Publications by authors named "Xuelin Li"

64 Publications

A genetically encoded sensor for measuring serotonin dynamics.

Nat Neurosci 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

State Key Laboratory of Membrane Biology, Peking University School of Life Sciences, Beijing, China.

Serotonin (5-HT) is a phylogenetically conserved monoamine neurotransmitter modulating important processes in the brain. To directly visualize the release of 5-HT, we developed a genetically encoded G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-activation-based 5-HT (GRAB) sensor with high sensitivity, high selectivity, subsecond kinetics and subcellular resolution. GRAB detects 5-HT release in multiple physiological and pathological conditions in both flies and mice and provides new insights into the dynamics and mechanisms of 5-HT signaling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41593-021-00823-7DOI Listing
April 2021

Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) Coatings Containing Flame Retardant Additives from Suspensions in Water-2-Propanol.

Molecules 2021 Mar 31;26(7). Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S4L7, Canada.

A dip-coating technique is designed for deposition of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) from water/2-propanol mixture, avoiding the use of traditional toxic solvents. Solutions of PMMA macromolecules with high molecular weight (M) are obtained for a water/2-propanol ratio of 0.15-0.33 and the solubilization mechanism is discussed. The ability to use concentrated PMMA solutions and high M of the polymer are the key factors for the successful dip coating deposition. The coating mass for 10 g L polymer solutions shows a maximum at a water/2-propanol ratio of 0.25. The deposition yield increases with the polymer concentration increase and with an increasing number of the deposited layers. PMMA deposits protect stainless steel from aqueous corrosion. The coating technique allows for the fabrication of composite coatings, containing flame-retardant materials (FRMs), such as commercial halloysite, huntite, hydrotalcite, and synthesized Al(OH), in the PMMA matrix. The FRM content in the coatings is modified by variation of the FRM content in colloidal suspensions. A fundamentally new method is developed, which is based on the salting out aided dispersive extraction of Al(OH) from the aqueous synthesis medium to 2-propanol. It is based on the use of hexadecylphosphonic acid molecules as extractors. The method offers advantages of reduced agglomeration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26071974DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8037898PMC
March 2021

Flame-retardant, high conductive and low-temperature resistant organic gel electrolyte for high performance all-solid supercapacitors.

ChemSusChem 2021 Mar 10. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Qilu University of technology, Department of Chemistry, Daxue Road, 250353, Jinan, CHINA.

Traditional liquid electrolytes are volatile, flammable and easy to leak, which makes the energy storage device easy to burn and explode in the case of overcharge and short circuit. Here, by utilizing the active P-H bond of flame retardant (DOPO) to graft onto the polymer chain, the flame-retardant organic gel electrolytes are fabricated to address these issues. The gel electrolyte has good ionic conductivity of 4 mS cm -1 at 20 o C and good flame retardant ability. By changing the molar ratio of the monomers and the salt concentrations, the mechanical strength of the gel electrolyte can be adjusted (maximum stress: ~28KPa and the maximum strain: ~305%). The transport mechanism of lithium ions in the gel polymer electrolyte is proposed. The gel electrolyte-assembled supercapacitor (SC) possesses better electrochemical properties than that of SC assembled by liquid electrolyte. Importantly, the gel-based SC remains basically unchanged under the multiple bending cycles. More importantly, the gel electrolyte has good low temperature tolerance (0.1 mS cm -1 at -40 °C). The gel electrolyte-assembled SC can work normally in the temperature range of -20 o C ~ 60 o C. The multiple advantages of gel electrolyte expand the applications in ionic conductor and energy storage devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cssc.202100141DOI Listing
March 2021

Percutaneous spinal endoscopy with unilateral interlaminar approach to perform bilateral decompression for central lumbar spinal stenosis: radiographic and clinical assessment.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2021 Mar 1;22(1):236. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Spine Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of University of South China, Hengyang, People's Republic of China.

Background: Recently, a percutaneous spinal endoscopy unilateral posterior interlaminar approach to perform bilateral decompression has been proposed for use in treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis, As a development and supplement to traditional surgery, its advantages regarding therapeutic effects and prognosis, such as minor soft tissue damage, little intraoperative blood loss, and a quick return to daily life. However, there are few analyses of this surgery with a follow-up of more than 1 year,we conducted this study in order to quantitatively investigate radiographic and clinical efficacies of this surgery for central lumbar spinal stenosis.

Materials And Methods: Forty-six patients with central lumbar spinal stenosis were enrolled from January 2017 to July 2018. The visual analog scale (VAS) for back pain and leg pain, Oswestry disability index (ODI), modified MacNab criteria were used to evaluate clinical efficiency at preoperative and postoperative time points. The intervertebral height index (IHI), cross-sectional area of the spinal canal (CSAC), calibrated disc signal (CDS) and spinal stability were examined to assess radiographic decompression efficiency via magnetic resonance imaging and X-ray at preoperative and postoperative time points.

Results: The VAS score for lower back pain and leg pain improved from 7.50 ± 0.78 to 1.70 ± 0.66 and from 7.30 ± 0.79 to 1.74 ± 0.68, respectively, and the ODI improved from 72.35 ± 8.15 to 16.15 ± 4.51. In terms of modified MacNab criteria, 91.3% of the patients achieved good or excellent outcomes. Furthermore, significant changes after surgery were observed for the percentage of CSAC, increasing from 125.3 ± 53.9 to 201.4 ± 78 mm; however, no significant differences were observed for the remaining measurement indicators.

Conclusions: The clinical and radiographic efficacies of this surgery for central lumbar spinal stenosis were good in short-term follow-up, and this surgery did not cause meaningful changes in IHI, CDS, and spine stability in short-term follow-up. The effect of long-term follow-up needs further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12891-021-04100-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7923329PMC
March 2021

Next-generation GRAB sensors for monitoring dopaminergic activity in vivo.

Nat Methods 2020 11 21;17(11):1156-1166. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

State Key Laboratory of Membrane Biology, Peking University School of Life Sciences, Beijing, China.

