Publications by authors named "Xue-Feng Hu"

53 Publications

Evaluation of the efficiency and safety of botulinum toxin A injection on improving facial scars: A protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jan;100(1):e23034

Department of Dermatology, Huangshi Central Hospital, Affiliated Hospital of Hubei Polytechnic University, Edong Healthcare Group; Hubei Key Laboratory of Kidney Disease Pathogenesis and Intervention.

Background: Botulinum toxin A injection is an established method of treatment. Clinical practitioners use it widely in their practice to prevent the occurrence of facial scars. However, the effectiveness and safeness of has not been comprehensively established. The objective of the current systematic review is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of using botulinum toxin A injection to improve facial scars.

Methods And Analysis: This systematic review involves browsing a number of electronic databases to search for related articles. The search will include databases in both English (PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Spocus, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) and Chinese (WanFang database, China Nation Knowledge Infrastructure, and VIP database), the periods of searching will be from inception till the 15th of September 2020. Completing the search in databases allows to consider randomized controlled studies that compares botulinum toxin A interventions to any comparison interventions in those who have facial scars. The review will be inclusive of papers in both languages, English and Chinese. The independent screening of studies for eligibility is conducted by 2 independent authors. Discussion was used to resolve discrepancies between the authors. The Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool V.2.0 is adopted for evaluating the methodological quality of each study. Data extraction was performed by 2 independent authors. For dichotomous outcomes, the were expressed as relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). For continuous outcomes the results were expressed as the mean difference (MD) or standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95% CI. The statistical analysis of the present study is carried out in RevMan 5.3 software.

Results: This study will output a comprehensive synthesis of existing evidence in relation to botulinum toxin A. Moreover, the results will also provide an interpretation of the effectiveness and safety of botulinum toxin A.

Conclusion: The present review contributes to the existing body of knowledge by adding more evidence to evaluate if botulinum toxin A is effective and safe to be used as an intervention for improving facial scars.

Osf Registration Number: DOI 10.17605/OSF.IO/94TXP (https://osf.io/94TXP/).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000023034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7793384PMC
January 2021

Seafood Consumption and Its Contribution to Nutrients Intake among Canadians in 2004 and 2015.

Nutrients 2020 Dec 29;13(1). Epub 2020 Dec 29.

Department of Biology, University of Ottawa (XFH, HMC), Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5, Canada.

Fish and seafood are excellent sources of nutrients such as omega-3 fatty acids, Vitamin D, and selenium. The aims of this study were to examine the pattern of seafood consumption among Canadians and determine their contribution to intakes of energy and nutrients. Day-1 24-h dietary recalls data collected from a national survey, the Canadian Community Health Survey-Nutrition in 2004 and 2015, were used to estimate food and nutrient intakes among Canadians. Seafood was classified according to the Bureau of Nutritional Sciences food list. Descriptive statistics were used to calculate the consumption rate and the average consumption amount of seafood by different age groups and sociodemographic characteristics. Population ratios were used to assess the contribution of seafood to the total intake of energy and nutrients. The overall consumption rate of seafood was around 17%, and the rate was similar between males and females, and slightly higher in 2015 (17.71%) compared to 2004 (16.38%). The average portion size is approximately 100 g, which translates into a ≈36 kg annual intake among the consumers and ≈6.2 kg per capita consumption. Adults (especially 30 years and above), Asians, individuals who were married, and with post-secondary education were more likely to consume seafood. Salmon, tuna, shrimp, cod, and crab were the most frequently consumed seafood in Canada, the consumption rate of which all increased from 2004 to 2015. Seafood provided up to 75% of -3 PUFAs, 18% of Vitamin D, 19% Vitamin B12, 6% of niacin, and 4% of Vitamin B6 from all food sources. Seafood consumers had a healthier diet, as seafood consumption was related to a higher intake of key nutrients and a lower intake of total sugar and saturated fatty acids. Therefore, fish consumption should be promoted among Canadians.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13010077DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7823921PMC
December 2020

Mercury exposure, cardiovascular disease, and mortality: A systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis.

Environ Res 2021 02 5;193:110538. Epub 2020 Dec 5.

Department of Biology, University of Ottawa (XFH, ML, HMC), Canada. Electronic address:

Background: There is evidence that exposure to mercury (Hg) may be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD).

Objective: To conduct a systematic review of published studies and a meta-analysis of the results to examine the associations between chronic Hg exposure and CVD outcomes.

Methods: We searched PubMed, Embase, and TOXLINE using previously developed strategies. Studies were selected according to a priori-defined inclusion criteria, and their qualities were assessed. Study estimates were extracted, and subgroup analyses were conducted to explore potential sources of heterogeneity: 1) fatal vs. nonfatal events, 2) cohort study vs. non-cohort study, and 3) inorganic Hg vs. methyl mercury (MeHg). Dose-response meta-analyses were conducted for MeHg exposure and fatal/nonfatal ischemic heart disease (IHD), stroke, and all CVD.

Results: A total of 14 studies reporting results collected from more than 34,000 participants in 17 countries were included in the meta-analysis. Hg exposure was associated with an increase in nonfatal IHD (relative risk (RR): 1.21 (0.98, 1.50)), all-cause mortality (RR: 1.21 (0.90, 1.62)), CVD mortality (RR: 1.68 (1.15, 2.45)), and mortality due to other heart diseases (RR: 1.50 (1.07, 2.11)). No association was observed between Hg exposure and stroke. A heterogeneous relationship was found between studies reporting fatal and nonfatal outcomes and between cohort and non-cohort studies. However, these differences were mainly due to differences in Hg exposure level. Occupational inorganic Hg exposure was associated with similar increases in different mortality outcomes. A J-shaped relationship between Hg exposure and different fatal/nonfatal outcomes was observed, with turning points at hair Hg concentrations of 1 μg/g for IHD and 2 μg/g for stroke and all CVD.

Conclusion: Chronic exposure to Hg was associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality and fatal/nonfatal IHD. The risk of multiple cardiovascular endpoints starts to increase consistently at a hair Hg concentration of 2 μg/g.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2020.110538DOI Listing
February 2021

Inhibition or Facilitation? Contrasted Inter-Specific Interactions in under Laboratory and Field Conditions.

