Publications by authors named "Xuemei Chen"

424 Publications

Publication Trends and Hot Spots in Chronic Postsurgical Pain (CPSP) Research: A 10-Year Bibliometric Analysis.

J Pain Res 2021 21;14:2239-2247. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Anesthesiology, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, 200127, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Aging populations and increasing quality of life requirements have attracted growing efforts to study chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP). However, a diverse range of factors are involved in CPSP development, which complicates efforts to predict and treat this disease. To advance research in this field, our study aimed to use bibliometric analysis to quantitatively and qualitatively evaluate CPSP research and predict research hot spots over the last 10 years.

Methods: Relevant publications between 2011 and 2020 were extracted from the Web of Science Core Collection database. CiteSpace software (v5.7.R2) and the Online Analysis Platform of Literature Metrology were used to analyze research attributes including countries and authors, keywords and co-occurrence, and burst detection to predict trends and hot spots.

Results: A total of 2493 publications were collected with the number of annual publications showing nearly threefold increase over the past decade. Articles were the primary publication type with the United States as the leading country and the center of national collaboration. Johns Hopkins University provided the leading influence within the CPSP field. Postoperative pain, multimodal analgesia, quality of life, opioid, microglia, cesarean delivery, inguinal hernia, chronification, genetic polymorphism, and lidocaine were the top 10 clusters in co-occurrence cluster analysis. Moreover, burst detection was shown that epidural analgesia, nerve injury, total hip arthroplasty were the new hot spots within the CPSP field.

Conclusion: Bibliometric mapping not only defined the overall structure of CPSP-related research but its collective information provides crucial assistance to direct ongoing research efforts. The prominent keywords including "risk factor" and "multimodal analgesia" indicate that CPSP prevention and new treatment methods remain hot spots. Nonetheless, the recognition that CPSP is complex and changeable, proposes comprehensive biopsychosocial approaches are needed, and these will be essential to improve CPSP interventions and outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JPR.S300744DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8313379PMC
July 2021

The pros and cons of motor, memory, and emotion-related behavioral tests in the mouse traumatic brain injury model.

Neurol Res 2021 Jul 26:1-25. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Human Anatomy, College of Basic Medical Sciences, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a medical emergency with high morbidity and mortality. Motor, memory, and emotion-related deficits are common symptoms following TBI, yet treatment is very limited. To develop new drugs and find new therapeutic avenues, a wide variety of TBI models have been established to mimic the heterogeneity of TBI. In this regard, along with histologic measures, behavioral functional outcomes provide valuable insight into the underlying neuropathology and guide neurorehabilitation efforts for neuropsychiatric impairment after TBI. Development, characterization, and application of behavioral tests that can assess functional neurologic deficits are essential to the development of translational therapies. This comprehensive review aims to summarize 19 common behavioral tests from three aspects (motor, memory, and emotion-related) that are associated with TBI pathology. Discussion covers the apparatus, the test steps, the evaluation indexes, data collection and analysis, animal performance and applications, advantages and disadvantages as well as precautions to eliminate bias wherever possible. We discussed recent studies on TBI-related preconditioning, biomarkers, and optimized behavioral protocols. The neuropsychologic tests employed in clinics were correlated with those used in mouse TBI models. In summary, this review provides a comprehensive, up-to-date reference for TBI researchers to choose the right neurobehavioral protocol according to the research objectives of their translational investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01616412.2021.1956290DOI Listing
July 2021

MCT2 overexpression promotes recovery of cognitive function by increasing mitochondrial biogenesis in a rat model of stroke.

Anim Cells Syst (Seoul) 2021 23;25(2):93-101. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Neurology, The Affiliated Jiangning Hospital with Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, People's Republic of China.

Monocarboxylate transporter 2 (MCT2) is the predominant monocarboxylate transporter expressed by neurons. MCT2 plays an important role in brain energy metabolism. Stroke survivors are at high risk of cognitive impairment. We reported previously that stroke-induced cognitive impairment was related to impaired energy metabolism. In the present study, we report that cognitive function was impaired after stroke in rats. We found that MCT2 expression, but not that of MCT1 or MCT4, was markedly decreased in the rat hippocampus at 7 and 28 days after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO). Moreover, MCT2 overexpression promoted recovery of cognitive function after stroke. The molecular mechanism underlying these effects may be related to an increase in adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase-mediated mitochondrial biogenesis induced by overexpression of MCT2. Our findings suggest that MCT2 activation ameliorates cognitive impairment after stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19768354.2021.1915379DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8118516PMC
April 2021

Behavioral Assessment of Sensory, Motor, Emotion, and Cognition in Rodent Models of Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

Front Neurol 2021 17;12:667511. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Human Anatomy, College of Basic Medical Sciences, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is the second most common type of stroke and has one of the highest fatality rates of any disease. There are many clinical signs and symptoms after ICH due to brain cell injury and network disruption resulted from the rupture of a tiny artery and activation of inflammatory cells, such as motor dysfunction, sensory impairment, cognitive impairment, and emotional disturbance, etc. Thus, researchers have established many tests to evaluate behavioral changes in rodent ICH models, in order to achieve a better understanding and thus improvements in the prognosis for the clinical treatment of stroke. This review summarizes existing protocols that have been applied to assess neurologic function outcomes in the rodent ICH models such as pain, motor, cognition, and emotion tests. Pain tests include mechanical, hot, and cold pain tests; motor tests include the following 12 types: neurologic deficit scale test, staircase test, rotarod test, cylinder test, grid walk test, forelimb placing test, wire hanging test, modified neurologic severity score, beam walking test, horizontal ladder test, and adhesive removal test; learning and memory tests include Morris water maze, Y-maze, and novel object recognition test; emotion tests include elevated plus maze, sucrose preference test, tail suspension test, open field test, and forced swim test. This review discusses these assessments by examining their rationale, setup, duration, baseline, procedures as well as comparing their pros and cons, thus guiding researchers to select the most appropriate behavioral tests for preclinical ICH research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2021.667511DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8248664PMC
June 2021

A Liquid-Liquid Phase Separation-Related Gene Signature as Prognostic Biomarker for Epithelial Ovarian Cancer.

