Publications by authors named "Xue-Ting Liu"

33 Publications

Exploration of sensory and spinal neurons expressing gastrin-releasing peptide in itch and pain related behaviors.

Nat Commun 2020 03 13;11(1):1397. Epub 2020 Mar 13.

Center for the Study of Itch and Sensory Disorders, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, 63110, USA.

Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) functions as a neurotransmitter for non-histaminergic itch, but its site of action (sensory neurons vs spinal cord) remains controversial. To determine the role of GRP in sensory neurons, we generated a floxed Grp mouse line. We found that conditional knockout of Grp in sensory neurons results in attenuated non-histaminergic itch, without impairing histamine-induced itch. Using a Grp-Cre knock-in mouse line, we show that the upper epidermis of the skin is exclusively innervated by GRP fibers, whose activation via optogeneics and chemogenetics in the skin evokes itch- but not pain-related scratching or wiping behaviors. In contrast, intersectional genetic ablation of spinal Grp neurons does not affect itch nor pain transmission, demonstrating that spinal Grp neurons are dispensable for itch transmission. These data indicate that GRP is a neuropeptide in sensory neurons for non-histaminergic itch, and GRP sensory neurons are dedicated to itch transmission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-15230-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7070094PMC
March 2020

Modulation of NR1 receptor by CaMKIIα plays an important role in chronic itch development in mice.

Brain Res Bull 2020 05 26;158:66-76. Epub 2020 Feb 26.

Department of Pain Management, The State Key Clinical Specialty in Pain Medicine, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, 510260, P.R. China. Electronic address:

Intractable scratching is the characteristic of chronic itch, which represents a great challenge in clinical practice. However, the mechanism underlying chronic itch development is largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the role of NMDA receptor in acute itch and in development of chronic itch. A mouse model was developed by painting DNFB to induce allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). We found that the expression of pNR1, which is a subunit of NMDA receptor, was significantly increased in the dorsal root ganglion in the DNFB model. The DNFB-evoked spontaneous scratching was blocked by the NMDA antagonist D-AP-5, the calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK) inhibitor KN-93, a CaMKIIα siRNA and the PKC inhibitor LY317615. Moreover, activation of PKC did not reverse the CaMKIIα knockdown-induced decrease in scratching, suggesting that PKC functions upstream of CaMKIIα. Thus, our study indicates that modulation of NR1 receptor by CaMKIIα plays an important role in the development of chronic itch.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2020.02.011DOI Listing
May 2020

Molecular mapping of the gene(s) conferring resistance to Soybean mosaic virus and Bean common mosaic virus in the soybean cultivar Raiden.

Theor Appl Genet 2019 Nov 20;132(11):3101-3114. Epub 2019 Aug 20.

Laboratory of Plant Genetics and Molecular Evolution, Department of Genetics and Evolutionary Biology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, 163 XianLin Avenue, Nanjing, 210023, China.

Key Message: In the soybean cultivar Raiden, both a SMV-resistance gene and a BCMV-resistance gene were fine-mapped to a common region within the Rsv1 complex locus on chromosome 13, in which two CC-NBS-LRR resistance genes (Glyma.13g184800 and Glyma.13g184900) exhibited significant divergence between resistant and susceptible cultivars and were subjected to positive selection. Both Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) and Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) can induce soybean mosaic diseases. To date, few studies have explored soybean resistance against these two viruses simultaneously. In this work, Raiden, a cultivar resistant to both SMV and BCMV, was crossed with a susceptible cultivar, Williams 82, to fine-map the resistance genes. After inoculating ~ 200 F individuals with either SMV (SC6-N) or BCMV (HZZB011), a segregation ratio of 3 resistant:1 susceptible was observed, indicating that for either virus, a single dominant gene confers resistance. Bulk segregation analysis (BSA) revealed that the BCMV-resistance gene is also linked to the SMV-resistance Rsv1 complex locus. Genotyping the F individuals with 12 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers across the Rsv1 complex locus then preliminarily mapped the SMV-resistance gene, Rsv1-r, between SSR markers BARCSOYSSR_13_1075 and BARCSOYSSR_13_1161 and the BCMV-resistance gene between BARCSOYSSR_13_1084 and BARCSOYSSR_13_1115. Furthermore, a population of 1009 F individuals was screened with markers BARCSOYSSR_13_1075 and BARCSOYSSR_13_1161, and 32 recombinant F individuals were identified. By determining the genotypes of these F individuals on multiple internal SSR and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and assaying the phenotypes of selected recombinant F lines, both the SMV- and BCMV-resistance genes were fine-mapped to a common region ( ~ 154.5 kb) between two SNP markers: SNP-38 and SNP-50. Within the mapped region, two CC-NBS-LRR genes exhibited significant divergence between Raiden and Williams 82, and their evolution has been affected by positive selection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00122-019-03409-xDOI Listing
November 2019

Insight into the fenton-induced degradation process of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) extracted from activated sludge.

Chemosphere 2019 Nov 12;234:318-327. Epub 2019 Jun 12.

