Publications by authors named "Xuewei Cui"

19 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Efficacy and safety of a novel dual GIP and GLP-1 receptor agonist tirzepatide in patients with type 2 diabetes (SURPASS-1): a double-blind, randomised, phase 3 trial.

Lancet 2021 Jul 27;398(10295):143-155. Epub 2021 Jun 27.

Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

Background: Despite advancements in care, many people with type 2 diabetes do not meet treatment goals; thus, development of new therapies is needed. We aimed to assess efficacy, safety, and tolerability of novel dual glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and GLP-1 receptor agonist tirzepatide monotherapy versus placebo in people with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled by diet and exercise alone.

Methods: We did a 40-week, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial (SURPASS-1), at 52 medical research centres and hospitals in India, Japan, Mexico, and the USA. Adult participants (≥18 years) were included if they had type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled by diet and exercise alone and if they were naive to injectable diabetes therapy. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1) via computer-generated random sequence to once a week tirzepatide (5, 10, or 15 mg), or placebo. All participants, investigators, and the sponsor were masked to treatment assignment. The primary endpoint was the mean change in glycated haemoglobin (HbA) from baseline at 40 weeks. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03954834.

Findings: From June 3, 2019, to Oct 28, 2020, of 705 individuals assessed for eligibility, 478 (mean baseline HbA 7·9% [63 mmol/mol], age 54·1 years [SD 11·9], 231 [48%] women, diabetes duration 4·7 years, and body-mass index 31·9 kg/m) were randomly assigned to tirzepatide 5 mg (n=121 [25%]), tirzepatide 10 mg (n=121 [25%]), tirzepatide 15 mg (n=121 [25%]), or placebo (n=115 [24%]). 66 (14%) participants discontinued the study drug and 50 (10%) discontinued the study prematurely. At 40 weeks, all tirzepatide doses were superior to placebo for changes from baseline in HbA, fasting serum glucose, bodyweight, and HbA targets of less than 7·0% (<53 mmol/mol) and less than 5·7% (<39 mmol/mol). Mean HbA decreased from baseline by 1·87% (20 mmol/mol) with tirzepatide 5 mg, 1·89% (21 mmol/mol) with tirzepatide 10 mg, and 2·07% (23 mmol/mol) with tirzepatide 15 mg versus +0·04% with placebo (+0·4 mmol/mol), resulting in estimated treatment differences versus placebo of -1·91% (-21 mmol/mol) with tirzepatide 5 mg, -1·93% (-21 mmol/mol) with tirzepatide 10 mg, and -2·11% (-23 mmol/mol) with tirzepatide 15 mg (all p<0·0001). More participants on tirzepatide than on placebo met HbA targets of less than 7·0% (<53 mmol/mol; 87-92% vs 20%) and 6·5% or less (≤48 mmol/mol; 81-86% vs 10%) and 31-52% of patients on tirzepatide versus 1% on placebo reached an HbA of less than 5·7% (<39 mmol/mol). Tirzepatide induced a dose-dependent bodyweight loss ranging from 7·0 to 9·5 kg. The most frequent adverse events with tirzepatide were mild to moderate and transient gastrointestinal events, including nausea (12-18% vs 6%), diarrhoea (12-14% vs 8%), and vomiting (2-6% vs 2%). No clinically significant (<54 mg/dL [<3 mmol/L]) or severe hypoglycaemia were reported with tirzepatide. One death occurred in the placebo group.

Interpretation: Tirzepatide showed robust improvements in glycaemic control and bodyweight, without increased risk of hypoglycaemia. The safety profile was consistent with GLP-1 receptor agonists, indicating a potential monotherapy use of tirzepatide for type 2 diabetes treatment.

Funding: Eli Lilly and Company.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(21)01324-6DOI Listing
July 2021

Tirzepatide versus Semaglutide Once Weekly in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

N Engl J Med 2021 08 25;385(6):503-515. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

From the National Research Institute, Los Angeles (J.P.F.); the Diabetes Research Centre, University of Leicester, and the National Institute of Health Research Leicester Biomedical Research Centre - both in Leicester, United Kingdom (M.J.D.); the Dallas Diabetes Research Center at Medical City, Dallas (J.R.); Centro de Investigaciones Metabólicas, Buenos Aires (F.C.P.M.); and Eli Lilly, Indianapolis (L.F.L., B.K.B., B.L., X.C., K.B.).

Background: Tirzepatide is a dual glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist that is under development for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The efficacy and safety of once-weekly tirzepatide as compared with semaglutide, a selective GLP-1 receptor agonist, are unknown.

Methods: In an open-label, 40-week, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned 1879 patients, in a 1:1:1:1 ratio, to receive tirzepatide at a dose of 5 mg, 10 mg, or 15 mg or semaglutide at a dose of 1 mg. At baseline, the mean glycated hemoglobin level was 8.28%, the mean age 56.6 years, and the mean weight 93.7 kg. The primary end point was the change in the glycated hemoglobin level from baseline to 40 weeks.

