Publications by authors named "Xuesong Li"

351 Publications

Dynamic, multimodal hydrogel actuators using porphyrin-based visible light photoredox catalysis in a thermoresponsive polymer network.

Chem Sci 2020 Sep 3;11(40):10910-10920. Epub 2020 Sep 3.

Department of Chemistry, Washington University One Brookings Drive St. Louis MO 63130 USA

Hydrogels that can respond to multiple external stimuli represent the next generation of advanced functional biomaterials. Here, a series of multimodal hydrogels were synthesized that can contract and expand reversibly over several cycles while changing their mechanical properties in response to blue and red light, as well as heat (∼50 °C). The light-responsive behavior was achieved through a photoredox-based mechanism consisting of photoinduced electron transfer from a zinc porphyrin photocatalyst in its excited state to oligoviologen-based macrocrosslinkers, both of which were integrated into the hydrogel polymer network during gel formation. Orthogonal thermoresponsive properties were also realized by introducing -isopropyl acrylamide (NIPAM) monomer simultaneously with hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA) in the pre-gel mixture to produce a statistical 60 : 40 HEA : NIPAM polymer network. The resultant hydrogel actuators - crosslinked with either a styrenated viologen dimer () or hexamer () - were exposed to red or blue light, or heat, for up to 5 h, and their rate of contraction, as well as the corresponding changes in their physical properties (, stiffness, tensile strength, Young's modulus, ), were measured. The combined application of blue light and heat to the -based hydrogels was also demonstrated, resulting in hydrogels with more than two-fold faster contraction kinetics and dramatically enhanced mechanical robustness when fully contracted. We envision that the reported materials and the corresponding methods of remotely manipulating the dynamic hydrogels may serve as a useful blueprint for future adaptive materials used in biomedical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0sc04287kDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8162415PMC
September 2020

State-of-the-art management technologies of dissolved methane in anaerobically-treated low-strength wastewaters: A review.

Water Res 2021 May 19;200:117269. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Civil Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, V6T 1Z4. Electronic address:

The recent advancement in low temperature anaerobic processes shows a great promise for realizing low-energy-cost, sustainable mainstream wastewater treatment. However, the considerable loss of the dissolved methane from anaerobically-treated low-strength wastewater significantly compromises the energy potential of the anaerobic processes and poses an environmental risk. In this review, the promises and challenges of existing and emerging technologies for dissolved methane management are examined: its removal, recovery, and on-site reuse. It begins by describing the working principles of gas-stripping and biological oxidation for methane removal, membrane contactors and vacuum degassers for methane recovery, and on-site biological conversion of dissolved methane into electricity or value-added biochemicals as direct energy sources or energy-compensating substances. A comparative assessment of these technologies in the three categories is presented based on methane treating efficiency, energy-production potential, applicability, and scalability. Finally, current research needs and future perspectives are highlighted to advance the future development of an economically and technically sustainable methane-management technology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2021.117269DOI Listing
May 2021

Three-dimensional residual channel attention networks denoise and sharpen fluorescence microscopy image volumes.

Nat Methods 2021 Jun 31;18(6):678-687. Epub 2021 May 31.

Advanced Imaging and Microscopy Resource, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

We demonstrate residual channel attention networks (RCAN) for the restoration and enhancement of volumetric time-lapse (four-dimensional) fluorescence microscopy data. First we modify RCAN to handle image volumes, showing that our network enables denoising competitive with three other state-of-the-art neural networks. We use RCAN to restore noisy four-dimensional super-resolution data, enabling image capture of over tens of thousands of images (thousands of volumes) without apparent photobleaching. Second, using simulations we show that RCAN enables resolution enhancement equivalent to, or better than, other networks. Third, we exploit RCAN for denoising and resolution improvement in confocal microscopy, enabling ~2.5-fold lateral resolution enhancement using stimulated emission depletion microscopy ground truth. Fourth, we develop methods to improve spatial resolution in structured illumination microscopy using expansion microscopy data as ground truth, achieving improvements of ~1.9-fold laterally and ~3.6-fold axially. Finally, we characterize the limits of denoising and resolution enhancement, suggesting practical benchmarks for evaluation and further enhancement of network performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41592-021-01155-xDOI Listing
June 2021

Replication and virulence of chimeric bat influenza viruses in mammalian and avian cells and in mice.

Microb Pathog 2021 May 25;157:104992. Epub 2021 May 25.

Shanghai Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS), China; Animal Influenza and Emerging Avian Viral Diseases Innovation Team, China. Electronic address:

Previous studies have shown that chimeric bat influenza viruses can be generated by reverse genetic system. However, the roles of the surface or internal genes of chimeric bat influenza viruses in viral replication and virulence in different host species were still not completely understood. In this study, we generated a chimeric H9N2 bat virus with both HA and NA surface genes from the avian A2093/H9N2 virus and compared its replication and virulence with the chimeric H1N1 bat virus with both HA and NA from the PR8/H1N1 virus in vitro and in mice. The chimeric H1N1 virus showed significantly higher replication in mammalian and avian cells and significantly higher virulence in mice than the chimeric H9N2 virus. Moreover, the chimeric H9N2 virus with the bat influenza internal M gene showed a higher replication in mammalian cells than in avian cells. While the chimeric H9N2 virus with the avian-origin viral M gene displayed a higher replication than that with the bat influenza M gene in avian cells, which likely resulted from increased receptor binding ability to α 2,3 sialic acid linked glycans of the former virus. Our study indicates that bat influenza internal genes are permissive in both mammalian and avian cells, and the bat influenza internal M gene shows more compatibility in mammals than in the avian host. Although the surface genes play more critical roles for viral replication in different host substrates, influenza M gene also potentially impacts on replication, virulence and host tropism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2021.104992DOI Listing
May 2021

The Whitaker Test in the Follow-up of Complex Upper Urinary Tract Reconstruction: Is It Clinical Useful or Not.

