Publications by authors named "Xue-Jun Liu"

69 Publications

Feature Sequencing Method of Industrial Control Data Set Based on Multidimensional Evaluation Parameters.

Comput Intell Neurosci 2022 28;2022:9248267. Epub 2022 Apr 28.

College of Information Engineering, Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology, 19 Qingyuan North Road, Daxing District, Beijing, China.

The industrial control data set has many features and large redundancy, which has a certain impact on the training speed and classification results of the neural network anomaly detection algorithm. However, features are independent of each other, and dimension reduction often increases the false positive rate and false negative rate. The feature sequencing algorithm can reduce this effect. In order to select the appropriate feature sequencing algorithm for different data sets, this paper proposes an adaptive feature sequencing method based on data set evaluation index parameters. Firstly, the evaluation index system is constructed by the basic information of the data set, the mathematical characteristics of the data set, and the association degree of the data set. Then, the selection model is obtained by the decision tree training with the data label and the evaluation index, and the suitable feature sequencing algorithm is selected. Experiments were conducted on 11 data sets, including Batadal data set, CICIDS 2017, and Mississippi data set. The sequenced data sets are classified by ResNet. The accuracy of the sequenced data sets increases by 2.568% on average in 30 generations, and the average time reduction per epoch is 24.143%. Experiments show that this method can effectively select the feature sequencing algorithm with the best comprehensive performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/9248267DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9071983PMC
May 2022

Synthesis of α-Aryl Primary Amides from α-Silyl Nitriles and Aryl Sulfoxides through [3,3]-Sigmatropic Rearrangement.

Org Lett 2022 03 21;24(8):1700-1705. Epub 2022 Feb 21.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Neuropsychiatric Diseases and College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Soochow University, 199 Ren'ai Road, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123, P. R. China.

A simple and efficient protocol was developed for the preparation of challenging α-aryl primary amides. This metal-free coupling process was triggered by TfOH-promoted electrophilic activation of α-silyl nitrile to generate keteniminium ion species, followed by reaction with aryl sulfoxide through [3,3]-sigmatrophic rearrangement to provide the target product. To the best of our knowledge, α-silyl nitrile has been rarely used as a pro-electrophilic reagent. Computational investigations confirmed the transient existence of a highly electrophilic keteniminium intermediate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.orglett.2c00334DOI Listing
March 2022

CT Radiomics Model for Predicting the Ki-67 Index of Lung Cancer: An Exploratory Study.

Front Oncol 2021 11;11:743490. Epub 2021 Oct 11.

The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, China.

Objective: To establish a radiomics signature and a nomogram model based on enhanced CT images to predict the Ki-67 index of lung cancer.

Methods: From January 2014 to December 2018, 282 patients with lung cancer who had undergone enhanced CT scans and Ki-67 examination within 2 weeks were retrospectively enrolled and analyzed. The clinical data of the patients were collected, such as age, sex, smoking history, maximum tumor diameter and serum tumor markers. Our primary cohort was randomly divided into a training group (n=197) and a validation group (n=85) at a 7:3 ratio. A Ki-67 index ≤ 40% indicated low expression, and a Ki-67 index > 40% indicated high expression. In total, 396 radiomics features were extracted using AK software. Feature reduction and selection were performed using the lasso regression model. Logistic regression analysis was used to establish a multivariate predictive model to identify high and low Ki-67 expression in lung cancer. A nomogram integrating the radiomics score was established based on multiple logistic regression analysis. Area under the curve (AUC) was used to evaluate the prediction efficiency of the radiomics signature and nomogram.

Results: The AUC,sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the radiomics signature in the training and validation groups were 0.88 (95% CI: 0.82~0.93),79.2%,84.3%,81.2% and 0.86 (95% CI: 0.78~0.94),74.6%,88.1%,79.8%, respectively. A nomogram combining radiomics features and clinical risk factors (smoking history and NSE) was developed. The AUC, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 0.87 (95% CI: 0.80~0.95), 75.0%, 90.2% and 83.5% in the validation group, respectively.

Conclusion: The radiomics signature and nomogram based on enhanced CT images provide a way to predict the Ki-67 expression level in lung cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.743490DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8542688PMC
October 2021

[Serological Identification and FUT1 Gene Mutation Analysis of 8 Individuals with Para-Bombay Phenotypes in Guangxi].

Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi 2021 Aug;29(4):1318-1324

Nan-Ning Institute of Transfusion Medicine, Nanning Blood Center, Nanning 530007, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China E-mail:

Objective: To study the serological characteristics and molecular biological basis of 8 individuals with Para-Bombay phenotypes in Guangxi area.

Methods: Serological tests were used to identify the blood groups of red cells. Molecular biological methods, including PCR-SSP for ABO genotyping and DNA sequencing for FUT1, were used to detect the genotypes of ABO and FUT1 which determined the expression of H antigen.

Results: Eight individuals in the study were all the Para-Bombay phenotypes, including 4 cases of B and 4 cases of A. The DNA sequencing for FUT1 showed that 6 cases were h3h3 [c.658C>T (p.Arg220Cys) homozygous mutation], 1 was hh [c.832G>A (p.Asp278Asn) homozygous mutation], and 1 was hh3 [compound heterozygous mutations of c.328G>A (p.Ala110Thr) and c.658C>T (p.Arg220Cys)].

Conclusion: There are varieties of molecular genetic mechanisms for Para-Bombay phenotypes. In this study, the FUT1 mutations that cause Para-Bombay phenotypes in Guangxi area are mainly h3, h, and h, among which h3 is the most common mutant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19746/j.cnki.issn.1009-2137.2021.04.048DOI Listing
August 2021

Important contributions of non-fossil fuel nitrogen oxides emissions.

Nat Commun 2021 01 11;12(1):243. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

School of Earth System Science, Tianjin University, 300072, Tianjin, China.

Since the industrial revolution, it has been assumed that fossil-fuel combustions dominate increasing nitrogen oxide (NO) emissions. However, it remains uncertain to the actual contribution of the non-fossil fuel NO to total NO emissions. Natural N isotopes of NO in precipitation (δN) have been widely employed for tracing atmospheric NO sources. Here, we compiled global δN observations to evaluate the relative importance of fossil and non-fossil fuel NO emissions. We found that regional differences in human activities directly influenced spatial-temporal patterns of δN variations. Further, isotope mass-balance and bottom-up calculations suggest that the non-fossil fuel NO accounts for 55 ± 7% of total NO emissions, reaching up to 21.6 ± 16.6Mt yr in East Asia, 7.4 ± 5.5Mt yr in Europe, and 21.8 ± 18.5Mt yr in North America, respectively. These results reveal the importance of non-fossil fuel NO emissions and provide direct evidence for making strategies on mitigating atmospheric NO pollution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20356-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7801390PMC
January 2021

The Value of Enhanced MR Radiomics in Estimating the IDH1 Genotype in High-Grade Gliomas.