College of Environment, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310014, China; Key Laboratory of Microbial Technology for Industrial Pollution Control of Zhejiang Province, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310014, China. Electronic address:

Although EPS in microbial aggregates are importance in successful implementation of biological wastewater treatment systems, they also exhibit detrimental role on certain circumstance, such as excess sludge dewatering. Extensive efforts have been put into the disruption of EPS for improving the dewaterability of excess sludge and Fenton's reagent treatment has been demonstrated to be a very promising sludge conditioning method for EPS destruction. However, the information regarding detailed degradation process of EPS during Fenton's reagent treatment is limited. In this study, EPS were extracted from activated sludge and treated with different concentrations of Fenton's reagent. The physicochemical characteristic changes of EPS under different treatment were investigated in terms of components, EEM, molecular weight (MW), UV-Vis and FTIR. The results showed that EPS were prone to be disintegrated, but hard to be fully mineralized. Humic substances in EPS were more resistant to Fenton's reagent than other components. Low MW components of EPS were preferentially degraded prior to the disruption of high MW components. Besides, the disintegration of EPS into lower MW ones was accompanied by the formation of higher MW compounds caused by the bridge interaction of Fe ions. The cleavage of protein's backbone in EPS was mainly through destruction of amide II (N-H and C-N) in -CO-NH-. Fenton's reagent treatment also led to a significant increase of oxygen-containing functional groups in EPS molecules. This paper may pave a path to deeply understand the mechanisms of dewatering improvements of excess sludge by Fenton's conditioning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.06.078DOI Listing
November 2019

Total pancreatectomy compared with pancreaticoduodenectomy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Cancer Manag Res 2019 7;11:3899-3908. Epub 2019 May 7.

Department of Pancreatic Surgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan Province, People's Republic of China.

To assess whether total pancreatectomy (TP) is as feasible, safe, and efficacious as pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). Major databases, including PubMed, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, Scopus and the Cochrane Library, were searched for studies comparing TP and PD between January 1943 and June 2018. The meta-analysis only included studies that were conducted after 2000. The primary outcomes were morbidity and mortality. Pooled odds ratios (ORs), weighted mean differences (WMDs) or hazard ratios (HRs) with 95 percent confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using fixed effects or random effects models. The methodological quality of the included studies was evaluated by the Risk of Bias in Non-randomized Studies of Interventions (ROBINS-I) tool. In total, 45 studies were included in this systematic review, and 5 non-randomized comparative studies with 786 patients (TP: 270, PD: 516) were included in the meta-analysis. There were no differences in terms of mortality (OR: 1.44, 95% CI: 0.66-3.16; =0.36), hospital stay (WMD: -0.60, 95% CI: -1.78-0.59; =0.32) and rates of reoperation (OR: 1.12; 95% CI: 0.55-2.31; =0.75) between the two groups. In addition, morbidity was not significantly different between the two groups (OR: 1.41, 95% CI: 1.01-1.97; =0.05); however, the results showed that the TP group tended to have more complications than the PD group. Furthermore, the operation time (WMD: 29.56, 95% CI: 8.23-50.89; =0.007) was longer in the TP group. Blood loss (WMD: 339.96, 95% CI: 117.74-562.18; =0.003) and blood transfusion (OR: 4.86, 95% CI: 1.93-12.29; =0.0008) were more common in the TP group than in the PD group. There were no differences in the long-term survival rates between the two groups. This systematic review and meta-analysis suggested that TP may not be as feasible and safe as PD. However, TP and PD may have the same efficacy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CMAR.S195726DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6511256PMC
May 2019

Author Correction: Laparoscopic Versus Open Liver Resection for Colorectal Liver Metastases: A Comprehensive Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Sci Rep 2018 Apr 18;8(1):6364. Epub 2018 Apr 18.

Departments of Pancreatic Surgery, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-24787-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5906645PMC
April 2018

The long-term survival benefits of high and low ligation of inferior mesenteric artery in colorectal cancer surgery: A review and meta-analysis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Nov;96(47):e8520

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy Department of Evidence-based Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, People's Republic of China.

Background: The decision of ligation at the origin of the inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) or below the origin of the left colic artery (LCA) has remained a dilemma for surgeons in colorectal cancer surgery. The available studies are controversial. The objective of this meta-analysis is to compare the predictive significance of high versus low ligation in colorectal cancer surgery.

Methods: A literature search done using Medline, EMBASE, GoogleScholar, and references. A meta-analysis was performed to analyze the 5-year overall survival (OS) of the high and low ligation using hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). We further analyzed 2 subgroups considering the level of lymph nodes (LNs) extension. That is IMA positive (+ve) and negative (-ve) LNs. Survival differences were analyzed.

Results: A total of 3119 patients in 5 cohorts were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled HR results showed significant OS benefit of high ligation than low ligation (HR; 0.77, 95% CI: 0.66-0.89) in the "IMA +ve" group with 33% decreased risk, while there is no statistical significance in the "IMA -ve" (HR 0.66, 95% CI: 0.30-1.46) and the "all cases" group (HR 0.69, 95% CI: 0.41-1.15).

Conclusion: The pooled data showed high ligation of IMA has a better survival benefit for the patients with IMA positive LNs. It signifies high ligation should be recommended for the advanced cases or with the suspected high risk of IMA lymphatic metastasis. The limited number of articles demands future high-powered, well-designed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for the further reliable conclusion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000008520DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5708925PMC
November 2017

Composition and functional group characterization of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in activated sludge: the impacts of polymerization degree of proteinaceous substrates.

Water Res 2018 02 3;129:133-142. Epub 2017 Nov 3.