Results: The estimated mean change from baseline in the glycated hemoglobin level was -2.01 percentage points, -2.24 percentage points, and -2.30 percentage points with 5 mg, 10 mg, and 15 mg of tirzepatide, respectively, and -1.86 percentage points with semaglutide; the estimated differences between the 5-mg, 10-mg, and 15-mg tirzepatide groups and the semaglutide group were -0.15 percentage points (95% confidence interval [CI], -0.28 to -0.03; P = 0.02), -0.39 percentage points (95% CI, -0.51 to -0.26; P<0.001), and -0.45 percentage points (95% CI, -0.57 to -0.32; P<0.001), respectively. Tirzepatide at all doses was noninferior and superior to semaglutide. Reductions in body weight were greater with tirzepatide than with semaglutide (least-squares mean estimated treatment difference, -1.9 kg, -3.6 kg, and -5.5 kg, respectively; P<0.001 for all comparisons). The most common adverse events were gastrointestinal and were primarily mild to moderate in severity in the tirzepatide and semaglutide groups (nausea, 17 to 22% and 18%; diarrhea, 13 to 16% and 12%; and vomiting, 6 to 10% and 8%, respectively). Of the patients who received tirzepatide, hypoglycemia (blood glucose level, <54 mg per deciliter) was reported in 0.6% (5-mg group), 0.2% (10-mg group), and 1.7% (15-mg group); hypoglycemia was reported in 0.4% of those who received semaglutide. Serious adverse events were reported in 5 to 7% of the patients who received tirzepatide and in 3% of those who received semaglutide.

Conclusions: In patients with type 2 diabetes, tirzepatide was noninferior and superior to semaglutide with respect to the mean change in the glycated hemoglobin level from baseline to 40 weeks. (Funded by Eli Lilly; SURPASS-2 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03987919.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2107519DOI Listing
August 2021

Toll-like receptor 4-mediated necroptosis in the development of necrotizing enterocolitis.

Pediatr Res 2021 Mar 17. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Pediatrics, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Background: Dramatic intestinal epithelial cell death leading to barrier dysfunction is one of the mechanism of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), in which Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) plays a pivotal role. This study explored the role of necroptosis, a drastic way of cell death in NEC.

Methods: The expression of necroptotic proteins was tested in NEC intestinal tissue and compared with controls. NEC was induced in neonatal wild-type mice and a necroptosis inhibitor was given to investigate whether NEC could be relieved. The general condition, macroscopic scoring, and histological evaluations were performed. The expression of tight junction proteins, inflammatory cytokines, and necroptosis-related proteins was measured, and barrier function was examined. Then, NEC was induced in TLR4-knockout pups to confirm the role of TLR4 in necroptosis.

Results: Necroptotic proteins were significantly upregulated in both NEC patient and animal models, together with the expression of TLR4. NEC could be relieved and inflammatory infiltration was decreased by necrostatin-1s. TLR4-knockout mice showed milder tissue degradation and less necroptosis after NEC induction.

Conclusions: Necroptosis is an essential pathological process of NEC. TLR4 may be one stimulator of necroptosis in NEC. Inhibiting the intestinal cell necroptosis might be a useful strategy in the treatment of NEC.

Impact: Necroptosis is a key pathological process in NEC, which appears to involve TLR4. Anti-necroptosis treatment is a promising strategy that could significantly relieve the symptoms of NEC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41390-021-01457-yDOI Listing
March 2021

Clostridium difficile toxin A and toxin B inhibit YAP in the colonic epithelial cells.

J Biochem Mol Toxicol 2021 Feb 30;35(2):e22652. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Department of Colorectal and Anal Surgery, Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Toxin A (TcdA) and toxin B (TcdB), the two exotoxins of Clostridium difficile, are main causal agents for the colonic epithelium damage in Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). The Hippo pathway is crucial for the control of tissue homeostasis and regeneration of intestines. However, the dysregulation of Hippo pathway in CDI is unclear. Here we show that YAP and TAZ, the transcriptional coactivators downstream of the Hippo pathway, are sequestered in the cytoplasm, degraded, and inactivated by treatment with TcdA and TcdB in colonic epithelial cells. The overexpression of YAP restores the messenger RNA expressions of YAP target genes, attenuates the disruption of cytoskeleton and cell rounding, and rescues the cell proliferation of colonic epithelial cells under exposure of the two toxins. Our results demonstrate that inhibition of YAP and TAZ is involved in the pathogenesis of CDI, implicating that increasing YAP activity could be a potential therapeutic strategy for the CDI treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbt.22652DOI Listing
February 2021

Dual GIP and GLP-1 Receptor Agonist Tirzepatide Improves Beta-cell Function and Insulin Sensitivity in Type 2 Diabetes.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 01;106(2):388-396

Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

Context: Novel dual glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist (RA) tirzepatide demonstrated substantially greater glucose control and weight loss (WL) compared with selective GLP-1RA dulaglutide.

Objective: Explore mechanisms of glucose control by tirzepatide.

Design: Post hoc analyses of fasting biomarkers and multiple linear regression analysis.

Setting: Forty-seven sites in 4 countries.