Urol J 2021 May 22. Epub 2021 May 22.

Department of Urology, Peking University First Hospital. Institute of Urology, Peking University. National Urological Cancer Center, Beijing, P.R. China.

Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and guiding significance in postoperative management of the Whitaker test after complex reconstruction of the upper urinary tract.

Materials And Methods: Patients who underwent complex ureteral reconstruction and received the Whitaker test after surgery between December 2018 and December 2019 were included. We judged it abnormal that the renal pelvis pressure was higher than 22 cmH2O or the pressure difference was greater than 15 cmH2O. The results were used as a reference for removing the nephrostomy tube. Based on whether the renal pelvic pressure was higher than 22 cmH2O, the patients were divided into the elevated pelvis pressure group and the normal group. Follow ups at 1 month and every 3 months were collected.

Results: A total of 19 patients were included. Fifteen patients did not present obvious abnormalities. One patient suffered from contrast infiltrating into the renal parenchyma, and the pressure was higher than 15 cmH2O. Ureteral stent implantation was performed. The other 3 patients had either elevated pelvis pressure or insufficient image, 2 of which prolonged the duration of nephrostomy tubes. The median follow-up time was 12.6 months. CTU/MRU after removing nephrostomy tubes indicated improved/stable hydronephrosis in all patients. The creatinine in the elevated pelvis pressure group was higher than that in the normal group (91.4 ± 27.6 vs 86.7 ± 16.5 μmol/L, P = .782), and the eGFR was lower (76.0 ± 14.0 vs 81.8 ± 24.1 mL/min/1.73m2, P = .695), but without significant difference. The change in creatinine during follow-up in the elevated renal pelvic pressure group was significantly different from that in the normal group (-13.6 ± 1.0 vs -0.2 ± 10.6 umol/L, P = .047).

Conclusion: Postoperative Whitaker test can help judge whether nephrostomy could be removed. Elevated pressure in upper urinary tract after reconstruction suggests the need to prolong the time of the nephrostomy tube or even re-intervene. Proper management for patients with elevated renal pelvis pressure can help restore the renal function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22037/uj.v18i.6277DOI Listing
May 2021

Loading linear arrays of Cu(II) inside aromatic amide helices.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 May 20. Epub 2021 May 20.

Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitat Munchen, Pharmacy, Butenandtstraße 5 - 13, 81377, Munich, GERMANY.

The very stable helices of 8-amino-2-quinolinecarboxylic acid oligoamides are shown to uptake Cu(II) ions in their cavity through deprotonation of their amide functions with minimal alteration of their shape, unlike most metallo-organic structures which generally much differ from their organic precursors. The outcome is the formation of intramolecular linear arrays of a defined number of Cu(II) centers (up to sixteen in this study) at a 3 Å distance, forming a molecular mimic of a metal wire completely surrounded by an organic sheath. The helices pack in the solid state so that the arrays of Cu(II) extend intermolecularly. Conductive-AFM and cyclic voltammetry suggest that electrons are transported throughout the metal-loaded helices in contrast with hole transport observed for analogous foldamers devoid of metal ions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202104734DOI Listing
May 2021

Clinical characteristics and surgical treatment of ureteral endometriosis: our experience with 40 cases.

BMC Womens Health 2021 05 17;21(1):206. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Urology, Peking University First Hospital, No. 8 Xishiku St, Xicheng District, Beijing, 100034, China.

Background: To present the experience with the surgical management of ureteral endometriosis (UE) in our single center.

Methods: To present the experience with the surgical management of ureteral endometriosis (UE) in our single center. A retrospective analysis of 40 patients with UE who presented with intraoperative surgical findings of endometriosis involving the ureter and pathology-proven UE was performed.

Results: Forty patients (median age, 42.5 years) with histological evidence of UE were included. Six (15%) patients had a history of endometriosis. Twenty-one (52%) patients had urological symptoms, and 19 (48%) patients were asymptomatic. All patients had hydronephrosis. The mean glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of the ipsilateral kidney was significantly worse than that of the contralateral kidney (23.4 vs 54.9 ml/min; P < 0.001). Twelve (30%) patients were treated with ureteroureterostomy (11 open approaches and 1 robotic approach). Twenty-two (55%) patients underwent ureteroneocystostomy (17 open approaches, 4 laparoscopic approaches and 1 robotic approach). Five patients underwent nephroureterectomy. One patient refused aggressive surgery and received ureteroscopic biopsy and ureteral stent placement. Thirteen (33%) patients required gynecological operations. Three (8%) patients in the open group suffered from major surgical complications. Nine (24%) patients received postoperative endocrine therapy. Twenty-eight (70%) patients were followed up (median follow-up time, 71 months). Twenty-four patients received kidney-sparing surgeries. The success rate for these 24 patients was 21/24 (87.5%). The success rates of ureteroneocystostomy and ureteroureterostomy were 15/16 (93.8%) and 5/7 (71.4%), respectively.

Conclusions: Although UE is rare, we should remain vigilant for the disease among female patients with silent hydronephrosis. Typically, a multidisciplinary surgical team is necessary. For patients with severe UE, segmental ureteral resection with ureteroureterostomy (UU) or ureteroneocystostomy may be a preferred choice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12905-021-01349-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8130255PMC
May 2021

Upregulation of ATP Binding Cassette Subfamily C Member 5 facilitates Prostate Cancer progression and Enzalutamide resistance via the CDK1-mediated AR Ser81 Phosphorylation Pathway.

Int J Biol Sci 2021 12;17(7):1613-1628. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Institute of Urology, Peking University. Department of Urology, Peking University First Hospital. National Urological Cancer Center of China, Beijing, China.