College of Environment, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310014, China; Key Laboratory of Microbial Technology for Industrial Pollution Control of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310014, China. Electronic address:

Characteristics of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in activated sludge strongly depend on wastewater substrates. Proteinaceous substrates (ProS) present in heterogeneous polymeric form are intrinsic and important parts of wastewater substrates for microorganisms in activated sludge systems. However, correlations between ProS and characteristics of EPS are scarce. This study systematically explored the impacts of monomeric (Mono-), low polymeric (LoP-) and high polymeric (HiP-) ProS on compositions and functional groups of EPS in activated sludge. The results showed that the change of polymerization degree of ProS significantly altered the composition of EPS. Compared to EPS, the proportion of proteins in EPS and EPS increased by 12.8% and 27.7%, respectively, while that of polysaccharides decreased by 22.9% and 63.6%, respectively. Moreover, the proportion of humic compounds in EPS and EPS were ∼6 and ∼16-fold higher than that in EPS, respectively. The accumulation of humic compounds in EPS increased the unsaturation degree of EPS molecules, and thereby reduced the energy requirement for electrons transition of amide bonds and aromatic groups. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) analyses detected more molecular clusters in EPS, indicating more complex composition of EPS in HiP-ProS fed activated sludge. Spectroscopic characterization revealed the dominance of hydrocarbon, protein, polysaccharide and aromatic associated bonds in all three EPS. Nevertheless, with the increase of polymerization degree of ProS, the protein associated bonds (such as CONH, CO, NC, NH) increased, while the polysaccharide associated bonds (such as COC, COH, OCOH) decreased. This paper paves a path to understand the role of ProS in affecting the production and characteristics of EPS in biological wastewater treatment systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2017.11.008DOI Listing
February 2018

Distinct roles of NMB and GRP in itch transmission.

Sci Rep 2017 11 13;7(1):15466. Epub 2017 Nov 13.

Center for the Study of Itch, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, 63110, USA.

A key question in our understanding of itch coding mechanisms is whether itch is relayed by dedicated molecular and neuronal pathways. Previous studies suggested that gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) is an itch-specific neurotransmitter. Neuromedin B (NMB) is a mammalian member of the bombesin family of peptides closely related to GRP, but its role in itch is unclear. Here, we show that itch deficits in mice lacking NMB or GRP are non-redundant and Nmb/Grp double KO (DKO) mice displayed additive deficits. Furthermore, both Nmb/Grp and Nmbr/Grpr DKO mice responded normally to a wide array of noxious stimuli. Ablation of NMBR neurons partially attenuated peripherally induced itch without compromising nociceptive processing. Importantly, electrophysiological studies suggested that GRPR neurons receive glutamatergic input from NMBR neurons. Thus, we propose that NMB and GRP may transmit discrete itch information and NMBR neurons are an integral part of neural circuits for itch in the spinal cord.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-15756-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5684337PMC
November 2017

Response to Comment on "Molecular and neural basis of contagious itch behavior in mice".

Science 2017 07;357(6347)

Center for the Study of Itch, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA.

Liljencrantz report the failure of observing contagious itch behavior using mice injected with histamine as the demonstrators. Analysis of their results shows that the histamine model is limited by inadequate frequency and duration of scratching bouts required for contagious itch test. To streamline the contagious itch test, the screen paradigm is highly recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aan5000DOI Listing
July 2017

Laparoscopic Versus Open Liver Resection for Colorectal Liver Metastases: A Comprehensive Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Sci Rep 2017 04 21;7(1):1012. Epub 2017 Apr 21.

Departments of Pancreatic Surgery, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

The effects of laparoscopic liver resection (LLR) and open liver resection (OLR) on oncological outcomes for colorectal cancer liver metastases (CCLM) remain inconclusive. Major databases were searched from January 1992 to October 2016. Effects of LLR vs OLR were determined. The primary endpoints were oncological outcomes. In total, 32 eligible non-randomized studies with 4697 patients (LLR: 1809, OLR: 2888) were analyzed. There were higher rates of clear surgical margins (OR: 1.64, 95%CI: 1.32 to 2.05, p < 0.00001) in the LLR group, without significant differences in disease recurrence, 3- or 5-year overall survival(OS) and disease free survival(DFS) between the two approaches. LLR was associated with less intraoperative blood loss (WMD: -147.46 [-195.78 to -99.15] mL, P < 0.00001) and fewer blood transfusions (OR: 0.41 [0.30-0.58], P < 0.00001), but with longer operation time (WMD:14.44 [1.01 to 27.88] min, P < 0.00001) compared to OLR. Less overall morbidity (OR: 0.64 [0.55 to 0.75], p < 0.00001) and shorter postoperative hospital stay (WMD: -2.36 [-3.06 to -1.66] d, p < 0.00001) were observed for patients undergoing LLR, while there was no statistical difference in mortality. LLR appears to be a safe and feasible alternative to OLR in the treatment of CCLM in selected patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-00978-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5430829PMC
April 2017

Molecular and neural basis of contagious itch behavior in mice.

Science 2017 03;355(6329):1072-1076

Center for the Study of Itch, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA.