Plants (Basel) 2020 Nov 12;9(11). Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Key Laboratory of Geographical Processes and Ecological Security in Changbai Mountains, Ministry of Education, School of Geographical Sciences, Northeast Normal University, Renmin 5268, Changchun 130024, China.

In a natural environment, plants usually interact with their neighbors predominantly through resource competition, allelopathy, and facilitation. The occurrence of the positive effect of allelopathy between peat mosses ( L.) is rare, but it has been observed in a field experiment. It is unclear whether the stability of the water table level in peat induces positive vs. negative effects of allelopathy and how that is related to phenolic allelochemical production in . Based on field experiment data, we established a laboratory experiment with three neighborhood treatments to measure inter-specific interactions between (Russ.) C. Jens and Brid. We found that the two species were strongly suppressed by the allelopathic effects of each other. allelopathically facilitated in the field but inhibited it in the laboratory, and relative allelopathy intensity appeared to be positively related to the content of released phenolics. We conclude that the interaction type and intensity between plants are dependent on environmental conditions. The concentration of phenolics alone may not explain the type and relative intensity of allelopathy. Carefully designed combined field and laboratory experiments are necessary to reveal the mechanism of species interactions in natural communities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants9111554DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7696925PMC
November 2020

Cohort profile: health effects monitoring programme in Ndilǫ, Dettah and Yellowknife (YKHEMP).

BMJ Open 2020 09 28;10(9):e038507. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

Environmental Health Program, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Purpose: The Yellowknife Health Effects Monitoring Programme (YKHEMP) was established to examine the relationship of exposure to arsenic and other chemicals of potential concern such as antimony, cadmium, lead, manganese and vanadium and health outcomes.

Participants: A total of 2037 individuals were recruited, including children (age 3-19) and adults (age 20+), residing in Dettah, Ndilǫ and Yellowknife, in the Northwest Territories, Canada, in two waves in Fall 2017 and Spring 2018. In Yellowknife, there were 891 (675 adults, 216 children), randomly selected participants with a participation rate of 64%. In addition, we also recruited a total of 875 (669 adults, 206 children) volunteer participants. A total of 225 (137 adults, 88 children) of the Yellowknives Dene First Nation (YKDFN), and 46 (33 adults, 13 children) of the North Slave Métis Alliance participated in the study. Each participant answered a lifestyle questionnaire as well as provided toenail clippings and urine for contaminant testing and saliva samples for testing of genetic polymorphisms associated with arsenic metabolism. Participants also provided consent to have their medical records reviewed by the research team for the past 5 years to allow for the investigation between exposure and health outcomes.

Findings To Date: The adult YKHEMP participants had lower urinary total arsenic but the children had higher inorganic arsenic than the general Canadian population. There was no difference in urinary total arsenic concentrations between adults and children, however, urinary inorganic arsenic concentrations were generally higher in children than in adults in all four YKHEMP sampling groups. The adult YKDFN participants had lower urinary total arsenic and inorganic arsenic concentrations compared with the random selected and volunteer participants.

Future Plans: YKHEMP is designed as a prospective cohort study; the children participants will be re-examined in 2022 and both adult and children participants in 2027.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-038507DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7523220PMC
September 2020

Health risk assessment of arsenic exposure among the residents in Ndilǫ, Dettah, and Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, Canada.

Int J Hyg Environ Health 2020 Sep 12;230:113623. Epub 2020 Sep 12.

Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada, K1N 6N5. Electronic address:

There are concerns in Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, Canada, about arsenic exposure due to past mining operations, particularly the former Giant Mine. The objective of this study was to characterize the risk of arsenic exposure and associated risk factors among the local residents. Arsenic (As) and its species were quantified in urine (n = 1966) using inductively coupled mass spectrometry. Children in the study were found to have significantly higher (p < 0.05) urinary inorganic-related As (uiAs) concentrations than children in the general Canadian population, as well as adults in the study. Additionally, uiAs concentrations in children, particularly those above the 95th percentile, are above the Biomonitoring Equivalents (BE) levels that are associated with dermal effects, vascular problems and cancer risks. Multiple linear regression results showed that market seafood (fish and shellfish) and rice consumption frequency were significantly positively associated with uiAs. Specific to children, drinking lake water was positively associated with uiAs. Specific to adults, consumption of local mushrooms and berries were significantly positively associated with uiAs while there was a significant negative association with age, smoking and recreational water activities. The risk factors identified in this research can be used for public health education to lower arsenic intake. Overall, these results support the need for an ongoing monitoring program.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheh.2020.113623DOI Listing
September 2020

Potential impact of restricted caribou () consumption on anemia prevalence among Inuit adults in northern Canada.

BMC Nutr 2019 16;5:30. Epub 2019 May 16.

1Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, 30 Marie Curie Private, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 Canada.

Background: Caribou () is the top dietary source of iron and several micronutrients necessary for red blood cell production (erythropoiesis) in the contemporary diet of Inuit adults across Canada. Many caribou populations across the circumpolar north, however, have experienced dramatic declines in recent decades. Restricted access to caribou may negatively impact the nutrition and health of Inuit communities.

Methods: We used data from the Inuit Health Survey, a cross-sectional survey of 2550 Inuit adults in thirty-six communities across northern Canada (conducted in 2007-2008) to examine the relationship between caribou consumption, hemoglobin (Hb), and blood biomarkers of nutrient intake and contaminant exposure. Multivariable linear regression was used to investigate the potential public health impact of a theoretical restriction in caribou consumption, by estimating the response of Hb concentrations (and the attendant change in anemia prevalence), to theoretical changes in caribou consumption (with and without substitution of caribou with other country food meat).

Results: Mean (95% CI) daily caribou meat consumption differed by an order of magnitude 4.3 (3.9-4.7), 51.1 (48.5-53.8), and 236.7 (224.7-248.7) grams/day between tertiles of caribou consumption. Mean (95% CI) hemoglobin levels increased from 129.1 (128.1-130.2) g/L to 132.5 (131.3-133.7) g/L between the highest and lowest tertiles of caribou consumption. In multivariable regression analyses, average daily caribou meat consumption was positively associated (< 0.001) with hemoglobin levels. This relationship translated into approximately 4 g/L hemoglobin increase in participants in the third tertile of caribou consumption. The overall prevalence of anemia observed in the study population was 26.5% (24.5 - 28.3%) and a modelled restriction in caribou consumption (i.e. caribou = 0) increased the overall prevalence of anemia by approximately 6%. The maximum negative effect of caribou restrictions was related to a complete restriction on caribou consumption, coupled with the substitution of caribou with other country food meat (35.4% prevalence).