Patients Or Other Participants: Three hundred and sixteen subjects with type 2 diabetes.

Interventions: Tirzepatide (1, 5, 10, 15 mg), dulaglutide (1.5 mg), placebo.

Main Outcome Measures: Analyze biomarkers of beta-cell function and insulin resistance (IR) and evaluate WL contributions to IR improvements at 26 weeks.

Results: Homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) 2-B significantly increased with dulaglutide and tirzepatide 5, 10, and 15 mg compared with placebo (P ≤ .02). Proinsulin/insulin and proinsulin/C-peptide ratios significantly decreased with tirzepatide 10 and 15 mg compared with placebo and dulaglutide (P ≤ .007). Tirzepatide 10 and 15 mg significantly decreased fasting insulin (P ≤ .033) and tirzepatide 10 mg significantly decreased HOMA2-IR (P = .004) compared with placebo and dulaglutide. Markers of improved insulin sensitivity (IS) adiponectin, IGFBP-1, and IGFBP-2 significantly increased by 1 or more doses of tirzepatide (P < .05). To determine whether improvements in IR were directly attributable to WL, multiple linear regression analysis with potential confounding variables age, sex, metformin, triglycerides, and glycated hemoglobin A1c was conducted. WL significantly (P ≤ .028) explained only 13% and 21% of improvement in HOMA2-IR with tirzepatide 10 and 15 mg, respectively.

Conclusions: Tirzepatide improved markers of IS and beta-cell function to a greater extent than dulaglutide. IS effects of tirzepatide were only partly attributable to WL, suggesting dual receptor agonism confers distinct mechanisms of glycemic control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/clinem/dgaa863DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7823251PMC
January 2021

Correction: Intestinal vitamin D receptor knockout protects from oxazolone-induced colitis.

Cell Death Dis 2020 Aug 21;11(8):675. Epub 2020 Aug 21.

Department of Medicine, Division of Biological Sciences, University of Chicago, Chicago, USA.

The original version of this Article contained an error in the author affiliations. The affiliation of Tianjing Liu with Department of Pediatrics, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China was inadvertently omitted. This has now been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-020-02913-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7442781PMC
August 2020

Intestinal vitamin D receptor signaling ameliorates dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis by suppressing necroptosis of intestinal epithelial cells.

FASEB J 2020 10 11;34(10):13494-13506. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

Department of Pediatric Orthopedics, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, P.R. China.

Vitamin D status is closely related to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but the mechanism has not been fully elucidated. This study explored the effect of intestinal vitamin D signaling on necroptosis and the underlying mechanism in colitis. Serum 25(OH)D levels and the expression of necroptotic proteins were examined in patients with IBD. Colitis was induced in an intestinal-specific hVDR transgenic model, and the gross manifestation, histological integrity, and intestinal barrier function were tested. The findings were further confirmed in vitro. Immunoprecipitation and colocalization were performed to investigate the association between the vitamin D receptor and necroptotic proteins. We found that serum 25(OH)D decreased in patients with IBD, while the expression of necroptotic proteins increased. The intestinal hVDR transgenic model could largely ameliorate the structural destruction, restore barrier dysfunction, and suppress necroptosis caused by DSS. This was probably achieved by binding to RIPK1/3 necrosomes, as we observed decreased RIPK1/3 necrosome formation and increased VDR expression in the cytosol. This study demonstrated an inhibitory effect of the intestinal vitamin D signaling pathway on necroptosis in DSS-induced colitis. The vitamin D receptor shifts from the nucleus to the cytosol to impede the formation of RIPK1/3. Our findings may offer some theoretical basis for a novel treatment of IBD in clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.202000143RRRDOI Listing
October 2020

Intestinal vitamin D receptor knockout protects from oxazolone-induced colitis.

Cell Death Dis 2020 06 15;11(6):461. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Department of Pediatrics, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) actually had different pathological mechanisms, as the former was mainly induced by Th1 and Th17 response and the latter by Th2 response. Our previous study found that oxazolone-induced Th2-mediated colitis could not be attenuated by vitamin D supplementation. This study investigated the influence of intestinal vitamin D receptor (VDR) knockout on oxazolone-induced colitis and explored the possible immunological mechanism. Intestinal VDR knockout mice had milder oxazolone-induced colitis than wildtype controls, as demonstrated by less body weight decrease and faster recovery, more intact local structure, reduced cell apoptosis, and better preserved barrier function. Th2-mediated inflammation was significantly inhibited by VDR deficiency. Meanwhile, the percentage of invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells did not increase as much in intestinal VDR knockout mice as in wild-type controls, nor did the iNKT cells develop normally as in the controls. Intestinal VDR knockout protected against oxazolone-induced colitis in mice by blocking Th2 cell response and reducing the function of intestinal iNKT cells. Vitamin D status had no influence on the severity of colitis. This study may explain the diverse outcomes after vitamin D supplementation in literature and add some clue to the targeted therapy of IBD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-020-2653-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7296018PMC
June 2020

The novel dual glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist tirzepatide transiently delays gastric emptying similarly to selective long-acting GLP-1 receptor agonists.