Biomed Res Int 2020 24;2020:4630218. Epub 2020 Oct 24.

Radiology Department, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao 266000, China.

Background: The prognosis of IDH1-mutant glioma is significantly better than that of wild-type glioma, and the preoperative identification of IDH mutations in glioma is essential for the formulation of surgical procedures and prognostic assessment.

Purpose: To explore the value of a radiomic model based on preoperative-enhanced MR images in the assessment of the IDH1 genotype in high-grade glioma.

Materials And Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on 182 patients with high-grade glioma confirmed by surgical pathology between December 2012 and January 2019 in our hospital with complete preoperative brain-enhanced MR images, including 79 patients with an IDH1 mutation (45 patients with WHO grade III and 34 patients with WHO grade IV) and 103 patients with wild-type IDH1 (33 patients with WHO grade III and 70 patients with WHO grade IV). Patients were divided into a primary dataset and a validation dataset at a ratio of 7 : 3 using a stratified random sampling; radiomic features were extracted using A.K. (Analysis Kit, GE Healthcare) software and were initially reduced using the Kruskal-Wallis and Spearman analyses. Lasso was finally conducted to obtain the optimized subset of the feature to build the radiomic model, and the model was then tested with cross-validation. ROC (receiver operating characteristic curve) analysis was performed to evaluate the performance of the model.

Results: The radiomic model showed good discrimination in both the primary dataset (AUC = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.754 to 0.855, ACC = 0.798, sensitivity = 85.5%, specificity = 75.4%, positive predictive value = 0.734, and negative predictive value = 0.867) and the validation dataset (AUC = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.690 to 0.913, ACC = 0.789, sensitivity = 91.3%, specificity = 69.0%, positive predictive value = 0.700, and negative predictive value = 0.909).

Conclusion: The radiomic model, based on the preoperative-enhanced MR, can effectively predict the IDH1 genotype in high-grade glioma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/4630218DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7604586PMC
May 2021

[Pollution Characteristics and Risk Assessment of Antibiotics in Lianhua Reservoir].

Huan Jing Ke Xue 2020 Sep;41(9):4081-4087

Key Laboratory of Urban Pollutant Conversion, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021, China.

Thirteen typical antibiotics in surface water of the Lianhua Reservoir were analyzed using HPLC/MS/MS to assess the pollution characteristics and risk levels. Ten antibiotics except for erythromycin, sulfadiazine, and sulfamethoxazole were detected in surface water and the total concentration of antibiotics varied between non-detectable (n.d.) and 925.26 ng ·L. Azithromycin had the highest concentration (n.d.-232.61 ng ·L) with the detection frequency of 75%, followed by enrofloxacin (n.d.-187.69 ng ·L), tetracycline (n.d.-155.05 ng ·L), and ciprofloxacin (n.d.-83.66 ng ·L) with the detection frequencies over 60%. The spatial distribution of antibiotics was as follows: total concentration of upstream (sampling point 1) > Aoxi River stream tributary (sampling point 2) > reservoir downstream (sampling point 3) > reservoir entrance (sampling point 4) > reservoir area (sampling point 5). The seasonal variations in the concentrations of antibiotics were evident; total concentrations in the dry season were significantly higher than those in the wet and normal seasons. The results of the environmental risk assessment indicated that ofloxacin, enrofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin pose significant risks to the environment. In the Lianhua Reservoir, ciprofloxacin showed high potential risk to the ecological environment, while the environmental risks of other antibiotics in the reservoir were below the medium level. The combined risk value of the antibiotics in the dry season was higher than that in the wet and normal seasons.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13227/j.hjkx.202002084DOI Listing
September 2020

A CT-based radiomics nomogram for differentiation of lympho-associated benign and malignant lesions of the parotid gland.

Eur Radiol 2021 May 30;31(5):2886-2895. Epub 2020 Oct 30.

Department of Radiology, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, No.16, Jiangsu Road, Qingdao, 266000, China.

Objectives: Preoperative differentiation between benign lymphoepithelial lesion (BLEL) and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (MALToma) in the parotid gland is important for treatment decisions. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a CT-based radiomics nomogram combining radiomics signature and clinical factors for the preoperative differentiation of BLEL from MALToma in the parotid gland.

Methods: A total of 101 patients with BLEL (n = 46) or MALToma (n = 55) were divided into a training set (n = 70) and validation set (n = 31). Radiomics features were extracted from non-contrast CT images, a radiomics signature was constructed, and a radiomics score (Rad-score) was calculated. Demographics and CT findings were assessed to build a clinical factor model. A radiomics nomogram combining the Rad-score and independent clinical factors was constructed using multivariate logistic regression analysis. The performance levels of the nomogram, radiomics signature, and clinical model were evaluated and validated on the training and validation datasets, and then compared among the three models.

Results: Seven features were used to build the radiomics signature. The radiomics nomogram incorporating the clinical factors and radiomics signature showed favorable predictive value for differentiating parotid BLEL from MALToma, with AUCs of 0.983 and 0.950 for the training set and validation set, respectively. Decision curve analysis showed that the nomogram outperformed the clinical factor model in terms of clinical usefulness.

Conclusions: The CT-based radiomics nomogram incorporating the Rad-score and clinical factors showed favorable predictive efficacy for differentiating BLEL from MALToma in the parotid gland, and may help in the clinical decision-making process.

Key Points: • Differential diagnosis between BLEL and MALToma in parotid gland is rather difficult by conventional imaging modalities. • A radiomics nomogram integrated with the radiomics signature, demographics, and CT findings facilitates differentiation of BLEL from MALToma with improved diagnostic efficacy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-020-07421-4DOI Listing
May 2021

Multimodal MR Features of 8 Cases of Epithelioid Glioblastoma.

Biomed Res Int 2020 16;2020:9586806. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

Department of Radiology, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, China.

Purpose: The MRI features of epithelioid glioblastoma (eGBM) were analyzed. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), MR perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI), and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) findings were quantitatively analyzed.