Socially contagious itch is ubiquitous in human society, but whether it exists in rodents is unclear. Using a behavioral paradigm that does not entail prior training or reward, we found that mice scratched after observing a conspecific scratching. Molecular mapping showed increased neuronal activity in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus of mice that displayed contagious scratching. Ablation of gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) or GRPR neurons in the SCN abolished contagious scratching behavior, which was recapitulated by chemogenetic inhibition of SCN GRP neurons. Activation of SCN GRP/GRPR neurons evoked scratching behavior. These data demonstrate that GRP-GRPR signaling is necessary and sufficient for transmitting contagious itch information in the SCN. The findings may have implications for our understanding of neural circuits that control socially contagious behaviors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aak9748DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5502115PMC
March 2017

Use of noninvasive ventilation at the pulmonary infection control window for acute respiratory failure in AECOPD patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis based on GRADE approach.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2016 Jun;95(24):e3880

Center for Evidence-Based Medicine and Clinical Research, Taihe Hospital, Hubei University of Medicine, Shiyan, Hubei Province, China Department of Evidence-Based Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan Province, China.

The aim of the study was to comprehensively examine the efficacy and safety of noninvasive ventilation used at the pulmonary infection control (PIC) window for acute respiratory failure (ARF) in patients with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD).Seven electronic databases and relevant resources were searched to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing patients using noninvasive ventilation at PIC window with those continuing receiving invasive ventilation. Retrieved citations were screened, risk of bias was assessed, and data were extracted by 2 independent review authors. Overall effect sizes were synthesized by using meta-analyses. Quality of evidence was rated by using Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach.A total of 17 trials involving 959 participants were included for this review. Compared with continuous invasive ventilation, noninvasive ventilation used at PIC window significantly reduced mortality, ventilator-associated pneumonia, weaning failures, reintubations, duration of invasive ventilation, total duration of mechanical ventilation, length of stay (LOS) in intensive care unit, and LOS in hospital as well as hospital costs. Of these, mortality significantly decreased (risk ratio = 0.27, 95% confidence interval: 0.17-0.42, P < 0.001) without significant heterogeneity (I = 0%, P = 0.99). Quality of evidence regarding the 9 outcomes across the included studies was rated from moderate to low.Use of noninvasive ventilation at PIC window showed beneficial effects across identified trials for ARF in AECOPD patients. Considering the absence of high quality of available evidence and the uncertainty of long-term effect of this intervention, a weak recommendation for clinical practice was generated, and further well-designed and adequately powered RCTs are required to validate this conclusion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000003880DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4998464PMC
June 2016

Critical evaluation of the expression of gastrin-releasing peptide in dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord.

Mol Pain 2016 11;12. Epub 2016 Apr 11.

Center for the Study of Itch, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA Departments of Anesthesiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA Departments of Psychiatry, Center for the Study of Itch, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA Departments of Developmental Biology, Center for the Study of Itch, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA

There are substantial disagreements about the expression of gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) in sensory neurons and whether GRP antibody cross-reacts with substance P (SP). These concerns necessitate a critical revaluation of GRP expression using additional approaches. Here, we show that a widely used GRP antibody specifically recognizes GRP but not SP. In the spinal cord of mice lacking SP (Tac1KO), the expression of not only GRP but also other peptides, notably neuropeptide Y (NPY), is significantly diminished. We detectedGrpmRNA in dorsal root ganglias using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, in situ hybridization and RNA-seq. We demonstrated thatGrpmRNA and protein are upregulated in dorsal root ganglias, but not in the spinal cord, of mice with chronic itch. Few GRP(+)immunostaining signals were detected in spinal sections following dorsal rhizotomy and GRP(+)cell bodies were not detected in dissociated dorsal horn neurons. Ultrastructural analysis further shows that substantially more GRPergic fibers form synaptic contacts with gastrin releasing peptide receptor-positive (GRPR(+)) neurons than SPergic fibers. Our comprehensive study demonstrates that a majority of GRPergic fibers are of primary afferent origin. A number of factors such as low copy number ofGrptranscripts, small percentage of cells expressingGrp, and the use of an eGFP GENSAT transgenic as a surrogate for GRP protein have contributed to the controversy. Optimization of experimental procedures facilitates the specific detection of GRP expression in dorsal root ganglia neurons.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1744806916643724DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4972254PMC
December 2016

Traditional Chinese Patent Medicine for Acute Ischemic Stroke: An Overview of Systematic Reviews Based on the GRADE Approach.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2016 Mar;95(12):e2986

From the Department of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine(XZ); and Department of Evidence-Based Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology (X-TL, D-YK), West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

The aim of the study is to conduct an overview of systematic reviews (SRs) to provide a contemporary review of the evidence for delivery of Traditional Chinese Patent Medicine (TCPMs) for patients with acute ischemic stroke.SRs were assessed for quality using the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) tool and the Oxman-Guyatt Overview Quality Assessment Questionnaire (OQAQ). We assessed the quality of the evidence of high methodological quality (an AMSTAR score ≥9 or an OQAQ score ≥7) for reported outcomes using the GRADE (the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) approach.(1) Dan Shen agents: tiny trends toward the improvement in different neurological outcomes (RR = 1.16, 1.10, 1.23, 1.08, 1.12); (2) Mailuoning: a tiny trend toward improvement in the neurological outcome (RR = 1.18); (3) Ginkgo biloba: tiny trends toward improvement in the neurological outcome (RR = 1.18, MD = 0.81); (4) Dengzhanhua: a tiny trend toward an improvement in neurological (RR = 1.23); (5) Acanthopanax: a small positive (RR = 1.17, 1.31) result on neurological improvement reported; (6) Chuanxiong-type preparations: neurological functional improved (MD = 2.90);(7) Puerarin: no better effect on the rate of death or disability (OR = 0.81, 95% CI 0.35-1.87); (8) Milk vetch: no better effect on the rate of death (OR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.11-2.83);(9) Qingkailing: rate of death reduced (OR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.11-2.83). Limitations in the methodological quality of the RCTs, inconsistency and imprecision led to downgrading of the quality of the evidence, which varied by review and by outcome. Consequently, there are currently only weak evidences to support those TCPMs.The 9 TCPMs may be effective in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke, as the GRADE approach indicated a weak recommendation for those TCPMs' usage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000002986DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4998369PMC
March 2016

Effectiveness and safety of ShenXiong glucose injection for acute ischemic stroke: a systematic review and GRADE approach.