Front Oncol 2021 8;11:671892. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Gynecology, Maoming People's Hospital, Maoming, China.

Objective: The aim of the present study was to construct and test a liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS)-related gene signature as a prognostic tool for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC).

Materials And Methods: The data set GSE26712 was used to screen the differentially expressed LLPS-related genes. Functional enrichment analysis was performed to reveal the potential biological functions. GSE17260 and GSE32062 were combined as the discovery to construct an LLPS-related gene signature through a three-step analysis (univariate Cox, least absolute shrinkage and selection operator, and multivariate Cox analyses). The EOC data set from The Cancer Genome Atlas as the test set was used to test the LLPS-related gene signature.

Results: The differentially expressed LLPS-related genes involved in several cancer-related pathways, such as MAPK signaling pathway, cell cycle, and DNA replication. Eleven genes were selected to construct the LLPS-related gene signature risk index as prognostic biomarker for EOC. The risk index could successfully divide patients with EOC into high- and low-risk groups. The patients in high-risk group had significantly shorter overall survival than those with in low-risk group. The LLPS-related gene signature was validated in the test set and may be an independent prognostic factor compared to routine clinical features.

Conclusion: We constructed and validated an LLPS-related gene signature as a prognosis tool in EOC through integrated analysis of multiple data sets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.671892DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8217755PMC
June 2021

High-fat diet-induced obesity primes fatty acid β-oxidation impairment and consequent ovarian dysfunction during early pregnancy.

Ann Transl Med 2021 May;9(10):887

Laboratory of Reproductive Biology, School of Public Health and Management, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Background: Obesity is associated with many adverse effects on female fertility. Obese women have a higher likelihood of developing ovulatory dysfunction due to dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. However, the effect of obesity on ovarian function during early pregnancy needs to be further assessed.

Methods: C57BL6/J mice were given a high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks to induce obesity. An high-fat model was established by treating the human ovarian granulosa cell line KGN with oleic acid and palmitic acid. Ovarian morphology of obese mice in early pregnancy was assessed by hematoxylin and eosin staining and ovarian function was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. Oil Red O staining and transmission electron microscopy were used to detect fatty acid accumulation. Specific markers relating to the ovarian functional mechanism were assessed by real-time PCR, western blotting, lactate detection, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) detection, biochemical analyses, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

Results: The results of this study showed that during early pregnancy, the number of corpus lutea, serum estradiol and progesterone levels, and the expression of the steroid biosynthesis-related protein CYP19A1 (aromatase), CYP11A1 (cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme), and StAR (steroidogenic acute regulatory protein), were significantly increased in HFD mice. Mice fed an HFD also showed a significant increase in ovarian lipid accumulation on day 7 of pregnancy. Genes involved in fatty acid synthesis ( and ), and fatty acid uptake and transport (), together with the β-oxidation rate-limiting enzyme , were significantly upregulated in HFD mice. Specifically, there was abnormal elevation of ATP and aberrant expression of tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA)- and electron transport chain (ETC)-related genes in the ovaries of pregnant HFD mice. KGN cells treated with etomoxir targeting β-oxidation of fatty acid showed decreased TCA cycle and ETC related gene expression. The elevation of ATP and estradiol and progesterone levels was reversed.

Conclusions: During early pregnancy, HFD-induced obesity increases fatty acid β-oxidation, which in turn increases TCA cycle and ETC related gene expression, leading to increased ATP production and ovarian dysfunction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-21-2027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8184480PMC
May 2021

Exposure to Excessive Estrogen Impairs Homologous Recombination and Oogenesis via Estrogen Receptor 2 in Mice.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 4;9:669732. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Joint International Research Laboratory of Reproduction and Development, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

The association between the accumulation of synthetic chemicals with estrogenic activity and risks to oogenesis has become a growing concern. This study indicates that estrogen exposure can affect homologous recombination in early oogenesis and influence the reproductive potential and lifespan of female offspring. We conducted this study in developing mouse ovaries using two different models: oral doses administered to the mother, and fetal ovary cultures. Our analyses of meiotic fetal oocytes suggest that 17-β-estradiol induces gross aberrations in prophase I events, including delayed meiotic progression, increased unrepaired DNA damage, and altered homologous recombination levels. These effects were mainly mediated by estrogen receptor 2 (ESR2) activation. Mid-gestation exposure to estrogen also led to delayed primordial folliculogenesis after birth, impaired follicle development after prepuberty, and ultimately reduced the total litter size of the offspring. This raises the concern that maternal exposures to substances activating ESR2 may compromise the fertility of the exposed female fetus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.669732DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8212019PMC
June 2021

Rictor/mTORC2 is involved in endometrial receptivity by regulating epithelial remodeling.

FASEB J 2021 07;35(7):e21731

Joint International Research Laboratory of Reproduction & Development, School of Public Health and Management, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, P.R. China.

Successful embryo implantation requires well-functioning endometrial luminal epithelial cells to establish uterine receptivity. Inadequate uterine receptivity is responsible for approximately two thirds of implantation failures in humans. However, the regulatory mechanism governing this functional process remains largely unexplored. A previous study revealed that the expression of Rictor, the main member of mTORC2, in mouse epithelial cells is increased on the fourth day of gestation (D4). Here, we provide the first report of the involvement of Rictor in the regulation of endometrial receptivity. Rictor was conditionally ablated in the mouse endometrium using a progesterone receptor cre (PR ) mouse model. Loss of Rictor altered polarity remodeling and the Na channel protein of endometrial cells by mediating Rac-1/PAK1(pPAK1)/ERM(pERM) and Sgk1/pSgk1 signaling, respectively, ultimately resulting in impaired fertility. In the endometrium of women with infertility, the expression of Rictor was changed, along with the morphological transformation and Na channel protein of epithelial cells. Our findings demonstrate that Rictor is crucial for the establishment of uterine receptivity in both mice and humans. The present study may help improve the molecular regulatory network of endometrial receptivity and provide new diagnostic and treatment strategies for infertility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.202100529RRDOI Listing
July 2021

Effects of Hydrological Regime on Foliar Decomposition and Nutrient Release in the Riparian Zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China.

