cancer model. The effect of ME2 knockout or knockdown on the levels of α-KG and HIF-1α proteins in breast cancer cell lines was determined both and .

Results: ME2 was found to be upregulated in the human breast cancerous tissues compared with the matched precancerous tissues (P<0.001). The elevated expression of ME2 was associated with a poor prognosis (P=0.019). ME2 upregulation was also related to lymph node metastasis (P=0.016), pathological staging (P=0.033), and vascular cancer embolus (P=0.014). Also, ME2 knockout significantly inhibited lung metastasis. In the tumors formed by ME2 knockout cells, the levels of α-KG were significantly increased and collagen hydroxylation level did not change significantly but HIF-1α protein expression was significantly decreased, compared to the control samples. In cell culture, cells with ME2 knockout or knockdown demonstrated significantly higher α-KG levels but significantly lower HIF-1α protein expression than control cells under hypoxia. Exogenous malate and α-KG exerted similar effect on HIF-1α in breast cancer cells to ME2 knockout or knockdown. Additionally, treatment with malate significantly decreased 4T1 breast cancer lung metastasis. ME2 expression was associated with HIF-1α levels in human breast cancer samples (P=0.008).

Conclusions: Our results provide evidence that upregulation of ME2 is associated with a poor prognosis of breast cancer patients and propose a mechanistic understanding of a link between ME2 and breast cancer metastasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21147/j.issn.1000-9604.2021.03.03DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8286887PMC
June 2021

IL-8 correlates with reduced baseline femoral neck bone mineral density in adults with cystic fibrosis: a single center retrospective study.

Sci Rep 2021 07 28;11(1):15405. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Division of Respiratory Medicine, St. Paul's Hospital, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a multi-system disease that is characterized by lung disease due to recurrent airway infection and inflammation. Endocrine complications, such as CF bone disease (CFBD), are increasingly identified as patients are living longer. The cause of CFBD is multifactorial with chronic systemic inflammation theorized to be a contributing factor. Thus, we attempted to identify inflammatory biomarkers that are associated with CFBD. We conducted a retrospective observational study of 56 adult patients with CF with an average percentage predictive forced expiratory volume in one second (ppFEV) of 73.7% (standard deviation: 30.0) who underwent baseline serum analysis for osteoprotegerin (OPG) and pro-inflammatory biomarkers (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α), and had repeated dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans separated by at least 2 years to examine correlations between serum biomarkers and bone mineral density (BMD) measurements. Univariate linear regression model analysis demonstrated that serum IL-1β and IL-8, but not other pro-inflammatory markers, were negatively correlated with baseline BMD results. However, after accounting for confounding variables, only the relationship between IL-8 and left femoral neck BMD remained statistically significant. Additionally, IL-8 level was associated with BMD decline over time. These results suggest that IL-8 might play a unique role in the pathophysiology of CFBD relative to other pro-inflammatory cytokines but further study is warranted before firm conclusions can be made.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-94883-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8319414PMC
July 2021

Lactate and glutamine support NADPH generation in cancer cells under glucose deprived conditions.

Redox Biol 2021 10 11;46:102065. Epub 2021 Jul 11.

Cancer Institute (Key Laboratory for Cancer Intervention and Prevention, China National Ministry of Education, Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Medical Sciences), The Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, 310009, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China. Electronic address:

Although glucose, through pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), is the main source to generate NADPH, solid tumors are often deprived of glucose, hence alternative metabolic pathways to maintain NADPH homeostasis in cancer cells are required. Here, we report that lactate and glutamine support NADPH production via isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and malic enzyme 1 (ME1), respectively, under glucose-deprived conditions. Isotopic tracing demonstrates that lactate participates in the formation of isocitrate. Malate derived from glutamine in mitochondria shuttles to cytosol to produce NADPH. In cells cultured in the absence of glucose, knockout of IDH1 and ME1 decreases NADPH/NADP and GSH/GSSG, increases ROS level and facilitates cell necrosis. In 4T1 murine breast tumors, knockout of ME1 retards tumor growth in vivo, with combined ME1/IDH1 knockout more strongly suppressing tumor growth. Our findings reveal two alternative NADPH-producing pathways that cancer cells use to resist glucose starvation, reflecting the metabolic plasticity and flexibility of cancer cells adapting to nutrition stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.redox.2021.102065DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8321918PMC
October 2021

Histone demethylase KDM5A enhances cell proliferation, induces EMT in lung adenocarcinoma cells, and have a strong causal association with paclitaxel resistance.