Diabetes Obes Metab 2020 10 13;22(10):1886-1891. Epub 2020 Jul 13.

Eli Lilly and Company, Lilly Corporate Center, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA.

The effect of dual glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist (RA) tirzepatide on gastric emptying (GE) was compared to that of GLP-1RAs in non-clinical and clinical studies. GE was assessed following acute and chronic treatment with tirzepatide in diet-induced obese mice versus semaglutide or long-acting GIP analogue alone. Participants [with and without type 2 diabetes (T2DM)] from a phase 1, 4-week multiple dose study received tirzepatide, dulaglutide or placebo. GE was assessed by acetaminophen absorption. In mice, tirzepatide delayed GE to a similar degree to that achieved with semaglutide; however, these acute inhibitory effects were abolished after 2 weeks of treatment. GIP analogue alone had no effect on GE or on GLP-1's effect on GE. In participants with and without T2DM, once-weekly tirzepatide (≥5 and ≥4.5 mg, respectively) delayed GE after a single dose. This effect diminished after multiple doses of tirzepatide or dulaglutide in healthy participants. In participants with T2DM treated with an escalation schedule of tirzepatide 5/5/10/10 or 5/5/10/15 mg, a residual GE delay was still observed after multiple doses. These data suggest that tirzepatide's activity on GE is comparable to that of selective GLP-1RAs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dom.14110DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7539915PMC
October 2020

CCBE1 promotes tumor lymphangiogenesis and is negatively regulated by TGFβ signaling in colorectal cancer.

Theranostics 2020 16;10(5):2327-2341. Epub 2020 Jan 16.

Department of Colorectal and Anal Surgery, Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200092, China.

Collagen and calcium-binding EGF domain-1 (CCBE1) is essential for lymphatic vascular development as it promotes vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGFC) proteolysis. A recent study reported that CCBE1 was overexpressed in epithelial colorectal cancer (CRC) cells; however, the role of CCBE1 in tumor lymphangiogenesis and the mechanism underlying dysregulated CCBE1 expression in CRC remain undefined. The role of CCBE1 in tumor lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis was investigated using human lymphatic endothelial cells (HLECs) model , and a hindfoot lymphatic metastasis model . Immunochemistry analysis was performed to assess CCBE1 expression, prognostic value and correlation with clinicopathological characteristics in CRC. The biochemical function and transcriptional regulatory mechanism of CCBE1 were explored by western blot, qPCR, and chromatin immunoprecipitation. : Cancer cell-derived CCBE1 enhances VEGFC proteolysis , facilitates tube formation and migration of HLECs , and promotes tumor lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis . In addition to CRC cells, tumor stroma within CRC tissue shows high CCBE1 expression, which is associated with high lymphatic vessel density, increased lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) express and secret CCBE1, thereby contributing to VEGFC maturation and tumor lymphangiogenesis in CRC. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) downregulates the transcription and lymphangiogenic function of CCBE1 in CAFs and CRC cells through direct binding of SMADs to CCBE1 gene locus. Inactivation of the TGF-β pathway correlates with increased CCBE1 expression in CRC. : Our results demonstrate the protumorigenic role of CCBE1 in promoting lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis in CRC, revealing a new mechanism by which loss of TGF-β signaling promotes CRC metastasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/thno.39740DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7019157PMC
February 2021

Efficacy and tolerability of tirzepatide, a dual glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist in patients with type 2 diabetes: A 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to evaluate different dose-escalation regimens.

Diabetes Obes Metab 2020 06 11;22(6):938-946. Epub 2020 Feb 11.

Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, Indiana.

Aim: To assess the efficacy and tolerability of tirzepatide treatment using three different dose-escalation regimens in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Materials And Methods: In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, patients were randomized (1:1:1:1) to receive either once-weekly subcutaneous tirzepatide or placebo. The tirzepatide dose groups and dose-escalation regimens were: 12 mg (4 mg weeks 0-3; 8 mg weeks 4-7; 12 mg weeks 8-11), 15 mg-1 (2.5 mg weeks 0-1; 5 mg weeks 2-3; 10 mg weeks 4-7; 15 mg weeks 8-11) and 15 mg-2 (2.5 mg weeks 0-3; 7.5 mg weeks 4-7; 15 mg weeks 8-11). The primary objective was to compare tirzepatide with placebo in HbA1c change from baseline at 12 weeks.

Results: Overall, 111 patients were randomized: placebo, 26; tirzepatide 12 mg, 29; tirzepatide 15 mg-1, 28; tirzepatide 15 mg-2, 28. The mean age was 57.4 years, HbA1c 8.4% and body mass index 31.9 kg/m . At week 12, absolute HbA1c change from baseline (SE) was greater in the tirzepatide treatment groups compared with placebo (placebo, +0.2% [0.21]; 12 mg, -1.7% [0.19]; 15 mg-1, -2.0% [0.20]; 15 mg-2, -1.8% [0.19]). The incidence of nausea was: placebo, 7.7%; 12 mg group, 24.1%; 15 mg-1 group, 39.3%; 15 mg-2 group, 35.7%. Three patients discontinued the treatment because of adverse events, one from each of the placebo, 12 mg and 15 mg-1 groups.