BMC Complement Altern Med 2016 Feb 19;16:68. Epub 2016 Feb 19.

Department of Evidence-based Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610041, P. R. China.

Background: To appraise critically whether published trials of ShenXiong glucose injection for patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) are of sufficient quality, and in addition to rate the quality of evidence by using the GRADE approach (grading of recommendations, assessment, development, and evaluation, GRADE).

Methods: A literature search was performed in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CBM, Chinese TCM (traditional Chinese medicine) Database, CNKI, VIP, WanFang Databases until January 2015. The limits were patients with AIS and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs. Studies by which patients suffering intracerebral haemorrhage were excluded.

Results: Twelve studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. We found significant benefits of ShenXiong glucose injection compared with conventional treatment in improving activities of daily living function at 4 weeks (MD = 34.12, 95 % CI: 29.07, 39.17), neurological function deficit at 2 weeks (MD = -5.39, 95% CI: -6.90, -3.87), 4 weeks (MD = -5.16, 95 % CI: -6.49, -3.83), and clinical effects at 4 weeks (RR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.10, 1.24). No trials reported the effects of ShenXiong glucose injection on the risk of early, deterioration, or quality of life. No adverse events were reported within the whole follow-up period.

Conclusions: The use of ShenXiong glucose injection may improve rehabilitation for patients with acute ischemic stroke, however, as the GRADE approach indicated low to moderate quality of available evidence as well as insufficient information about harm and patients preference, the recommendations were not provided for ShenXiong glucose injection taking as a therapeutic intervention to patients with acute ischemic stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-016-1038-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4761180PMC
February 2016

GRADE in Systematic Reviews of Acupuncture for Stroke Rehabilitation: Recommendations based on High-Quality Evidence.

Sci Rep 2015 Nov 12;5:16582. Epub 2015 Nov 12.

Department of Evidence-Based Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, P.R. China.

Systematic reviews (SRs) of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have demonstrated acupuncture's effectiveness in stroke rehabilitation. The current study reviews the quality of evidence in SRs of acupuncture in stroke rehabilitation, and rates the strength of recommendation for its use based on this evidence using the GRADE (grading of recommendations, assessment, development and evaluations) approach. A comprehensive literature search was performed using multiple databases (e.g., Medline, Embase) with advanced search strategies. Two authors independently selected articles, collected data, and assessed the methodological quality of each identified SR according to AMSTAR (a measurement tool to assess systematic reviews) and OQAQ (Oxman and Guyatt's overview quality assessment questionnaire). Outcomes related to stroke rehabilitation were evaluated. SRs of high methodological quality (AMSTAR score ≥9 and OQAQ score ≥7) were graded using GRADE. Ultimately, acupuncture yields benefits in stroke rehabilitation (neurological function improvement: RR = 1.34; swallowing improvement: RR = 1.61, 1.49, 1.07; disability: SMD = 0.49 or 0.07). Poor evidentiary quality and insufficient information about harm led to weak recommendations. In conclusion, acupuncture may improve stroke rehabilitation, as the GRADE approach indicated a weak recommendation for acupuncture's usage in this context.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep16582DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4642304PMC
November 2015

Impact of the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) checklist on reporting of randomized clinical trials in traditional Chinese medicine.

J Evid Based Med 2015 Nov;8(4):192-208

Department of Evidence-based Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Objective: To examine the reporting characteristics and key methodological factors of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in the field of traditional Chinese medicine and assess whether use of the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement is associated with improvement in the quality of reports of RCTs.

Method: RCTs published in two major traditional Chinese medicine journals were retrieved and were systematically reviewed. Of those journals, one adopted the CONSORT statement (Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine (JCIM)) and one did not (Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine (CJIM)). Items within the CONSORT 2001 and the CONSORT 2010 statements were taken to develop a 63-item coding manual. The Jadad scale was also used to assess methodological quality of RCTs. Two observers assessed the reporting of reports and extracted data independently. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. SPSS was used for all analyses.

Results: A total of 76 RCTs were included for the analysis (38 from JCIM and 38 from CJIM). Significant improvements both in the overall quality of reporting (CONSORT score) and reporting of methodological items (Jadad scale) over time were observed in adopter journal (JCIM) (P = 0.001). Overall CONSORT score of studies published during 2010 to 2011 (post-CONSORT) increased 15.30 averagely with 95%CI 8.34 to 22.26 (P = 0.001). Of those, items addressed on reporting of methodological quality were different significantly too. JCIM had more 1.30 items addressed than CJIM in average (95% CI 0.52 to 2.08, P = 0.003). In the multivariate analysis regression, the page length and CONSORT-promoting status have statistically significant associated with the (P = 0.001 and P = 0.040, respectively).