Front Plant Sci 2021 26;12:661865. Epub 2021 May 26.

Key Laboratory of Eco-Environments in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region (Ministry of Education), State Cultivation Base of Eco-Agriculture for Southwest Mountainous Land, College of Life Sciences, Southwest University, Chongqing, China.

Foliar decomposition has significant effects on nutrient cycling and the productivity of riparian ecosystems, but studies on the impact of related hydrological dynamics have been lacking. Here, the litterbag method was carried out to compare decomposition and nutrient release characteristics , including three foliage types [two single-species treatments using (L.) Rich., Koidz., or a mixture with equal proportions of leaf mass], three flooding depths (unflooded, shallow flooding, and deep flooding), two hydrodynamic processes (continuous flooding and flooded-to-unflooded hydrological processes), and one hydrological cycle (1 year) in the riparian zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir. The results showed that both hydrological processes significantly promoted foliage decomposition, and all foliage types decomposed the fastest in a shallow flooding environment ( < 0.05). The mixed-species samples decomposed most quickly in the flooded hydrological process in the first half of the year and the unflooded hydrological process in the second half of the year. Flooding also significantly promoted the release of nutrients ( < 0.05). Mixed-species samples had the fastest release rates of carbon and nutrients in the flooded hydrological process in the first half of the year and the unflooded hydrological process in the second half of the year. Foliage decomposition was also closely related to environmental factors, such as water depth, temperature, and hydrological processes. Our research clarified the material cycling and energy flow process of the riparian ecosystem in the Three Gorges Reservoir area. It also provided a new reference for further understanding of foliage decomposition and nutrient release under different hydrological environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.661865DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8187854PMC
May 2021

Exposure to ethylparaben and propylparaben interfere with embryo implantation by compromising endometrial decidualization in early pregnant mice.

J Appl Toxicol 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Laboratory of Reproductive Biology, School of Public Health, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Ethylparaben (EtP) and propylparaben (PrP) are common preservatives and well-known endocrine-disrupting chemicals. Studies have demonstrated that they can reduce female fertility, but the underlying mechanism, especially that on embryo implantation, is still poorly understood. Endometrial decidualization is a critical event for embryo implantation. In this study, we aimed to explore the effects of EtP/PrP on endometrial decidualization. Pregnant mice were dosed daily by oral gavage with EtP at 0, 400, 800 and 1600 mg/kg or with PrP at 0, 625, 1250 and 2500 mg/kg from Day 1 of pregnancy until sacrifice. The results showed that the rate of pregnant mice with impaired embryo implantation, whose number of implantation sites was less than 7, was significantly increased after exposure to 1600 mg/kg EtP or 2500 mg/kg PrP. Further study found that the expression of endometrial decidualization markers HOXA10, MMP9 and PR was significantly downregulated in 1600 mg/kg EtP group and 2500 mg/kg PrP group. Notably, serum oestrogen and progesterone levels were significantly increased, whereas the expression of uterine oestrogen receptor and progesterone receptor was decreased following 1600 mg/kg EtP or 2500 mg/kg PrP exposure. In the breeding test, fewer offspring were found after females were exposed to 1600 mg/kg EtP or 2500 mg/kg PrP in early pregnancy. This demonstrated that exposure to EtP/PrP interfered with embryo implantation by compromising endometrial decidualization in early-stage pregnant mice. Disorders of reproductive hormones and hormone receptor signals could be responsible for impaired decidualization. This study broadened the understanding on the biological safety of EtP and PrP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jat.4208DOI Listing
June 2021

High resolution RNA-seq profiling of genes encoding ribosomal proteins across different organs and developmental stages in .

Plant Direct 2021 May 27;5(5):e00320. Epub 2021 May 27.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory for Plant Epigenetics Longhua Bioindustry and Innovation Research Institute College of Life Sciences and Oceanography Shenzhen University Shenzhen China.

In , each ribosomal protein (RP) is encoded by a small gene family consisting of two or more highly homologous paralogues, which results in ribosome heterogeneity. It is largely unknown that how genes from multiple member containing RP families are regulated at transcriptional level to accommodate the needs of different plant organs and developmental stages. In this study, we investigated the transcript accumulation profiles of RP genes and found that the expression levels of RP genes are varied dramatically in different organs and developmental stages. Although most RP genes are found to be ubiquitously transcribed, some are obviously transcribed with spatiotemporal specificity. The hierarchical clustering trees of transcript accumulation intensity of RP genes revealed that different organs and developmental stages have different population of RP gene transcripts. By interrogating of the expression fluctuation trend of RP genes, we found that in spite of the fact that most groups of paralogous RP genes are transcribed in concerted manners, some RPs gene have contrasting expression patterns. When transcripts of paralogous RP genes from the same family are considered together, the expression level of most RP genes are well-matched but some are obviously higher or lower, therefore we speculate that some superfluous RPs may act outside the ribosome and a portion of ribosomes may lack one or even more RP(s). Altogether, our analysis results suggested that functional divergence may exist among heterogeneous ribosomes that resulted from different combination of RP paralogues, and substoichiometry of several RP gene families may lead to another layer of heterogeneous ribosomes which also have divergent functions in plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pld3.320DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8156134PMC
May 2021

Exposure to ethephon compromises endometrial decidualization in mice during early pregnancy via GPR120.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Sep 27;220:112361. Epub 2021 May 27.