Conclusions: Given the importance of caribou to Inuit culture, health and wellbeing, and the high price of healthful market foods in remote northern communities, strategies to promote the sustainable harvest of country foods are urgently required to ensure the health and nutrition security of the Inuit, in the context of rapidly changing Arctic environments and ecosystems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40795-019-0292-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7050786PMC
May 2019

Perinatal risk factors for pulmonary hemorrhage in extremely low-birth-weight infants.

World J Pediatr 2020 Jun 4;16(3):299-304. Epub 2019 Nov 4.

Department of Neonatology, Shanghai First Maternity and Infant Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, #2699, Gaoke western Road, Pudong District, Shanghai, 201204, China.

Background: Pulmonary hemorrhage (PH) is a life-threatening respiratory complication of extremely low-birth-weight infants (ELBWIs). However, the risk factors for PH are controversial. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze the perinatal risk factors and short-term outcomes of PH in ELBWIs.

Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of live born infants who had birth weights that were less than 1000 g, lived for at least 12 hours, and did not have major congenital anomalies. A logistic regression model was established to analyze the risk factors associated with PH.

Results: There were 168 ELBWIs born during this period. A total of 160 infants were included, and 30 infants were diagnosed with PH. Risk factors including gestational age, small for gestational age, intubation in the delivery room, surfactant in the delivery room, repeated use of surfactant, higher FiO during the first day, invasive ventilation during the first day and early onset sepsis (EOS) were associated with the occurrence of PH by univariate analysis. In the logistic regression model, EOS was found to be an independent risk factor for PH. The mortality and intraventricular hemorrhage rate of the group of ELBWIs with PH were significantly higher than those of the group of ELBWIs without PH. The rates of periventricular leukomalacia, moderate-to-severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia and severe retinopathy of prematurity, and the duration of the hospital stay were not significantly different between the PH and no-PH groups.

Conclusions: Although PH did not extend hospital stay or increase the risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, it increased the mortality and intraventricular hemorrhage rate in ELBWIs. EOS was the independent risk factor for PH in ELBWIs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12519-019-00322-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7312118PMC
June 2020

Circulating Selenium Concentration Is Inversely Associated With the Prevalence of Stroke: Results From the Canadian Health Measures Survey and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

J Am Heart Assoc 2019 05;8(10):e012290

1 Department of Biology University of Ottawa Ottawa Ontario Canada.

Background Observational studies have suggested that selenium (Se) may have beneficial effects against certain cardiovascular outcomes, with a possible U-shaped association. We assessed the hypothesis that blood Se concentration might be inversely associated with the prevalence of stroke and the relationship would be nonlinear. Methods and Results Data collected from adult participants (aged ≥20 years) in the Canadian Health Measures Survey ( CHMS 2007-2011, n=7065) and the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey ( NHANES 2011-2012, n=5030) were analyzed. A total of 82 (1.16%) and 202 (4.02%) stroke cases were identified in CHMS and NHANES . Respondents with stroke had lower Se levels than those without stroke, with a mean difference of 16 μg/L and 12 μg/L for CHMS and NHANES , respectively. Respondents with high blood Se concentration (tertile 3) had a lower prevalence of stroke compared with those with low Se concentration (tertile 1). The adjusted odds ratios were 0.38 (95% CI : 0.15, 0.92) and 0.57 (95% CI : 0.31, 1.03) for CHMS and NHANES , respectively. A continuous decreasing trend of stroke with whole blood selenium was observed in CHMS , whereas the curve plateaued starting at 190 μg/L for NHANES , based on the cubic restricted spline regression. Sensitivity analysis using the serum and urinary Se concentrations demonstrates that our results were consistent across different selenium biomarkers. Conclusions We observed inverse cross-sectional associations between whole blood Se and the prevalence of stroke in representative samples of the Canadian and the US population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.119.012290DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6585314PMC
May 2019

Hydrothermal derived protoporphyrin IX nanoparticles for inactivation and imaging of bacteria strains.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2019 Aug 17;549:72-79. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Key Laboratory of Luminescent and Real-Time Analytical Chemistry (Southwest University), Ministry of Education, School of Materials and Energy, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, PR China. Electronic address:

Overuse and abuse of antibiotics greatly hasten the development of microbial drug resistance and substantially threat to global public health. Developing alternative methods for combating bacterial infections is urgently required. In this work, a simple hydrothermal approach was employed to prepare the protoporphyrin IX-polyethylenimine nanoparticles (PPIX-PEI NPs) containing abundant amine groups and PPIX moieties. The as-obtained PPIX-PEI NPs exhibit antibacterial properties against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The presence of PPIX in the PPIX-PEI NPs can generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) under 635 nm laser irradiation, which enhance the antibacterial properties of the PPIX-PEI NPs against Gram-positive bacteria. Thus, the PPIX-PEI NPs display a synergistic antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria in the combination of antibacterial photodynamic therapy (PDT). In addition, emission of red fluorescence by the PPIX-PEI NPs can help to differentiate bacteria and observe the bacterial morphologies using a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2019.04.050DOI Listing
August 2019

Deposition of catechol-functionalized chitosan and silver nanoparticles on biomedical titanium surfaces for antibacterial application.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2019 May 8;98:649-656. Epub 2019 Jan 8.