Methods: The MRI images of 8 cases of eGBM were analyzed retrospectively. The location and edge, signal, peritumoral edema, adjacent meningeal invasion, and enhancement of the lesions were observed. The ADC value, relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV), relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF), and N-acetylaspartate/acetylcholine (NAA/Cho) value were analyzed.

Results: Among the 8 patients, the tumors were mainly located in the temporal lobe ( = 3), frontal lobe ( = 3), and parietal lobe ( = 2). The lesion boundary was clear in 6 cases and unclear in 2. The lesions were superficial in 5 cases and in the deep white matter in 3. Internal hemorrhage was observed in 4 cases. There was cystic necrosis in 7 cases, and only 1 case was solid without cystic necrosis. There was no edema around the lesion in 1 case, severe edema in 5, and moderate edema in 2. In 4 cases, the adjacent meninges were involved, and in 1 case, the ependyma was involved. Two patients developed leptomeningeal metastasis within 2 months after the operation. The average ADC value of the tumor parenchyma among all 8 patients was7.15 × 10 mm/s,which was 17.6% lower than that of the contralateral side. The Cho/NAA metabolite ratio was 5.27 and 0.81 in the lesions of 2 patients. The rCBV was 3.51 ml/100 g and 3.32 ml/100 g of lesions in 2 patients; these values were 36% and 29% higher, respectively, than those of the contralateral side. The rCBF was 31.5 ml/100 g/min and 82.1 ml/100 g/min of lesions in two patients; these values were 49% and 203% higher, respectively, than those of the contralateral side.

Conclusion: eGBM characteristics include a superficial location, easy cyst degeneration, easy necrosis and hemorrhage, and clear boundaries. It easily invades adjacent meninges and shows cerebrospinal fluid dissemination and metastasis. Combining new MR techniques, such as ADC values, PWI, and MRS, could be helpful for improving diagnostic accuracy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/9586806DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7586153PMC
May 2021

The Value of Corpus Callosum Measurement in the Diagnosis of Cerebral Atrophy.

Curr Med Imaging 2020 ;16(6):682-687

Department of Radiology, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao 266003, China.

Objective: The study aimed to investigate the relationship between the corpus callosum area (CCa) and the degree of cerebral atrophy in patients with cerebral atrophy.

Methods: 119 patients with brain atrophy were grouped according to the degree of brain atrophy. Median sagittal CCa and intracranial area (ICa) were measured, and the ratio of corpus callosum to the intracranial area (CCa-ICa ratio) was calculated. The data were analyzed using ANOVA.

Results: CCa significantly reduced in patients with cerebral atrophy, and the degree of cerebral atrophy was found to be positively correlated with the degree of reduction in the CCa.

Conclusion: The reduction in the CCa and the CCa-ICa ratio in the median sagittal can be used as a reference indicator for the diagnosis and grading of brain atrophy in clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1573405615666190724092047DOI Listing
August 2021

Outcome of a 980-nm diode laser coagulation in women with radiation-induced hemorrhagic cystitis: a single-center retrospective study.

Lasers Med Sci 2021 Feb 18;36(1):67-73. Epub 2020 Apr 18.

Department of Urology, The Second People's Hospital of Lianyungang, 161 Xingfu Road, Lianyungang, 222023, Jiangsu, China.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a 980-nm diode laser coagulation in women with radiation-induced hemorrhagic cystitis (RHC). We conducted a retrospective study of 21 RHC patients treated with a 980-nm diode laser between July 2014 and December 2017 at our institution. Data was collected with regard to age, sex, lower urinary tract symptoms, use of transfusions, a drop in hemoglobin levels, indication of radiotherapy, median time between radiation therapy and presentation, previous treatments, operative time, mean energy used, number of coagulated areas, catheterization time, discharge time after treatment, hospital stay, and surgical outcome. All 21 patients were women with a median age of 52 years (range 36-68 years). Eighteen patients complained of frequency and urgency, four patients had dysuria, and one patient developed urinary retention. Radiation therapy was primarily indicated in the treatment of cervical cancer in 18 patients (85.7%) and endometrial cancer in three patients (14.3%). Nine patients (42.8%) received blood transfusion before surgery and three patients (14.3%) needed blood transfusion after the procedure. The mean decrease in hemoglobin prior to the procedure was 4.08 ± 2.04 g/dL. The median length of time from completion of radiotherapy to the presentation of hematuria was 38 months (range 8-65 months). All patients had failed an adequate trial of conservative treatment which included adequate hydration, hemostatics, continuous bladder irrigation (CBI), and clot evacuation at the bedside. Eleven patients (52.4%) had previously been treated with endoscopic electrocoagulation; the mean number of procedures was 1.73 ± 0.78 (range 1-3 sessions). Six patients (28.6%) underwent HBO, and sodium hyaluronate solution irrigation was administered to 3 patients (14.3%). The mean number of HBO sessions was 26.3 ± 16.8 (range 8-50), and the mean number of sodium hyaluronate solution irrigation procedures was 4.33 ± 1.53 (range 3-6). All operations were successful. The mean operative time was 45.6 ± 12.3 min, the mean number of coagulated areas was 11.7 ± 4.4, the mean energy used was 2.74 ± 1.14 kJ, the mean catheterization time was 6.2 ± 0.9 days, the mean discharge time after treatment was 6.8 ± 1.2 days, and the average length of a hospital stay was 7.4 ± 1.3 days. In 16 patients (76.2%), hematuria was completely resolved after one session of diode laser coagulation. Four patients (19.0%) underwent multiple sessions of laser treatment due to recurrent gross hematuria (three patients required two sessions and one patient required three sessions). Only one patient (4.8%) who had persistent gross hematuria after diode laser treatment (two sessions) underwent a radical cystectomy, which resolved the hematuria. The median hematuria-free interval of patients who had multiple procedures was 9 months (range 1-13 months). In total, 21 patients underwent 27 sessions of diode laser coagulation, and the median hematuria-free interval was 16 months (range 1-45 months) with a median follow-up of 25 months (range 7-48 months). Our study shows promising results for the management of patients with RHC; however, further evaluation with a larger cohort is required to confirm the efficacy of this treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10103-020-03005-2DOI Listing
February 2021

[Nerve-sparing robot-assisted laparoscopic radical cystectomy: Clinical application and effect].

Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue 2019 Sep;25(9):797-801

Gulou School of Clinical Medicine, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210008, China.

Objective: To investigate the clinical feasibility and effect of nerve-sparing robot-assisted laparoscopic radical cystectomy (NSRA-LSRC).