The treatment of advanced prostate cancer, castration-resistant prostate cancer, remains challenging. The mechanisms of action of ATP binding cassette subfamily C member 5 (ABCC5) in prostate cancer and its relationship with drug resistance are still unclear. Expression and prognostic analyses of ABCC5 were performed through bioinformatic methods and immunohistochemistry analyses in multiple public databases as well as in our own prostate cancer cohort. The biological function of ABCC5 in prostate cancer cells was evaluated by and cell proliferation and migration and invasion assays. The regulation of CDK1 by ABCC5 was determined via RT-qPCR, western blots, and immunofluorescence. ABCC5 was significantly overexpressed in prostate cancer and positively associated with unfavorable clinicopathological features and prognosis. Upregulation of ABCC5 could enhance the cell proliferation, migration, and invasion of prostate cancer and . Mechanistically, ABCC5 exerts a protumor effect by binding to and inhibiting the protein degradation of CDK1, which promotes the phosphorylation of AR at Ser81 by CDK1 and activates the transcriptional activity of AR on target genes. Moreover, the addition of a CDK1 inhibitor or knockdown of CDK1 significantly improved the efficacy of enzalutamide on prostate cancer cells. The ABCC5-CDK1-AR regulatory pathway could be a potential therapeutic target for advanced prostate cancer, especially castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), to enhance the therapeutic effect of enzalutamide.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijbs.59559DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8120459PMC
April 2021

Re: Eduard Roussel, Giovanni Tasso, Riccardo Campi, et al. Surgical Management and Outcomes of Renal Tumors Arising from Horseshoe Kidneys: Results from an International Multicenter Collaboration. Eur Urol 2021;79:133-40.

Eur Urol 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Urology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, China; Institute of Urology, Peking University, Beijing, China; National Urological Cancer Center, Beijing, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2021.04.016DOI Listing
April 2021

Dual amplified ratiometric fluorescence ELISA based on G-quadruplex/hemin DNAzyme using tetrahedral DNA nanostructure as scaffold for ultrasensitive detection of dibutyl phthalate in aquatic system.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Aug 21;784:147212. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

School of the Environment and Safety Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, China. Electronic address:

Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) is considered as one of the most widely used phthalate esters (PAEs), which has attracted worldwide concerns because of its potential threats to eco-environments and human health. Systematic investigations of DBP environmental occurrence contribute to the further risk assessment, which depends on effective and available analytical methods. In this study, an amplified ratiometric fluorescence ELISA was established for sensitive and high-throughput detection of DBP in the aquatic system based on a novel tetrahedral DNA nanostructure (TDN)-scaffolded-DNAzyme (Tetrazyme). Wherein, Tetrazyme was prepared by the precise folding of G-quadruplex sequence on three vertex angles of the TDN, together with hemin as the horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-mimicking enzyme. The rigid TDN avoided the local overcrowding effect to provide a reasonable spatial spacing on the interface for G-quadruplex sequence, increasing the collision chance between DNAzyme and substrates, improving the catalytic ability of DNAzyme effectively. Besides, streptavidin (SA) and biotin (bio) were used to anchor TDN and antibody, in which the specific binding of SA/bio could make more Tetrazyme conjugate on each signal element, resulting in the dual signal amplification. Meanwhile, the accuracy and precision were enhanced owing to the inherent built-in rectification to the environment from the dual output ratiometric fluorescence assay. Under the optimized conditions, the detection limit of this proposed method was 0.17 ng/mL (16 times lower than that of conventional ELISA using the same antibody) with a satisfactory accuracy (recoveries, 79.0%- 116.2%; CV, 2.1-6.5%). Overall, this platform provides a promising way for accurate, sensitive and rapid determination of DBP from environmental waters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.147212DOI Listing
August 2021

Implications of cardiac markers in risk-stratification and management for COVID-19 patients.

Crit Care 2021 04 26;25(1):158. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Medicine, School of Pharmacy, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Background: COVID-19 has resulted in high mortality worldwide. Information regarding cardiac markers for precise risk-stratification is limited. We aim to discover sensitive and reliable early-warning biomarkers for optimizing management and improving the prognosis of COVID-19 patients.

Methods: A total of 2954 consecutive COVID-19 patients who were receiving treatment from the Wuhan Huoshenshan Hospital in China from February 4 to April 10 were included in this retrospective cohort. Serum levels of cardiac markers were collected after admission. Coronary artery disease diagnosis and survival status were recorded. Single-cell RNA-sequencing and bulk RNA-sequencing from different cohorts of non-COVID-19 were performed to analyze SARS-CoV-2 receptor expression.

Results: Among 2954 COVID-19 patients in the analysis, the median age was 60 years (50-68 years), 1461 (49.5%) were female, and 1515 (51.3%) were severe/critical. Compared to mild/moderate (1439, 48.7%) patients, severe/critical patients showed significantly higher levels of cardiac markers within the first week after admission. In severe/critical COVID-19 patients, those with abnormal serum levels of BNP (42 [24.6%] vs 7 [1.1%]), hs-TNI (38 [48.1%] vs 6 [1.0%]), α- HBDH (55 [10.4%] vs 2 [0.2%]), CK-MB (45 [36.3%] vs 12 [0.9%]), and LDH (56 [12.5%] vs 1 [0.1%]) had a significantly higher mortality rate compared to patients with normal levels. The same trend was observed in the ICU admission rate. Severe/critical COVID-19 patients with pre-existing coronary artery disease (165/1,155 [10.9%]) had more cases of BNP (52 [46.5%] vs 119 [16.5%]), hs-TNI (24 [26.7%] vs 9.6 [%], α- HBDH (86 [55.5%] vs 443 [34.4%]), CK-MB (27 [17.4%] vs 97 [7.5%]), and LDH (65 [41.9%] vs 382 [29.7%]), when compared with those without coronary artery disease. There was enhanced SARS-CoV-2 receptor expression in coronary artery disease compared with healthy controls. From regression analysis, patients with five elevated cardiac markers were at a higher risk of death (hazards ratio 3.4 [95% CI 2.4-4.8]).