Laboratory of Reproductive Biology, School of Public Health and Management, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, China; Joint International Research Laboratory of Reproduction & Development, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, China. Electronic address:

Exposure to ethephon (ETH), a plant growth regulator commonly used for several purposes, can potentially decrease sperm numbers and viability. Occasional findings regarding ETH effects on female reproduction during early pregnancy have also been reported. During early pregnancy, endometrial decidualization is a critical event for embryo implantation and pregnancy maintenance. Thus, we aimed to explore the effect and mechanism of ETH on endometrial decidualization both in vivo and in vitro. Mice were gavaged with 0 and 285 mg/kg b.w. ETH from gestational days (GD)1 until sacrifice, whereas pseudopregnant mice from pseudopregnant day 1 (PPD-1) until PPD-8. Primary mouse endometrial stromal cells (mESCs) received 640 ug/ml ETH and added E2 and P4 to induce decidualization. Results indicated female albino CD1 mice exposed to high dose of ETH (285 mg/kg b.w.) by oral gavage, the number of embryo implantation sites on GD6 and GD8 were significantly decreased, the levels of serum E2 and P4 on GD8 were significantly decreased. Compared with the control group, the decidualization response artificially induced by corn oil in pseudopregnant mice and by E2 and P4 in primary mouse endometrial stromal cells (mESCs) was weakened in the high dose of ETH treated group. The high dose, 285 mg/kg b.w ETH treated group altered the expression of endometrial decidual markers on GD6 and GD8. The triglyceride and fatty acid metabolism-related genes were significantly increased after female albino CD1 mice exposed to high does, 285 mg/kg b.w ETH on GD6 and GD8. GPR120 was substantially reduced after ETH treatment. When overexpression of GPR120, the compromised decidualization induced by ETH treatment was rescued. Furthermore, molecular docking presented Thr234 and His251 of GPR120 as preferred binding sites for ETH. Mutation of these two sites rescued the compromised decidualization induced by ETH. In conclusion, we demonstrated that ETH exposure could impair decidualization during early pregnancy. GPR120 expression and binding between GPR120 and ETH are crucial for impaired decidualization mediated via ETH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112361DOI Listing
September 2021

Exposure to N-monoacetyl-p-phenylenediamine impaired ovarian function in mice.

J Appl Toxicol 2021 May 20. Epub 2021 May 20.

Joint International Research Laboratory of Reproductive and Development, Department of Reproductive Biology, School of Public Health, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

p-Phenylenediamine (PPD) is the main constituent of permanent hair dye and is also widely used in the photographic and rubber industries. PPD and its metabolites have been shown to increase the risk of cancer (especially ovarian cancer); however, their effect on female reproduction is unclear. We investigated the effects of the PPD metabolite N-monoacetyl-PPD (MAPPD) on mouse blastocyst development and ovarian function. Sixty 8-week-old female Kunming mice were administered at 0-, 100-, and 300-mg/kg/day MPPD by gavage for 28 days. KGN (human ovarian granulosa cells) were treated with MAPPD at concentrations of 0, 50, 100, and 300 μg/ml for 48 h. The number of abnormal blastocysts increased on gestation day 3.5 in all treatment groups. Compared with the control group, in MAPPD exposed group, the number of antral follicles decreased, the levels of E and P decreased in ovarian tissue, the serum levels of E , P , luteinizing hormone (LH), and T decreased, and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) increased. The expression of FSH receptor (FSHR) and LH receptor (LHR) was significantly downregulated, and the level of oxidative stress was significantly increased. In KGN cells, the level of reactive oxygen species increased in a dose-dependent manner, and the mRNA levels of FSHR, LHR, and aromatase increased. These results suggest that MAPPD inhibits FSH- and LH-induced aromatase activity by causing oxidative stress, which decrease hormone levels, leading to abnormal follicle development. Meanwhile, MAPPD exposure could affect early embryonic development abnormalities by affecting the quality of ovum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jat.4183DOI Listing
May 2021

AMPK/mTOR downregulated autophagy enhances aberrant endometrial decidualization in folate-deficient pregnant mice.

J Cell Physiol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Laboratory of Reproductive Biology, College of Public Health and Administration, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, PR China.

Existing evidence suggests that adverse pregnancy outcomes are closely related to dietary factors. Folate plays an important role in neural tube formation and fetal growth, folate deficiency is a major risk factor of birth defects. Our early studies showed that folate deficiency could impair enddecidualization, however, the mechanism is still unclear. Dysfunctional autophagy is associated with many diseases. Here, we aimed to evaluate the adverse effect of folate deficiency on endometrial decidualization, with a particular focus on endometrial cell autophagy. Mice were fed with no folate diet in vivo and the mouse endometrial stromal cell was cultured in a folate-free medium in vitro. The decrease of the number of endometrial autophagosomes and the protein expressions of autophagy in the folate-deficient group indicated that autophagosome formation, autophagosome-lysosome fusion, and lysosomal degradation were inhibited. Autophagic flux examination using mCherry-GFP-LC3 transfection showed that the fusion of autophagosomes with lysosomes was inhibited by folate deficiency. Autophagy inducer rapamycin could reverse the impairment of folate deficiency on endometrial decidualization. Moreover, folate deficiency could reduce autophagy by disrupting AMPK/mTOR signaling, resulting in aberrant endometrial decidualization and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Further co-immunoprecipitation examination showed that decidual marker protein Hoxa10 could interact with autophagic marker protein Cathepsin L, and the interaction was notably reduced by folate deficiency. In conclusion, AMPK/mTOR downregulated autophagy was essential for aberrant endometrial decidualization in early pregnant mice, which could result in adverse pregnancy outcomes. This provided some new clues for understanding the causal mechanisms of birth defects induced by folate deficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcp.30408DOI Listing
May 2021

The Wnt/-Catenin Pathway Regulated Cytokines for Pathological Neuropathic Pain in Chronic Compression of Dorsal Root Ganglion Model.