Acta Biochim Pol 2021 Jul;68(4):593-602

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Jiaxing Second Hospital, Jiaxing-Zhejiang, China, 314000.

Recent reports suggest that histone demethylase KDM5A emerges as a new player in the development of drug resistance and thus increases the challenges of chemotherapy. Here, we explore the role of KDM5A in cell proliferation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)and its causal association with paclitaxel resistance in lung adenocarcinoma. Paclitaxel-resistant lung adenocarcinoma PTX-Calu-3 cells showed significantly higher IC50 value (7±0.176 µM) upon paclitaxel treatment than lung adenocarcinoma SK-LI-1 (3.6±0.005 nM), Calu-3 (4.3±0.015 nM), and A549 (4.5±0.106 nM) cells. We found that expression of KDM5A and P-glycoprotein (P-gp), which plays a critical role in the development of paclitaxel resistance, were significantly higher in PTX-Calu-3 cells compared to SK-LI-1, Calu-3, and A549 cells.. We observed a significant increase in the expression of mesenchymal markers N-cadherin and vimentin, and a concomitant decrease in expression of E-cadherin and α-catenin in PTX-Calu-3 compared to SK-LI-1, Calu-3, and A549 lung cancer cell lines. Transwell Boyden chamber and wound healing assays further demonstrated that a significantly higher number of PTX-Calu-3 cells were invasive and motile compared to SK-LI-1, Calu-3, and A549 cells, thus supporting the role of KDM5A in metastasis-associated processes. Additionally, a significantly higher expression of KDM5A was observed in lung adenocarcinoma patients' samples compared with adjacent normal tissues as well as in PTX-Calu-3 cells compared toSK-LI-1, Calu-3, and A549 cells, as shown both with histochemistry and real time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In summary, these results suggest that KDM5A plays a key role in lung adenocarcinoma by promoting proliferation, EMT, and drug resistance to paclitaxel treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18388/abp.2020_5437DOI Listing
July 2021

Lactate dehydrogenases amplify reactive oxygen species in cancer cells in response to oxidative stimuli.

Signal Transduct Target Ther 2021 Jun 28;6(1):242. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Cancer Institute (Key Laboratory for Cancer Intervention and Prevention, China National Ministry of Education, Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Medical Sciences), The Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.

Previous studies demonstrated that superoxide could initiate and amplify LDH-catalyzed hydrogen peroxide production in aqueous phase, but its physiological relevance is unknown. Here we showed that LDHA and LDHB both exhibited hydrogen peroxide-producing activity, which was significantly enhanced by the superoxide generated from the isolated mitochondria from HeLa cells and patients' cholangiocarcinoma specimen. After LDHA or LDHB were knocked out, hydrogen peroxide produced by Hela or 4T1 cancer cells were significantly reduced. Re-expression of LDHA in LDHA-knockout HeLa cells partially restored hydrogen peroxide production. In HeLa and 4T1 cells, LDHA or LDHB knockout or LDH inhibitor FX11 significantly decreased ROS induction by modulators of the mitochondrial electron transfer chain (antimycin, oligomycin, rotenone), hypoxia, and pharmacological ROS inducers piperlogumine (PL) and phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC). Moreover, the tumors formed by LDHA or LDHB knockout HeLa or 4T1 cells exhibited a significantly less oxidative state than those formed by control cells. Collectively, we provide a mechanistic understanding of a link between LDH and cellular hydrogen peroxide production or oxidative stress in cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41392-021-00595-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8236487PMC
June 2021

Co-hydrothermal carbonization of swine manure and cellulose: Influence of mutual interaction of intermediates on properties of the products.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Oct 29;791:148134. Epub 2021 May 29.