Institute for Clean Energy and Advanced Materials, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, PR China; Chongqing Engineering Research Center for Micro-Nano Biomedical Materials and Devices, Faculty of Materials and Energy, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, PR China. Electronic address:

The titanium (Ti) and its alloys have been widely used for dental and orthopedic implants. However, the Ti-based implants may suffer from bacterial infection, which would result in insufficient healing, implant failure and repeated surgical intervention. It is of great interest to inhibit the bacterial adhesion and colonization on the Ti-based implants by introducing proper surface coatings. In this work, a simple method was employed to synthesize the water-soluble catechol-containing chitosan (CACS). The CACS coatings can be deposited onto various substrate surfaces and exhibit substrate-independent behavior. The CACS-coated Ti surfaces were further deposited with silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) via in-situ reduction of Ag ions using catechol moieties as the reducing agents. The resulting AgNPs/CACS-coated Ti surfaces exhibit antibacterial properties and can prevent the surface adhesion of bacterial cells, as evidenced by the inhibition zone test, live/dead bacterial staining assay and spread plate method. In addition, they show negligible cytotoxicity to L929 mouse fibroblast cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2019.01.019DOI Listing
May 2019

Prevalence of heart attack and stroke and associated risk factors among Inuit in Canada: A comparison with the general Canadian population.

Int J Hyg Environ Health 2019 03 18;222(2):319-326. Epub 2018 Dec 18.

Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: It is generally believed that cardiovascular disease (CVD) is rare in the Inuit population because of their traditional marine-based diet, but the evidence is inconsistent.

Objective: To describe the cardiovascular health profile of Canadian Inuit, including disease prevalence, risk factors, country food consumption, and contaminant exposure, and compare to that of the general Canadian population.

Methods: Cardiovascular outcomes and risk factors were obtained for 2070 Inuit adults aged 20-79 years from the Inuit Health Survey (IHS, 2007-2008) and for 3464 general Canadian adults aged 20-79 years from the Canadian Health Measures Survey, Cycle 1 (CHMS, 2007-2009) and Cycle 3 (2012-2013). Sex- and age-specific (20-39, 40-59, 60-79) estimates are reported. To compare results between the IHS and CHMS, age-standardized estimates were calculated for males and females, using the CHMS as the reference population.

Results: Inuit had higher prevalence of heart attack (3.1% vs. 1.8% females), stroke (2.1% vs. 0.8% males and 2.2% vs. 1.0% females), diabetes (14.6% vs. 9.0% elderly females), obesity (35.8% vs. 24.2% females), and hypertension (12.2% vs. 2.5% young males and 7.5% vs. 2.5% young females). However, Inuit had better blood lipid profile (hyperlipidemia: 29.0% vs. 46.5% males and 28.4% vs. 35.2% females). Metals and persistent organic pollutant exposures were higher among the Inuit compared with general Canadians.

Conclusion: Inuit and the general Canadian population differ in cardiovascular health profiles. Further research is needed to characterize the health transition among Inuit, especially among the youth and female.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheh.2018.12.003DOI Listing
March 2019

Exposure to triclosan among the Canadian population: Results of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (2009-2013).

Environ Int 2019 02 25;123:29-38. Epub 2018 Nov 25.

Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5, Canada. Electronic address:

Triclosan is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial additive in consumer products that has been detected in human populations globally. The purpose of this study was to assess triclosan exposure among the Canadian population using urinary triclosan as a biomarker. Data from the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) that reported triclosan concentrations in 8195 urine samples collected from Cycle 2 (2009-2011) and Cycle 3 (2012-2013) were analyzed. Triclosan was detected in 69.8% of samples with the geometric mean concentrations of 16 μg/L (16 μg/g creatinine) for the total population, 13 μg/L (13 μg/g creatinine) for children (3-19 years of age), and 16 μg/L (17 μg/g creatinine) for adults. Triclosan concentrations significantly differed by age, income, education, and employment in healthcare occupations, but not by race/ethnicity, sex, region of residence, or drinking water preferences or sources. Linear regression models were used to identify factors associated with urinary triclosan concentration. Results showed that household income was associated with higher urinary triclosan concentrations in both children and adults. Employed in healthcare occupations were associated with higher urinary triclosan concentrations in adults. Triclosan exposure at the 99th percentile was below the Biomonitoring Equivalents based on reference dose, suggesting that health risks to the Canadian population from triclosan exposure were low.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2018.11.029DOI Listing
February 2019

Factors associated with the blood and urinary selenium concentrations in the Canadian population: Results of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (2007-2011).

Int J Hyg Environ Health 2018 08 7;221(7):1023-1031. Epub 2018 Jul 7.

Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5, Canada. Electronic address:

Objective: The objective of the present work is to assess the factors associated with whole blood and urinary selenium (Se) concentrations in Canadians aged 6-79 years old, and to interpret the data in the context of exposure guidance values.

Methods: Whole blood Se concentrations data collected from 10740 participants as part of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) Cycle 1 (2007-09) and Cycle 2 (2010-11) were analyzed for associations with the demographic and dietary characteristics of the Canadian population; whereas the urinary Se concentrations were only assessed for their association with the demographic variables. Whole blood and urinary Se concentrations were compared to biomonitoring equivalents established for exposure guidance values.

Results: The geometric means of whole blood Se concentrations (μg/L) were 197.42 (95% CI: 194.79, 200.08) and 192.35 (95% CI: 189.68, 195.06) for males and females, respectively. The corresponding urinary Se concentrations (μg/L) were 56.91 (95% CI: 54.81, 59.10) and 44.10 (95% CI: 41.89, 46.43) respectively. Males, participants born in Asia, older individuals, and participants who frequently consumed nuts and vegetables had higher whole blood Se, whereas current smokers, residents of Quebec and Ontario, participants who frequently consumed meat, fruits or dairy products were associated with lower whole blood Se. Sociodemographic factors were also significantly associated with urinary Se although the direction of association sometimes differed from those observed with blood Se. More than 99.9% of the Canadian population covered by the survey had whole blood Se concentrations within the range from the lower (100 μg/L) and higher (400 μg/L) biomonitoring equivalents set for the protection from deficiency and selenosis, respectively.

Conclusions: The CHMS data provide a baseline for Se exposure among Canadians and indicated that the population is generally not at risk of deficiency or toxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheh.2018.07.001DOI Listing
August 2018

Mercury Exposure, Blood Pressure, and Hypertension: A Systematic Review and Dose-response Meta-analysis.

Environ Health Perspect 2018 07 31;126(7):076002. Epub 2018 Jul 31.

Department of Biology, University of Ottawa (XFH, KS, HMC), Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Body burden of mercury has been linked to hypertension in populations exposed to high mercury levels.