Conclusions: Tirzepatide treatment for 12 weeks resulted in clinically significant reductions in HbA1c. This suggests that lower starting doses and smaller dose increments are associated with a more favourable side effect profile.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dom.13979DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7318331PMC
June 2020

Effects of Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 in preterm infants: a double-blinded randomized controlled study.

Ital J Pediatr 2019 Nov 9;45(1):140. Epub 2019 Nov 9.

Department of Neonatology, Shengjing Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Background: Preterm infants have immature gastrointestinal tracts and poor immunity. In this study, the effects of Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 first on early feeding tolerance, growth, and second on infection prevention in preterm infants were evaluated.

Methods: One hundred fourteen formula-fed preterm infants with a gestational age between 30 weeks and 37 weeks, and a birth weight between 1500 and 2000 g were enrolled; 57 in the intervention and 57 in the control group:the intervention group was given a dose of 1 × 10 colony-forming units (5 drops) of L. reuteri DSM 17938 once daily, beginning with the first feeding until discharge. The control group did not receive probiotics. Early feeding tolerance (as time to full enterla feeding and number of reflux), growth, incidences of sepsis, localized infection, NEC, and adverse effects were recorded for both groups.

Results: The number of Daily reflux episodes (times/d) was lower (2.18 ± 0.83 vs. 3.77 ± 0.66, P < 0.01) and time to full enteral feedings (120 mL/kg/d) (9.95 ± 2.46 d vs. 13.80 ± 3.47 d, P < 0.05) was shorter in the intervention group. Average daily weight gain (14.55 ± 3.07 g/d vs. 10.12 ± 2.80 g/d), head circumference increas e(0.0760 ± 0.0157 cm/d vs. 0.0681 ± 0.0108 cm/d), and body length increase (0.1878 ± 0.0151 cm/d vs. 0.1756 ± 0.0166 cm/d) of the intervention group were higher (P < 0.01). There were no significant differences in the incidences of sepsis (4.44% vs. 8.33%), localized infection (6.67% vs. 8.33%), or NEC (2.22% vs. 10.42%) between the 2 groups (P > 0.05). The number of daily defecations (times/d) in the intervention group was higher (3.08 ± 0.33 vs. 2.29 ± 0.20, P < 0.01) and the length of hospital stay was shorter than that in the control group (20.60 ± 5.36 d vs. 23.75 ± 8.57 d, P < 0.05). No adverse effects were noted among the infants receiving L. reuteri.

Conclusion: L. reuteri may be an useful tool in improving early feeding tolerance in preterm infants, promoting growth, increasing the frequency of defecation, and shortening the length of hospital stay.

Trial Registration: ChiCTR, ChiCTR1900025590. Registered 1 February 2019- Retrospectively registered, http://www.chictr.org.cn/listbycreater.aspx.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13052-019-0716-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6842458PMC
November 2019

LY3298176, a novel dual GIP and GLP-1 receptor agonist for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus: From discovery to clinical proof of concept.

Mol Metab 2018 12 3;18:3-14. Epub 2018 Oct 3.

Eli Lilly and Company, Lilly Corporate Center, Indianapolis, IN, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: A novel dual GIP and GLP-1 receptor agonist, LY3298176, was developed to determine whether the metabolic action of GIP adds to the established clinical benefits of selective GLP-1 receptor agonists in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Methods: LY3298176 is a fatty acid modified peptide with dual GIP and GLP-1 receptor agonist activity designed for once-weekly subcutaneous administration. LY3298176 was characterised in vitro, using signaling and functional assays in cell lines expressing recombinant or endogenous incretin receptors, and in vivo using body weight, food intake, insulin secretion and glycemic profiles in mice. A Phase 1, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind study was comprised of three parts: a single-ascending dose (SAD; doses 0.25-8 mg) and 4-week multiple-ascending dose (MAD; doses 0.5-10 mg) studies in healthy subjects (HS), followed by a 4-week multiple-dose Phase 1 b proof-of-concept (POC; doses 0.5-15 mg) in patients with T2DM (ClinicalTrials.gov no. NCT02759107). Doses higher than 5 mg were attained by titration, dulaglutide (DU) was used as a positive control. The primary objective was to investigate safety and tolerability of LY3298176.