School of Material Science and Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022, China. Electronic address:

Co-hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of livestock manure and biomass might improve the fuel properties of the hydrochar due to the high reactivity of the biomass-derived intermediates with the abundant oxygen-containing functionalities. However, the complicated compositions make it difficult to explicit the specific roles of the individual components of biomass played in the co-HTC process. In this study, cellulose was used for co-HTC with swine manure to investigate the influence on the properties of the hydrochar. The yield of hydrochar obtained from co-HTC reduced gradually with the cellulose proportion increased, and the solid yield was lower than the theoretical value. This was because the cellulose-derived intermediates favored the stability of the fragments from hydrolysis of swine manure. The increased temperature resulted in the reduction of the hydrochar yield whereas the prolonged time enhanced the formation of solid product. The interaction of the co-HTC intermediates facilitated the formation of O-containing species, thus making the solid more oxygen- and hydrogen-rich with a higher volatility. In addition, the co-HTC affected the evolution of functionalities like -OH and CO during the thermal treatment of the hydrochar and altered its morphology by stuffing the pores from swine manure-derived solid with the microspheres from HTC of cellulose. The interaction of the varied intermediates also impacted the formation of amines, ketones, carboxylic acids, esters, aromatics and the polymeric products in distinct ways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.148134DOI Listing
October 2021

A Zeolitic-Imidazole Framework-Derived Trifunctional Electrocatalyst for Hydrazine Fuel Cells.

ACS Nano 2021 Jun 9;15(6):10286-10295. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory of Material Chemistry for Energy Conversion and Storage (Ministry of Education), Hubei Key Laboratory of Material Chemistry and Service Failure, Hubei Engineering Research Center for Biomaterials and Medical Protective Materials, Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430074, China.

Hydrazine fuel cells are promising sustainable power sources. However, the high price and limited reserves of noble metal catalysts that promote the sluggish cathodic and anodic electrochemical reactions hinder their practical applications. Reflecting the enhanced diffusion and improved kinetics of nanostructured non-noble metal electrocatalysts, we report an efficient zeolitic-imidazole framework-derived trifunctional electrocatalyst for hydrazine oxidation, oxygen, and hydrogen peroxide reduction. Experimental results and theoretical calculations corroborate that the nanocarbon architecture with abundant Co-N species enhances the electronic interaction and optimizes the energy barriers of anodic hydrazine oxidation and cathodic oxygen reduction. The resulting assembled hydrazine-oxygen fuel cell yields a cell voltage and power density of 0.74 V and 20.5 mW cm, respectively. Moreover, benefiting from the liquid-liquid diffusion, the hydrazine-hydrogen peroxide cell shows a boosted cell voltage and power density, corresponding to 1.68 V and 41.0 mW cm. This work offers a highly active non-noble metal multifunctional electrocatalyst with a pioneering diffusion philosophy in the liquid electrochemical cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.1c02440DOI Listing
June 2021

Structural Characterization and Molecular Simulation of Baoqing Lignite.

ACS Omega 2021 Apr 6;6(15):10281-10287. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, Yunnan 650500, China.

The molecular structure of Baoqing lignite was analyzed by ultimate analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results revealed that the aromaticity of Baoqing lignite is 27.64%, and the aromatic structure mainly contains benzene and naphthalene. The aliphatic structure consists of alkyl side chains and cycloalkyl. Oxygen atoms are present in phenol, ether, carbonyl, and carboxyl groups; nitrogen atoms are chiefly in pyridine and pyrrole; sulfur atoms mainly exist in sulfoxide sulfur. The molecular structure model of Baoqing lignite was constructed based on experimental data, and the molecular formula is CHONS. The molecular configuration was optimized by adopting the M06-2X basis set in the framework of density functional theory. Moreover, the simulated FTIR spectrum was in good agreement with the experimental spectra, proving the accuracy of the molecular structure. The molecular model of Baoqing lignite contains a majority of aliphatic structures and aromatic rings with a poor condensation degree. Moreover, the aromatic layers irregularly arrange in space.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.1c00627DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8153762PMC
April 2021

Hydrogen-bonded frameworks crystals-assisted synthesis of flower-like carbon materials with penetrable meso/macropores from heavy fraction of bio-oil for Zn-ion hybrid supercapacitors.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Oct 12;600:681-690. Epub 2021 May 12.