Dopamine (DA) plays a critical role in the brain, and the ability to directly measure dopaminergic activity is essential for understanding its physiological functions. We therefore developed red fluorescent G-protein-coupled receptor-activation-based DA (GRAB) sensors and optimized versions of green fluorescent GRAB sensors. In response to extracellular DA, both the red and green GRAB sensors exhibit a large increase in fluorescence, with subcellular resolution, subsecond kinetics and nanomolar-to-submicromolar affinity. Moreover, the GRAB sensors resolve evoked DA release in mouse brain slices, detect evoked compartmental DA release from a single neuron in live flies and report optogenetically elicited nigrostriatal DA release as well as mesoaccumbens dopaminergic activity during sexual behavior in freely behaving mice. Coexpressing red GRAB with either green GRAB or the calcium indicator GCaMP6s allows tracking of dopaminergic signaling and neuronal activity in distinct circuits in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41592-020-00981-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7648260PMC
November 2020

Gut microbiome-related effects of berberine and probiotics on type 2 diabetes (the PREMOTE study).

Nat Commun 2020 10 6;11(1):5015. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

National Clinical Research Centre for Metabolic Diseases, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200025, China.

Human gut microbiome is a promising target for managing type 2 diabetes (T2D). Measures altering gut microbiota like oral intake of probiotics or berberine (BBR), a bacteriostatic agent, merit metabolic homoeostasis. We hence conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with newly diagnosed T2D patients from 20 centres in China. Four-hundred-nine eligible participants were enroled, randomly assigned (1:1:1:1) and completed a 12-week treatment of either BBR-alone, probiotics+BBR, probiotics-alone, or placebo, after a one-week run-in of gentamycin pretreatment. The changes in glycated haemoglobin, as the primary outcome, in the probiotics+BBR (least-squares mean [95% CI], -1.04[-1.19, -0.89]%) and BBR-alone group (-0.99[-1.16, -0.83]%) were significantly greater than that in the placebo and probiotics-alone groups (-0.59[-0.75, -0.44]%, -0.53[-0.68, -0.37]%, P < 0.001). BBR treatment induced more gastrointestinal side effects. Further metagenomics and metabolomic studies found that the hypoglycaemic effect of BBR is mediated by the inhibition of DCA biotransformation by Ruminococcus bromii. Therefore, our study reports a human microbial related mechanism underlying the antidiabetic effect of BBR on T2D. (Clinicaltrial.gov Identifier: NCT02861261).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-18414-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7538905PMC
October 2020

Exploration of risk factors for acute myocardial infarction complicated with cerebral infarction.

Panminerva Med 2020 Oct 6. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Department of Geriatrics, Chongqing General Hospital, Chongqing, China -

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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0031-0808.20.04127-0DOI Listing
October 2020

MAGE-Targeted Gold Nanoparticles for Ultrasound Imaging-Guided Phototherapy in Melanoma.

Biomed Res Int 2020 18;2020:6863231. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

Institute of Ultrasound Imaging of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing Key Laboratory of Ultrasound Molecular Imaging, Chongqing 400010, China.

Gold nanorods exhibit a wide variety of applications such as tumor molecular imaging and photothermal therapy (PTT) due to their tunable optical properties. Several studies have demonstrated that the combination of other therapeutic strategies may improve PTT efficiency. A method called optical droplet vaporization (ODV) was considered as another noninvasive imaging and therapy strategy. Via the ODV method, superheated perfluorocarbon droplets can be vaporized to a gas phase for enhancing ultrasound imaging; meanwhile, this violent process can cause damage to cells and tissue. In addition, active targeting through the functionalization with targeting ligands can effectively increase nanoprobe accumulation in the tumor area, improving the sensitivity and specificity of imaging and therapy. Our study prepared a nanoparticle loaded with gold nanorods and perfluorinated hexane and conjugated to a monoclonal antibody (MAGE-1 antibody) to melanoma-associated antigens (MAGE) targeting melanoma, investigated the synergistic effect of PTT/ODV therapy, and monitored the therapeutic effect using ultrasound. The prepared MAGE-Au-PFH-NPs achieved complete eradication of tumors. Meanwhile, the MAGE-Au-PFH-NPs also possess significant ultrasound imaging signal enhancement, which shows the potential for imaging-guided tumor therapy in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/6863231DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7519981PMC
September 2020

Fatigue-Resistant, Notch-Insensitive Zwitterionic Polymer Hydrogels with High Self-Healing Ability.

Chempluschem 2020 09;85(9):2158-2165

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Qilu University of Technology (Shandong Academy of Sciences), Jinan, 250353, P. R. China.

Introducing self-healing properties into hydrogels can prolong their application lifetime. However, achieving mechanical strength without sacrificing self-healing properties is still a major challenge. We prepared a series of zwitterionic polymer hydrogels by random copolymerization of zwitterionic ionic monomer (SBMA), cationic monomer (DAC) and hydrophilic monomer (HEMA). The ionic bonds and hydrogen bonds formed in the hydrogels can efficiently dissipate energy and rebuild the network. The resulting hydrogels show high mechanical strength (289-396 KPa of fracture stress, 433-864 % of fracture stress) and have great fatigue resistance. The hydrogel with a 1 : 1 molar ratio of SBMA:DAC possesses the best self-healing properties (self-healing efficiency up to 96.5 % at room temperature for 10 h). The self-healing process is completely spontaneous and does not require external factors to assist. In addition, the hydrogel also possesses notch insensitivity with a fracture energy of 12000 J m . After combining the conductivity of RGO aerogel, the hydrogel/RGO composites show good strain sensitivity with high reliability and self-healing ability, which has certain significance in broadening the application of these zwitterionic hydrogels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cplu.202000520DOI Listing
September 2020

Comparison of carbonate precipitation induced by Curvibacter sp. HJ-1 and Arthrobacter sp. MF-2: Further insight into the biomineralization process.

J Struct Biol 2020 11 1;212(2):107609. Epub 2020 Sep 1.