Objectives: We summarized, extracted, and pooled the results of published studies that investigated mercury biomarkers and hypertension or blood pressure (BP) measurements to examine this potential relationship.

Methods: We searched PubMed, Embase, and TOXLINE and selected studies according to defined inclusion criteria. Study quality was assessed by the Newcastle-Ottawa scale for cohort and case-control studies and the Quality Assessment Tool for cross-sectional studies. Study estimates were pooled using inverse-variance weighted random-effects models. Dose-response meta-analysis was performed with studies reporting hypertension and systolic BP for at least three mercury categories.

Results: A total of 29 studies were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled odds ratio (OR) for hypertension, comparing the highest and lowest mercury exposure categories, was 1.35 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.99, 1.83] for populations with hair mercury ≥2 μg/g in comparison with the OR of 1.12 (95% CI: 0.82, 1.52) for populations with hair mercury <2 μg/g. Positive associations were also observed for highest versus lowest mercury exposure categories on systolic and diastolic BP. Heterogeneity was observed for mercury species and exposure groups across different studies. Associations estimated using different mercury biomarkers generally agree with each other in the same study. A nonlinear dose-response relationship with an inflection point at 3 μg/g was identified, for both hypertension and systolic BP.

Conclusions: A significant positive association between mercury and hypertension and between mercury and BP was identified. The exposure dose is an important factor in determining the toxic effects of mercury on hypertension. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP2863.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP2863DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6108832PMC
July 2018

[Effects of cultivated Cordyceps sinensis on proliferation and apoptosis of human leukemia K562 cells].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2018 May;43(10):2134-2139

Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100193, China.

The present study was designed to investigate the effect of cultivated Cordyceps sinensis (CCS) on leukemia-derived K562 cells, and further explore the underlying mechanisms. After routine culture of K562 cells, MTT assay was used to detect the effect of CCS on survivel of human leukemia cell lines K562;DAPI staining was used to observe the morphological changes of the nucleus and AO/EB staining was used to observe cell apoptosis. JC-1 staining was employed to detect the changes in mitochondrial membrane potential. Flow cytometry (FCM) was used to detect cell cycle distribution, and Western blot analysis was used to detect the expression levels of Bax, Bcl-2, caspase 3, caspase 8, cyclin D1, CDK2, and CDK4 in K562 cells. The results showed that CCS (0.345-5.524 g·L⁻¹) substantially suppressed proliferation of K562 cells and induced G₁/S phase arrest in a dose-dependent manner. DAPI and AO/EB staining indicated that cell apoptosis was significantly induced by CCS treatment, accompanied by decreased mitochondrial membrane potential demonstrated by JC-1 staining. Western blot results showed that CCS significantly increased the expression of Bax and, meanwhile, decreased the expression levels of Bcl-2, cyclin D1, CDK2, CDK4, caspase 3 and caspase 8. Collectively, our data demonstrated that CCS dose-dependently suppressed cell proliferation and induced cell apoptosis in K562 cells, and the mechanism might be associated with inducing cell cycle arrest, regulating Bcl-2/Bax ratio and activating the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20180125.008DOI Listing
May 2018

Inuit Country Food Diet Pattern Is Associated with Lower Risk of Coronary Heart Disease.

J Acad Nutr Diet 2018 07 21;118(7):1237-1248.e1. Epub 2018 Apr 21.

Background: Inuit have experienced a rapid transition in diet and lifestyle over the past several decades, paralleled by the emergence of chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and hypertension.

Objective: To identify contemporary dietary patterns among Inuit and investigate their association with cardiovascular disease outcomes.

Design: This was an association study in a cross-sectional population health and nutrition survey.

Participants: The participants included 1,570 adults (aged ≥18 years) from Nunavut in the International Polar Year Inuit Health Survey 2007-2008 who completed diet/health questionnaires and provided blood samples.

Main Outcome Measures: Outcomes measured included the prevalence of coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, stroke, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension.

Statistical Analyses Performed: Principal component analysis was used to derive dietary patterns based on the consumption of nine market food groups and four country food groups reported in 24-hour dietary recalls. The associations between cardiovascular outcomes and identified dietary patterns were examined with logistic regression.

Results: Three dietary patterns were identified: market food, country food-fat, and country food-fish. The market food diet, characterized by high consumption of market-bought meat, cereals, vegetables, and added oil, was associated with elevated prevalence of coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, and hypertension (odds ratio [OR] 1.44, 95% CI 0.82 to 2.51; OR 2.27, 95% CI 0.88 to 5.83; and OR 1.36, 95% CI 0.88 to 2.09). The country food-fish diet, characterized by high fish consumption and low sugar and sweets intake, was inversely associated with the prevalence of coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, stroke, and hyperlipidemia (OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.43 to 1.37; OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.18 to 1.20; OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.07 to 2.13; and OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.39 to 1.22). The country food-fat diet, characterized by high marine mammal and added fat intake, was positively associated with the prevalence of coronary heart disease.

Conclusions: A diet featuring high food variety, high fish intake, and low sugar intake was negatively associated with the prevalence of cardiovascular outcomes among Inuit.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jand.2018.02.004DOI Listing
July 2018

Recent Developments in Controlled Release of Antibiotics.

Curr Pharm Des 2018 ;24(8):911-925

Institute for Clean Energy and Advanced Materials, Faculty of Materials and Energy, Southwest University, Chongqing, 400715, China.

Traditional use of antibiotics through injection or oral ingestion has many disadvantages, such as detrimental side effects in the host, less effectiveness, high and repeated doses, and development of drug resistance. For prevention and treatment of implant-associated infections, the continuous local delivery of antibiotics is required. Thus, there is a strong demand for the development of drug carrier systems to control the release of antibiotics in a moderate manner over an appropriate timescale. This review summarizes the carrier platforms used for the loading of antibiotics, and highlights their drug release behaviors as well as in vitro and in vivo antibacterial properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1381612824666180315094947DOI Listing
September 2019

Dietary sources of energy and nutrients in the contemporary diet of Inuit adults: results from the 2007-08 Inuit Health Survey.

Public Health Nutr 2018 05 14;21(7):1319-1331. Epub 2018 Jan 14.