School of Material Science and Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022, PR China. Electronic address:

The application of biomass-based carbon materials in electrode materials are usually subject to their deficient adsorption sites as well as sluggish diffusion of electrolyte ions. Herein, flower-like carbons are obtained from the heavy fraction of bio-oil with the auxiliary of Hydrogen-bonded frameworks (HOFs) crystals. During the co-carbonization of the both, the HOFs crystals are removed on account of its poor stability, which directs the formation of flower-like morphology and generates the penetrable meso/macropores across petal-like carbon nanosheets. In addition, the pyrolysis gases serve as the agents for activation to enrich the active sites without the further activation. The degree of graphitization and the contents of pyridine nitrogen for carbon materials could be flexibly adjusted with the contents of HOFs. Owing to the beneficial 3D flower-like structure, high specific surface area (1076 m/g), large pore volume (2.59 cm/g), and rational N species, the assembled Zn//BH-4 hybrid supercapacitor reaches a superior energy density of 117.5 Wh/kg at 890 W/kg and maintains 60.7 Wh/kg even at 16.2 kW/kg.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2021.05.042DOI Listing
October 2021

Size-Controlled Synthesis of Pd Nanocatalysts on Defect-Engineered CeO for CO Hydrogenation.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jun 19;13(21):24957-24965. Epub 2021 May 19.

Center for Applied Chemical Research, Frontier Institute of Science and Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, China.

The size effects of metal catalysts have been widely investigated to optimize their catalytic activity and selectivity. However, the size-controllable synthesis of uniform supported metal nanoparticles without surfactants and/or additives remains a great challenge. Herein, we developed a green, surfactant-free, and universal strategy to tailor the sizes of uniform Pd nanoparticles on metal oxides by an electroless chemical deposition method defect engineering of supports. The nucleation and growth mechanism suggest a strong electrostatic interaction between the Pd precursor and low-defective CeO and a weak reducing capacity for low-defective CeO, resulting in small Pd nanoparticles. Conversely, large Pd nanoparticles were formed on a highly defective CeO surface. Combined with various and characterizations, a higher intrinsic activity of Pd for the CO-to-CO hydrogenation was found on large Pd nanoparticles with higher electron density owing to their stronger H dissociation ability and H-spillover effects, as well as the larger number of oxygen vacancies generated for CO activation under hydrogenation conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c05722DOI Listing
June 2021

Co-hydrothermal carbonization of swine and chicken manure: Influence of cross-interaction on hydrochar and liquid characteristics.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Sep 27;786:147381. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Korea Biochar Research Center, APRU Sustainable Waste Management Program & Division of Environmental Science and Ecological Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Swine and chicken manures are abundant solid wastes that can be converted into carbonaceous materials through hydrothermal carbonization (HTC). Owing to their unique biochemical compositions, co-HTC of these two types of manures may have significant implications for the generated products. We investigated the co-HTC of swine manure and chicken manure to understand the influence of the interaction between contrasting manures on the properties of the derived products. The results indicated that co-HTC treatment enhanced the formation of solid product and improved the C and N contents, heating value, and energy yield of the resulting hydrochar. Regarding the ignition temperature and comprehensive combustion index, the combustion properties of the hydrochar were enhanced owing to the mutual effect of the HTC intermediates. Additionally, the interaction of the intermediates significantly impacted the transfer of nitrogenous species and generation of organic acids and organic polymers with fused-ring structures. Therefore, co-HTC processing of animal manures could potentially provide a sustainable pathway for the conversion of animal waste into solid products with improved characteristics compared to those produced by treating the two feedstocks separately.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.147381DOI Listing
September 2021

Urban index and lifestyle risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in China: A cross-sectional study.

Sci Prog 2021 Jan-Mar;104(1):368504211003762

Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China.

China is at a stage of rapid urbanization over the past decades, and the association of urbanization with cardiovascular disease has been confirmed by previous studies. However, few studies assessed the association of urbanization with cardiovascular risk factors, especially in Chinese population. We conducted a cross-sectional, populational-based study, using data from China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) in 2009. The logistic regression was used to assess the association of urbanization measured by urban index with cardiovascular risk factors (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity, smoking, physical activity and fruits and vegetables consumption), varied with sex. The current study included 18,887 participants enrolled (mean age 39.8 ± 19.8 years; 52.2% female) who live in China. In regression model, the urban index was significantly associated with the variations of cardiovascular risk factors for male, including diabetes (OR 1.34, 95% CI: 1.22-1.48), hypercholesterolemia (OR 1.15, 95% CI: 1.09-1.22), never smoking (OR 0.92, 95% CI: 0.89-0.96), higher fruits and vegetables consumptions (OR 0.93, 95% CI: 0.87-0.99), higher body mass index (BMI) (OR 1.16, 95% CI: 1.10-1.22), and higher physical activity (OR 0.69, 95% CI: 0.66-0.73). Compared with the male, the associations of urban index with cardiovascular risk factors for female were similar, but not for BMI (OR 1.00, 95% CI: 0.96-1.05). The present finding emphasizes the changes of cardiovascular risk factors associated with urbanization in China, and indicated that close attention should be paid to the risk of hypercholesterolemia, diabetes and men's obesity in the process of urbanization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00368504211003762DOI Listing
March 2021

Large-scale molecular epidemiological analysis of AAV in a cancer patient population.