College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China. Electronic address:

Microorganisms are generally involved in the nucleation, growth and phase transformation of carbonate minerals, and influence the development of their morphology and polymorphism. However, understanding of the process of microbially induced carbonate precipitation (MICP) remains limited. Herein, MICP experiments were carried out using Curvibacter sp. HJ-1 and Arthrobacter sp. MF-2 in M2 medium, and the processes of MICP were monitored. Bacterial cells induced the precipitation of carbonate by creating favorable physicochemical conditions and acting as nucleation templates for carbonate particles and thereby, markedly influenced the morphology and growth of the carbonate structure. The extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) secreted by the bacteria was readily absorbed by the precipitated carbonate, which modified its crystal growth orientation. The MgCO content of Mg-calcite, induced by MF-2, was dramatically higher than that induced by HJ-1; HJ-1 promoted the formation and stability of aragonite. Multiple formation mechanisms coexisted during the evolution process of the mineral morphologies in the presence of the bacteria. The spherulites observed mainly evolved from dumbbell-like precursors in the presence of MF-2, whereas aggregate growth was the main formation mechanism of radial spherulites in the presence of HJ-1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsb.2020.107609DOI Listing
November 2020

mA demethylase ALKBH5 inhibits tumor growth and metastasis by reducing YTHDFs-mediated YAP expression and inhibiting miR-107/LATS2-mediated YAP activity in NSCLC.

Mol Cancer 2020 02 27;19(1):40. Epub 2020 Feb 27.

Department of reproductive medicine, Binzhou Medical University Hospital, Binzhou, 256603, People's Republic of China.

Background: The importance of mRNA methylation erased by ALKBH5 in mRNA biogenesis, decay, and translation control is an emerging research focus. Ectopically activated YAP is associated with the development of many human cancers. However, the mechanism whereby ALKBH5 regulates YAP expression and activity to inhibit NSCLC tumor growth and metastasis is not clear.

Methods: Protein and transcript interactions were analyzed in normal lung cell and NSCLC cells. Gene expression was evaluated by qPCR and reporter assays. Protein levels were determined by immunochemical approaches. Nucleic acid interactions and status were analyzed by immunoprecipitation. Cell behavior was analyzed by standard biochemical tests. The mA modification was analyzed by MeRIP.

Results: Our results show that YAP expression is negatively correlated with ALKBH5 expression and plays an opposite role in the regulation of cellular proliferation, invasion, migration, and EMT of NSCLC cells. ALKBH5 reduced mA modification of YAP. YTHDF3 combined YAP pre-mRNA depending on mA modification. YTHDF1 and YTHDF2 competitively interacted with YTHDF3 in an mA-independent manner to regulate YAP expression. YTHDF2 facilitated YAP mRNA decay via the AGO2 system, whereas YTHDF1 promoted YAP mRNA translation by interacting with eIF3a; both these activities are regulated by mA modification. Furthermore, ALKBH5 decreased YAP activity by regulating miR-107/LATS2 axis in an HuR-dependent manner. Further, ALKBH5 inhibited tumor growth and metastasis in vivo by reducing the expression and activity of YAP.

Conclusions: The presented findings suggest mA demethylase ALKBH5 inhibits tumor growth and metastasis by reducing YTHDFs-mediated YAP expression and inhibiting miR-107/LATS2-mediated YAP activity in NSCLC. Moreover, effective inhibition of mA modification of ALKBH5 might constitute a potential treatment strategy for lung cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12943-020-01161-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7045432PMC
February 2020

The glucose-lowering effects of α-glucosidase inhibitor require a bile acid signal in mice.

Diabetologia 2020 05 8;63(5):1002-1016. Epub 2020 Feb 8.

Shanghai National Research Centre for Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, 197 Ruijin 2nd Road, Shanghai, 200025, China.

Aims/hypothesis: Bile-acid (BA) signalling is crucial in metabolism homeostasis and has recently been found to mediate the therapeutic effects of glucose-lowering treatments, including α-glucosidase inhibitor (AGI). However, the underlying mechanisms are yet to be clarified. We hypothesised that BA signalling may be required for the glucose-lowering effects and metabolic benefits of AGI.

Methods: Leptin receptor (Lepr)-knockout (KO) db/db mice and high-fat high-sucrose (HFHS)-fed Fxr (also known as Nr1h4)-KO mice were treated with AGI. Metabolic phenotypes and BA signalling in different compartments, including the liver, gut and endocrine pancreas, were evaluated. BA pool profiles were analysed by mass spectrometry. The islet transcription profile was assayed by RNA sequencing. The gut microbiome were assayed by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing.

Results: AGI lowered microbial BA levels in BA pools of different compartments in the body, and increased gut BA reabsorption in both db/db and HFHS-fed mouse models via altering the gut microbiome. The AGI-induced changes in BA signalling (including increased activation of farnesoid X receptor [FXR] in the liver and inhibition of FXR in the ileum) echoed the alterations in BA pool size and composition in different organs. In Fxr-KO mice, the glucose- and lipid-lowering effects of AGI were partially abrogated, possibly due to the Fxr-dependent effects of AGI on decelerating beta cell replication, alleviating insulin hypersecretion and improving hepatic lipid and glucose metabolism.

Conclusions/interpretation: By regulating microbial BA metabolism, AGI elicited diverse changes in BA pool composition in different host compartments to orchestrate BA signalling in the whole body. The AGI-induced changes in BA signalling may be partly required for its glucose-lowering effects. Our study, hence, sheds light on the promising potential of regulating microbial BA and host FXR signalling for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

Data Availability: Sequencing data are available from the BioProject Database (accession no. PRJNA600345; www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bioproject/600345).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00125-020-05095-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7145781PMC
May 2020

Correlation between glucose metabolism and serum steroid hormones in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.

Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2020 04 29;92(4):350-357. Epub 2020 Jan 29.

Shanghai National Clinical Research Center for Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Medical Genomics, Shanghai Institute of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Objective: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with an increased prevalence of dysglycaemia, which includes impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Patients with PCOS demonstrate abnormal patterns of steroid hormones. Here, we analyse the correlation between glucose metabolism and serum steroid hormones in PCOS.

Design: Observational double-centre study.

Patients: 914 patients with PCOS.