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data on 12 cases of NSRA-LSRC performed from March 2016 to May 2018. The patients were aged 45 to 65 years old and all potent before surgery, with a mean IIEF-5 score of >17. The surgical procedure involved excision of the bladder and prostate and dissection of the pelvic lymph nodes, with preservation of the bilateral neurovascular bundles, internal accessory pudendal artery and pubic bladder complex. All the patients were advised to take PDE5I postoperatively and followed up for the sexual function with the IIEF-5 scores.

Results: Surgical procedures were completed successfully, all with negative surgical margins. Postoperative pathology confirmed invasive high-grade urothelial carcinoma or carcinoma in situ in all the cases, including 11 cases in stage T2N0M0 or below and 1 case in stage T3aN0M0. There were no serious intraoperative or postoperative complications, nor recurrence or metastasis during the follow-up period of 12-36 (20.7 ± 8.0) months. The IIEF-5 scores of the patients at 3, 6 and 12 months after operation were 10.9 ± 6.9, 12.3 ± 6.9 and 14.1 ± 8.0, respectively. At 12 months, satisfactory sexual intercourse was achieved with the help of potency-enhancing medicine in 5 cases (41.7%), penile erection insufficient for sexual intercourse in 3 cases (25%), and no erection in 4 cases (33.3%).

Conclusions: Nerve-sparing robot-assisted laparoscopic radical cystectomy can maximally preserve the sexual function of the patients with urinary bladder carcinoma.
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September 2019

Extraction, purification, characterization, anticoagulant activity, and anticoagulant mechanism of polysaccharides from the heads of .

Food Sci Nutr 2020 Feb 28;8(2):849-861. Epub 2019 Dec 28.

Finance and Taxation College Jilin Business and Technology College Changchun Jilin China.

The aim of this work was to extract, isolate, and purify polysaccharides from the heads of and to evaluate their anticoagulant activities and anticoagulant mechanisms. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the extraction conditions for ultrasonic-assisted extraction of polysaccharides from the heads of . The optimal extraction conditions consisted of ultrasonic power of 275 W, ultrasonic time of 50 min, and solid-liquid ratio of 5 ml/g, giving the yield of crude polysaccharides (GYT) of 7.73 ± 0.042%. Three polysaccharide fractions, GYT-1, GYT-2, and GYT-3 were purified from GYT by using DEAE-cellulose-52 column and Sephadex G-100 column for anticoagulant activities. The results showed that two doses (2 and 4 mg/ml) of GYT-1 and GYT-3 could significantly prolong ( < .01) in partial thromboplastin time (APTT) (2.19 and 2.37 times, 2.22 and 2.44 times, respectively) and thrombin time (TT) (2.39 and 2.46 times, 2.44 and 2.80 times, respectively) compared with normal control. In particular, GYT-3 had stronger anticoagulant activity than GYT-1, and it was composed of arabinose, fructose, glucose, and lactose with molar ratios of 0.595:1: 2.026:0.273. However, GYT-2 had no anticoagulant activity ( > .05). In addition, anticoagulation mechanism of polysaccharides from the heads of (GYT-3) was evaluated. The results showed that the anticoagulant activity of GYT-3 was based on their binding with antithrombin AT-III. And the inhibitory effects of GYT-3 on factor IIa and Xa were related to the concentration of AT-III in plasma. This study may provide a new and promising anticoagulant drug.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.1360DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7020297PMC
February 2020

[Research progress on the monitoring methods of atmospheric nitrogen deposition].

Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 2019 Oct;30(10):3605-3614

College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China.

As an important component of global nitrogen (N) biogeochemical cycle, atmospheric N deposition refers to the removal process of reactive N, including oxidized N (NO) and reduced N (NH), from the atmosphere to earth surface through dry and wet deposition. Nitrogen deposition can exert important impacts on the structure and functioning of both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Increasing N deposition poses a potential threat to natural ecosystems and human health. It is a challenge to accurately monitor the composition and flux of dry and wet N deposition in different ecosystems, using a unified technology. Here, we reviewed the research progress on monitoring methods of dry and wet N deposition in China and aboard, including micrometeorology, inferential method, model estimation, surrogate surface, precipitation collection, and ion exchange resin methods. We further discussed the advantages and disadvantages of each method in terms of its applications at regional, national, and global scales. This review would provide a methodological support to establish national monitoring network for atmospheric N deposition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13287/j.1001-9332.201910.008DOI Listing
October 2019

Metabolite Profile Differences Among Different Storage Time in Beef Preserved at Low Temperature.

J Food Sci 2019 Nov 16;84(11):3163-3171. Epub 2019 Oct 16.

Jilin Agricultural Univ., 2888 Xincheng Street, Jingyue District, Changchun City, Jilin Province, 130000, China.

Storage temperature influences meat color stability and quality. This study was performed to quality change-associated metabolites profiles using a nontargeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based method. Beef longissimus dorsi samples were purchased immediately after slaughter, and then stored at room temperature, 4 °C and 0 °C. Water holding capacity (WHC), moisture content and pH value of the muscle samples were detected. Muscle samples and quality control samples were then prepared for nontargeted LC-MS/MS system, followed by identification of distinct metabolites. Pearson correlation coefficients between metabolites and quality indexes were calculated. Storage reduced pH values of beef, and room temperature and 4 °C displayed the lowest pH value. Moisture content and WHC in beef muscles, especially WHC declined obviously during the first 24 hr. The significantly altered metabolites profiles in meat samples at 0, 3.5, and 7 days during 4 °C storage were identified using LC-MS/MS. Most metabolites showed linear changes during storage (0 to 7 days). Using Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis, we found 1(α)-naphthol, urocanic acid, tyramine, guanine, histamine, picolinic acid, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, and hypoxanthine were increased, and 2-(S-glutathionyl)acetyl glutathione and glutathione were decreased in beef during 4 °C storage. Correlation analysis showed there were significantly correlations between metabolites and meat quality indexes (WHC, moisture content, and pH). In summary, 1(α)-naphthol, urocanic acid, tyramine, guanine, histamine, picolinic acid, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, and hypoxanthine, proved to be harmful to human body, accumulated gradually, especially after 3.5 days during storage at 4 °C. While the contents of beneficial substances, including 2-(S-glutathionyl)acetyl glutathione and glutathione, were decreased, which provided reference for the nutrition guidance of using beef meat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.14827DOI Listing
November 2019

Antioxidant activity of vine tea extract on lipid and protein oxidation in cooked mixed pork patties during refrigerated storage.