Results: LY3298176 activated both GIP and GLP-1 receptor signaling in vitro and showed glucose-dependent insulin secretion and improved glucose tolerance by acting on both GIP and GLP-1 receptors in mice. With chronic administration to mice, LY3298176 potently decreased body weight and food intake; these effects were significantly greater than the effects of a GLP-1 receptor agonist. A total of 142 human subjects received at least 1 dose of LY3298176, dulaglutide, or placebo. The PK profile of LY3298176 was investigated over a wide dose range (0.25-15 mg) and supports once-weekly administration. In the Phase 1 b trial of diabetic subjects, LY3298176 doses of 10 mg and 15 mg significantly reduced fasting serum glucose compared to placebo (least square mean [LSM] difference [95% CI]: -49.12 mg/dL [-78.14, -20.12] and -43.15 mg/dL [-73.06, -13.21], respectively). Reductions in body weight were significantly greater with the LY3298176 1.5 mg, 4.5 mg and 10 mg doses versus placebo in MAD HS (LSM difference [95% CI]: -1.75 kg [-3.38, -0.12], -5.09 kg [-6.72, -3.46] and -4.61 kg [-6.21, -3.01], respectively) and doses of 10 mg and 15 mg had a relevant effect in T2DM patients (LSM difference [95% CI]: -2.62 kg [-3.79, -1.45] and -2.07 kg [-3.25, -0.88], respectively. The most frequent side effects reported with LY3298176 were gastrointestinal (vomiting, nausea, decreased appetite, diarrhoea, and abdominal distension) in both HS and patients with T2DM; all were dose-dependent and considered mild to moderate in severity.

Conclusions: Based on these results, the pharmacology of LY3298176 translates from preclinical to clinical studies. LY3298176 has the potential to deliver clinically meaningful improvement in glycaemic control and body weight. The data warrant further clinical evaluation of LY3298176 for the treatment of T2DM and potentially obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molmet.2018.09.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6308032PMC
December 2018

Efficacy and safety of LY3298176, a novel dual GIP and GLP-1 receptor agonist, in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomised, placebo-controlled and active comparator-controlled phase 2 trial.

Lancet 2018 11 4;392(10160):2180-2193. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA. Electronic address:

Background: LY3298176 is a novel dual glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist that is being developed for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. We aimed to examine the efficacy and safety of co-stimulation of the GLP-1 and GIP receptors with LY3298176 compared with placebo or selective stimulation of GLP-1 receptors with dulaglutide in patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes.

Methods: In this double-blind, randomised, phase 2 study, patients with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1:1:1) to receive either once-weekly subcutaneous LY3298176 (1 mg, 5 mg, 10 mg, or 15 mg), dulaglutide (1·5 mg), or placebo for 26 weeks. Assignment was stratified by baseline glycated haemoglobin A (HbA), metformin use, and body-mass index (BMI). Eligible participants (aged 18-75) had type 2 diabetes for at least 6 months (HbA 7·0-10·5%, inclusive), that was inadequately controlled with diet and exercise alone or with stable metformin therapy, and a BMI of 23-50 kg/m. The primary efficacy outcome was change in HbA from baseline to 26 weeks in the modified intention-to-treat (mITT) population (all patients who received at least one dose of study drug and had at least one postbaseline measurement of any outcome). Secondary endpoints, measured in the mITT on treatment dataset, were change in HbA from baseline to 12 weeks; change in mean bodyweight, fasting plasma glucose, waist circumference, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides, and proportion of patients reaching the HbA target (≤6·5% and <7·0%) from baseline to weeks 12 and 26; and proportion of patients with at least 5% and 10% bodyweight loss from baseline to 26 weeks. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT03131687.

Findings: Between May 24, 2017, and March 28, 2018, 555 participants were assessed for eligibility, of whom 318 were randomly assigned to one of the six treatment groups. Because two participants did not receive treatment, the modified intention-to-treat and safety populations included 316 participants. 258 (81·7%) participants completed 26 weeks of treatment, and 283 (89·6%) completed the study. At baseline, mean age was 57 years (SD 9), BMI was 32·6 kg/m (5·9), duration from diagnosis of diabetes was 9 years (6), HbA was 8·1% (1·0), 53% of patients were men, and 47% were women. At 26 weeks, the effect of LY3298176 on change in HbA was dose-dependent and did not plateau. Mean changes from baseline in HbA with LY3298176 were -1·06% for 1 mg, -1·73% for 5 mg, -1·89% for 10 mg, and -1·94% for 15 mg, compared with -0·06% for placebo (posterior mean differences [80% credible set] vs placebo: -1·00% [-1·22 to -0·79] for 1 mg, -1·67% [-1·88 to -1·46] for 5 mg, -1·83% [-2·04 to -1·61] for 10 mg, and -1·89% [-2·11 to -1·67] for 15 mg). Compared with dulaglutide (-1·21%) the posterior mean differences (80% credible set) for change in HbA from baseline to 26 weeks with the LY3298176 doses were 0·15% (-0·08 to 0·38) for 1 mg, -0·52% (-0·72 to -0·31) for 5 mg, -0·67% (-0·89 to -0·46) for 10 mg, and -0·73% (-0·95 to -0·52) for 15 mg. At 26 weeks, 33-90% of patients treated with LY3298176 achieved the HbA target of less than 7·0% (vs 52% with dulaglutide, 12% with placebo) and 15-82% achieved the HbA target of at least 6·5% (vs 39% with dulaglutide, 2% with placebo). Changes in fasting plasma glucose ranged from -0·4 mmol/L to -3·4 mmol/L for LY3298176 (vs 0·9 mmol/L for placebo, -1·2 mmol/L for dulaglutide). Changes in mean bodyweight ranged from -0·9 kg to -11·3 kg for LY3298176 (vs -0·4 kg for placebo, -2·7 kg for dulaglutide). At 26 weeks, 14-71% of those treated with LY3298176 achieved the weight loss target of at least 5% (vs 22% with dulaglutide, 0% with placebo) and 6-39% achieved the weight loss target of at least 10% (vs 9% with dulaglutide, 0% with placebo). Changes in waist circumference ranged from -2·1 cm to -10·2 cm for LY3298176 (vs -1·3 cm for placebo, -2·5 cm for dulaglutide). Changes in total cholesterol ranged from 0·2 mmol/L to -0·3 mmol/L for LY3298176 (vs 0·3 mmol/L for placebo, -0·2 mmol/L for dulaglutide). Changes in HDL or LDL cholesterol did not differ between the LY3298176 and placebo groups. Changes in triglyceride concentration ranged from 0 mmol/L to -0·8 mmol/L for LY3298176 (vs 0·3 mmol/L for placebo, -0·3 mmol/L for dulaglutide). The 12-week outcomes were similar to those at 26 weeks for all secondary outcomes. 13 (4%) of 316 participants across the six treatment groups had 23 serious adverse events in total. Gastrointestinal events (nausea, diarrhoea, and vomiting) were the most common treatment-emergent adverse events. The incidence of gastrointestinal events was dose-related (23·1% for 1 mg LY3298176, 32·7% for 5 mg LY3298176, 51·0% for 10 mg LY3298176, and 66·0% for 15 mg LY3298176, 42·6% for dulaglutide, 9·8% for placebo); most events were mild to moderate in intensity and transient. Decreased appetite was the second most common adverse event (3·8% for 1 mg LY3298176, 20·0% for 5 mg LY3298176, 25·5% for 10 mg LY3298176, 18·9% for 15 mg LY3298176, 5·6% for dulaglutide, 2·0% for placebo). There were no reports of severe hypoglycaemia. One patient in the placebo group died from lung adenocarcinoma stage IV, which was unrelated to study treatment.