Measurements: We assessed the glucose metabolism status of all patients according to the 1999 WHO criteria. Serum steroid hormones were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

Results: The median age of the patients was 26 years (interquartile range: 21-30), and 40.6% (371/914) had abnormal glucose metabolism: 29.3% (268/914) had prediabetes, and 11.3% (103/914) had T2DM. Correlation analysis not adjusting for confounding factors revealed that serum aldosterone, androstenedione, oestrone, pregnenolone and the free androgen index were positively correlated, while progesterone was negatively correlated with the risk of abnormal glucose metabolism. After adjusting for age, body mass index and fasting insulin levels in the logistic regression model, only aldosterone (P = .013), androstenedione (P = .046) and oestrone (P = .014; in quartiles) were correlated with the risk of abnormal glucose metabolism.

Conclusions: This study indicates a high prevalence of prediabetes and T2DM in patients with PCOS. Furthermore, there were positive correlations of serum aldosterone, androstenedione and oestrone with the risk of abnormal glucose metabolism after adjusting for confounding factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cen.14154DOI Listing
April 2020

Metformin-repressed miR-381-YAP-snail axis activity disrupts NSCLC growth and metastasis.

J Exp Clin Cancer Res 2020 Jan 6;39(1). Epub 2020 Jan 6.

Department of Nursing, Binzhou Polytechnic University, Binzhou, 256603, People's Republic of China.

Background: Recent evidence indicates that metformin inhibits mammalian cancer growth and metastasis through the regulation of microRNAs. Metformin regulates miR-381 stability, which plays a vital role in tumor progression. Moreover, increased YAP expression and activity induce non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumor growth and metastasis. However, the molecular mechanism underpinning how metformin-induced upregulation of miR-381 directly targets YAP or its interactions with the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) marker protein Snail in NSCLC is still unknown.

Methods: Levels of RNA and protein were analyzed using qPCR, western blotting and immunofluorescence staining. Cellular proliferation was detected using a CCK8 assay. Cell migration and invasion were analyzed using wound healing and transwell assays. Promoter activity and transcription were investigated using the luciferase reporter assay. Chromatin immunoprecipitation was used to detect the binding of YAP to the promoter of Snail. The interaction between miR-381 and the 3'UTR of YAP mRNA was analyzed using the MS2 expression system and co-immunoprecipitation with biotin.

Results: We observed that miR-381 expression is negatively correlated with YAP expression and plays an opposite role to YAP in the regulation of cellular proliferation, invasion, migration, and EMT of NSCLC cells. The miR-381 function as a tumor suppressor was significantly downregulated in lung cancer tissue specimens and cell lines, which decreased the expression of its direct target YAP. In addition, metformin decreased cell growth, migration, invasion, and EMT via up-regulation of miR-381. Moreover, YAP, which functions as a co-transcription factor, enhanced NSCLC progression and metastasis by upregulation of Snail. Snail knockdown downregulated the mesenchymal marker vimentin and upregulated the epithelial marker E-cadherin in lung cancer cells. Furthermore, miR-381, YAP, and Snail constitute the miR-381-YAP-Snail signal axis, which is repressed by metformin, and enhances cancer cell invasiveness by directly regulating EMT.

Conclusions: Metformin-induced repression of miR-381-YAP-Snail axis activity disrupts NSCLC growth and metastasis. Thus, we believe that the miR-381-YAP-Snail signal axis may be a suitable diagnostic marker and a potential therapeutic target for lung cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13046-019-1503-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6945774PMC
January 2020

Atorvastatin Targets the Islet Mevalonate Pathway to Dysregulate mTOR Signaling and Reduce β-Cell Functional Mass.

Diabetes 2020 01 24;69(1):48-59. Epub 2019 Oct 24.

Department of Metabolism and Endocrinology, Shanghai East Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China

Statins are cholesterol-lowering agents that increase the incidence of diabetes and impair glucose tolerance via their detrimental effects on nonhepatic tissues, such as pancreatic islets, but the underlying mechanism has not been determined. In atorvastatin (ator)-treated high-fat diet-fed mice, we found reduced pancreatic β-cell size and β-cell mass, fewer mature insulin granules, and reduced insulin secretion and glucose tolerance. Transcriptome profiling of primary pancreatic islets showed that ator inhibited the expression of pancreatic transcription factor, mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling, and small G protein (sGP) genes. Supplementation of the mevalonate pathway intermediate geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP), which is produced by 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase, significantly restored the attenuated mTOR activity, v-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog A (MafA) expression, and β-cell function after ator, lovastatin, rosuvastatin, and fluvastatin treatment; this effect was potentially mediated by sGP prenylation. Rab5a, the sGP in pancreatic islets most affected by ator treatment, was found to positively regulate mTOR signaling and β-cell function. Rab5a knockdown mimicked the effect of ator treatment on β-cells. Thus, ator impairs β-cell function by regulating sGPs, for example, Rab5a, which subsequently attenuates islet mTOR signaling and reduces functional β-cell mass. GGPP supplementation could constitute a new approach for preventing statin-induced hyperglycemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db19-0178DOI Listing
January 2020

Metal cation saturation on montmorillonites facilitates the adsorption of DNA via cation bridging.

Chemosphere 2019 Nov 21;235:670-678. Epub 2019 Jun 21.

Institute of Organic Contaminant Control and Soil Remediation, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, PR China. Electronic address:

Extracellular DNA (eDNA) is widely present in soil, with potential ecological impacts. Metal cations are naturally present on the surface of soil clay minerals, although the adsorption mechanism of eDNA on clay minerals saturated with metal cations is still not fully understood. The research investigated the adsorption of eDNA, using salmon sperm DNA as a representative, on metal cation (Na, Ca, and Fe)-saturated montmorillonites (Mt). Metal cation-saturated Mt have higher adsorption capacities for DNA. Compared with Mt (3500 mg⋅kg), the amounts of DNA adsorption on metal cation-saturated Mt (pH = 7.0) were increased by 0.74-5.38 times, and followed the descending order of Fe-Mt > Na-Mt > Ca-Mt > Mt. A temperature of 25 °C was found to be more suitable than 15 and 35 °C for DNA adsorption, while an increasing pH value (3.0-9.0) reduced DNA adsorption on Mt and metal cation-saturated Mt. Microscopic and spectroscopic analyses, together with a model computation technique, confirmed that metal cations saturated on the surface of Mt work like a "cation bridge" linking oxygen atoms in the phosphate groups of DNA and the negatively charged moieties of Mt, which were predominantly bound through electrostatic forces, thus, facilitating DNA adsorption at pH > 5. The results of this investigation provide valuable insight into eDNA adsorption on soil clay minerals and the transport and fate of eDNA in the natural soil environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.06.159DOI Listing
November 2019

The impact of shift work on glycemic characteristics assessed by CGM and its association with metabolic indices in non-diabetic subjects.