Food Sci Nutr 2019 May 2;7(5):1735-1745. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

College of Food Science and Engineering Jilin Agricultural University Changchun China.

To prevent oxidation and maintain the quality of meat products, it is essential to add antioxidants. The aim of this work was to investigate the antioxidant activity of vine tea () extract (VTE) and evaluate the effects of VTE on the quality characteristics and lipid and protein oxidation of cooked mixed pork patties during refrigerated storage. VTE had a significant DPPH radical scavenging activity, and its IC was 15.35 µg/ml. VTE-treated mixed pork patties had a better texture than that of the control group ( < 0.05). VTE could significantly inhibit an increase in the TBARS value and the formation of carbonyl compounds ( < 0.05), and the inhibition was stronger than that of the butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) group ( < 0.05), while the amount of sulfhydryl groups significantly decreased ( < 0.05). The color of VTE itself made the mixed pork patties darker ( < 0.05), but this did not affect the sensory scores and overall acceptability of the VTE-treated patties, indicating the VTE can be incorporated into mixed pork patties. The scanning electron microscopy () results showed that the VTE inhibited the oxidation of the cooked mixed pork patties during refrigerated storage. These findings may be significant to helping extend the shelf life of meat products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.1013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6526652PMC
May 2019

Characterization, hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities of degraded polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum.

Int J Biol Macromol 2019 Aug 23;135:706-716. Epub 2019 May 23.

College of Food Science and Engineering, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun, China. Electronic address:

The aim of this work is to characterize the primary structure and physicochemical properties of natural polysaccharides (GLP) and degraded polysaccharides (GLP) from Ganoderma lucidum, and evaluate their hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities. The results of particle size distribution and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides were effectively degraded by ultrasonic method. GLP was composed of the same monosaccharide units as GLP but with different molar ratios. Infrared spectra and NMR showed that the primary structure of polysaccharides had not been changed by ultrasonic degradation. Meanwhile, the thermal stability of polysaccharides increased after ultrasonic treatment. After administration by GLP and GLP four weeks, body weight, visceral index, atherosclerosis index (AI) and biochemical indicators in serum and in liver were determined. The results showed that GLP had stronger hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities than GLP. GLP was more effective than the GLP for reducing AI, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), raising high density lipoprotein (HDL-C) (p < 0.01), reducing malondialdehyde (MDA) content, as well as increasing the glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in mice serum, increasing superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and reducing MDA content in liver (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01). In addition, the histopathological observations of mice livers showed that GLP could significantly improve lipid metabolism disorder in hepatocytes. Thus, GLP might be tested as a more effective hypolipidemic drug.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.05.166DOI Listing
August 2019

Safety and Immunogenicity of a Nonadjuvant Human Papillomavirus Type 6 Virus-like Particle Vaccine in Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis.

J Voice 2019 May 14;33(3):363-369. Epub 2018 Sep 14.

The 2nd Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children's Hospital, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China. Electronic address:

Objectives: To assess the safety and immunogenicity of a nonadjuvant human papillomavirus (HPV) type 6 L1 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine in recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) in local Chinese patients.

Methods: Patients with RRP who had undergone surgical treatment before intramuscular administration of an escalating dose of HPV type 6 L1 VLPs (1, 5, and 25 µg at 4 weekly intervals) as part of their treatment were followed up for more than 10 years. Efficacy was assessed by detecting the vaccine-induced type-specific antibody titer, calculating the intersurgical interval, and observing recurrence or remission of papillomas after receiving the vaccine.

Results: Nonadjuvant HPV vaccine was generally well tolerated, with no serious vaccine-related adverse episodes. It induced seroconversion for each vaccine-related HPV type. At week 12 (4 weeks after injecting 25 µg), the vaccine-induced type-specific antibody titer was significantly high. Analysis of all patients found a significant increase in the intersurgical interval and decrease in the scores. One patient (16.7%; female) experienced complete remission. Five patients (83.3%) (two males and three females) experienced partial remission. In total, complete or partial remission was achieved in six (100%) patients.

Conclusions: Administration of nonadjuvant HPV type 6 L1 VLPs vaccine to RRP was generally well tolerated and highly immunogenic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvoice.2017.12.002DOI Listing
May 2019

[Observations of Reactive Nitrogen and Sulfur Compounds During Haze Episodes Using a Denuder-based System].

Huan Jing Ke Xue 2017 Sep;38(9):3605-3609

State Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Physics and Atmospheric Chemistry, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China.

Reactive nitrogen and sulfur compounds are chemically active in the atmosphere and play an important role in secondary particle formation. Among them, sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium (SNA) are important components of particulate matter (PM) that account for approximately one-third of fine particles. The precursors of SNA including HNO, SO, and NH are all involved in haze formation in China. To date, the concurrent measurements of SNA and their precursors have been limited to single sites and short terms because of the high cost of the instruments. This study aimed to use DELTA (Denuder for Long-Term Atmospheric sampling) to characterize the daily concentrations of reactive nitrogen and sulfur species during haze episodes. The results showed that the background interface of NH, NO, and SO in the denuder was minor and could be used to determine 24-48 h concentrations of NH, HNO, SO, NH, and NO. However, the SO concentrations in the blank filter was so high that they could only be used for sampling weekly or for longer periods of time. During the campaign between May 9 and June 7, 2016 in urban Beijing, the concentrations of NH, HNO, NH, and NO showed distinct daily variations at different wind directions, i.e., higher values were observed during southerly winds and lower values during northerly winds. The time series of these reactive nitrogen compounds coincided with that of PM, CO, SO, and NO, indicating the combustion of fossil fuels. The mean concentrations of NH, HNO, NH, and NO were twice the concentrations during clean days, further highlighting the effect of local emissions on the urban environment. The ratios of HNO/NO and NH/NH were 1.2 and 4.5, respectively, without significant differences between hazy and clean days. The findings demonstrated that both the reduced and oxidized nitrogen were preferred in gaseous phase rather than particulate phase due to relatively high temperatures during the transition season of spring/summer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13227/j.hjkx.201701177DOI Listing
September 2017

[Transurethral diode laser enucleation versus transurethral electrovaporization resection of the prostate for benign prostatic hyperplasia with different prostate volumes].

Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue 2017 Mar;23(3):217-222

Department of Urology, The Second People's Hospital of Lianyungang, Lianyungang, Jiangsu 222000, China.