Conclusions: COVID-19 patients with pre-existing coronary artery disease represented a higher abnormal percentage of cardiac markers, accompanied by high mortality and ICU admission rate. BNP together with hs-TNI, α- HBDH, CK-MB and LDH act as a prognostic biomarker in COVID-19 patients with or without pre-existing coronary artery disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13054-021-03555-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8074282PMC
April 2021

Indocyanine green fluorescence imaging for laparoscopic complex upper urinary tract reconstructions: a comparative study.

Transl Androl Urol 2021 Mar;10(3):1071-1079

Department of Urology, Peking University First Hospital, Institute of Urology, Peking University, National Urological Cancer Centre, Beijing, China.

Background: To describe our technique for using an intraureteral injection of indocyanine green (ICG) and visualization under near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) to facilitate challenging upper urinary tract reconstructions (UUTRs) and to present the comparative outcomes.

Methods: We collected 36 patients who underwent laparoscopic UUTRs between April 2019 and March 2020, and we divided the patients into two groups based on the use of ICG (ICG group and non-ICG group). Demographic characteristics, perioperative outcomes, and functional outcomes were compared between the two groups.

Results: There were 18 cases in the ICG group and 18 cases in the non-ICG group, respectively. There were no differences in the baseline characteristics between the two groups. The intraoperative time to identification of the ureter (TIU; 20.9±11.7 30.0±14.6 min, P=0.03) and length of postoperative hospital stay (LPHS; 11.1±3.0 16.6±10.0 days, P=0.03) were significantly shorter in the ICG group. There was also a trend for lesser time for locating the stricture (43.0±27.9 55.4±18.6 min, P=0.14) and lower estimated blood loss (EBL) in the ICG group patients (88.3±75.4 91.7±46.2 mL, P=0.22). During the mean 3.8-month follow-up for the ICG group and the 6.2-month for the non-ICG group, there was a trend for more severe complications in the non-ICG group.

Conclusions: Visualizing intraureteral ICG under NIRF is useful in challenging UUTRs, allows for rapid ureteral identification and accurate real-time delineation of the ureteral stricture margins, and provides encouraging follow-up outcomes compared with those in the non-ICG group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/tau-20-1261DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8039610PMC
March 2021

Natural history and growth kinetics of clear cell renal cell carcinoma in sporadic and von Hippel-Lindau disease.

Transl Androl Urol 2021 Mar;10(3):1064-1070

Department of Urology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, China; Institute of Urology, Peking University, Beijing, China.

Background: To evaluate and compare the natural history and growth kinetics of sporadic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) with those of ccRCC in von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL).

Methods: Sixty patients in the sporadic group with 61 tumors and 15 patients in the VHL group with 30 tumors whom all underwent delayed surgery after at least 12 months of active surveillance (AS) were enrolled to conduct a retrospective cohort study. The growth rate was calculated, and the growth kinetics between the sporadic and VHL groups were compared. The patient and tumor characteristics were reviewed, and their correlation with growth rate was analyzed.

Results: The mean growth rate of sporadic ccRCC was 0.91 cm/year (ranging from 0-4.74 cm/year) and that of VHL ccRCC was 0.47 cm/year (ranging from 0.04-1.89 cm/year). The growth rate of sporadic ccRCC showed a tendency of being faster than that of VHL ccRCC but did not reach statistical significance (P=0.07). The factors affecting the growth rate were different between the two groups. For VHL ccRCC, the only factor that correlated with growth rate was initial tumor diameter (P<0.001), but for sporadic ccRCC, the only factor was pathological nuclear grade (P<0.001).

Conclusions: The growth rate of VHL-associated ccRCC might be slower than that of sporadic ccRCC. Furthermore, we identified a disparity in growth kinetics between sporadic and VHL-associated ccRCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/tau-20-1271DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8039623PMC
March 2021

Lingual mucosa graft ureteroplasty for ureteral stricture: a narrative review of the current literature.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 Apr 23;10(4):4840-4845. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Urology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, China; Institute of Urology, Peking University, Beijing, China; National Urological Cancer Center, Beijing, China.

Long proximal or middle ureteral strictures remain challenging conditions. Although ileal replacement of the ureter or renal autotransplantation are possible solutions for these problems, both present complexities and considerable morbidity. In recent years, many urologists have tended to use oral mucosal grafts to repair complex proximal or middle ureteral strictures and thereby avoid ileal replacement and renal autotransplantation. A comprehensive search of oral mucosa graft ureteroplasty and lingual mucosa graft (LMG) ureteroplasty was performed. All literatures must be in English language. Most reports related to oral mucosa graft ureteroplasty focus on buccal mucosa grafts (BMGs). The available data about LMG ureteroplasty are limited. Both LMG and BMG are oral mucosa grafts that have similar histological structures. The success rates of urethroplasty with LMG and BMG are similar. Although there is still no comparative study between LMG and BMG for ureteroplasty, the limited reports show that LMG ureteroplasty is safe and effective for the management of ureteral strictures. This method provides one more option for the management of long proximal and/or middle ureteral strictures. However, the current studies on LMG ureteroplasty have a small sample size and are retrospective. More prospective, multicenter and large sample studies with long-term follow-up results that can further prove the efficacy of LMG ureteroplasty are still needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/apm-20-2339DOI Listing
April 2021

Current Immunotherapies for Glioblastoma Multiforme.