Acta Diabetol 2020 Jan 24;57(1):53-61. Epub 2019 Jun 24.

Department of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Aim: To explore the glycemic characteristics of non-diabetic shift workers and associations with metabolic indices.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 450 non-diabetic males, including 238 shift workers, aged 23-58 years, were recruited after a screening oral glucose tolerance test. Blood samples and anthropometric data were collected. Hundred and fifty of them finished a continuous glucose monitoring for 3-7 days.

Results: Compared to daytime workers, shift workers presented with larger WHR (p < 0.001), higher HOMA-IR (p < 0.001), higher hs-CRP level (p < 0.001) and worse lipid profiles. In glycemic characteristics, shift workers with normal glucose regulation had a similar mean blood glucose (MBG), daytime MBG, percentage of time of hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, euglycemia, and fluctuation parameters, including standard deviation of blood glucose (SDBG), mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE) and mean of daily differences (p > 0.05, respectively), while they had a higher nighttime MBG (p = 0.026) and blood glucose (BG) at 3 a.m. (p = 0.015). For subjects with impaired glucose regulation, both groups had no difference in any clinical characteristics or glycemic parameters (p > 0.05, respectively). Further regression analysis revealed the association between MBG/SDBG/MAGE/nighttime MBG/BG at 3 a.m. and age/WHR/hs-CRP/TC.

Conclusion: For non-diabetic shift workers, the glycemic characteristic was the elevated nighttime glycemia, presented as higher nighttime MBG and BG at 3 a.m. And both metrics were closely associated with central obesity. Elevated nighttime glycemia was an early signal of glucose metabolism disorder in shift workers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00592-019-01372-zDOI Listing
January 2020

Saxagliptin alters bile acid profiles and yields metabolic benefits in drug-naïve overweight or obese type 2 diabetes patient.

J Diabetes 2019 Dec 29;11(12):982-992. Epub 2019 Jul 29.

Department of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao-Tong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai Key Laboratory for Endocrine Tumours, Shanghai Clinical Centre for Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Shanghai Institute of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases and Shanghai Institute for Endocrinology, Shanghai, China.

Background: The aim of the present study was to investigate the metabolic benefits of saxagliptin and its effects on serum bile acids (BAs) in normal weight and overweight/obese drug-naïve type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients.

Methods: In all, 282 drug-naïve T2D patients (123 normal weight [NW], with body mass index [BMI] between 19.0 and <25.0 kg/m ; 159 overweight/obese [OW/OB], with BMI ≥25.0 kg/m ) were enrolled in the study and treated with saxagliptin 5 mg daily for 24 weeks. Serum BAs were assayed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

Results: At 24 weeks, HbA1c was significantly reduced in both groups, but the HbA1c levels were lower in the OW/OB than NW group. Moreover, significant decreases were seen at 24 weeks in C-reactive protein (CRP), aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, waist circumference, and systolic blood pressure in the OW/OB group. Interestingly, cholic acid, glycocholic acid, glycochenodeoxycholic acid, glycodeoxycholic acid (GDCA), and glycoursodeoxycholic acid (GUDCA) were increased in both groups after treatment, whereas chenodeoxycholic acid and deoxycholic acid (DCA) were specifically increased in the OW/OB group. Increased DCA and GDCA concentrations were significantly associated with decreased HbA1c or fasting blood glucose and CRP levels, whereas increased GDCA and GUDCA concentrations were associated with decreased waist circumference in the OW/OB group during treatment. In the NW group, increased GUDCA concentrations were significantly associated with a decrease in HbA1c.

Conclusions: Type 2 diabetes patients with OW/OB exhibited greater improvement in glycemic control and additional metabolic benefits after saxagliptin treatment. Saxagliptin significantly increased the BA pool, and DCA and GDCA were associated with metabolic improvements in OW/OB T2D patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1753-0407.12956DOI Listing
December 2019

IR780-loaded folate-targeted nanoparticles for near-infrared fluorescence image-guided surgery and photothermal therapy in ovarian cancer.

Int J Nanomedicine 2019 18;14:2757-2772. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Chongqing Key Laboratory of Ultrasound Molecular Imaging, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400010, People's Republic of China.

Surgery is regarded as the gold standard for patients with advanced ovarian cancer. However, complete surgical removal of tumors remains extremely challenging; fewer than 40% of patients are cured. Here, we developed a new modality of theranostics for ovarian cancer based on a near-infrared light-triggered nanoparticle. Nanoparticles loading IR780 iodide on base of folate modified liposomes were prepared and used for theranostics of ovarian cancer. Tumor targeting of FA-IR780-NP was evaluated in vitro and in an ovarian xenograft tumor model. A fluorescence stereomicroscope was applied to evaluate the tumor recognition of FA-IR780-NP during surgery. FA-IR780-NP mediated photothermal therapy effect was compared with other treatments in vivo. FA-IR780-NP was demonstrated to specifically accumulate in tumors. IR780 iodide selectively accumulated in tumors; the enhanced permeability and retention effect of the nanoparticles and the active targeting of folate contributed to the excellent tumor targeting of FA-IR780-NP. With the aid of tumor targeting, FA-IR780-NP could be used as an indicator for the real-time delineation of tumor margins during surgery. Furthermore, photothermal therapy mediated by FA-IR780-NP effectively eradicated ovarian cancer tumors compared with other groups. In this study, we present a potential, effective approach for ovarian cancer treatment through near-infrared fluorescence image-guided resection and photothermal therapy to eliminate malignant tissue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S203108DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6503636PMC
July 2019

Post-marketing safety surveillance and re-evaluation of Xueshuantong injection.

BMC Complement Altern Med 2018 Oct 16;18(1):277. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

The First Affiliated Hospital of Henan University of Chinese Medicine, Zhengzhou, 450000, People's Republic of China.