Oncogene 2021 Apr 29;40(17):3060-3071. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Horae Gene Therapy Center, University of Massachusetts, Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA.

Recombinant adeno-associated viruses (rAAVs) are well-established vectors for delivering therapeutic genes. However, previous reports have suggested that wild-type AAV is linked to hepatocellular carcinoma, raising concern with the safety of rAAVs. In addition, a recent long-term follow-up study in canines, which received rAAVs for factor VIII gene therapy, demonstrated vector integration into the genome of liver cells, reviving the uncertainty between AAV and cancer. To further explore this relationship, we performed large-scale molecular epidemiology of AAV in resected tumor samples and non-lesion tissues collected from 413 patients, reflecting nine carcinoma types: breast carcinoma, rectal cancer, pancreas carcinoma, brain tumor, hepatoid adenocarcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, gastric carcinoma, lung squamous, and adenocarcinoma. We found that over 80% of patients were AAV-positive among all nine types of carcinoma examined. Importantly, the AAV sequences detected in patient-matched tumor and adjacent non-lesion tissues showed no significant difference in incidence, abundance, and variation. In addition, no specific AAV sequences predominated in tumor samples. Our data shows that AAV genomes are equally abundant in tumors and adjacent normal tissues, but lack clonality. The finding critically adds to the epidemiological profile of AAV in humans, and provides insights that may assist rAAV-based clinical studies and gene therapy strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41388-021-01725-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8087635PMC
April 2021

A plasma metabolomics study suggests alteration of multiple metabolic pathways in patients with bipolar disorder.

Psychiatry Res 2021 05 18;299:113880. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Psychiatric Laboratory and Mental Health Center, the State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, China; Huaxi Brain Research Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, China. Electronic address:

Previous omics studies have greatly contributed to our knowledge of bipolar disorder. Metabolomics is a relatively new field of omics science that can provide complementary insight into data obtained from genomics, transcriptomics or proteomics analyses. In this study, we aimed to identify metabolic pathways associated with bipolar disorder. We performed a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based study to identify plasma metabolic profiles in patients with bipolar disorder (N = 91) and healthy controls (N = 92). Multivariate features selection by sparse partial least square-discriminant analysis combined with metabolite set enrichment analysis were used to identify metabolites and biological pathways that discriminate patients with bipolar disorder from healthy controls. The results showed that eighty metabolites in the plasma were identified to discriminate patients with bipolar disorder from healthy controls, and nine metabolic pathways, i.e., (1) glycine and serine metabolism, (2) glutamate metabolism, (3) arginine and proline metabolism, (4) tyrosine metabolism, (5) catecholamine biosynthesis, (6) purine metabolism, (7) amino sugar metabolism, (8) ammonia recycling, and (9) carnitine synthesis, were identified to be altered in bipolar disorder compared to healthy controls. We conclude that the 80 metabolites and nine metabolic pathways identified might serve as biomarkers to distinguish bipolar disorder patients from healthy controls.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2021.113880DOI Listing
May 2021

Fates of heavy organics of bio-oil in hydrotreatment: The key challenge in the way from biomass to biofuel.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 9;778:146321. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Faculty of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran. Electronic address:

Heavy organics in bio-oil generally refer to the sugar oligomers and lignin-derivatives. They are important fractions in bio-oil and their effective conversion in hydrotreatment determines carbon yield from biomass or bio-oil to biofuel. Fates of the heavy organics largely determine intrinsic reaction behaviors of bio-oil during hydrotreatment. The heavy organics in bio-oil have high tendency towards polymerization upon thermal treatment, which is one of the main precursors for coke formation and catalyst deactivation. Furthermore, the heavy organics have some other unique characteristics in hydrotreatment such as the steric hindrance for contacting active sites on surface of catalyst. How to effectively convert the heavy organics has been regarded as the bottle-neck issue in hydrotreatment of bio-oil and the key barrier in the roadmap from biomass to biofuels. Thus, this review particularly focuses on the progress in understanding reaction behaviors of the heavy organics in hydrotreatment of bio-oil, a central challenge to be resolved. The results indicated that coke formation from heavy organics in bio-oil remains main obstacle in hydrotreatment and further fundamental studies are required to develop suitable catalyst and process to stabilize the heavy organics in bio-oil. In particular, the mechanism for coke formation from the heavy species of varied chemical family should be clarified and corresponding measures should be developed to tackle high tendency of coking. Techno-economic feasibility should be considered in the first place in development of catalysts or process for tackling the heavy fractions of bio-oil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.146321DOI Listing
July 2021

Preparation of Ag Nanoclusters-Modified Non-Sintered Silica Ceramic-Like Nanosheet for Removing Dyes and Bacteria from Water.

Int J Nanomedicine 2021 9;16:895-904. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Jinzhou Medical University, Jinzhou, 121001, Liaoning, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Worldwide water contamination treatment and water security are essential for all living organisms. Among various water contaminants, dye, and bacteria pollution needs to be solved urgently.

Methods And Results: In this work, a ceramic sheet from monodisperse, porous silica nanospheres (SiO NSs) with an average diameter of 220 was prepared. The prepared SiO ceramic sheets were investigated as a "filtration" material in removing dyes (alcian blue, AB; and methylene blue, MB) and bacteria (). The obtained sheets had efficient adsorption efficiency of 98.72% (for AB) and 97.35% (for MB), and a high adsorption capacity for AB is 220 (mg/g), for MB is 176 (mg/g). Furthermore, these SiO ceramic sheets had a high recycling capability for removing dyes by calcination. Being modified by Ag nanoclusters, the ceramic sheets present a strong bactericidal function.

Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that the obtained SiO non-sintered ceramic sheets is rapid and efficient in the filtration of dyes and bacteria from polluted water.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S286406DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7881783PMC
March 2021

In Situ Electrochemical Fabrication of Ultrasmall Ru-Based Nanoparticles for Robust NH Oxidation.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Feb 12;13(7):8488-8496. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

School of Material Science and Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022, PR China.

Ultrasmall Ru nanoparticles is expected as a potential alternative to Pt for efficient hydrazine oxidation (HzOR). However, preparation of ultrasmall and well-distributed Ru nanoparticles usually suffered from the steps of modification of supports, coordination, reduction with strong reducing reagents (e.g., NaBH) or pyrolysis, imposing the complexity. Based on the self-reducibility of C-OH group and physical adsorption ability of commercial Ketjen black (KB), we developed an efficient, stable and robust Ru-based electrocatalyst (-Ru-KB) by coupling impregnation of KB in RuCl solution and simple in situ electrochemical activation strategy, which endowed the formation of ultrasmall and well-distributed Ru nanoparticles. Benefiting from an enhanced exposure of Ru sites and the faster mass transport, -Ru-KB achieved 63.4 and 3.9-fold enhancements of mass activity compared with Pt/C and Ru/C, respectively, accompanied by a ∼144 mV lower onset potential and faster catalytic kinetics than Pt/C. In the hydrazine fuel cell, the open-circuit voltage and maximal mass power density of -Ru-KB was 130 mV and ∼3.8-fold higher than those of Pt/C, respectively, together with the long-term stability. This work would provide a facile and sustainable approach for large-scale production of other robust metal (electro)catalysts with ultrasmall nanosize for various energy conversion and electrochemical organic synthesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c22700DOI Listing
February 2021

Determining the quantitative relationship between glycolysis and GAPDH in cancer cells exhibiting the Warburg effect.

