Publications by authors named "Xuejuan Xia"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Enhancing the cardiovascular protective effects of a healthy dietary pattern with wolfberry (Lycium barbarum): A randomized controlled trial.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Food Science & Technology, Faculty of Science, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.

Background: The consumption of wolfberry (Lycium barbarum), a rich source of carotenoids and bioactive polysaccharides, may serve as a potential dietary strategy for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk management although limited studies examined its effects as whole fruits.

Objectives: To investigate the impact of wolfberry consumption as part of a healthy dietary pattern on vascular health-related outcomes and classical CVD risk factors in middle-aged and older adults in Singapore.

Methods: This is a 16-week, parallel design, randomized controlled trial. All participants (n = 40) received dietary counselling to follow healthy dietary pattern recommendations with the wolfberry group given additional instructions to cook and consume 15 g/d whole, dried wolfberry with their main meals. Biomarkers of vascular function (flow-mediated dilation, plasma total nitrate/nitrite, endothelin-1, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1), vascular structure (carotid intima-media thickness) and vascular regeneration (endothelial progenitor cell count, plasma angiopoietin 1 and angiopoietin 2), were assessed at baseline and postintervention. Serum lipid-lipoproteins and blood pressure were evaluated every 4 weeks.

Results: All participants showed an improved compliance toward the healthy dietary pattern. This was coupled with marked rises in total nitrate/nitrite concentrations (mean change wolfberry: 3.92 ± 1.73 nmol/mL; control: 5.01 ± 2.55 nmol/L) and reductions in endothelin-1 concentrations (wolfberry: -0.19 ± 0.06 pg/mL; control: -0.15 ± 0.08 pg/mL). Compared with the control which depicted no changes from baseline, the wolfberry group had a significantly higher HDL cholesterol (0.08 ± 0.04 mmol/L), as well as lower Framingham predicted long-term CVD risk (-0.8 ± 0.5%) and vascular age (-1.9 ± 1.0 y) postintervention. No differences were observed in the other vascular health-related outcomes.

Conclusions: In middle-aged and older adults, adherence to a healthy dietary pattern improves vascular tone. Incorporating wolfberry to the diet further improves blood lipid-lipoprotein profile and may lower long-term CVD risk. This study was registered at clinicatrials.gov as NCT03535844.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqab062DOI Listing
May 2021

Effects of fatty acids composition in a breakfast meal on the postprandial lipid responses: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

Int J Food Sci Nutr 2020 Nov 29;71(7):793-803. Epub 2020 Mar 29.

Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Science, National University of Singapore, Singapore.

Replacement of food rich in saturated fatty acids (SFAs) with unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) is a well-known dietary strategy to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease while its impact on postprandial blood lipids is less examined. This study assessed the effects of fatty acids composition on the postprandial triglycerides and cholesterol responses. Seventeen randomised controlled trials were identified and pooled analysis results revealed that consumption of a UFAs-rich or an SFAs-rich breakfast meal did not acutely affect postprandial triglycerides and cholesterol responses. However, subgroup analysis observed that triglycerides incremental area under the curve was lower with an SFAs-rich meal (SMD: -0.36; 95% CI: -0.57, -0.15) over a less than 8 h duration, while was higher (SMD: 0.59; 95% CI: 0.05, 1.23) over a longer postprandial duration. It suggests that the postprandial duration is of importance when evaluating the effects of fatty acids composition on blood lipid responses.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09637486.2020.1744534DOI Listing
November 2020

The physiological and toxicological effects of antibiotics on an interspecies insect model.

Chemosphere 2020 Jun 25;248:126019. Epub 2020 Jan 25.

State Key Laboratory of Silkworm Genome Biology, College of Biotechnology, Southwest University, Chongqing, 400716, China. Electronic address:

Silkworm (Bombyx mori L.) has a clear genetic background, parts of which are highly homologous to certain genes related to human hereditary diseases. Thus, the species presents an excellent interspecies model for drug screening and microbe-host interaction studies. Chloramphenicol (CAM) and vancomycin (VCM) are antibiotics commonly used to treat specific bacterial infections in medical care, animal husbandry, and agriculture. However, inappropriate dosages and prolonged therapy increase their risk of toxicity. In this work, we investigated the physiological and toxicological responses of silkworm to combined oral administration of CAM and VCM. Results showed that antibiotics promote the feeding behavior of silkworm and significantly reduce (P < 0.05) intestinal cultivable bacterial counts. Moreover, antibiotics decreased the antioxidant enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase, and thioredoxin reductase and caused oxidative damage to the silkworm intestine; the degree of damage was confirmed by histopathology analysis. The gene expression levels of antimicrobial peptides (attacin, lysozyme, and cecropins) were also perturbed by antibiotics. After antibiotic exposure, 16S rRNA metagenomic sequencing revealed increases in the relative abundance of Sphingobium, Burkholderia, Barnesiella, Bacteroides, Bradyrhizobium, Acinetobacter, Phenylobacterium, Plesiomonas, Escherichia/Shigella, and unclassified bacteria, as well as a reduction of Enterococcus. The metabolic and functional profiles of intestinal microbiota, particularly metabolic processes, such as energy, cofactors and vitamins, lipid, amino acid, and carbohydrate metabolisms, changed after antibiotic exposure. In conclusion, our findings reveal that antibiotics exert substantial effects on silkworm. The present study may promote the applications of silkworm as an interspecies model in the medical and pharmaceutical fields.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.126019DOI Listing
June 2020

Hypocholesterolaemic effect of whole-grain highland hull-less barley in rats fed a high-fat diet.

Br J Nutr 2018 05;119(10):1102-1110

1College of Food Science,Southwest University,Chongqing 400715,People's Republic of China.

Whole-grain highland hull-less barley (WHLB) contains high amounts of bioactive compounds that potentially exhibit cholesterol-lowering effects. This study investigated the hypocholesterolaemic effect of WHLB. A total of seventy-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups and were fed with the normal control diet, high-fat diet (HFD) and HFD containing low or high dose (10 or 48·95 %) of WHLB. High dose of WHLB significantly decreased the organ indexes of liver and abdominal fat and lipid levels of plasma and liver in HFD rats. The lipid regulation effect of WHLB, which was reconfirmed through hepatocyte morphologic observation, was accompanied by a large excretion of bile acids in the small intestinal contents and the faeces. Real-time PCR analyses, which were further reconfirmed through Western blot analyses, revealed that a high dose of WHLB significantly enhanced the hepatic expressions of AMP-activated protein kinase α, cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase, LDL receptor, liver X receptor, and PPARα and decreased the expression of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase. It also enhanced the ileal expression of farnesoid X receptor and resulted in the decrease of expression of apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter. WHLB exhibited hypocholesterolaemic effects mainly by inhibiting cholesterol synthesis, cholesterol accumulation in peripheral tissue, and bile acid reabsorption and by stimulating bile acid synthesis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114518000831DOI Listing
May 2018

Antioxidant activity of whole grain highland hull-less barley and its effect on liver protein expression profiles in rats fed with high-fat diets.

Eur J Nutr 2018 Sep 27;57(6):2201-2208. Epub 2017 Jun 27.

College of Food Science, Southwest University, Tiansheng Road 1, Chongqing, 400715, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Whole grain exhibits potential for regulating lipid levels, possibly because of its antioxidant activity. This study aims to investigate the antioxidant activity of whole grain highland hull-less barley (WHLB) and its effect on liver protein expression profiles in rats fed with high-fat diets.

Methods: Antioxidant activity of WHLB was investigated in vitro by analyzing phenolic and pentosan contents and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Proteins involved in lipid regulation were investigated in vivo by analyzing liver protein expression profiles in Sprague-Dawley rats fed with high-fat diet (HFD) with or without WHLB.

Results: WHLB possessed high total phenolic content (259.90 mg/100 g), total pentosan content (10.74 g/100 g), and ORAC values (418.05 ± 5.65 μmol/g). Rats fed with WHLB diet exhibited significantly (P < 0.05) lower liver lipid levels than those fed with the control HFD diet. Seven differentially expressed proteins were detected through liver proteome analysis and were found to be correlated with 11 pathways, including lipid metabolism, through annotation with Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that rats given with WHLB diet exhibited down-regulated expression of heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) and phosphatidylethanolamine binding protein 1 (PEBP1) and up-regulated expression of enoyl-coenzyme A hydratase (ECH) and peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6).