Conclusion: Although a large room needs to improve the reporting of randomized clinical trials in traditional Chinese medicine, the impact for improvement of reporting of TCM RCTs has been proven in some extent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jebm.12173DOI Listing
November 2015

Arthrobacter liuii sp. nov., resuscitated from Xinjiang desert soil.

Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2015 Mar 18;65(Pt 3):896-901. Epub 2014 Dec 18.

College of Geography and Environmental Sciences, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004, PR China.

A Gram-stain positive, aerobic, non-motile actinobacterium, designated DSXY973(T), was isolated from soil samples collected from Xinjiang desert using medium supplemented with resuscitation-promoting factor, and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic investigation. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that DSXY973(T) belonged to the genus Arthrobacter and was most closely related to Arthrobacter oryzae JCM 15922(T) with 97.1 % similarity. The DNA G+C content was 67.6 %. Cells of strain DSXY973(T) mainly contained MK-9(H2), and the cell wall contained l-lysine as the primary diamino acid. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0 and iso-C15 : 0. Strain DSXY973(T) was positive for catalase and negative for oxidase activity. On the basis of its phylogenetic position and phenotypic properties, strain DSXY973(T) represents a novel species of the genus Arthrobacter, for which the name Arthrobacter liuii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is DSXY973(T) ( = CGMCC1.12778(T) = JCM 19864(T)).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/ijs.0.000037DOI Listing
March 2015

Effectiveness and safety of Wuling capsule for post stroke depression: a systematic review.

Complement Ther Med 2014 Jun 6;22(3):549-66. Epub 2014 May 6.

Department of Evidence-based Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China.

Objective: To review the effectiveness and safety of Wuling capsule for post stroke depression (PSD) systematically.

Methods: We searched electronic databases for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared either Wuling capsule with placebo, no treatment or Wuling capsule plus conventional treatment with conventional treatment alone in adults with post stroke depression. Relevant resources were also retrieved. Two reviewers screened the citations, assessed the risk of bias and extracted data independently.

Results: A total of 16 studies involving 1378 patients were identified for this review. There were 3 trials comparing Wuling capsule with no treatment control and 13 trials comparing Wuling capsule plus conventional treatment (Deanxit, Fluoxetine, Sertraline, Paroxetine or Citalopram) with conventional treatment alone. Meta-analyses indicated Wuling capsule used alone or integrated with conventional treatment was effective for PSD in terms of HAMD (Hamilton depression scale) scores, response rate and with less adverse effects, of which, HAMD scores decreased significantly in favor of Wuling capsule from onset time to 1 week (SMD = 1.27, 95%CI: 0.71-1.83, P < 0.00001), 2 weeks (SMD = 1.45, 95%CI: 0.57-2.33, P = 0.001), 4 weeks (SMD = 2.84, 95%CI: 2.15-3.52, P < 0.00001), 6 weeks (SMD = 2.70, 95%CI: 2.15-3.24, P < 0.00001), and 8 weeks (SMD = 4.53, 95%CI: 3.55-5.50, P < 0.00001) and overall effect (SMD = 2.40, 95%CI: 1.75-3.05, P < 0.00001) (SMD = standardized mean difference).

Conclusion: Wuling capsule appeared to present certain antidepressant effect compared to no treatment control. With a combination of several Western medicines, Wuling capsule could be helpful in strengthening efficacy and reducing the incidence of adverse events as an alternative choice in the treatment of PSD. However, due to the limited number of included trials and relatively moderate methodological quality in the majority of studies, further large scale and rigorously designed trials are warranted to confirm the effectiveness and safety of Wuling capsule for post stroke depression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ctim.2014.04.005DOI Listing
June 2014

Antibacterial spirobisnaphthalenes from the North American cup fungus Urnula craterium.

J Nat Prod 2012 Sep 30;75(9):1534-8. Epub 2012 Aug 30.

Chinese Academy of Sciences Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences , Beijing 100190, People's Republic of China.

Urnucratins A-C (1-3), which possess an unusual bisnaphthospiroether skeleton with one oxygen bridge and one C-C bridge and represent a new subclass of bisnaphthalenes, were isolated from the North American cup fungus Urnula craterium. Their structures, including absolute configurations, were determined by means of HRMS, NMR, and quantum chemical CD calculations. Urnucratin A (1) was found to be active against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium, and Streptococcus pyogenes with MIC values of 2, 1, and 0.5 μg/mL, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/np300221aDOI Listing
September 2012

Arabidopsis acetyl-amido synthetase GH3.5 involvement in camalexin biosynthesis through conjugation of indole-3-carboxylic acid and cysteine and upregulation of camalexin biosynthesis genes.

J Integr Plant Biol 2012 Jul;54(7):471-85

National Key Laboratory of Plant Molecular Genetics, Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China.