Background: Traditional Chinese medicine injections (TCMIs) have been widely used to treat severe and acute diseases due to their high bioavailability, accurate curative effect, and rapid effect. However, incidence rates of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) of TCMIs have also increased in recent years. Xueshuantong injection (XSTI) is a commonly-used TCMI comprised of Panax notoginseng total sapiens for the treatment of stroke hemiplegia, chest pain, and central retinal vein occlusion. Its safety remains uncelar. Therefore, post-marketing safety of XSTI was studied in this research.

Methods: In present study, post-marketing safety surveillance and re-evaluation of XSTI were reported. Thirty thousand eight hundred eighty-four patients in 33 hospitals from 7 provinces participated in this study. Incidence rate, most common clinical manifestations, types, severity, occurrence time, and disposal of ADRs were calculated.

Results: Incidence rate of ADR of XSTI was 4.14‰ and the most common clinical manifestations were skin and its appendages damage. Type A accounts for 95.49% of ADRs of XSTI and most of them (41.41%) were occurred within 24 h after receiving XSTI treatment. Severities of most ADRs of XSTI were moderate reactions (86.72%). Main disposition of ADRs of XSTI was drug withdrawal and symptomatic treatment (54.69%).

Conclusions: Our data provide basis for improvement of instructions of XSTI and clinical safety of XSTI. Post-marketing surveillance of TCMIs in this study is a powerful tool to identify types and manifestations of ADRs to improve safety and effectiveness of drugs in clinical applications.

Trial Registration: This protocol has international registration in China clinical trial registration center ( ChiCTR~OPC~ 14,005,718 ) at December 22, 2014.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-018-2329-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6192149PMC
October 2018

Cumulative Incidence of Hypertension by 55 Years of Age in Blacks and Whites: The CARDIA Study.

J Am Heart Assoc 2018 07 11;7(14). Epub 2018 Jul 11.

Department of Epidemiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, AL.

Background: Blacks have higher blood pressure levels compared with whites beginning in childhood. Few data are available on racial differences in the incidence of hypertension from young adulthood through middle age.

Methods And Results: We calculated the cumulative incidence of hypertension from age 18 to 55 years among participants in the CARDIA (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults) study. Incident hypertension was defined by the first visit with mean systolic blood pressure ≥130 mm Hg, mean diastolic blood pressure ≥80 mm Hg, or self-reported use of antihypertensive medication. Among 3890 participants without hypertension at baseline (aged 18-30 years), cumulative incidence of hypertension by age 55 years was 75.5%, 75.7%, 54.5%, and 40.0% in black men, black women, white men, and white women, respectively. Among participants with systolic blood pressure/diastolic blood pressure <110 and 70, 110 to 119/70 to 74, and 120 to 129/75 to 79 mm Hg at baseline, blacks were more likely than whites to develop hypertension: multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios 1.97 (95% confidence interval, 1.65, 2.35), 1.80 (95% confidence interval, 1.52, 2.14), and 1.59 (95% confidence interval, 1.31, 1.93), respectively. Parental history of hypertension and higher body mass index, serum uric acid, and systolic blood pressure/diastolic blood pressure categories were associated with a higher risk for hypertension among blacks and whites. A higher Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet adherence score was associated with a lower risk for hypertension in blacks and whites.

Conclusions: Regardless of blood pressure level in young adulthood, blacks have a substantially higher risk for hypertension compared with whites through 55 years of age.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.117.007988DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6064834PMC
July 2018

A preliminary study of photoacoustic/ultrasound dual-mode imaging in melanoma using MAGE-targeted gold nanoparticles.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2018 07 25;502(2):255-261. Epub 2018 May 25.

Institute of Ultrasound ImagingofChongqing Medical University, Chongqing Key Laboratory of Ultrasound Molecular Imaging, Chongqing, 400010, China. Electronic address:

Nanoprobes are small enough to circulate within the vasculature and can reach tumour tissues through the endothelial gap, providing a new strategy for accurate tumour monitoring and imaging-guided antitumour therapy at the molecular level. Both photoacoustic and ultrasonic imaging are noninvasive tools for cancer detection via the application of nanoprobes. In this study, a polymeric multifunctional nanoparticle probe loaded with gold nanorods (Au-NRs) and liquid perfluorocarbon (perfluorinated hexane/PFH) and conjugated to a monoclonal antibody (MAGE-1 antibody) to melanoma-associated antigens (MAGE) targeting melanoma was successfully prepared by the double emulsion and carbodiimide methods as a targeted photoacoustic/ultrasound dual-mode imaging contrast agent (MAGE-Au-PFH-NPs). Cell-targeting experiments in vitro showed large amounts of MAGE-Au-PFH-NPs surrounding B16 melanoma cells in the targeted group. The photoacoustic signal in the targeted group was significantly increased, and the duration was longer than that in the untargeted group in vivo. The photoacoustic signal of the nanoprobes was enhanced with increased Au-NR concentration in the photoacoustic experiment in vitro. The enhanced signal was observed by ultrasound after 808-nm laser irradiation. A cytotoxicity and biocompatibility test showed that MAGE-Au-PFH-NPs exhibited good biological safety. The MAGE-Au-PFH-NPs can be used as a photoacoustic/ultrasound dual-mode contrast agent to lay the foundation for a promising new approach for the noninvasive targeting, monitoring and treatment of tumours.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2018.05.155DOI Listing
July 2018

High mobility group box 1 was associated with thrombosis in patients with atrial fibrillation.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 Mar;97(13):e0132

Department of Cardiology, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, Nanjing Medical University Department of Cardiology, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, Medical School, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China.

Introduction: High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a member of the HMGB family that is involved in inflammatory disease-related thrombosis. We hypothesize that HMGB1 and its downstream factors are associated with thrombosis in atrial fibrillation (AF).

Materials And Methods: Our experimental materials were the left atrial appendage (LAA) tissues from patients undergoing valve replacement. The samples were divided into 3 groups: a sinus rhythm group (n = 15), an AF(+)thrombus(-)group (n = 15), and an AF(+) thrombus (+)group (n = 15). The expression of HMGB1, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), advanced glycation end product (RAGE), myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), nuclear factor κB (NFκB), p-NFκB, and tissue factor (TF) were detected by Western blot and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. The expressions of interleukin-1 beta, interleukin 6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were detected by quantitative real-time PCR.