Conclusions: HSP60, PEBP1, ECH, and PRDX6 may be involved in the lipid regulatory effect of WHLB. Moreover, the regulation of PRDX6 may be related to the antioxidant activity of WHLB.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-017-1494-zDOI Listing
September 2018

Effect of Whole Grain Qingke (Tibetan Hordeum vulgare L. Zangqing 320) on the Serum Lipid Levels and Intestinal Microbiota of Rats under High-Fat Diet.

J Agric Food Chem 2017 Apr 24;65(13):2686-2693. Epub 2017 Mar 24.

College of Food Science, Southwest University , Chongqing 400715, China.

This study investigated the hypolipidemic effect of whole grain Qingke (WGQ) and its influence on intestinal microbiota. Changes in the serum lipid, intestinal environment, and microbiota of Sprague-Dawley rats fed high-fat diets supplemented with different doses of WGQ were determined. Results showed that high doses of WGQ significantly decreased (P < 0.05) the Lee's index, serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels whereas they increased the body weight of the rats. Cecal weight and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentration increased with increasing WGQ dose. An Illumina-based sequencing approach showed that the relative abundance of putative SCFA-producing bacteria Prevotella and Anaerovibrio increased in the rats fed the WGQ diet. Principal component analysis revealed a significant difference in intestinal microbiota composition after the administration of the WGQ diet. These findings provide insights into the contribution of the intestinal microbiota to the hypolipidemic effect of WGQ.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.6b05641DOI Listing
April 2017

alkylamides ameliorate protein metabolism disorder in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

J Mol Endocrinol 2017 04 18;58(3):113-125. Epub 2017 Jan 18.

College of Food ScienceSouthwest University, Chongqing, China.

This study aimed to evaluate the protein metabolism effect of alkylamides and to explore the potential mechanism in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Diabetic rats were orally treated with 2, 4 and 8 mg per kg bw of alkylamides daily for 28 days. Alkylamides decreased the relative weight of the liver and food intake, significantly increased the relative skeletal muscle weight and significantly decreased the blood urea nitrogen levels. Insulin, insulin-like growth factor 1, total protein (TP) and albumin (ALB), globular proteins and ALB proteins/globulin protein levels in serum significantly increased. TP, RNA content and RNA/DNA ratio significantly increased in the skeletal muscle of diabetic rats. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction results indicated that alkylamides significantly increased the mRNA expression of insulin receptor (InR), IGF1 and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) in the liver and skeletal muscle. Moreover, the mRNA and protein expression levels of PI3K, PKB and mTOR significantly increased, whereas those of atrogin-1, muscle ring finger 1 and FOXO in the skeletal muscle significantly decreased. Alkylamides may advance protein synthesis by the PI3K/PKB/mTOR signalling pathway and attenuate the catabolism of protein through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Therefore, it was possible that alkylamides ameliorate protein metabolism disorders in diabetic rats by activating the mTOR pathway.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/JME-16-0218DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5424265PMC
April 2017

Preparation and characterization of resistant starch type IV nanoparticles through ultrasonication and miniemulsion cross-linking.

Carbohydr Polym 2016 May 7;141:151-9. Epub 2016 Jan 7.

College of Food Science, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China; Laboratory of Quality & Safety Risk Assessment for Agro-products on Storage and Preservation (Chongqing), Ministry of Agriculture, Chongqing 400715, China. Electronic address:

This study aimed to assess the properties of resistant starch type IV (chemically modified starch, RS4) prepared from a new and convenient synthesis route by using ultrasonication combined with water-in-oil miniemulsion cross-linking technique. A three-factor Box-Behnken design and optimization was used to minimize particle size through the developed RS4 nanoparticles. The predicted minimized Z-Avel (576.1nm) under the optimum conditions of the process variables (ultrasonic power, 214.57W; sonication time, 114.73min; and oil/water ratio, 10.54:1) was very close to the experimental value (651.0nm) determined in a batch experiment. After preparing the RS4 nanoparticles, morphological, physical, chemical, and functional properties were assessed. Results revealed that RS4 nanoparticle size reached about 600nm. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that ultrasonication induced notches and grooves on the surface. Under polarized light, the polarized cross was impaired. X-ray diffraction results revealed that the crystalline structure was disrupted. Smaller or no endotherms were exhibited in DSC analysis. In the FTIR graph, new peaks at 1532.91 and 1451.50cm(-1) were observed, and pasting properties were reduced. Amylose content, solubility, and SP increased, but RS content decreased. Anti-digestibility remained after ultrasonication. The prepared RS4 nanoparticles could be extensively used in biomedical applications and in the development of new medical materials.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2016.01.008DOI Listing
May 2016

[Effect of fluoride on gut microflora of silkworm (Bombyx mori)].

Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao 2015 Jul;55(7):926-34

Objective: We examined the effect of fluoride on gut microflora of silkworm.

Methods: After DNA extraction and PCR amplification, clone libraries of 16S rRNA gene fragment were constructed. Amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) was performed by digestion of the 16S rRNA gene, and each unique restriction fragment polymorphism pattern was designated as an operational taxonomic unit (OTU). A total of 14 OTUs were identified from intestinal samples of both T6 and 734. Phylogenetic trees of bacterial 16S rRNA nucleotide sequences were constructed and analyzed. Furthermore, the dominant bacteria were studied by the nested polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DDGE) technology.

Results: After fluorosis, the flora of Enterococcus and Bacillus reduced. However, the flora of Staphylococcus increased.

Conclusion: Fluoride can destroy the balance of microflora in the gut of silkworm by changing the bacteria diversity and proportion, which has bigger effect to 734 than T6.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
July 2015

Purification and Structural Identification of Polysaccharides from Bamboo Shoots (Dendrocalamus latiflorus).

Int J Mol Sci 2015 Jul 9;16(7):15560-77. Epub 2015 Jul 9.

College of Food Science, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China.

Three kinds of polysaccharides, namely, BSP1A, BSP2A, and BSP3B, were isolated from raw bamboo shoot (Dendrocalamus latiflorus) after purification and classification by DEAE cellulose-52 (ion-exchange chromatography) and Sephadex G-50. The molecular weights of BSP1A, BSP2A, and BSP3B were 10.2, 17.0 and 20.0 kDa, respectively, which were measured through GPC (gel performance chromatography) methods. BSP1A contained arabinose, glucose, and galactose in a molar ratio of 1.0:40.6:8.7. BSP2A and BSP3B contained arabinose, xylose, glucose, and galactose in molar ratios of 6.6:1.0:5.2:10.4 and 8.5:1.0:5.1:11.1, respectively. The existence of the O-glycopeptide bond in BSP1A, BSP2A, and BSP3B was demonstrated by β-elimination reaction. FTIR spectra of the three polysaccharides showed that both BSP2A and BSP3B contained β-D-pyranose sugar rings. However, BSP1A exhibited both β-D-pyranose and α-D-pyranose sugar rings. Congo red test indicated that BSP1A and BSP2A displayed triple helix structures, but BSP3B did not. NMR spectroscopy revealed that BSP1A may exhibit a β-1,6-Glucan pyran type as the main link, and few 1,6-glycosidic galactose pyranose and arabinose bonds were connected; BSP2A mainly demonstrated → 5)β-Ara(1 → and → 3)β-Gal(1 → connection. Furthermore, BSP3B mainly presented → 3)β-Glu(1 → and → 3)β-Gal(1 → connection and may also contain few other glycosidic bonds.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms160715560DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4519913PMC
July 2015

Immune activity of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) glycoprotein after enzymatic and chemical modifications.

Food Funct 2015 Jun;6(6):2026-32

College of Food Science, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China.

This study aimed to investigate the immune activity of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) glycoprotein (SPG-1) before and after enzymatic and chemical modifications. The protein portion of SPG-1 was modified by pepsin, trypsin, and acetylation treatments. The carbohydrate portion was modified by glucoamylase, NaIO4, and sulfation treatments. The carbohydrate chain of SPG-1 (SPG-1-C) was obtained. Immune activity was analyzed by measuring the serum lysozyme activity and T cell immune response. SPG-1 increased immune activity with a dose-response effect. Immune activity was slightly decreased after pepsin and trypsin hydrolysis, whereas it increased after a moderate degree (DS = 0.68) of acetylation. Immune activity was partly decreased after glucoamylase hydrolysis, remarkably decreased after NaIO4 oxidation, or was lost after a high modification by sulfation. Compared with SPG-1 groups, the SPG-1-C groups increased immune activities had insignificant (P > 0.05) differences. Hence, appropriate modifications of the protein portion could be conducted and it was found that high modifications of the carbohydrate portion should be avoided to improve or maintain the immune function of SPG-1.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c5fo00314hDOI Listing
June 2015