Camalexin (3-thiazol-2'-yl-indole) is the major phytoalexin found in Arabidopsis thaliana. Several key intermediates and corresponding enzymes have been identified in camalexin biosynthesis through mutant screening and biochemical experiments. Camalexin is formed when indole-3-acetonitrile (IAN) is catalyzed by the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase CYP71A13. Here, we demonstrate that the Arabidopsis GH3.5 protein, a multifunctional acetyl-amido synthetase, is involved in camalexin biosynthesis via conjugating indole-3-carboxylic acid (ICA) and cysteine (Cys) and regulating camalexin biosynthesis genes. Camalexin levels were increased in the activation-tagged mutant gh3.5-1D in both Col-0 and cyp71A13-2 mutant backgrounds after pathogen infection. The recombinant GH3.5 protein catalyzed the conjugation of ICA and Cys to form a possible intermediate indole-3-acyl-cysteinate (ICA(Cys)) in vitro. In support of the in vitro reaction, feeding with ICA and Cys increased camalexin levels in Col-0 and gh3.5-1D. Dihydrocamalexic acid (DHCA), the precursor of camalexin and the substrate for PAD3, was accumulated in gh3.5-1D/pad3-1, suggesting that ICA(Cys) could be an additional precursor of DHCA for camalexin biosynthesis. Furthermore, expression of the major camalexin biosynthesis genes CYP79B2, CYP71A12, CYP71A13 and PAD3 was strongly induced in gh3.5-1D. Our study suggests that GH3.5 is involved in camalexin biosynthesis through direct catalyzation of the formation of ICA(Cys), and upregulation of the major biosynthetic pathway genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7909.2012.01131.xDOI Listing
July 2012

Antitumor activity of a recombinant soluble ectodomain of mutant human fibroblast growth factor receptor-2 IIIc.

Mol Cancer Ther 2011 Sep 12;10(9):1656-66. Epub 2011 Jul 12.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Bio-engineering Medicine, National Engineering Research Centre of Genetic Medicine, College of Life Science and Technology, Jinan University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510632, China.

The fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling pathway is a recognized target of cancer therapy. We have developed a strong inhibitor (S252W mutant soluble ectodomain of FGF recptor-2 IIIc, msFGFR2) that binds FGFs and blocks the activation of FGFRs. Thermodynamic binding studies indicated that msFGFR2 bound FGF-2 16.9 times as strongly as wild-type soluble FGFR2IIIc ectodomain (wsFGFR2). It successfully suppressed the growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis of two tumor cell lines in vitro and in vivo, and it potently inhibited cancer cell proliferation but not normal cell proliferation. Therefore, msFGFR2 is a useful probe for FGF-dependent signaling pathways and a potential broad-spectrum antitumor agent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-11-0163DOI Listing
September 2011

Screening a mushroom extract library for activity against Acinetobacter baumannii and Burkholderia cepacia and the identification of a compound with anti-Burkholderia activity.

Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2010 Jan 21;9. Epub 2010 Jan 21.

Department of Microbiology, University of Wisconsin-La Crosse, La Crosse, WI, USA.

Background: Acinetobacter baumannii and species within the Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC) are significant opportunistic bacterial pathogens of humans. These species exhibit a high degree of antibiotic resistance, and some clinical isolates are resistant to all currently available antimicrobial drugs used for treatment. Thus, new drugs are needed to treat infections by these species. Mushrooms could be a potential source for new drugs to treat A. baumannii and BCC infections.

Methods: The aim of this study was to screen a library of crude extracts from 330 wild mushrooms by disk diffusion assays for antibacterial activity against A. baumannii and Burkholderia cepacia in the hope of identifying a novel natural drug that could be used to treat infections caused by these species. Once positive hits were identified, the extracts were subjected to bioassay-guided separations to isolate and identify the active drug molecules. MICs were performed to gauge the in vitro activity of the purified compounds.

Results: Only three crude extracts (0.9%) had activity against A. baumannii and B. cepacia. Compounds from two of these extracts had MICs greater than 128 microg/ml, and further analyses were not performed. From the third extract, prepared from Leucopaxillus albissimus, 2-aminoquinoline (2-AQ) was isolated. This compound exhibited a modest MIC in vitro against strains from nine different BCC species, including multi-drug resistant clinical isolates (MIC = 8-64 microg/ml), and a weak MIC (128 microg/ml) against A baumannii. The IC50 against a murine monocyte line was 1.5 mg/ml.

Conclusion: The small number of positive hits in this study suggests that finding a new drug from mushrooms to treat Gram-negative bacterial infections may be difficult. Although 2-AQ was identified in one mushroom, and it was shown to inhibit the growth of multi-drug resistant BCC isolates, the relatively high MICs (8-128 microg/ml) for both A. baumannii and BCC strains suggests that 2-AQ is not suitable for further drug development in its current form.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1476-0711-9-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2823644PMC
January 2010

Antibacterial compounds from mushrooms II: lanostane triterpenoids and an ergostane steroid with activity against Bacillus cereus isolated from Fomitopsis pinicola.

Planta Med 2010 Mar 21;76(5):464-6. Epub 2009 Oct 21.

Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin - La Crosse, La Crosse, Wisconsin 54601, USA.

Anti- Bacillus cereus bioassay-guided fractionation of a crude extract of the American mushroom, Fomitopsis pinicola, was performed using thin-layer chromatography, Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography, and preparative-scale HPLC. Five lanostane triterpenoids (1-5) and one ergostane steroid (6) were isolated and identified. Compound 1 is a new lanostane triterpenoid, and its structure was determined using 1D and 2D NMR experiments, HR-MS, and physical data. Each of the purified compounds (1-6) was tested for antibacterial activity against B. cereus using standard MIC assays. Compounds 1-6 had MIC values of 32, 16, 32, 32, 128, and 64 microg/mL, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0029-1186227DOI Listing
March 2010

Qualitative and quantitative analysis of steroidal saponins in crude extracts from Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis and P. polyphylla var. chinensis by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2010 Jan 25;51(1):114-24. Epub 2009 Aug 25.