Front Immunol 2020 9;11:603911. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Neurosurgery, Huizhou Third People's Hospital, Guangzhou Medical University, Huizhou, China.

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive malignant tumor found in the central nervous system. Currently, standard treatments in the clinic include maximal safe surgical resection, radiation, and chemotherapy and are mostly limited by low therapeutic efficiency correlated with poor prognosis. Immunotherapy, which predominantly focuses on peptide vaccines, dendritic cell vaccines, chimeric antigen receptor T cells, checkpoint inhibitor therapy, and oncolytic virotherapy, have achieved some promising results in both preclinical and clinical trials. The future of immune therapy for GBM requires an integrated effort with rational combinations of vaccine therapy, cell therapy, and radio- and chemotherapy as well as molecule therapy targeting the tumor microenvironment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.603911DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7986847PMC
March 2021

Etiology and Ureteral Reconstruction Strategy for Iatrogenic Ureteral Injuries: A Retrospective Single-Center Experience.

Urol Int 2021 19;105(5-6):470-476. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Urology, Peking University First Hospital, Institute of Urology, Peking University, National Urological Cancer Center, Beijing, China.

Objective: To analyze the etiology, characteristics, and ureteral reconstruction strategies of iatrogenic ureteric injuries in a high-volume center.

Methods: Between September 2010 and August 2019, we retrospectively collected patients who underwent ureteral reconstruction due to iatrogenic ureteric injuries. Patient profiles, laboratory data, imaging studies, perioperative data, and complications were recorded.

Results: Sixty-eight patients were enrolled in this study. The upper, middle, and lower thirds of the ureter were affected in 30, 2, and 36 cases, respectively. Of the 68 ureteric injuries, 69.1% occurred during urological procedures, followed by gynecological procedures, general surgery, radiotherapy, and orthopedic surgery. The majority of urological injuries (41, 87.2%) occurred due to stone removal. There was a significant difference in the age, sex, and location of ureteric injuries between the urological and nonurological groups. The median follow-up time was 17.9 months. The overall symptom remission rate was 91.2% and ranged from 87.5 to 100% for different reconstructive surgeries.

Conclusions: Urological procedures were the most common cause of iatrogenic ureteric injury; thus, extra care should be taken. Timely detection and appropriate treatment of the ureteric injuries are necessary. Treatment strategies should be depended on the location and length of injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000511141DOI Listing
March 2021

Efficacy of electrochemical membrane bioreactor for virus removal from wastewater: Performance and mechanisms.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Jun 10;330:124946. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Shanghai Institute of Pollution Control and Ecological Security, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092, China; International Joint Research Center for Sustainable Urban Water System, Shanghai 200092, China. Electronic address:

Wastewater treatment facilities play pivotal roles in preventing the transmission of water-borne viruses and protecting human health. In this study, a new electrochemical membrane bioreactor (EMBR) was proposed to achieve a long-lasting and efficient removal of virus from wastewater. Results showed that applying a low electric field (2.0 V) in EMBR system could achieve ~100% removal efficiency at both batch tests and continuous flow experiments. In contrast, the control MBR, without the exertion of electric field, exhibited a very low removal efficiency (19.8% on average). Moreover, the fouling in EMBR was significantly mitigated, which enabled its operation duration almost 3 times longer than that of the control. Further explorations suggested that the reactive oxidants generated on electrodes in the EMBR system were mainly responsible for MS2 removal. This study demonstrated the potential of utilizing the EMBR process to achieve an enhanced virus disinfection efficiency during the wastewater treatment process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.124946DOI Listing
June 2021

Robot-assisted pyeloplasty using a new robotic system, the KangDuo-Surgical Robot-01: a prospective, single-centre, single-arm clinical study.

BJU Int 2021 Mar 16. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Urology, Peking University First Hospital, Institute of Urology Peking University, National Urological Cancer Center, Peking University, Beijing, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bju.15396DOI Listing
March 2021

A laparoscopic vascular blocking forceps used for renal carcinoma combined with tumor thrombus.

Int Braz J Urol 2021 May-Jun;47(3):678-679

Department of Urology, Peking University First Hospital. Institute of Urology, Peking University National Urological Cancer Center, Beijing, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1677-5538.IBJU.2020.0063DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7993940PMC
January 2020

Modified Laparoscopic and Robotic Flap Pyeloplasty for Recurrent Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction with a Long Proximal Ureteral Stricture: The "Wishbone" Anastomosis and the "Ureteral Plate" Technique.

Urol Int 2021 Feb 10:1-8. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Department of Urology, Peking University First Hospital, Institute of Urology, Peking University, National Urological Cancer Center, Beijing, China.

Objectives: The aim of the study was to present our modified flap pyeloplasty techniques for recurrent ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) with a long proximal ureteral stricture and compare outcomes of laparoscopic and robotic procedures.

Materials And Methods: Between March 2018 and January 2020, 21 patients underwent modified laparoscopic or robotic flap pyeloplasty for recurrent UPJO with a long proximal ureteral stricture. Our surgical modifications included the "wishbone" anastomosis and "ureteral plate" technique. Demographic, perioperative, and follow-up data were recorded and compared retrospectively between the groups. Success was defined as subjective pain alleviation and hydronephrosis improvement.

Results: Thirteen modified laparoscopic flap pyeloplasty (mLFP) and 8 modified robotic flap pyeloplasty (mRFP) were performed successfully without conversion. mRFP tended to have shorter overall operative time (142.4 vs. 179.1 min, p = 0.122) and anastomosis time (43.1 vs. 61.0 min, p = 0.093) than mLFP. No difference was found in estimated blood loss (p = 0.723) and pararenal draining time (p = 0.175) between the groups. The mean postoperative hospital stay of mRFP was significantly shorter than that of mLFP (5.0 vs. 8.2 days, p = 0.015). No major complications occurred. During the mean follow-up of 17.9 months, the overall success rate was 90.5%, and there was no significant difference between 2 groups.