J Biol Chem 2021 Jan-Jun;296:100369. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Cancer Institute (Key Laboratory for Cancer Intervention and Prevention, China National Ministry of Education, Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Medical Sciences), The Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Previous studies have identified GAPDH as a promising target for treating cancer and modulating immunity because its inhibition reduces glycolysis in cells (cancer cells and immune cells) with the Warburg effect, a modified form of cellular metabolism found in cancer cells. However, the quantitative relationship between GAPDH and the aerobic glycolysis remains unknown. Here, using siRNA-mediated knockdown of GAPDH expression and iodoacetate-dependent inhibition of enzyme activity, we examined the quantitative relationship between GAPDH activity and glycolysis rate. We found that glycolytic rates were unaffected by the reduction of GAPDH activity down to 19% ± 4.8% relative to untreated controls. However, further reduction of GAPDH activity below this level caused proportional reductions in the glycolysis rate. GAPDH knockdown or inhibition also simultaneously increased the concentration of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (GA3P, the substrate of GAPDH). This increased GA3P concentration countered the effect of GAPDH knockdown or inhibition and stabilized the glycolysis rate by promoting GAPDH activity. Mechanistically, the intracellular GA3P concentration is controlled by the Gibbs free energy of the reactions upstream of GAPDH. The thermodynamic state of the reactions along the glycolysis pathway was only affected when GAPDH activity was reduced below 19% ± 4.8%. Doing so moved the reactions catalyzed by GAPDH + PGK1 (phosphoglycerate kinase 1, the enzyme immediate downstream of GAPDH) away from the near-equilibrium state, revealing an important biochemical basis to interpret the rate control of glycolysis by GAPDH. Collectively, we resolved the numerical relationship between GAPDH and glycolysis in cancer cells with the Warburg effect and interpreted the underlying mechanism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbc.2021.100369DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7960551PMC
August 2021

Robust Anode-Supported Cells with Fast Oxygen Release Channels for Efficient and Stable CO Electrolysis at Ultrahigh Current Densities.

Small 2021 Feb 20;17(6):e2007211. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, College of Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing, 210009, China.

High-temperature electrolysis using solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs) provides a promising way for the storage of renewable energy into chemical fuels. During the past, nickel-based cathode-supported thin-film electrolyte configuration was widely adopted. However, such cells suffer from the serious challenge of anode delamination at high electrolysis currents due to enormous gaseous oxygen formation at the anode-electrolyte interface with insufficient adhesion caused by low sintering temperatures for ensuring high anode porosity and cathode pulverization because of potential nickel redox reaction. Here, the authors propose, fabricate, and test asymmetric thick anode-supported SOECs with firm anode-electrolyte interface and graded anode gas diffusion channel for realizing efficient and stable electrolysis at ultrahigh currents. Such a specially structured anode allows the co-sintering of anode support and electrolyte at high temperatures to form strong interface adhesion while suppressing anode sintering. The mixed oxygen-ion and electron conducting anode with graded channel structure provides a fast oxygen release pathway, large anode surface for oxygen evolution reaction, and excellent support for depositing nanocatalysts, to further improve oxygen evolution activity. As a result, the as-prepared cells demonstrate both high performance, comparable or even higher than state-of-the-art cathode-supported SOECs, and outstanding stability at a record current density of 2.5 A cm .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202007211DOI Listing
February 2021

BATF2 prevents glioblastoma multiforme progression by inhibiting recruitment of myeloid-derived suppressor cells.

Oncogene 2021 02 15;40(8):1516-1530. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University and Collaborative Innovation Center for Biotherapy, Chengdu, 610041, Sichuan, PR China.

The basic leucine zipper ATF-like transcription factor 2 (BATF2) has been implicated in inflammatory responses and anti-tumour effects. Little, however, is known regarding its extracellular role in maintaining a non-supportive cancer microenvironment. Here, we show that BATF2 inhibits glioma growth and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) recruitment. Interestingly, extracellular vesicles (EVs) from BATF2-overexpressing glioma cell lines (BATF2-EVs) inhibited MDSCs chemotaxis in vitro. Moreover, BATF2 inhibited intracellular SDF-1α and contributes to decreased SDF-1α in EVs. In addition, BATF2 downregulation-induced MDSCs recruitment were reversed by blocking SDF-1α/CXCR4 signalling upon AMD3100 treatment. Specifically, detection of EVs in 24 pairs of gliomas and healthy donors at different stages revealed that the abundance of BATF2-positive EVs in plasma (BATF2 plEVs) can distinguish stage III-IV glioma from stage I-II glioma and healthy donors. Taken together, our study identified novel regulatory functions of BATF2 in regulating MDSCs recruitment, providing a prognostic value in terms of the number of BATF2 plEVs in glioma stage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41388-020-01627-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7906906PMC
February 2021

Enhancing carbon dioxide gas-diffusion electrolysis by creating a hydrophobic catalyst microenvironment.