Murad Research Center for Modernized Chinese Medicine, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203, China.

High performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization multi-stage tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS(n)) and triple quadrupole mass spectrometric detection (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS), respectively, had been employed for the simultaneous identification and quantification of steroidal saponins in the rhizomes of Parispolyphylla var. yunnanensis and P. polyphylla var. chinensis, which are the qualified plants of "Chonglou" in Chinese. The HPLC experiments were performed by means of a reversed-phase C-18 column and a binary mobile phase system consisting of 0.1% aqueous formic acid and acetonitrile under gradient elution conditions. The characteristic fragmentation patterns of diosgenin- and pennogenin-type steroidal saponins were investigated using ESI-MS(n) in negative ion mode. The MS(n) data of the [M-H](-) ions provided structural information on the sugar sequence of the oligosaccharide chains and the aglycones of steroidal saponins. As a result, ten and seven saponins were determined in P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis and P. polyphylla var. chinensis, respectively, including four unknown compounds. One unknown compound was tentatively identified as diosgenin-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->4) [alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->2)]-beta-D-glucopyranoside and the aglycones of the other three new compounds were reported from Chonglou for the first time. The developed HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method was validated and found to be satisfactorily linear, selective and robust. The limits of detection (LODs) and quantitation (LOQs) ranged, respectively, from 0.5 to 10 ng/mL and 2 to 34 ng/mL depending on six various compounds. The intra- and inter-day precisions of the method were evaluated and were less than 5.0%. Recoveries ranged from 92% to 104% for all compounds. The established quality evaluation method was successfully used for simultaneous quantification of six predominant steroidal saponins in the rhizomes of these two Paris species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2009.08.020DOI Listing
January 2010

Cholestane glycosides and trihydroxy fatty acids from the rhizomes of Dioscorea septemloba.

Planta Med 2010 Feb 25;76(3):291-4. Epub 2009 Aug 25.

State Key Laboratory of Bio-organic and Natural Products Chemistry, Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, PR China.

Two new steroidal glycosides, named dioseptemlosides I (1) and J (2), along with two known trihydroxy fatty acids, (12 Z,15 Z)-9,10,11-trihydroxy-12,15-octadecadienoic acid (3) and (12 Z)-9,10,11-trihydroxy-12-octadecenoic acid (4), were isolated from the rhizomes of Dioscorea septemloba. Their structures were determined by HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR experiments, physical data, and chemical methods. The antitumor activity of compounds 1-4 was evaluated against three tumor cell lines and all of them were inactive at a concentration of 10 microM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0029-1186063DOI Listing
February 2010

Antibacterial compounds from mushrooms I: a lanostane-type triterpene and prenylphenol derivatives from Jahnoporus hirtus and Albatrellus flettii and their activities against Bacillus cereus and Enterococcus faecalis.

Planta Med 2010 Feb 30;76(2):182-5. Epub 2009 Jul 30.

Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin-La Crosse, La Crosse, WI 54601, USA.

Antibacterial bioassay-guided fractionation of two American mushroom species, Jahnoporus hirtus and Albatrellus flettii, led to the isolation and identification of their major antibacterial constituents: 3,11-dioxolanosta-8,24( Z)-diene-26-oic acid (1) from J. hirtus and confluentin (2), grifolin (3), and neogrifolin (4) from A. flettii. Compound 1 is a new lanostane-type triterpene. All purified compounds were evaluated for their ability to inhibit the growth of Bacillus cereus and Enterococcus faecalis using standard MIC assays. Compounds 1- 4 demonstrated MIC values of 40, 20, 10, and 20 microg/mL, respectively, against B. cereus and MIC values of 32, 1.0, 0.5, and 0.5 microg/mL, respectively, against E. faecalis. Thus, one novel compound and three others were shown to possess antimicrobial activities against these gram-positive bacteria employed as surrogates for more virulent and dangerous pathogens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0029-1186001DOI Listing
February 2010

Steroidal saponins from the rhizomes of Paris delavayi.

Steroids 2009 Oct 15;74(10-11):809-13. Epub 2009 May 15.

Murad Research Center for Modernized Chinese Medicine, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203, China.

Two new steroidal saponins, padelaosides A (1) and B (2), along with two other known steroidal saponins (3 and 4) were isolated from the rhizomes of Paris delavayi. Their structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR techniques, HRFTMS, physical data and chemical methods. The two different absolute configurations of fucose, assigned as l and d that were found on compounds 1 and 2, respectively, were simultaneously reported in a natural medicine for the first time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.steroids.2009.04.012DOI Listing
October 2009

Cholestane and spirostane glycosides from the rhizomes of Dioscorea septemloba.

Phytochemistry 2008 Apr 14;69(6):1411-8. Epub 2008 Feb 14.

State Key Laboratory of Bio-organic and Natural Products Chemistry, Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200032, PR China.

Cholestane glycosides, dioseptemlosides A (1) and B (2), together with six spirostane glycosides, dioseptemlosides C-H (3-8), were isolated from the rhizomes of Dioscorea septemloba. Their structures were established on the basis of physical data, spectroscopic analysis (HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR), and chemical methods. Spirostane aglcones containing hydroxyl group at C-7, as found in compounds 4-7, were reported in the family Dioscoreaceae for the first time. These compounds did not show considerable inhibitory anti-tumor activities at a concentration of 10 microM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2007.12.014DOI Listing
April 2008