Neural Plast 2021 19;2021:6680192. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Yueyang Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Shanghai 200437, China.

Neuropathic pain is one of the important challenges in the clinic. Although a lot of research has been done on neuropathic pain (NP), the molecular mechanism is still elusive. We aimed to investigate whether the Wnt/-catenin pathway was involved in NP caused by sustaining dorsal root ganglion (DRG) compression with the chronic compression of dorsal root ganglion model (CCD). Our RNA sequencing results showed that several genes related to the Wnt pathway have changed in DRG and spinal cord dorsal horn (SCDH) after CCD surgery. Therefore, we detected the activation of the Wnt/-catenin pathway in DRG and SCDH and found active -catenin significantly upregulated in DRG and SCDH 1 day after CCD surgery and peaked on days 7-14. Immunofluorescence results also confirmed nuclear translocalization of active -catenin in DRG and SCDH. Additionally, rats had obvious mechanical induced pain after CCD surgery and the pain was significantly alleviated after the application of the Wnt/-catenin pathway inhibitor XAV939. Furthermore, we found that the levels of proinflammatory factors tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) and interleukin-18 (IL-18) were significantly elevated in CCD rat serum, while the levels of them were correspondingly decreased after the Wnt/-catenin pathway being inhibited. The results of Spearman correlation coefficient analysis showed that the levels of TNF- and IL-18 were negatively correlated with the mechanical withdrawal thresholds (MWT) after CCD surgery. Collectively, our findings suggest that the Wnt/-catenin pathway plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of NP and may be an effective target for the treatment of NP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6680192DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8075704PMC
April 2021

Traumatic Brain Injury: Ultrastructural Features in Neuronal Ferroptosis, Glial Cell Activation and Polarization, and Blood-Brain Barrier Breakdown.

Cells 2021 Apr 24;10(5). Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Department of Human Anatomy, College of Basic Medical Sciences, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, China.

The secondary injury process after traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in motor dysfunction, cognitive and emotional impairment, and poor outcomes. These injury cascades include excitotoxic injury, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, ion imbalance, inflammation, and increased vascular permeability. Electron microscopy is an irreplaceable tool to understand the complex pathogenesis of TBI as the secondary injury is usually accompanied by a series of pathologic changes at the ultra-micro level of the brain cells. These changes include the ultrastructural changes in different parts of the neurons (cell body, axon, and synapses), glial cells, and blood-brain barrier, etc. In view of the current difficulties in the treatment of TBI, identifying the changes in subcellular structures can help us better understand the complex pathologic cascade reactions after TBI and improve clinical diagnosis and treatment. The purpose of this review is to summarize and discuss the ultrastructural changes related to neurons (e.g., condensed mitochondrial membrane in ferroptosis), glial cells, and blood-brain barrier in the existing reports of TBI, to deepen the in-depth study of TBI pathomechanism, hoping to provide a future research direction of pathogenesis and treatment, with the ultimate aim of improving the prognosis of patients with TBI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells10051009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8146242PMC
April 2021

EFL Students' Preferences for Written Corrective Feedback: Do Error Types, Language Proficiency, and Foreign Language Enjoyment Matter?

Front Psychol 2021 8;12:660564. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Martin De Tours School of Management and Economics, Assumption University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Using both quantitative and qualitative approaches, this study investigated the preference of learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) for four types of written corrective feedback (WCF), which are often discussed in the literature, on grammatical, lexical, orthographic, and pragmatic errors. In particular, it concerned whether such preference is influenced by two learner variables, namely, foreign language enjoyment (FLE) and proficiency level. The preference for selective vs. comprehensive WCF was also examined. The participants in the study were 117 University students in a Thai EFL context. Analysis of questionnaire data revealed a tendency for learners to prefer more explicit types of WCF (i.e., metalinguistic explanation and overt correction) for most error types, irrespective of their proficiency and FLE level. High proficiency level learners rated less explicit WCF types (i.e., underlining and error code) as useful to some degree, whereas their low proficiency level counterparts did not. Similar results were found for the two FLE groups. Besides, the FLE level seemed to play a role in perceiving the value of WCF in terms of scope. The results of follow-up interviews showed that the linguistic features of learners' first language, existing knowledge of the target language, affective feelings, and teacher's role were the main factors contributing to variation in learners' preferences. Possible pedagogical implications are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.660564DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8060554PMC
April 2021

[Impact of confined placental mosaicism on non-invasive prenatal testing and pregnancy outcomes].

Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi 2021 Apr;38(4):335-338

Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory for Prenatal Diagnosis and Birth Defect, Fujian Provincial Maternity and Child Health Cave Hospital, the Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350001, China.

Objective: To assess the impact of confined placental mosaicism (CPM) on non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) and pregnancy outcomes.

Methods: Copy number variation sequencing (CNV-seq) and single nucleotide polymorphism array (SNP-array) were carried out on placental specimen sampled from eight pregnancies with confirmed false-positive NIPT results. The impact of CPM on NIPT and pregnancy outcomes were analyzed based on the laboratory tests and clinical characteristics.

Results: Five of the eight cases with false-positive NIPT results were proven to be CPM involving trisomy 9, 13, 21, 22, and X, respectively. The mosaic ratios for different placental regions have varied from 4% to 80%. Two fetuses with confirmed CPM showed fetal growth restriction (FGR) and additional ultrasound abnormalities, 1 fetus showed only FGR. The remaining two fetuses showed normal growth.

Conclusion: NIPT is highly sensitive to CPM, whilst CPM is an important cause for false-positive NIPT result. CPM may be associated with FGR. Investigation of the presence of CPM is important for both pre- and post-test genetic counseling and management of the pregnancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn511374-20200803-00574DOI Listing
April 2021

[Effectiveness of non-invasive prenatal screening for the detection of fetal sex chromosome anomalies].

Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi 2021 Apr;38(4):325-328

Fujian Provincial Maternity and Child Health Care Hospital, the Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fujian Key Laboratory for Prenatal Diagnosis and Birth Defect, Fuzhou, Fujian 350001, China.

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of non-invasive prenatal screening (NIPS) for fetal sex chromosome anomalies.

Methods: A retrospective analysis was carried out for 20 802 women undergoing NIPS screening. For 165 cases suspected for fetal sex chromosomal anomalies, the results of invasive prenatal diagnosis were obtained.

Results: Among the 165 cases suspected for fetal sex chromosome anomalies, 129 have accepted invasive prenatal diagnosis, and 45 were confirmed, which yielded a positive predictive value of 34.88%. These included 16 cases of 47,XYY, 10 cases of 47,XXY, 6 cases of 45,X/46,XX, 5 cases of 47,XXX, 3 cases of 45,X, 1 case of 45,X/46,X,i(X)(q10), 1 case of 45,X/46,X,del(X)(q22), 1 case of 46,X,del(X)(q22), 1 case of 46,X,del(X)(p11) and 1 case of Xp22.31 1.2 Mb deletion.

Conclusion: NIPS has limited value for detecting fetal sex chromosome anomalies. Karyotyping analysis combined with other diagnostic techniques can offer effective prenatal diagnosis for suspected cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn511374-20200422-00295DOI Listing
April 2021

PANDORA-seq expands the repertoire of regulatory small RNAs by overcoming RNA modifications.

Nat Cell Biol 2021 04 5;23(4):424-436. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

State Key Laboratory of Stem Cell and Reproductive Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

Although high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) has greatly advanced small non-coding RNA (sncRNA) discovery, the currently widely used complementary DNA library construction protocol generates biased sequencing results. This is partially due to RNA modifications that interfere with adapter ligation and reverse transcription processes, which prevent the detection of sncRNAs bearing these modifications. Here, we present PANDORA-seq (panoramic RNA display by overcoming RNA modification aborted sequencing), employing a combinatorial enzymatic treatment to remove key RNA modifications that block adapter ligation and reverse transcription. PANDORA-seq identified abundant modified sncRNAs-mostly transfer RNA-derived small RNAs (tsRNAs) and ribosomal RNA-derived small RNAs (rsRNAs)-that were previously undetected, exhibiting tissue-specific expression across mouse brain, liver, spleen and sperm, as well as cell-specific expression across embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and HeLa cells. Using PANDORA-seq, we revealed unprecedented landscapes of microRNA, tsRNA and rsRNA dynamics during the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells. Importantly, tsRNAs and rsRNAs that are downregulated during somatic cell reprogramming impact cellular translation in ESCs, suggesting a role in lineage differentiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41556-021-00652-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8236090PMC
April 2021

Exposure to butylated hydroxytoluene compromises endometrial decidualization during early pregnancy.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Laboratory of Reproductive Biology, School of Public Health and Management, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016, China.

Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), one of the most widely used synthetic phenolic antioxidants, is a popular food additive. Previous studies have reported the possible health hazards of BHT. However, BHT effects on female reproduction, especially on endometrial decidualization, are still unknown. During early pregnancy, decidualization plays important roles for embryo implantation and pregnancy establishment. This study aimed to explore the effects of BHT on endometrial decidualization in pregnant mice. The pregnant mice received BHT via intraperitoneal injection at doses of 0, 200, and 400 mg/kg/day from day 1 (D1) of pregnancy until sacrifice. Under BHT exposure, maternal body weight was significantly decreased during early pregnancy. Compared with the control group, the number of implantation sites and uterine weight were significantly reduced in the BHT groups. The uterine lumen failed to close after BHT exposure, and the decidual morphology of endometrial stromal cells was inhibited by BHT. Furthermore, BHT significantly decreased the expression of endometrial decidual markers including COX2, HOXA10, and MMP9. Notably, the levels of serum estrogen (E2) and progesterone (P4) and expression levels of uterus estrogen receptor α (ERα) and progesterone receptor (PR) during early pregnancy were significantly upregulated following BHT exposure. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that gestational BHT exposure could inhibit decidualization of mouse endometrium during early pregnancy. The disorders of reproductive hormones and changes of hormone receptor signals could be responsible for the impaired decidualization. This study provided new evidence for the deleterious effects of BHT on female reproduction and revealed the potential reproductive toxicity of synthetic phenolic antioxidants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-13720-0DOI Listing
April 2021

Use of NAD tagSeq II to identify growth phase-dependent alterations in RNA NAD capping.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Apr;118(14)

Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR, China;

Recent findings regarding nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-capped RNAs (NAD-RNAs) indicate that prokaryotes and eukaryotes employ noncanonical RNA capping to regulate gene expression. Two methods for transcriptome-wide analysis of NAD-RNAs, NAD captureSeq and NAD tagSeq, are based on copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) click chemistry to label NAD-RNAs. However, copper ions can fragment/degrade RNA, interfering with the analyses. Here we report development of NAD tagSeq II, which uses copper-free, strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition (SPAAC) for labeling NAD-RNAs, followed by identification of tagged RNA by single-molecule direct RNA sequencing. We used this method to compare NAD-RNA and total transcript profiles of cells in the exponential and stationary phases. We identified hundreds of NAD-RNA species in and revealed genome-wide alterations of NAD-RNA profiles in the different growth phases. Although no or few NAD-RNAs were detected from some of the most highly expressed genes, the transcripts of some genes were found to be primarily NAD-RNAs. Our study suggests that NAD-RNAs play roles in linking nutrient cues with gene regulation in .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2026183118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8040648PMC
April 2021

Clinical Relevance of Gain- and Loss-of-Function Germline Mutations in STAT1: A Systematic Review.