1Department of Biology,University of Ottawa,30 Marie Curie,Ottawa,ON,Canada,K1N 6N5.

Objective: To characterize the major components of the contemporary Inuit diet and identify the primary sources of energy and essential nutrients.

Design: Dietary data were derived from the 24 h recall collected by the Inuit Health Survey (IHS) from 2007 to 2008. The population proportion method was used to determine the percentage contribution of each group. Unique food items/preparations (ninety-three country foods and 1591 market foods) were classified into eight country food groups and forty-one market food groups. Nutrient composition of each food item was obtained from the Canadian Nutrient File.

Setting: Thirty-six communities across three Inuit regions of northern Canada.

Subjects: A representative sample (n 2095) of non-pregnant Inuit adults (≥18 years), selected through stratified random sampling.

Results: Despite their modest contribution to total energy intake (6·4-19·6 %, by region) country foods represented a major source of protein (23-52 %), Fe (28-54 %), niacin (24-52 %) and vitamins D (up to 73 %), B6 (18-55 %) and B12 (50-82 %). By contrast, the three most popular energy-yielding market foods (i.e. sweetened beverages, added sugar and bread) collectively contributed approximately 20 % of total energy, while contributing minimally to most micronutrients. A notable exception was the contribution of these foods to Ca (13-21 %) and vitamins E (17-35 %) and C (as much as 50 %). Solid fruits were consumed by less than 25 % of participants while vegetables were reported by 38-59 % of respondents.

Conclusions: Country foods remain a critical dimension of the contemporary Inuit diet.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1368980017003810DOI Listing
May 2018

Vancomycin-assisted green synthesis of reduced graphene oxide for antimicrobial applications.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2018 Mar 4;514:733-739. Epub 2018 Jan 4.

Institute for Clean Energy and Advanced Materials, Faculty of Materials and Energy, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, PR China.

Chemical reduction of graphene oxide (GO) is a simple and inexpensive method for the large-scale production of graphene-based materials. A suitable reducing agent, especially a green reductant, is in high demand for the production of reduced GO (RGO). Vancomycin, a glycopeptide antibiotic used to treat a variety of Gram-positive bacterial infections, was used to chemically reduce GO at a weak alkaline pH. As far as we know, this is the first report of reduction of GO by a glycopeptide antibiotic. The resulting vancomycin-decorated RGO (RGO-Van) was characterized by UV-visible adsorption and Raman spectroscopies, X-ray diffraction pattern and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The antibacterial effect of the RGO-Van suspension was investigated by the bacterial growth curves. The RGO-Van sheet can be fabricated into paper-like film through vacuum filtration. The antibacterial property of the as-obtained RGO-Van film was assessed by the inhibition zone test, and the bacterial adhesion assay. The antibacterial efficacy of the RGO-Van film was also verified by treatment of wound infection caused by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) in a rat infection model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2018.01.014DOI Listing
March 2018

Vancomycin-conjugated polythiophene for the detection and imaging of Gram-positive bacteria.

J Mater Chem B 2017 Nov 1;5(44):8814-8820. Epub 2017 Nov 1.

Institute for Clean Energy and Advanced Materials, Faculty of Materials and Energy, Southwest University, Chongqing, 400715, P. R. China.

Bacterial infections can cause serious health problems. The rapid identification of bacteria plays a vital role in the treatment of bacterial infection at an early stage of the disease. In this work, an active polythiophene derivative containing reactive pentafluorophenyl (PFP) ester pendant groups was prepared via Fe-catalyzed oxidative polymerization. As far as we know, this is the first report of active polythiophene with reactive PFP ester moieties. The active polythiophene derivative was conjugated with vancomycin and α-methoxy-ω-amino poly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG-NH) via a reactive ester-amine reaction, resulting in the formation of water-soluble and fluorescent vancomycin-containing polythiophene (PTPVan). Since vancomycin can selectively interact with Gram-positive bacteria and kill them, the antibacterial properties of PTPVan were evaluated. The detection of Gram-positive bacteria was carried out by observing the color change and the fluorescence response of bacteria upon incubation with PTPVan through the naked eye and a fluorescence spectroscope, respectively. The staining of Gram-positive bacteria was observed using a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c7tb02061aDOI Listing
November 2017

Survival and Toxicities of IMRT Based on the RTOG Protocols in Patients with Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma from the Endemic Regions of China.

J Cancer 2017 17;8(18):3718-3724. Epub 2017 Oct 17.

Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center; State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China; Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou 510060, China.

This study evaluated the survival outcomes and toxicities of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) based on the RTOG 0225/0615 RT protocols in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) from a region of China where this tumor type is endemic. A total of 455 patients with non-metastatic, histologically-confirmed NPC were retrospectively reviewed. All patients were treated by IMRT using the RTOG 0225/0615 RT protocols; 91.1% (288/316) of patients with stage III-IVb NPC received concurrent chemotherapy +/- induction chemotherapy or adjuvant chemotherapy. Estimated four-year overall survival (OS), failure free survival (FFS), local relapse free survival (LRFS), regional relapse free survival (RRFS) and distant metastasis free survival (DMFS) were 83.8%, 80.5%, 94.3%, 96.7% and 85.8%, respectively. T and N category were significant prognostic factors for OS, FFS, RRFS and DMFS; and T category, for LRFS. In-field failure was the major loco-regional failure pattern. During RT, 206 (45.3%) patients experienced acute grade 3-4 toxicities. The most common acute toxicity was mucositis; 124 (27.2%) patients experienced grade 3-4 mucositis; 46 (10.1%) experienced serious late toxicities. The most common late toxicity was MRI-detected radiation-induced temporal lobe necrosis (6.8%). The RTOG IMRT protocols are feasible for patients with NPC from the endemic regions of China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/jca.20351DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5688925PMC
October 2017

Dietary and blood selenium are inversely associated with the prevalence of stroke among Inuit in Canada.

J Trace Elem Med Biol 2017 Dec 6;44:322-330. Epub 2017 Sep 6.

Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, K1N 6N5, ON, Canada. Electronic address:

Inuit in Canada have high selenium intake from the consumption of country food such as fish and marine mammals. The health consequence is not known. This study examines the association between blood selenium concentration and prevalence of stroke among Canadian Inuit. The International Polar Year Inuit Health Survey was conducted in 2007-2008. Among the 2077 adults participants (≥18years old) who completed a questionnaire and gave blood samples, 49 stroke cases were reported, 31 of which were from women. The crude prevalence of stroke was 2.4% in the participants. Participants with stroke had lower blood selenium (geometric mean: 260μg/L vs. 319μg/L) and dietary selenium (144μg/day vs. 190μg/day) compared to individuals without stroke. Participants with high blood/dietary selenium exposure (quartiles 3 and 4) had a lower prevalence of stroke compared to those with low selenium exposure (quartile 1). The adjusted odds ratio ranged from 0.09 to 0.25 among subgroups (e.g. age, sex, and blood mercury). An L-shaped relationship between prevalence of stroke with blood and dietary selenium was observed, based on the cubic restricted spline and segmented regression analyses. The estimated turning points of the L-shaped curve for blood selenium and dietary selenium were 450μg/L and 350μg/day, respectively. Below the turning points, it was estimated that each 50-μg/L increase in blood selenium was associated with a 38% reduction in the prevalence of stroke, and each 50-μg/day increase in dietary selenium was associated with a 30% reduction in the prevalence of stroke. In conclusion, blood and dietary selenium are reversely associated with the prevalence of stroke in Inuit, which follows an L-shaped relationship. Whether this relationship applies to other population needs further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtemb.2017.09.007DOI Listing
December 2017

Erratum to: The Extent of Heavy Metal Pollution and Their Potential Health Risk in Topsoils of the Massively Urbanized District of Shanghai.

Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 2017 10;73(3):511

Department of Civil Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200240, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00244-017-0442-5DOI Listing
October 2017

Long non‑coding RNA HOXA11‑AS promotes cell proliferation and metastasis in human breast cancer.

Mol Med Rep 2017 Oct 3;16(4):4887-4894. Epub 2017 Aug 3.

Department of Head and Neck Radiotherapy, The First People's Hospital of Foshan, Foshan, Guangdong 528000, P.R. China.

Breast cancer is one of the most frequently occurring malignancies in female cancers worldwide, however, its detailed mechanism of tumorigenesis remains to be elucidated. Long non-coding RNAs (LncRNAs) have previously been demonstrated to be important in multiple cancers, including breast cancer. The present study aimed to elucidate the molecular mechanism of the effects of the novel Lnc RNA HOXA11‑AS, on cell proliferation and metastasis in breast cancer. The data revealed that the relative transcript level of HOXA11‑AS was upregulated in vivo and in vitro in models of breast cancer. Knockdown of HOXA11‑AS in MDA‑MB‑231 and MDA‑MB‑436 breast cancer cell lines inhibited the formation of cell colonies and arrested the cell cycle at the G0/G1 phase. Depletion of HOXA11‑AS using two specific short interfering (si)RNAs against HOXA11‑AS (siHOXA11‑AS‑1 and siHOXA11‑AS‑2) additionally suppressed the cell proliferative rate. Furthermore, transwell assays and wound‑healing analysis revealed that siRNA transfection inhibited cell migration and invasion by ~50% in the two cell lines. The results of the present study demonstrated the oncogenic role of HOXA11‑AS in breast cancer, providing novel clues for the future clinical diagnosis and treatment of early stage breast cancer patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2017.7163DOI Listing
October 2017

Targeting of angiopoietin 2-small interfering RNA plasmid/chitosan magnetic nanoparticles in a mouse model of malignant melanoma .

Oncol Lett 2017 Aug 21;14(2):2320-2324. Epub 2017 Jun 21.

Department of Plastic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350005, P.R. China.

The aim of the present study was to observe the targeting characteristic of angiopoietin 2-small interfering RNA (Ang2-siRNA) plasmid/chitosan magnetic nanoparticles in an established nude mouse model of malignant melanoma (MM) under an external magnetic field. The nude mouse MM model was first established, then divided into 3 groups, including the control group, the non-targeting group and the target group, the control group was given normal saline and the non-targeting and targeting groups were administrated particles through the tail vein; the non-targeting group was not under external magnetic field and the control group and the targeting group were under external magnetic field for 60 min. The mice were then sacrificed and the tumor tissues were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and Prussian blue in order to verify the particle distributions in the tumor tissues. The control group exhibited negative Prussian blue staining in the tumor tissues, the non-targeting group demonstrated weakly positive Prussian blue staining in tumor tissues and the targeting group revealed strongly positive Prussian blue staining in tumor tissues. Ang2-siRNA plasmid vector/chitosan magnetic nanoparticles directly moved towards tumor tissues under the action of external magnetic field, thus it demonstrated good targeting characteristic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ol.2017.6443DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5530215PMC
August 2017

Prognostic value of total tumor volume in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy.

BMC Cancer 2017 Jul 28;17(1):506. Epub 2017 Jul 28.

State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou, 510060, China.

Background: Few studies have evaluated the prognostic value of total tumor volume (TTV), which reflects both the primary tumor volume and nodal tumor volume, in NPC. Furthermore, the relationship between TTV and survival remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of TTV in patients with NPC treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT).

Methods: TTV was retrospectively assessed in 455 patients with newly diagnosed, non-metastatic NPC. All patients were treated using IMRT; 91.1% (288/316) of patients with stage III-IVb also received cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to identify the optimal TTV cut-off point and examine the prognostic value of combined TTV with current clinical stage.

Results: Mean TTV was 11.1 cm (range, 0.3-27.9 cm) in stage I, 22.5 cm (1.3-92.4 cm) in stage II, 40.6 cm in stage III (3.2-129.2 cm), and 77.5 cm in stage IVa-b (7.1-284.1 cm). For all patients, the 4-year estimated FFS, OS, DMFS, and LRRFS rates for patients with a TTV ≤ 28 vs. > 28 cm were 93 vs. 71.4% (P < 0.001), 95.1 vs. 75.4% (P < 0.001), 94.5 vs. 79.4% (P < 0.001), and 96.2 vs. 88% (P = 0.001). TTV was an independent prognostic factor for FFS, OS, DMFS and LRRFS in all patients. In stage III-IVb, 4-year estimated FFS, OS, DMFS, and LRRFS for a TTV ≤28 vs. >28 cm were 88.9 vs. 70.5% (P = 0.001), 96.2 vs. 72.7% (P < 0.001), 91.2 vs. 78.3% (P = 0.008), and 93.8 vs. 87.6% (P = 0.063). TTV was an independent prognostic factor for FFS, OS and DMFS in stage III-IVb. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis curves revealed adding TTV to clinical stage had superior prognostic value for treatment failure compared to clinical stage alone (P = 0.016).