Interpretation: The dual GIP and GLP-1 receptor agonist, LY3298176, showed significantly better efficacy with regard to glucose control and weight loss than did dulaglutide, with an acceptable safety and tolerability profile. Combined GIP and GLP-1 receptor stimulation might offer a new therapeutic option in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

Funding: Eli Lilly and Company.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(18)32260-8DOI Listing
November 2018

No Dose Adjustment is Recommended for Digoxin, Warfarin, Atorvastatin or a Combination Oral Contraceptive When Coadministered with Dulaglutide.

Clin Pharmacokinet 2017 11;56(11):1415-1427

Eli Lilly and Company, Lilly Corporate Center, Indianapolis, IN, 46285, USA.

Background: Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus are known to delay gastric emptying (GE). The potential effect of the GLP-1 RA dulaglutide on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of four orally administered drugs and on the pharmacodynamic (PD) effect of warfarin was investigated.

Methods: In four separate clinical pharmacology studies, digoxin, warfarin, atorvastatin and Ortho-Cyclen were orally administered to healthy subjects with and without a subcutaneous dose of dulaglutide 1.5 mg. The effect of dulaglutide coadministration was assessed based on the PK parameters of key analytes. For warfarin PD, the effect of dulaglutide on the international normalized ratio (INR) was evaluated.

Results: Areas under the concentration-time curves (AUCs) with and without dulaglutide were similar for all analytes except atorvastatin, where it was reduced by 21%. Maximum concentrations (C ) were generally lower following coadministration with dulaglutide, with statistically significant reductions (90% confidence intervals of geometric least squares means ratios outside 0.80-1.25) for all analytes except R-warfarin. For all analytes, there was a general trend for the time to C (t ) to increase following coadministration with dulaglutide. For warfarin, dulaglutide coadministration had no statistically significant effect on the maximum INR (INR); however, a 2% increase in area under the INR curve (AUC) was observed.

Conclusions: Dulaglutide did not affect the absorption of the tested medications to a clinically relevant degree. Based on the PK and PD evaluations, no dose adjustments for digoxin, warfarin, atorvastatin and Ortho-Cyclen are recommended when coadministered with dulaglutide.

Clinical Trial Registration Numbers: NCT01458210, NCT01436201, NCT01432938, and NCT01250834.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40262-017-0531-7DOI Listing
November 2017

Treatment with the glucagon receptor antagonist LY2409021 increases ambulatory blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Diabetes Obes Metab 2017 08 27;19(8):1071-1077. Epub 2017 Mar 27.

Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, Indiana.

Aims: To assess the effect of LY2409021 on systolic blood pressure (SBP) in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Materials And Methods: This 6-week, randomized, crossover study evaluated the effects of once-daily administration of LY2409021 20 mg vs those of placebo on SBP, diastolic BP (DBP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) using 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) in 270 subjects treated with diet/exercise ± metformin. Other measures included changes in glycemic control, serum lipids, and hepatic safety markers.