Nat Commun 2021 Jan 8;12(1):136. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, USA.

Electroreduction of carbon dioxide (CO) over copper-based catalysts provides an attractive approach for sustainable fuel production. While efforts are focused on developing catalytic materials, it is also critical to understand and control the microenvironment around catalytic sites, which can mediate the transport of reaction species and influence reaction pathways. Here, we show that a hydrophobic microenvironment can significantly enhance CO gas-diffusion electrolysis. For proof-of-concept, we use commercial copper nanoparticles and disperse hydrophobic polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) nanoparticles inside the catalyst layer. Consequently, the PTFE-added electrode achieves a greatly improved activity and Faradaic efficiency for CO reduction, with a partial current density >250 mA cm and a single-pass conversion of 14% at moderate potentials, which are around twice that of a regular electrode without added PTFE. The improvement is attributed to a balanced gas/liquid microenvironment that reduces the diffusion layer thickness, accelerates CO mass transport, and increases CO local concentration for the electrolysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20397-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7794506PMC
January 2021

Identification of Potential Hub Genes Related to Diagnosis and Prognosis of Hepatitis B Virus-Related Hepatocellular Carcinoma via Integrated Bioinformatics Analysis.

Biomed Res Int 2020 8;2020:4251761. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Biorepository, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common malignant cancer with poor survival outcomes, and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is most likely to contribute to HCC. But the molecular mechanism remains obscure. Our study intended to identify the candidate potential hub genes associated with the carcinogenesis of HBV-related HCC (HBV-HCC), which may be helpful in developing novel tumor biomarkers for potential targeted therapies. Four transcriptome datasets (GSE84402, GSE25097, GSE94660, and GSE121248) were used to screen the 309 overlapping differentially expressed genes (DEGs), including 100 upregulated genes and 209 downregulated genes. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment were used to explore the biological function of DEGs. A PPI network based on the STRING database was constructed and visualized by the Cytoscape software, consisting of 209 nodes and 1676 edges. Then, we recognized 17 hub genes by CytoHubba plugin, which were further validated on additional three datasets (GSE14520, TCGA-LIHC, and ICGC-LIRI-JP). The diagnostic effectiveness of hub genes was assessed with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, and all hub genes displayed good performance in discriminating TNM stage I patient samples and normal tissue ones. For prognostic analysis, two prognostic key genes (TOP2A and KIF11) out of the 17 hub genes were screened and used to develop a prognostic signature, which showed good potential for overall survival (OS) stratification of HBV-HCC patients. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) was performed in order to better understand the function of this prognostic gene signature. Finally, the miRNA-mRNA regulatory relationships of all hub genes in human liver were predicted using miRNet. In conclusion, the current study gives further insight on the pathogenesis and carcinogenesis of HBV-HCC, and the identified DEGs provide a promising direction for improving the diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic outcomes of HBV-HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/4251761DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7744201PMC
June 2021

Conversion and transformation of N species during pyrolysis of wood-based panels: A review.

Environ Pollut 2021 Feb 1;270:116120. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Joint International Research Laboratory of Biomass Energy and Materials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing, 210037, PR China. Electronic address:

Understanding the migration and conversion of nitrogen in wood-based panels (WBPs) during pyrolysis is fundamentally important for potentially transforming the N-containing species into valuable material-based products. This review firstly summarizes the commonly used methods for examining N evolution during the WBPs pyrolysis before probing into the association between the wood and adhesives.The potential effects of wood-adhesive interaction on the pyrolysis process are subsequently analyzed. Furthermore, the controversial statements from literature on the influence of adhesives on wood pyrolysis behavior are discussed, which is followed by the detailed investigation into the distribution and evolution of N-containing species in gas, liquid and char, respectively, during WBPs pyrolysis in recent studies. The differences in N species due to the heating sources (i.e. electrical heating vs microwave heating) are particularly compared. Finally, based on the characteristics of staged pyrolysis, co-pyrolysis and catalytic pyrolysis, the converting pathways for WBPs are proposed with an emphasis on the production of value-added chemicals and carbon materials, simultaneously mitigating NO emission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.116120DOI Listing
February 2021
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