Conclusions: TTV is an important prognosticator for treatment outcome and significantly improves the prognostic value of the current staging system for patients with NPC treated with IMRT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-017-3480-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5534070PMC
July 2017

The Extent of Heavy Metal Pollution and Their Potential Health Risk in Topsoils of the Massively Urbanized District of Shanghai.

Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 2017 Oct 17;73(3):362-376. Epub 2017 Jul 17.

Department of Civil Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200240, China.

Urbanization and industrialization increase the concentrations of heavy metals in soils, which affect human health. A total of 127 topsoil samples were collected from the massively urbanized and industrialized district of Shanghai: Baoshan District. The sampling sites were isolated based on the land-use practice: industrial area, roadside area, residential area, and agricultural area. The absolute concentrations of heavy metals (Zn, Cr, Ni, Mn, Cu, Pb, and Cd) were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry and compared with Shanghai and the National soil background values. The geoaccumulation index (Igeo) and Nemerow pollution index were used to determine the existence and severity of the pollution of heavy metals. Enrichment factor (EF) analysis, spatial variability of pollution, and multivariate statistical analyses also were employed to determine the anthropogenic loading of heavy metals, their spatial dependency, and correlation among their sources, respectively. Moreover, potential ecological risk and human health risk [carcinogenic risk (RI) and noncarcinogenic hazard (HI)] were evaluated. The average concentration of all the metals (accounted as 229, 128, 56, 719, 55, 119, and 0.3 mg kg for Zn, Cr, Ni, Mn, Cu, Pb, and Cd, respectively) was many folds higher than the background values. The indices depicted that the pollution exists in all the sites and severity decreases in the following order: industrial soils > roadside soil > residential soils > agricultural soils. However, Zn, Pb, and Cd showed high levels of pollution in all the soils. The EF values suggested that the majority of heavy metals are anthropogenically loaded; spatial variability showed that the pollution is more concentrated in Songnan town; Pearson's correlation, principal component analysis (PCA), and cluster analysis suggested different sources of origin for the majority of the heavy metals. RI of Cr and Pb ranged between 2.8E-04 and 2.7E-07. However, HI was site-specific (only for Cr, Pb, Mn), and most of the sites were in Songnan town. This study could be used as a significant piece of information for management purposes to prevent heavy metal pollution and to protect human health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00244-017-0433-6DOI Listing
October 2017

Photothermal Ring Integrated Intraocular Lens for High-Efficient Eye Disease Treatment.

Adv Mater 2017 Sep 17;29(34). Epub 2017 Jul 17.

CAS Center for Excellence Nanoscience, CAS Key Laboratory for Biological Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology (NCNST), No. 11 Beiyitiao, Zhongguancun, Beijing, 100190, P. R. China.

Posterior capsule opacification (PCO) is the most common complication after cataract surgery. So far, the only method for PCO treatment is the precisely focused laser surgery. However, it causes severe complications such as physical damages and neuron impairments. Here, a nanostructured photothermal ring integrated intraocular lens (Nano-IOLs) is reported, in which the rim of commercially available IOLs (C-IOLs) is decorated with silica coated Au nanorods ([email protected] ), for high-efficient prevention of PCO after cataract surgery. The Nano-IOLs is capable of eliminating the residual lens epithelial cells (LECs) around Nano-IOLs under mild laser treatment and block the formation of disordered LECs fibrosis, which eventually leads to the loss of vision. The Nano-IOLs shows good biocompatibility as well as extraordinary region-confined photothermal effect. In vivo studies reveal that PCO occurrence in rabbit models is about 30%-40% by using Nano-IOLs, which is significantly lower than the control group that treated with C-IOLs (100% PCO occurrence) 30 d postsurgery. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first example to integrate nanotechnology with intraocular implants aiming to clinically relevant PCO. Our findings indicate that spatial controllability of photothermal effect from nanomaterials may provide a unique way to intervene the PCO-induced loss of vision.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.201701617DOI Listing
September 2017

Conversion ratios of n-3 fatty acids between plasma and erythrocytes: a systematic review and meta-regression.

Br J Nutr 2017 Apr 22;117(8):1162-1173. Epub 2017 May 22.

1Department of Biology,University of Ottawa,Ottawa, ON,K1N 6N5,Canada.

As biomarkers of dietary intake or disease risk factor, n-3 fatty acid (FA) can be measured in plasma phospholipids (PL), total lipids (TL) or erythrocytes. However, the numeric relationships between n-3 FA in these lipid pools are not clear. Our goal was to derive conversion ratios for plasma and erythrocyte n-3 FA. Potential studies were identified through systematic literature search in PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library of Systematic reviews (1950 to October 2014). In all, fifty-six studies reporting n-3 in healthy individuals were included, of which thirty-four articles reported plasma PL and erythrocytes, and twenty-two reported plasma TL and erythrocytes. Meta-regressions were performed to quantify the ratio between plasma and erythrocyte n-3 FA weight percentages, controlling for covariates including age, sex and study design. The conversion ratios from plasma PL to erythrocytes for EPA, DHA, DPA and total n-3 PUFA are 0·75, 1·16, 2·32 and 1·22; the corresponding conversion ratios from plasma TL to erythrocytes are 1·00, 2·10, 3·85 and 2·08, respectively. The conversion ratios were validated using reported values from the literature and measured data from fifty individuals. The relative error of the predicted results were within 10 % of the mean reported values except for EPA, and the individual measured data except for DPA, in plasma TL. The conversion ratios between plasma PL and erythrocytes were more stable compared with plasma TL. Such conversion ratios will be useful for nutritionists or public health professionals to assess FA profiles of different populations using data collected with different methodologies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114517001052DOI Listing
April 2017
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