Conclusions: The modified flap pyeloplasty could be considered a practical and effective treatment option with a high success rate for recurrent UPJO with a long proximal ureteral stricture, and the robotic procedures showed advantages of higher efficiency and faster recovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000512994DOI Listing
February 2021

Effectiveness of intervention program on the change of glycaemic control in diabetes with depression patients: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies.

Prim Care Diabetes 2021 Jun 5;15(3):428-434. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Department of Psychiatric, Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China; Guangdong Engineering Technology Research Center for Translational Medicine of Mental Disorders, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Aim: The glycaemic control of diabetes with depression was inconsistent from randomized controlled studies. This meta-analysis aimed to explore the effectiveness of intervention methods in diabetes with depression.

Methods: This study systematically searched electronic databases (PubMed, EBSCO, Elsevier, Springer, Wiley, and Cochrane) for studies published up to August 17, 2020. Standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95%CI were used to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions on HbA1c. Heterogeneity was estimated using the I statistic. Begg's test was used to assess the possible publication bias among studies.

Results: Twelve studies of 2444 cases were included in this study. The overall SMD is -0.22 and 95%CI -0.33 to -0.10 in 0-6 months of intervention group. The I and P were 18.4% and 0.26. There are no publication bias tested (z = 0.37, P = 0.72).

Conclusion: Cognitive behavioral therapy and mindful self-compassion might be effective method to improve glycaemic control of diabetes with depression in 0-6 months.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pcd.2021.01.006DOI Listing
June 2021

Minimally invasive ileal ureter replacement: Comparative analysis of robot-assisted laparoscopic versus conventional laparoscopic surgery.

Int J Med Robot 2021 Jun 24;17(3):e2230. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Urology, Peking University First Hospital, Institute of Urology, Peking University, National Urological Cancer Centre, Beijing, China.

Background: This study is an initial comparative analysis of perioperative and intermediate-term functional outcomes between patients who underwent robot-assisted laparoscopic (RALS) or conventional laparoscopic surgery (LS).

Materials And Methods: A total of 25 patients who underwent ileal ureter replacement (10 RALS and 15 LS) were followed by functional cine magnetic resonance urography (MRU) combined with a modified Whitaker test. Also, the characteristics, perioperative data and functional outcomes of the patients were compared.

Results: The estimated blood loss, postoperative hospital stay and time to oral intake were significantly lower in the RALS group. At the median 14-month follow-up, all the patients showed improved renal function and were symptom-free, with no signs of leakage or stenosis observed by cine MRU combined with a modified Whitaker test.

Conclusions: RALS with an extracorporeal bowel resection is feasible and appears to be safe, with quick postoperative recovery and encouraging outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rcs.2230DOI Listing
June 2021

A "bridge" technique to replace the obstructed single-J stent in the patient with ileal conduit urinary diversion: a case report.

Transl Androl Urol 2021 Jan;10(1):532-535

Department of Urology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, China.

The ureteroileal anastomotic stricture is a complication of ileal conduit urinary diversion. To prevent the hydronephrosis and protect the renal function, a single-J ureteral stent may be needed. However, the most common complication of these patients is single-J stent obstruction. To solve this problem, we describe an easy, useful and low-cost technique to replace the obstructed ureteral stent under radiographic guidance without intervention by flexible cystoscopy or percutaneous nephrostomy. The key steps of our procedure are to identify the location of the stricture, to place the super smooth guide wire into pinhole of the obstructed single-J stent and to get the super smooth guide wire and 5-Fr ureteral catheter across the stricture. Our case was a 40-year-old male patient who was diagnosed as pelvic lipomatosis and received ileal conduit urinary diversion 3 years ago. The left-side ureteroileal anastomotic stricture occurred 1 year after surgery. He refused to repair the stricture by open or other minimal invasive surgery. He regularly changed his ureteral stent with intervals of three months. As the stent was obstructed by the stone, the guide wire couldn't be inserted through the primary ureteral stent. We used our "bridge" technique to solve his problem successfully. No bleeding and no urinary tract infection were observed after intervention. The urine from the ureteral stent was fluent. We think that this "bridge" technique may be a good choice for the replacement of the obstructed single-J stent in the patients of ileal conduit urinary diversion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/tau-20-1186DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7844502PMC
January 2021

A modified Whitaker test (upper urinary tract videourodynamics) using for evaluating complex upper urinary tract reconstruction surgical effect.

Transl Androl Urol 2021 Jan;10(1):336-344

Department of Urology, Peking University First Hospital Institute of Urology, Peking University National Urological Cancer Center, Beijing, China.

Background: To evaluate the feasibility and effect of upper urinary tract videourodynamics in complex reconstructed upper urinary tract.

Methods: From January 2016 to December 2018, patients who underwent complex upper urinary tract reconstruction and received upper urinary tract videourodynamics were included in the study. The modified Whitaker test was performed at 3 months after operation. The relative pelvic pressure was defined as the pelvic pressure minus the bladder pressure. Based on the flow rate, the test was divided into physiological phase and high flow phase. The results of pressure and image were classified into 3 types. Successful nephrostomy removal was defined as no symptoms and improved or stable hydronephrosis.