Objective: To compare the clinical effect of diode laser enucleation of the prostate (DIOD) with that of transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) on benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) with different prostate volumes.

Methods: This retrospective study included 256 BPH patients treated by DIOD (n = 141) or TURP (n = 115) from March 2012 to August 2015. According to the prostate volume, we divided the patients into three groups: <60 ml (42 for DIOD and 31 for TURP), 60-80 ml (51 for DIOD and 45 for TURP), and >80 ml (48 for DIOD and 39 for TURP). We obtained the relevant data from the patients before, during and at 6 months after surgery, and compared the two surgical strategies in operation time, perioperative levels of hemoglobin and sodium ion, post-operative urethral catheterization time and bladder irrigation time, pre- and post-operative serum PSA levels, International Prostate Symptoms Score (IPSS), post-void residual urine (PVR) volume and maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax), and incidence of post-operative complications among different groups.

Results: In the <60 ml group, there were no remarkable differences in the peri- and post-operative parameters between the two surgical strategies. In the 60-80 ml group, DIOD exhibited a significant superiority over TURP in the perioperative levels of hemoglobin ([3.25 ± 1.53] g/L vs [4.77 ± 1.67] g/L, P <0.05) and Na+ ([3.58 ± 1.27]mmol/L vs [9.67 ± 2.67] mmol/L, P <0.01), bladder irrigation time ([30.06 ± 6.22]h vs [58.32 ± 10.25] h, P <0.01), and urethral catheterization time ([47.61 ± 13.55] h vs [68.01 ± 9.69] h, P <0.01), but a more significant decline than the latter in the postoperative PSA level ([2.34 ± 1.29] ng/ml vs [1.09 ± 0.72] ng/ml, P <0.05), and similar decline was also seen in the >80 ml group ([3.35 ± 1.39] ng/ml vs [1.76 ± 0.91] ng/ml, P <0.05). No blood transfusion was necessitated and nor postoperative transurethral resection syndrome or urethral stricture observed in DIOD. However, the incidence rate of postoperative pseudo-urinary incontinence was significantly higher in the DIOD (22.7%, 32/141) than in the TURP group (7.83%, 9/115) (P <0.05).

Conclusions: DIOD, with its obvious advantages of less blood loss, higher safety, faster recovery, and more definite short-term effectiveness, is better than TURP in the treatment of BPH with medium or large prostate volume and similar to the latter with small prostate volume.
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March 2017

Bioaccumulation of trace metals in octocorals depends on age and tissue compartmentalization.

PLoS One 2018 23;13(4):e0196222. Epub 2018 Apr 23.

Department of Biology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T., Hong Kong, China P.R.

Trace metal dynamics have not been studied with respect to growth increments in octocorals. It is particularly unknown whether ontogenetic compartmentalization of trace metal accumulation is species-specific. We studied here for the first time the intracolonial distribution and concentrations of 18 trace metals in the octocorals Subergorgia suberosa, Echinogorgia complexa and E. reticulata that were retrieved from the northern coast of Taiwan. Levels of trace metals were considerably elevated in corals collected at these particular coral habitats as a result of diverse anthropogenic inputs. There was a significant difference in the concentration of metals among octocorals except for Sn. Both species of Echinogorgia contained significantly higher concentrations of Cu, Zn and Al than Subergorgia suberosa. We used for the first time exponential growth curves that describe an age-specific relationship of octocoral trace metal concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr and Pb where the distance from the grip point was reflecting younger age as linear regressions. The larger colony (C7) had a lower accumulation rate constant than the smaller one (C6) for Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr and Pb, while other trace metals showed an opposite trend. The Cu concentration declined exponentially from the grip point, whereas the concentrations of Zn, Cd, Cr and Pb increased exponentially. In S. suberosa and E. reticulata, Zn occurred primarily in coenosarc tissues and Zn concentrations increased with distance from the grip point in both skeletal and coenosarc tissues. Metals which appeared at high concentrations (e.g. Ca, Zn and Fe) generally tended to accumulate in the outer coenosarc tissues, while metals with low concentrations (e.g. V) tended to accumulate in the soft tissues of the inner skeleton.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0196222PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5912762PMC
July 2018

[Anti-CD36 Mediated Platelet Transfusion Refractoriness and Related Cases After Stem Cell Transplantation].

Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi 2018 Apr;26(2):541-546

Nan-ning Institute of Transfusion Medicine, Nanning 530007, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region,

Objective: To analyse the cases of platelet transfusion refractoriness after received HLA-matched unrelated donor hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, to analyze and identify the phenotype and genotype of CD36 in both the patient and stem cell donor, as well as the characteristic of antibody induced platelet transfusion refractoriness, and to analyse the efficacy of matched CD36-deficiency platelets transfusions.

Methods: The CD36 expression on platelet and monocyte was analyzed by flow cytometry (FCM) in both patient and donor. Polymerase chain reaction sequence-based typing (PCR-SBT) was used to analyze the exons sequence of CD36 and HPA. Fast monoclonal antibody-specific immobilization of platelet antigen (F-MAIPA) and FCM were used to identify platelet antibodies in the patient. Short tandem repeat polymerase chain reaction (STR-PCR) was applied to monitor engraftment evidence. The platelet level was monitored. CD36- deficiency donor's platelets were selected from CD36- deficiency donor blood bank.

Results: The donor was CD36 positive and the patient was typed I CD36 deficiency. The anti-CD36 antibody was identified in patient's serum (after transplantation), while the HLA and HPA-related antibodies were excluded. Sequence analysis of CD36 exon in the patient showed Exon 6 -1G>C(Change in splicing site) homozygote, which was a novel CD36 mutation. STR, HPA and CD36 of the patient (complete chimerism) were conversed to that of donor gene types on day 18 after allo-HSCT. The positive CD36 expression on platelet and monocyte in the patient was observed on day 96 after allo-HSCT. The patient showed the platelet transfusion refractoriness which was significantly improved after platelets transfusions from CD36 deficiency donors.

Conclusion: Stem cell transplants resulted in anti-CD36 and caused platelet transfusion refractoriness, that was first reported in China. To ensure the efficacy of platelet transfusion, the CD36-deficiency patient should receive CD36 deficiency platelets for transfusion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7534/j.issn.1009-2137.2018.02.039DOI Listing
April 2018

Intradural cervical chordoma with diffuse spinal leptomeningeal spread: case report and review of the literature.