Front Immunol 2021 11;12:654406. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Germline mutations in signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1), which lead to primary immunodeficiency, are classified as defects in intrinsic and innate immunity. To date, no comprehensive overview comparing GOF with LOF in early-onset immunodeficiency has been compiled. To collect and systematically review all studies reporting STAT1 GOF and LOF cases, and to describe the clinical, diagnostic, molecular, and therapeutic characteristics of all the conditions. A systematic review of the PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Scopus, and Cochrane to identify articles published before May 23, 2020. Data pertaining to patients with a genetic diagnosis of STAT1 GOF or LOF germline mutations, along with detailed clinical data, were reviewed. The search identified 108 publications describing 442 unique patients with STAT1 GOF mutations. The patients documented with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC; 410/442), lower respiratory tract infections (210/442), and autoimmune thyroid disease (102/442). Th17 cytopenia was identified in 87.8% of those with GOF mutations. Twenty-five patients with GOF mutations received hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), and 10 died several months later. Twelve of 20 patients who received JAK inhibitor therapy showed improved symptoms. Twenty-one publications described 39 unique patients with STAT1 LOF mutations. The most common manifestations were Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases (MSMD) (29/39), followed by osteomyelitis (16/39), and lymphadenopathy (9/39). Missense, indel, and frameshift mutations were identified as LOF mutations. There were no obvious defects in lymphocyte subsets or immunoglobulin levels. Eighteen patients required antimycobacterial treatment. Three patients received HSCT, and one of the three died from fulminant EBV infection. STAT1 GOF syndrome is a clinical entity to consider when confronted with a patient with early-onset CMC, bacterial respiratory tract infections, or autoimmune thyroid disease as well as Th17 cytopenia and humoral immunodeficiency. HSCT is still not a reasonable therapeutic choice. Immunoglobulin replacement therapy and JAK inhibitors are an attractive alternative. STAT1 LOF deficiency is a more complicated underlying cause of early-onset MSMD, osteomyelitis, respiratory tract infections, and Herpesviridae infection. Anti-mycobacterial treatment is the main therapeutic choice. More trials are needed to assess the utility of HSCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.654406DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7991083PMC
March 2021

Strontium gluconate potently promotes osteoblast development and restores bone formation in glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis rats.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 05 25;554:33-40. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Oncology Rehabilitation, Shenzhen Luohu People's Hospital, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, Guangdong, 518001, PR China. Electronic address:

Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIOP) has emerged as a challenge after long-term glucocorticoid administration during the clinical therapy of diverse diseases. Although some candidates for GIOP treatment have been explored, there is still a lack of reliable drugs for GIOP prevention. In this study, rat bone marrow stem cells (rBMSCs) were utilized to investigate the feasibility of applying strontium gluconate (GluSr), which displays mild activity, easy absorption and good biocompatibility, for GIOP prevention. Thirty-two SD rats were divided into 4 groups to explore the effects of GluSr on osteoporosis rescue in vivo. Our results suggested that GluSr markedly alleviated dexamethasone (DEX)-induced apoptosis of osteoblast precursor cells and rBMSCs and enhanced rBMSC osteogenesis differentiation in vitro. GluSr also effectively promoted osteoblast survival, inhibited osteoclast differentiation and restored bone formation in GIOP rat models. Microarray analysis of the femora from GIOP rats treated with GluSr revealed that the signalling pathways of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), oestrogen receptor gene (ESR) and vitamin D receptor (VDR) were involved in bone restoration by GluSr. In summary, our study proved that GluSr enhanced osteoblast differentiation and suppressed osteoclast activity both in vitro and in vivo. GluSr might function as a novel strontium reagent for GIOP prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2021.02.100DOI Listing
May 2021

Differential Effects of Serum Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2 on Periventricular and Deep Subcortical White Matter Hyperintensity in Brain.

Front Neurol 2021 8;12:605372. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Neurology, The Affiliated Jiangning Hospital With Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Serum level of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) was associated with white matter hyperintensity (WMH). There were differences in the anatomical structure and pathophysiological mechanism between periventricular WMH (PVWMH) and deep subcortical WMH (DSWMH). In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of serum Lp-PLA2 on the PVWMH and DSWMH. In total, 711 Chinese adults aged ≥45 years with cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were recruited in this cross-sectional study, who had received physical examinations in the Department of Neurology, the Affiliated Jiangning Hospital of Nanjing Medical University due to dizziness and headaches between January 2016 and July 2019. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was utilized to determine the serum Lp-PLA2. Fazekas scale was used to measure the severity of PVWMH (grade 0-3) and DSWMH (grade 0-3) on MRI scans. Ordinal regression analysis was carried out to investigate the relationship between serum Lp-PLA2 and PVWMH or DSWMH. Finally, 567 cases were included in this study. The average level of serum Lp-PLA2 was 213.35±59.34 ng/ml. There were statistical differences in the age, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, atrial fibrillation, lacunar infarction, Lp-PLA2 grade, creatinine, Hcy, and H-CRP ( < 0.05) in PVWMH groups. Ordinal regression analysis indicated that there was a lower risk of PVWMH in the patients with normal and moderately elevated serum Lp-PLA2 compared with those with significantly elevated serum Lp-PLA2 after adjusting age, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, atrial fibrillation, lacunar infarction, Cr, Hcy, and H-CRP. In addition, PVWMH was correlated to advanced age, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and lacunar infarction. After adjusting for confounding factors, DSWMH was correlated to advanced age and lacunar infarction. There was no correlation between serum Lp-PLA2 and DSWMH. Serum Lp-PLA2 was closely associated with the pathogenesis of PVWMH rather than DSWMH. There might be different pathological mechanisms between PVWMH and DSWMH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2021.605372DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7982574PMC
March 2021

SPAAC-NAD-seq, a sensitive and accurate method to profile NAD-capped transcripts.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Mar;118(13)

Department of Botany and Plant Sciences, Institute of Integrative Genome Biology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521;