Results: At 6 weeks of LY2409021 treatment, 24-hour mean SBP was increased, with a least squares mean (LSM) difference of 2.26 mm Hg vs placebo (95% CI: 1.11, 3.40; P  < .001). The 24-hour mean DBP and MAP also increased, with LSM differences of 1.37 mm Hg (95% CI: 0.66, 2.08; P  < .001) and 1.67 mm Hg (95% CI: 0.86, 2.47; P  < .001) vs placebo, respectively. At week 6, LY2409021 treatment reduced glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, with an LSM difference of -0.49% (-5.4 mmol/mol) (95% CI: -0.56%, -0.42% [-6.1, -4.6 mmol/mol]; P  < .001) vs placebo. Mean HbA1c at baseline was 7.3% (56 mmol/mol). Small but significant changes in serum lipid and aminotransferase levels were observed with LY2409021 treatment (all P  < .05 vs placebo).

Conclusions: Statistically significant increases in BP, MAP and serum lipid levels were observed with LY2409021 treatment at a dose that lowered HbA1c and glucose levels. These effects may limit the clinical utility of LY2409021 as a chronic treatment for type 2 diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dom.12904DOI Listing
August 2017

Anisotropic Picone identities and anisotropic Hardy inequalities.

J Inequal Appl 2017 13;2017(1):16. Epub 2017 Jan 13.

Department of Applied Mathematics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710072 P.R. China.

In this paper, we derive an anisotropic Picone identity for the anisotropic Laplacian, which contains some known Picone identities. As applications, a Sturmian comparison principle to the anisotropic elliptic equation and an anisotropic Hardy type inequality are shown.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13660-017-1292-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5236086PMC
January 2017

Once-weekly dulaglutide 1.5 mg restores insulin secretion in response to intravenous glucose infusion.

Diabetes Obes Metab 2017 04 17;19(4):517-523. Epub 2017 Feb 17.

Lilly-NUS Centre for Clinical Pharmacology, Singapore.

Aims: To evaluate the effects of dulaglutide 1.5 mg on first- and second-phase insulin secretion in response to an intravenous (i.v.) glucose bolus challenge, in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM; primary objective) and in healthy subjects.

Materials And Methods: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2-period crossover study, subjects received a single subcutaneous injection of dulaglutide 1.5 mg or placebo on day 1 of each period. On day 3, subjects underwent a 6-hour insulin infusion, followed by an i.v. glucose bolus and a glucagon challenge during hyperglycaemia. Areas under the concentration-time curve and maximum concentrations for first- (AUC and C ) and second-phase secretion (AUC and C ) were calculated for insulin and C-peptide. The glucose disappearance constant (K ) and homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA-β) were assessed.

Results: In 20 subjects with T2DM, dulaglutide increased mean insulin AUC by 7.92-fold and C by 5.40-fold vs placebo, and mean AUC and C by 2.44- and 3.78- fold, respectively. In 10 healthy subjects, dulaglutide increased the mean insulin AUC by 3.09-fold and C by 2.96-fold vs placebo, and mean AUC and C by 2.04- and 4.15-fold, respectively. The corresponding C-peptide values also increased. Mean K and HOMA-β were higher after dulaglutide compared with placebo.

Conclusions: In subjects with T2DM, a single dulaglutide 1.5-mg dose restored the first-phase insulin secretion in response to an i.v. glucose bolus, increased the second-phase insulin response and enhanced β-cell function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dom.12847DOI Listing
April 2017

Clinical Pharmacokinetics of Dulaglutide in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: Analyses of Data from Clinical Trials.

Clin Pharmacokinet 2016 May;55(5):625-34

Eli Lilly and Company, Lilly Corporate Center, Indianapolis, IN, 46285, USA.

Background And Objective: Dulaglutide is a long-acting glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist administered as once-weekly subcutaneous injections for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D). The clinical pharmacokinetics of dulaglutide were characterized in patients with T2D and healthy subjects.

Methods: The pharmacokinetics of dulaglutide were assessed throughout clinical development, including conventional pharmacokinetic analysis in clinical pharmacology studies and population pharmacokinetic analyses of data from combined phase 2 and phase 3 studies in patients with T2D. The effects of potential covariates on dulaglutide population pharmacokinetics were evaluated using nonlinear mixed-effects models.

Results: Dulaglutide gradually reached the maximum concentration in 48 h and had a terminal elimination half-life of 5 days. Steady state was achieved between the second and fourth doses. The accumulation ratio was 1.56 for the 1.5 mg dose. Intra-individual variability estimates for the area under the plasma concentration-time curve and the maximum concentration were both <17% [coefficient of variation (CV)]. There was no difference in pharmacokinetics between injection sites (arm, thigh or abdomen). Dulaglutide pharmacokinetics were well described by a two-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination. The population clearance was estimated at 0.126 L/h [inter-individual variability (CV) 33.8%]. Age, body weight, sex, race and ethnicity did not influence dulaglutide pharmacokinetics to any clinically relevant degree.

Conclusion: The pharmacokinetics of dulaglutide support once-weekly administration in patients with T2D. The pharmacokinetic findings suggest that dose adjustment is not necessary on the basis of body weight, sex, age, race or ethnicity or site of injection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40262-015-0338-3DOI Listing
May 2016
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