Results: The Western blots revealed significantly higher expressions of HMGB1, MyD88, p-NFκB/NFκB, and TF in the AF(+)thrombus(+) group than in the other 2 groups. However, no differences in TLR4 or RAGE expression were found between the groups. IHC staining also revealed higher expressions of HMGB1 and TF in the AF(+)thrombus(+) group. The increased mRNA expressions of classic inflammatory factors (i.e., interleukin-1 beta, interleukin 6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha) in AF(+)thrombus(+) group further validated the correlation between inflammation and thrombi in atrial fibrillation.

Conclusions: HMGB1 was associated with thrombosis in patients with AF via the MyD88/NFκB pathway after adjustment for cardiac and extra cardiac inflammation variables.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000010132DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5895421PMC
March 2018

Perfluorooctyl bromide & indocyanine green co-loaded nanoliposomes for enhanced multimodal imaging-guided phototherapy.

Biomaterials 2018 05 24;165:1-13. Epub 2018 Feb 24.

Institute of Ultrasound Imaging, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400010, China. Electronic address:

As a highly biocompatible NIR dye, indocyanine green (ICG) has been widely explored for cancer treatment due to its various energy level transition pathways upon NIR light excitation simultaneously, which leads to different theranostic effects (eg. Photoacoustic (PA) and fluorescence imaging (FL), photodynamic and photothermal therapy (PDT&PTT)). However, the theranostic efficiency of ICG is restricted intrinsically, owing to the competitive relationship of its co-existing imaging and therapeutic effect. Moreover, the extrinsic hypoxia nature of tumor further limits its therapeutic effect, especially for the oxygen-dependent PDT. Herein, perfluorooctyl bromide (PFOB), another biocompatible chemical, was integrated with ICG in a nanoliposome structure via a facile two-step emulsion method. Such an ICG&PFOB co-loaded nanoliposomes (LIP-PFOB-ICG) realized computed tomography (CT) contrast imaging in vivo, providing better anatomical information of tumor in comparison to ICG enabled PA and FL imaging. More importantly, LIP-PFOB-ICG inhibited MDA-MB-231 tumor growth completely via intravenous injection through enhanced PDT&PTT synergistic therapy due to the excellent oxygen carrying ability of PFOB, which effectively attenuated tumor hypoxia, improved the efficiency of collisional energy transfer between ICG and oxygen and reduced the expression of heat shock protein (HSP). As expected, the introduction of PFOB within nanoliposomes with ICG has augmented the theranostic effect of ICG comprehensively, which makes this simple biocompatible liposome-based nanoagent a potential candidate for clinical imaging guided phototherapy of cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2018.02.041DOI Listing
May 2018

Nucleation and Growth of Mg-Calcite Spherulites Induced by the Bacterium Curvibacter lanceolatus Strain HJ-1.

Microsc Microanal 2017 12 4;23(6):1189-1196. Epub 2017 Dec 4.

College of Resources and Environmental Sciences,Nanjing Agricultural University,Nanjing,210095,China.

Calcite spherulites have been observed in many laboratory experiments with different bacteria, and spherulitic growth has received much interest in mineralogy research. However, the nucleation and growth mechanism, as well as geological significance of calcite spherulites in solution with bacteria is still unclear. Herein, spherulites composed of an amorphous core, a Mg-calcite body and an organic film were precipitated by the Curvibacter lanceolatus HJ-1 bacterial strain in a solution with a molar Mg/Ca ratio of 3. Based on the results, we provide a possible mechanism for the biomineralization of Mg-calcite spherulites. First, amorphous calcium carbonate particles are deposited and aggregated into a stable sphere-like core in combination with organic molecules. The core then acts as the nucleus of spherulitic radial growth. Finally, the organic film grows on the surface of Mg-calcite spherulites as a result of bacterial metabolism and calcification. These findings provide insight into the growth mode and crystallization of biogenic spherulites during biomineralization, and are of significance in the application of novel biological materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1431927617012715DOI Listing
December 2017

Repression of YAP by NCTD disrupts NSCLC progression.

Oncotarget 2017 Jan;8(2):2307-2319

Cancer Research Institute, Binzhou Medical University Hospital, Binzhou 256603, P.R. China.

The efficacy of available lung cancer therapeutic interference is significantly limited by various resistance mechanisms to those drugs. Activation of the oncogene YAP underlying the initiation, progression, and metastasis of lung cancer associates with poor prognosis and confers drug resistance against targeted therapy. In this study, we evaluated the specificity of norcantharidin (NCTD) in repressing YAP to inhibit non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) progression. Our study revealed that YAP signal pathways were aberrantly activated in lung cancer tissues and cells which rendered more proliferative and invasive phenotypes to human lung cancer cells. We confirmed that NCTD specifically repressed YAP signaling pathway to interfere the YAP-mediated non-small cell lung carcinoma progression and metastasis via arresting cell cycle, enhancing apoptosis and inducing senescence. We also found NCTD-mediated repression of YAP decreased epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and reduced the motile and invasive cellular phenotype in vitro via enhancing E-cadherin and decreasing fibronectin/vimentin. Mechanistic investigations revealed that NCTD transcriptionally downregulated YAP and post-translationally modulated the subcellular redistribution of YAP between nucleus and cytoplasm. Collectively, our results indicated that NCTD is a novel therapeutic drug candidate for NSCLC which specifically and sensitively target YAP signal pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.13668DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5356801PMC
January 2017

Optimization and validation of the protocol used to analyze the taste of traditional Chinese medicines using an electronic tongue.

Exp Ther Med 2016 Nov 20;12(5):2949-2957. Epub 2016 Sep 20.

Department of Pharmacy, The First Affiliated Hospital of Henan University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Zhengzhou, Henan 450000, P.R. China; The Level Three Laboratory of Chinese Traditional Medical Preparation of State Administration of TCM, Henan 450000, P.R. China; Key Laboratory of Viral Diseases Prevention and Treatment of TCM of Henan Province, Zhengzhou, Henan 450000, P.R. China.