Results: A total of 12 patients who underwent complex upper urinary tract reconstruction received modified Whitaker test. All tests were successfully completed without adverse reactions. The relative pelvic pressure of 3 patients kept steady near the baseline throughout the examination and was classified into type 1. The pelvic pressure of 7 patients increased as the perfusion continued, and the relative pressure dropped to relative low level due to the peristalsis of ureter (type 2). The pressure of 2 patients increased along with increasing perfusion speed, and the relative pelvis pressure could easily reach 15 cmH2O. The peristalsis of ureter disappeared or appeared very weakly on the video record (type 3). Patients in type 1 (3 cases) and type 2 (7 cases) groups were allowed to remove the nephrostomy tube immediately. Patients in type 3 group needed to keep the nephrostomy for close follow up, and the tubes were removed 2 weeks and 4 weeks after the examination, respectively. None of the 12 patients received further treatment for recurrent symptoms and exacerbation of hydronephrosis.

Conclusions: The modified Whitaker test is initially safe and feasible in postoperative evaluation of complex upper urinary tract reconstruction surgery. Detailed results can provide more evidence to judge whether nephrostomy tube could be removed safely.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/tau-20-1055DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7844503PMC
January 2021

Real-time navigation by three-dimensional virtual reconstruction models in robot-assisted laparoscopic pyeloplasty for ureteropelvic junction obstruction: our initial experience.

Transl Androl Urol 2021 Jan;10(1):125-133

Department of Urology, Peking University First Hospital, Institute of Urology, Peking University, National Urological Cancer Center, Beijing, China.

Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of real-time surgical navigation by three-dimensional (3D) virtual reconstruction models in robot-assisted laparoscopic pyeloplasty (RALP).

Methods: Between November 2018 and January 2020, 38 patients with ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) who underwent RALP were retrospectively enrolled. The operations were assisted in real time by 3D models in 16 patients, while 22 patients underwent surgery without navigation. Based on whether patients had a prior intervention history, crossing vessels or congenital deformities, we further divided them into the "complicated UPJO" cohort and the "regular UPJO" cohort for subgroup analysis. The demographic characteristics, intraoperative parameters, perioperative data and follow-up data were recorded and compared between the groups.

Results: All of the procedures were successfully performed without open or laparoscopic conversion. The mean dissection time to the UPJ was shorter in the navigation group than in the non-navigation group, both in the whole cohort (15.3 24.8 min, P=0.011) and in the complicated cohort (15.4 27.5 min, P=0.004), while there was no significant difference in the regular cohort. The overall operative time and estimated blood loss in the navigation group tended to be less, although the difference was not statistically significant. No difference in anastomosis time, postoperative hospital stay or complications was noted between the two groups in either cohort. At a mean follow-up of 11.2 months, the overall success rate was 94.7% (36/38), and there was no significant difference between the two groups.

Conclusions: Real-time navigation by 3D virtual reconstruction models might be helpful to improve surgical efficiency and safety of RALP by facilitating the dissection around the UPJ, especially for cases of complicated UPJO. However, the prospective study with larger sample size is further needed to confirm the results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/tau-20-1006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7844525PMC
January 2021

Experience managing distal ureteral strictures with Boari flap-psoas hitch and comparison of open and laparoscopic procedures.

Transl Androl Urol 2021 Jan;10(1):56-65

Department of Urology, Peking University First Hospital, Institute of Urology, Peking University, National Urological Cancer Center, Beijing, China.

Background: To summarize our experience with the Boari flap-psoas hitch and compare the indications, perioperative data and outcomes between open and laparoscopic procedures.

Methods: This study retrospectively reviewed 35 patients with complex distal ureteral stricture between January 2015 and April 2019. All patients were treated with Boari flap-psoas hitch by either an open or a laparoscopic procedure. Selection criteria were based on the etiology, comorbidities, medical history, and patient preference.

Results: All surgeries were performed successfully. The median operation time was 201 min (range, 120 to 300 min), and the median estimated blood loss was 50 mL (range, 20 to 400 mL). The median postoperative hospitalization was 9 days (range, 3 to 46 days). Nineteen patients were treated by the open procedure, and 16 were treated by the transperitoneal laparoscopic procedure. The surgical indication of open surgery was broader than that for laparoscopic surgery. For patients experiencing iatrogenic injury and ureterovesical reimplantation failure, no significant differences in sex, laterality, operative time, ASA score or postoperative hospitalization stay were observed between the two groups. The median estimated blood loss was lower in the laparoscopic group than in the open group (P=0.047). Patients in the open group had more surgical complications than patients in the laparoscopic group (P=0.049). The postoperative follow-up showed the radiological resolution of hydronephrosis in 33 patients.

Conclusions: With the appropriate surgical considerations, Boari flap-psoas hitch is a valid method to bridge distal ureteral defects. For select patients, laparoscopic surgery had advantages being a minimal invasive surgery with less estimated blood loss and fewer surgical complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/tau-20-789DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7844529PMC
January 2021

Prognostic role of stromal tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in locally advanced upper tract urothelial carcinoma: A retrospective multicenter study (TSU-02 study).

Oncoimmunology 2021 01 4;10(1):1861737. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Department of Urology, Peking University First Hospital, Institute of Urology, Peking University, National Urological Cancer Center, Beijing, China.

Locally advanced upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) exhibits high recurrence and metastasis rates even after radical nephroureterectomy. Adjuvant immunotherapy can be a reasonable option, and a simple, low-cost, and effective biomarker is further needed. Stromal tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (sTILs) has been demonstrated as a prognostic and predictive biomarker in various tumor types, but not yet in locally advanced UTUC. In this multicenter, real-world and retrospective study, we tried to investigate the prognostic role of sTIL and its correlation with the PD-L1/PD-1/CD8 axis by reviewing the clinicopathologic variables of 398 locally advanced UTUC patients at four high-volume Chinese medical centers. sTIL density was evaluated with standardized methodology on H&E sections, and patients were stratified by the cutoff of sTIL (50%). Results showed that high sTIL indicated improved survival (CSS, = .022; RFS, = .015; DFS, = .004), and was an independent predictor of better CSS (, 0.577; 95% CI, 0.391-0.851; = .006), RFS (, 0.613; 95% CI 0.406-0.925; = .020) and DFS (, 0.609; 95% CI, 0.447-0.829; = .002). A strongly positive correlation between sTIL density and the expression level of PD-1/PD-L1/CD8 axis was observed. We also found that aristolochic acid (AA) exposure was associated with increased sTIL and elevated PD-L1 expression, indicating that AA-related UTUC might be a distinct subgroup with unique tumor microenvironment characteristics. Our results show that sTIL can be an easily acquired biomarker for prognostic stratification in locally advanced UTUC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/2162402X.2020.1861737DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7801121PMC
January 2021

P4HB: A novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for bladder carcinoma.