Eur Spine J 2018 07 8;27(Suppl 3):440-445. Epub 2018 Jan 8.

Radiology Department, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, China.

Purpose: Chordoma is a low-grade malignant bone tumor derived from embryonic notochord remnants along the axial skeleton. About 50% of chordomas occur in the sacral vertebrae and 35% in the skull base. Most chordomas are extradural and cause extensive bone destruction. Intradural spinal tumors without bone involvement are rare.

Methods: We herein describe the clinical features of a patient with a chordoma as well as the imaging and pathological manifestations of the tumor.

Results: We encountered an unusual presentation of a C6 and C7 spinal intradural chordoma in a 23-year-old man. He presented with a 5-day history of discomfort over the lumbosacral region. Magnetic resonance imaging and enhanced scanning of the cervical spine showed an intradural soft tissue mass at C6 and C7 and linear enhancement of the spinal meninges. The tumor was excised because the patient had been previously misdiagnosed with an intraspinal neurogenic tumor with spinal meningitis. Postoperative pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of chordoma. On postoperative day 7, the patient underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging because of severe headache. The images showed multiple soft tissue nodules in the skull base cistern. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of an entirely extraosseous and spinal intradural chordoma with diffuse spinal leptomeningeal spread. The patient died 2 months postoperatively.

Conclusions: An intradural spinal chordoma is difficult to distinguish from a neurogenic tumor by imaging. When the lesion is dumbbell-shaped, it is easily misdiagnosed as a schwannoma. In the present case, the tumor was intradural and located at the level of the C6 and C7 vertebrae. Preoperative diagnosis was difficult, and the final diagnosis required pathological examination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00586-017-5443-6DOI Listing
July 2018

Medulloblastoma with Atypical Dynamic Imaging Changes: Case Report with Literature Review.

World Neurosurg 2017 Sep 16;105:1036.e1-1036.e3. Epub 2017 Jun 16.

Department of Radiology, the Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, China. Electronic address:

Objective: We analyzed a case of medulloblastoma with atypical dynamic imaging changes retrospectively to summarize the atypical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of medulloblastoma by reviewing the literature.

Methods: An atypical case of medulloblastoma in the cerebellar hemisphere confirmed by pathology was analyzed retrospectively, and the literature about it was reviewed.

Results: The radiologic findings of the patient were based on 3 examinations. The first examination showed that the cortex of the bilateral cerebellar hemisphere had diffuse nodular thickening, with a high signal on diffusion-weighted imaging and significant enhancement. Contrast enhancement MRI 1 year later showed the signal of cerebellar hemisphere returned to normal but revealed an enhanced nodule. A reexamination 6 months later showed an irregular mass with a high-density shadow in the cerebellar vermis on CT scan. The T2-weighted image revealed multiple degenerative cysts, and the mass had significant enhancement.

Conclusion: The radiologic characteristics of atypical medulloblastomas vary in adults and children. Understanding the radiologic characteristics of medulloblastomas, such as MRI features, age of onset, and location of atypical medulloblastomas, can help improve the diagnosis of medulloblastomas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2017.06.058DOI Listing
September 2017

[Dry and Bulk Nitrogen Deposition in Suburbs of Xining City].

Huan Jing Ke Xue 2017 Apr;38(4):1279-1288

College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China.

This study conducted a full two-year (2014 and 2015) measurements of dry and bulk deposition of atmospheric inorganic nitrogen (N) at the suburb of Xining city, Qinghai province. Dry N deposition fluxes were calculated by multiplying the atmospheric concentrations of NH and NO measured using passive samplers with the modeled dry deposition velocities provided by the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model, while bulk N deposition fluxes were measured using precipitation gauge. Annual mean concentrations of gaseous NH and NO averaged 8.8 and 19.6 μg·m, respectively, with significantly higher values in 2015 than in 2014. Seasonal mean NH concentrations were higher in spring and summer than in autumn and winter, but the concentrations of NO changed little from season to season, with a small peak in autumn. Annual mean concentrations of NH-N and NO-N in precipitation averaged 2.2 and 1.8 mg·L, respectively. Concentrations of NH-N in autumn were~55% lower than those in other seasons, whereas those of NO-N in autumn or winter were~26% higher than those in spring and summer. Dry deposition of NH and NO was 9.0 and 2.8 kg·(hm·a), respectively. Bulk deposition of NH-N and NO-N in precipitation was 7.6 and 6.2 kg·(hm·a), respectively. Reduced N (gaseous NH and NH-N in precipitation) was the dominant form of N deposition. The total dry and wet N deposition was 25.6 kg·(hm·a), which represented significant nutrient input from the environment to the suburban farmland, but this amount of deposited N exceeded the critical loads[10-20 kg·(hm·a)] of terrestrial ecosystems, suggesting a risk of "N saturation" in the local natural environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13227/j.hjkx.201609237DOI Listing
April 2017

Is There a Correlation between the Presence of a Spiculated Mass on Mammogram and Luminal A Subtype Breast Cancer?

Korean J Radiol 2016 Nov-Dec;17(6):846-852. Epub 2016 Oct 31.

Department of Radiology, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao 266000, China.

Objective: To determine whether the appearance of a spiculated mass on a mammogram is associated with luminal A subtype breast cancer and the factors that may influence the presence or absence of the spiculated mass.

Materials And Methods: Three hundred seventeen (317) patients who underwent image-guided or surgical biopsy between December 2014 and April 2015 were included in the study. Radiologists conducted retrospective assessments of the presence of spiculated masses according to the criteria of Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System. We used combinations of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epithelial growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), and Ki67 as surrogate markers to identify molecular subtypes of breast cancer. Pearson chi-square test was employed to measure statistical significance of correlations. Furthermore, we built a bi-variate logistic regression model to quantify the relative contribution of the factors that may influence the presence or absence of the spiculated mass.

Results: Seventy-one percent (71%) of the spiculated masses were classified as luminal A. Masses classified as luminal A were 10.3 times more likely to be presented as spiculated mass on a mammogram than all other subtypes. Patients with low Ki67 index (< 14%) and HER2 negative were most likely to present with a spiculated mass on their mammograms ( <0.001) than others. The hormone receptor status (ER and PR), pathology grade, overall breast composition, were all associated with the presence of a spiculated mass, but with less weight in contribution than Ki67 and HER2.