Tools to define the active ingredients and flavors of Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCMs) are limited by long analysis times, complex sample preparation and a lack of multiplexed analysis. The aim of the present study was to optimize and validate an electronic tongue (E-tongue) methodology to analyze the bitterness of TCMs. To test the protocol, 35 different TCM concoctions were measured using an E-tongue, and seven replicate measurements of each sample were taken to evaluate reproducibility and precision. E-tongue sensor information was identified and classified using analysis approaches including least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM), support vector machine (SVM), discriminant analysis (DA) and partial least squares (PLS). A benefit of this analytical protocol was that the analysis of a single sample took <15 min for all seven sensors. The results identified that the LS-SVM approach provided the best bitterness classification accuracy (binary classification accuracy, 100%; ternary classification accuracy, 89.66%). The E-tongue protocol developed showed good reproducibility and high precision within a 6 h measurement cycle. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of an E-tongue being applied to assay the bitterness of TCMs. This approach could be applied in the classification of the taste of TCMs, and serve important roles in other fields, including foods and beverages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2016.3733DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5103729PMC
November 2016

Phenanthrene and Pyrene Modify the Composition and Structure of the Cultivable Endophytic Bacterial Community in Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam).

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2016 11 3;13(11). Epub 2016 Nov 3.

Institute of Organic Contaminant Control and Soil Remediation, College of Resource and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China.

This study provides new insights into the dynamics of bacterial community structure during phytoremediation. The communities of cultivable autochthonous endophytic bacteria in ryegrass exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated with regard to their potential to biodegrade PAHs. Bacterial counts and 16S rRNA gene sequence were used in the microbiological evaluation. A total of 33 endophytic bacterial strains were isolated from ryegrass plants, which represented 15 different genera and eight different classes, respectively. Moreover, PAH contamination modified the composition and structure of the endophytic bacterial community in the plants. sp., sp., sp., sp., sp. and sp. were only isolated from the seedlings exposed to PAHs. Furthermore, the dominant genera in roots shifted from sp. to sp., sp., sp., and sp., which could highly biodegrade phenanthrene (PHE). However, the diversity of endophytic bacterial community was decreased by exposure to the mixture of PAHs, and increased by respective exposure to PHE and pyrene (PYR), while the abundance was increased by PAH exposure. The results clearly indicated that the exposure of plants to PAHs would be beneficial for improving the effectiveness of phytoremediation of PAHs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13111081DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5129291PMC
November 2016

Application of Laparoscopic Lumbar Discectomy and Artificial Disc Replacement: At Least Two Years of Follow-Up.

Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2016 Oct;41 Suppl 19:B38-B43

*Department of Spinal Surgery, the First Affiliated Hospital of University of South China, Hengyang, HuNan Province, China †The Orthopaedic Department of Sun YiXian Hospital of Zhongshan University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China.

Study Design: This prospective observational study included 22 patients who were diagnosed with symptomatic degenerative disc disease treated via artificial disc replacement (ADR) with a laparoscopic technique.

Objective: The current study aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of ADR using a laparoscopic technique for lumbar disc herniation.

Summary Of Background Data: Symptomatic degenerative disc disease is the major cause of low back pain with lumbar segmental instability. ADR has increased in popularity as an alternative treatment for lumbar disc herniation. However, the traditional approach to spinal surgery carries the risk of catastrophic bleeding from injury to major vessels, as well as iatrogenic injury to the viscera and associated structures. Therefore, laparoscopic lumbar discectomy and ADR may represent a useful alternative.

Methods: Twenty-two patients (8 males and 14 females) who were diagnosed with symptomatic degenerative disc disease were included in this study. Seven cases involved the L4/5 level, and 15 cases involved the L5/S1 level. All patients were ineffective after at least 6 months of conservative treatments; all patients were informed of the surgery before the operation and provided consent. Three-dimensional computed tomographic angiography (3D-CTA) of the iliac great blood vessels was completed before the surgery. All surgical procedures were performed under a laparoscope. All patients were followed up.

Results: All surgeries were successfully completed. The average operation time was 120 minutes (range 110-150 min), and the average hemorrhage was 145 mL (range 80-360 mL). All cases underwent X-rays at 3 days, 3 months, 6 months, 1 year, and the final postoperative follow-up. The outcome indicated that there was no mobilization, displacement, or subsidence in all patients with the exception of one case with prosthesis migration. The follow-up time was 43.8 months (range 24-64 months). The mean visual analog scale (VAS) and Oswestry scores were decreased postoperatively. The mean improvement rate of the VAS score was 73.5%.

Conclusion: Lumbar ADR using a laparoscope represents a novel, minimally invasive treatment for symptomatic degenerative disc disease and severe lumbar discogenic pain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BRS.0000000000001820DOI Listing
October 2016

Inferior outcomes for black children with high risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia and the impact of socioeconomic variables.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2017 02 21;64(2):267-274. Epub 2016 Sep 21.

Division of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama.

Background: While significant improvements have been made for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in the United States over the past 20 years, black patients continue to have inferior outcomes. The full impact of socioeconomic variables on outcomes in this minority population is not entirely understood.

Procedure: Disease characteristics, demographic, and socioeconomic status (SES) variables were collected on black (n = 44) and white (n = 178) patients diagnosed at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to evaluate the influence of SES and insurance status on survival.

Results: As a cohort, 5-year overall survival (OS) was 87% (82-91%), with a median follow-up of 99 months. In univariable analysis, black race was not significantly associated with a higher risk of death or relapse and death. White and black patients with standard-risk leukemia had excellent outcomes, with 97% (91-99%) and 96% (75-99%) 5-year OS, respectively. In contrast, for high-risk disease, white patients had a statistically significant improved 5-year OS rates compared with black patients (79% [68-87%] vs. 52% [28-72%]). Black children were more likely to have public insurance, and, in multivariable analysis, this was associated with a trend toward an improved outcome. Black patients also had poorer census tract-level SES parameters, but these variables were not associated with survival.

Conclusion: Our study demonstrates significantly inferior outcomes for black children with high-risk leukemia. These outcome disparities were not related to SES variables, including poverty or private insurance coverage, suggesting the involvement of other factors and highlighting the need for a prospective investigative analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.26222DOI Listing
February 2017