Nicotinamide adenine diphosphate (NAD) is a novel messenger RNA 5' cap in , yeast, mammals, and Transcriptome-wide identification of NAD-capped RNAs (NAD-RNAs) was accomplished through NAD captureSeq, which combines chemoenzymatic RNA enrichment with high-throughput sequencing. NAD-RNAs are enzymatically converted to alkyne-RNAs that are then biotinylated using a copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction. Originally applied to RNA, which lacks the mG cap, NAD captureSeq was then applied to eukaryotes without extensive verification of its specificity for NAD-RNAs vs. mG-capped RNAs (mG-RNAs). In addition, the Cu ion in the CuAAC reaction causes RNA fragmentation, leading to greatly reduced yield and loss of full-length sequence information. We developed an NAD-RNA capture scheme utilizing the copper-free, strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction (SPAAC). We examined the specificity of CuAAC and SPAAC reactions toward NAD-RNAs and mG-RNAs and found that both prefer the former, but also act on the latter. We demonstrated that SPAAC-NAD sequencing (SPAAC-NAD-seq), when combined with immunodepletion of mG-RNAs, enables NAD-RNA identification with accuracy and sensitivity, leading to the discovery of new NAD-RNA profiles in Furthermore, SPAAC-NAD-seq retained full-length sequence information. Therefore, SPAAC-NAD-seq would enable specific and efficient discovery of NAD-RNAs in prokaryotes and, when combined with mG-RNA depletion, in eukaryotes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2025595118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8020637PMC
March 2021

In-utero exposure to HT-2 toxin affects meiotic progression and early oogenesis in foetal oocytes by increasing oxidative stress.

Environ Pollut 2021 Jun 13;279:116917. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Laboratory of Reproductive Biology, School of Public Health and Management, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016, PR China; Joint International Research Laboratory of Reproduction & Development, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016, PR China. Electronic address:

HT-2 toxin (HT-2), a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium species, is detected in a variety of cereal grain-based human food and animal feed. Apart from its well-established immunotoxicity and haematotoxicity, it also causes reproductive disorders. In the present study, we revealed the adverse effects of HT-2 on early oogenesis at the foetal stage. Pregnant mice were orally administered with HT-2 for 3 days at mid-gestation. Oocytes from female foetuses exposed to HT-2 displayed defects in meiotic prophase, including unrepaired DNA damage, elevated recombination levels, and reduced expression of meiotic-related genes. Subsequently, increased oxidative stress was observed in the foetal ovaries exposed to HT-2, along with the elevated levels of reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde, catalase, and superoxide dismutase 1/2, thereby resulting in impaired mitochondrial membrane potential and cell apoptosis. Furthermore, pre-treatment with urolithin A, a natural compound with antioxidant activities, partially reversed the delayed meiotic process by alleviating oxidative stress. Since early oogenesis is essential to determine female fertility in adult life, this study indicated that brief maternal exposure to HT-2 toxin may compromise the fertility of a developing female foetus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.116917DOI Listing
June 2021

Research progress of prophages.

Yi Chuan 2021 Mar;43(3):240-248

Faculty of Life Science and Technology, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650500, China.

As the most abundant biological entities on earth, bacteriophages (phages) were considered as the antagonists of bacteria. With the rapid development of genomics and molecular biology technologies, a subtle and complex relationship between phages and their host bacteria has been uncovered. Prophage refers to an intracellular form of a bacteriophage, which is usually integrated into the hereditary material of the host. Prophage is ubiquitously distributed in bacterial genomes. It reproduces when the host does and can affect important biological properties of their bacterial hosts, such as virulence, biofilm formation and host immunity. Interestingly, prophages were also involved in regulating the lysogeny-lytic state by "monitoring" the quorum sensing of bacteria. Recently, anti-CRISPR proteins encoded by prophages were found, which attracts a lot of attention. In this review, we summarized the prediction, distribution, classification and functions of prophages to lay a foundation for further studying interactions between phages and bacteria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.16288/j.yczz.20-355DOI Listing
March 2021

Detection of copy number variation associated with ventriculomegaly in fetuses using single nucleotide polymorphism arrays.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 5;11(1):5291. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Fujian Key Laboratory for Prenatal Diagnosis and Birth Defect, Fujian Maternity and Child Health Hospital, Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Gulou, Fuzhou, 350001, Fujian Province, China.

Etiopathogenesis of fetal ventriculomegaly is poorly understood. Associations between fetal isolated ventriculomegaly and copy number variations (CNVs) have been previously described. We investigated the correlations between fetal ventriculomegaly-with or without other ultrasound anomalies-and chromosome abnormalities. 222 fetuses were divided into four groups: (I) 103 (46.4%) cases with isolated ventriculomegaly, (II) 41 (18.5%) cases accompanied by soft markers, (III) 33 (14.9%) cases complicated with central nervous system (CNS) anomalies, and (IV) 45 (20.3%) cases with accompanying anomalies. Karyotyping and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array were used in parallel. Karyotype abnormalities were identified in 15/222 (6.8%) cases. Karyotype abnormalities in group I, II, III, and IV were 4/103 (3.9%), 2/41 (4.9%), 4/33 (12.1%), and 5/45 (11.1%), respectively. Concerning the SNP array analysis results, 31/222 (14.0%) were CNVs, CNVs in groups I, II, III, and IV were 11/103 (10.7%), 6/41 (14.6%), 9/33 (27.3%), and 5/45 fetuses (11.1%), respectively. Detections of clinical significant CNVs were higher in non-isolated ventriculomegaly than in isolated ventriculomegaly (16.81% vs 10.7%, P = 0.19). SNP arrays can effectively identify CNVs in fetuses with ventriculomegaly and increase the abnormal chromosomal detection rate by approximately 7.2%, especially ventriculomegaly accompanied by CNS anomalies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-83147-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7935846PMC
March 2021
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