Oncol Lett 2021 Feb 6;21(2):95. Epub 2020 Dec 6.

Department of Urology, Peking University First Hospital, Xicheng, Beijing 100034, P.R. China.

Prolyl 4-hydroxylase, beta polypeptide (P4HB) protein is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) molecular chaperone protein and has been reported to be overexpressed in multiple tumor types. However, the role of P4HB in bladder cancer (BLCA) has not yet been elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prognostic value of P4HB and the association between clinicopathological characteristics and P4HB in BLCA. P4HB expression levels were assessed through The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) databases, and validated by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and western blot analysis in BLCA tissues and cells. A total of 69 pairs of tumor and normal samples were used to analyze the expression of P4HB via immunohistochemical staining. A co-expression network and functional enrichment analyses were conducted to investigate the biological function of P4HB in BLCA. The protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed by Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes. The results showed that P4HB was highly expressed in BLCA cells and tissues. The area under the curve value for P4HB expression to discriminate between tumor and normal tissues was up to 0.888 (95% CI: 0.801-0.975; P<0.001) and 0.881 (95% CI: 0.825-0.937; P<0.001) in TCGA database and our database, respectively. Furthermore, the expression level of P4HB was an independent risk factor for overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) by univariate and multivariate analyses. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis demonstrated that high P4HB expression was associated with low OS and RFS. Pathway enrichment analysis suggested that P4HB was involved in protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), including N-glycan modification and protein metabolic processes responding to ER stress. PPI analysis revealed that the potential targets of P4HB were mainly involved in posttranslational protein modification and response to ER stress. In conclusion, the expression level of P4HB aid in identifying patients with early-stage BLCA and predicting the prognosis of BLCA. Therefore, P4HB may be a novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for BLCA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ol.2020.12356DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7751343PMC
February 2021

An Immune-Related Signature for Predicting the Prognosis of Lower-Grade Gliomas.

Front Immunol 2020 8;11:603341. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Department of Neurosurgery, The Affiliated Changzhou No. 2 People's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Changzhou, China.

Background: Lower-grade gliomas (LGGs) have more favorable outcomes than glioblastomas; however, LGGs often progress to process glioblastomas within a few years. Numerous studies have proven that the tumor microenvironment (TME) is correlated with the prognosis of glioma.

Methods: LGG RNA-Sequencing (RNA-seq) data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and the Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas (CGGA) were extracted and then divided into training and testing cohorts, respectively. Immune-related differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened to establish a prognostic signature by a multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression model. The immune-related risk score and clinical information, such as age, sex, World Health Organization (WHO) grade, and isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) mutation, were used to independently validate and develop a prognostic nomogram. GO and KEGG pathway analyses to DEGs between immune-related high-risk and low-risk groups were performed.

Results: Sixteen immune-related genes were screened for establishing a prognostic signature. The risk score had a negative correlation with prognosis, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of 0.941. The risk score, age, grade, and IDH1 mutation were identified as independent prognostic factors in patients with LGGs. The hazard ratios (HRs) of the high-risk score were 5.247 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 3.060-8.996] in the multivariate analysis. A prognostic nomogram of 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival was established and validated internally and externally. Go and KEGG pathway analyses implied that immune-related biological function and pathways were involved in the TME.

Conclusion: The immune-related prognostic signature and the prognostic nomogram could accurately predict survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.603341DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7753319PMC
December 2020

Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Duck Embryo Fibroblasts Infected With Novel Duck Reovirus.

Front Vet Sci 2020 2;7:577370. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology and Disease Control and Prevention, Shandong Provincial Engineering Technology Research Center of Animal Disease Control and Prevention, Sino-German Cooperative Research Centre for Zoonosis of Animal Origin Shandong Province, College of Animal Science and Technology, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian, China.

The novel duck reovirus (NDRV) can cause hemorrhage and necrosis on the spleen of Pekin ducks; this disease has resulted in great economic losses to the duck industry. However, the molecular pathogenesis of NDRV remains poorly understood. In the current study, the quantitative proteomic analysis of NDRV-infected duck embryo fibroblasts was performed to explore the cellular protein changes in response to viral infection through iTRAQ coupled with the liquid chromatography (LC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) method. A total of 6,137 proteins were obtained in cell samples at 24 h post-infection. Of these, 179 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were identified (cutoff set to 1.5-fold change), including 89 upregulated and 90 downregulated proteins. Bioinformatics analysis showed that DEPs can be divided into the cellular component, molecular function, and biological process; they were mainly involved in signal transduction, infectious diseases, cell growth and death, and the immune system. The subcellular localization of most proteins was in the cytoplasm. Importantly, the expressions of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) and various interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) were upregulated after NDRV infection. The mRNA transcripts of some ISGs were consistent with proteomic data, showing an increased trend. Results of our study suggested that NDRV infection can elicit strong expression changes of cellular proteins and activate the expression of ISGs from the point of quantitative proteomic analysis. The study provides a new insight into the understanding of NDRV pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2020.577370DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7738351PMC
December 2020