Conclusion: We observed an association between the luminal A subtype of invasive breast cancer and the presence of a spiculated mass on a mammogram. It is hypothesized that lower Ki67 index and HER2 negativity may be the most significant factors in the presence of a spiculated mass.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3348/kjr.2016.17.6.846DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5102912PMC
August 2017

[Inorganic nitrogen wet deposition in eastern China: Comparison of different land use-based monitoring sites in north and south regions].

Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 2016 Oct;27(10):3205-3212

College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China.

China is one of the global hotspots of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition. This is especially true for eastern China, an economically developed and densely populated area, which emits large quantities of anthropogenic reactive N species to the air and experiences high levels of atmospheric N deposition. Few studies, however, have examined spatial variations of N deposition across different ecosystems in northern and southern regions of eastern China. Using the traditional rain gauge (SDM6A) method, we conducted a three-year (2011-2013) study to quantify wet N deposition fluxes at twelve sites (six northern and six southern monitoring sites, covering urban, rural and background land use types) in China. The annual volume-weighted mean (VWM) concentrations of NH-N, NO-N and total inorganic N (TIN) atmonitoring sites were in the ranges of 0.62-2.76, 0.54-2.50 and 1.25-4.92 mg N·L, and averaged 1.4, 1.5 and 2.9 mg N·L, respectively. Northern sites showed higher concentrations of N species in precipitation than southern sites. Annual deposition fluxes of NH-N, NO-N and TIN were in the ranges of 7.0-18.3, 6.9-18.9 and 14.9-32.6 kg N·hm·a, averaging 11.5, 12.2 and 23.7 kg N·hm·a, respectively. There were significant differences in total N deposition fluxes among different land use types in the north, showing the decreasing order of urban sites (26.3±6.4 kg N·hm·a)> rural sites (21.8±3.5 kg N·hm·a)> background (15.5±1.3 kg N·hm·a). Total N deposition fluxes at urban, rural and background sites in the south were (26.8±2.7), (25.5±2.9) and (20.5±2.4) kg N·hm·a, respectively, showing no significant spatial variation. While urban sites did not show obvious regional differences, total N wet deposition fluxes at rural and background sites in the south were significantly higher than those at corresponding sites in the north. Our results revealed that both south and north regions of eastern China (including background areas) are receiving high levels of wet N deposition and associated ecological and environmental risks should be considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13287/j.1001-9332.201610.012DOI Listing
October 2016

Galla chinensis Compounds Remineralize Enamel Caries Lesions in a Rat Model.

Caries Res 2016 26;50(2):159-65. Epub 2016 Apr 26.

College of Stomatology, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

Objectives: To investigate the effect of Galla chinensis chemical compounds on enamel caries remineralization in rats.

Methods: A total of 40 rats were inoculated with Streptococcus sobrinus 6715 and fed a cariogenic diet (Keyes 2000). The rats were randomly divided into 4 groups and treated topically twice a day with each of the following extracts (or control) for 5 weeks: distilled and deionized water (DDW, negative control); 1,000 ppm NaF (positive control); 4,000 ppm G. chinensis crude aqueous extract (GCE), or 4,000 ppm gallic acid (GA). After the experimental period, Keyes' caries diagnosis and scoring technique was applied as a preliminary evaluation on the molar teeth. For more accurate remineralization data, the residual enamel volume of the first molar and the mineral density (MD) of the enamel were further analyzed by micro-CT.

Results: The severity of molar enamel caries decreased in the following order of treatment groups: DDW > GA > GCE > NaF (p < 0.05). In addition, the residual first molar enamel volume and MD values increased in the order of DDW, GA, GCE and NaF treatment groups (p < 0.05). In most molars, remineralization layers were observed on the surface of lesions.

Conclusion: G. chinensis compounds remineralize enamel caries lesions in a rat model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000445036DOI Listing
October 2017

Effect of Chaihu-Shugan-San on the mRNA expression of the 5-HT1A receptor and cellular proliferation in the hippocampus of epileptic rats with depression.

Exp Ther Med 2016 Jan 13;11(1):124-130. Epub 2015 Nov 13.

Provincial Key Laboratory of TCM Diagnostics, Hunan University of Chinese Medicine, Changsha, Hunan 410208, P.R. China.

Chaihu-Shugan-San (CHSGS) is a herbal preparation that has been shown to effectively relieve neurologic impairment and reduce depression. However, the efficacy of CHSGS in the treatment of patients with epilepsy with depression is unknown. Therefore, in the present study, adult rats were exposed to chronic mild stress following the establishment of chronic pilocarpine-induced epilepsy. Subsequently, a sucrose consumption test and open-field test (OFT) were performed to assess depression-like behavior. Rats were randomly divided into four groups: Control, model, fluoxetine (1.8 g/kg) and CHSGS (2.7 g/kg) groups. The control and model groups received normal saline. The mRNA expression levels of the 5-hydroxytryptamine 1A (5-HT1A) receptor and the number of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeled cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus were detected using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical analysis, respectively. Treatment administration was conducted by once daily intragastric perfusion for 28 days. The mRNA expression levels of the 5-HT1A receptor, the number of BrdU-labeled cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, the consumption of sucrose, and frequency of vertical and horizontal movement scores in the OFT were enhanced in the fluoxetine and CHSGS groups compared with the model group (P<0.05). However, no statistically significant difference was detected between the fluoxetine and CHSGS groups. These data suggest that CHSGS is able to increase the expression of 5-HT1A receptor mRNA and cellular proliferation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus in epileptic rats with depression, and thus effectively improve certain symptoms of depression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2015.2867DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4726879PMC
January 2016

A giant ureteral polyp mimicking as a bladder mass resected ureteroscopically by diode laser: a case report and literature review.

Int J Clin Exp Pathol 2015 1;8(11):14580-3. Epub 2015 Nov 1.

Department of Urology, The Second People's Hospital of Lianyungang Jiangsu, China.

We presented a rare case with giant ureteral polyp that mimics bladder tumor in adult women, originating from the middle segment of the left ureter. The patient was a 42-year-old woman, with a 2.1×1.3 cm bladder mass detected incidentally on a health screening ultrasound. Computerized tomography (CT) of the pelvis revealed a solid tumor situated near to trigon. Cystoscopy demonstrated a tumor that periodically prolapsed into the bladder. After the tumor was identified as a ureteral polyp by ureteroscopy, an ureteroscopic resection by diode laser was performed. The tumor measured 9.0×0.5 cm, and the final pathological diagnosis was ureteral fibroepithelial polyp. No recurrence was observed at the 5-month follow-up.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4713567PMC
October 2016
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