Publications by authors named "Xue Zhang"

1,637 Publications

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Stereoselective rhodium-catalyzed 2-C-H 1,3-dienylation of indoles: dual functions of the directing group.

Chem Sci 2021 Sep 21;12(34):11330-11337. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

State Key Laboratory of Organometallic Chemistry, Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences 345 Lingling Lu Shanghai 200032 P. R. China

A rhodium-catalyzed intermolecular highly stereoselective 1,3-dienylation at the 2-position of indoles with non-terminal allenyl carbonates has been developed by using 2-pyrimidinyl or pyridinyl as the directing group. The reaction tolerates many functional groups affording the products in decent yields under mild conditions. In addition to C-H bond activation, the directing group also played a vital role in the determination of -stereoselectivity for the C-H functionalization reaction with 4-aryl-2,3-allenyl carbonates, which is confirmed by the -selectivity observed with 4-alkyl-2,3-allenyl carbonates. DFT calculations have been conducted to reveal that π-π stacking involving the directing 2-pyrimidinyl or pyridinyl group is the origin of the observed stereoselectivity. Various synthetic transformations have also been demonstrated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1sc02167bDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8447931PMC
September 2021

Cost-Effectiveness of Hepatitis B Mass Screening and Management in High-Prevalent Rural China: A Model Study From 2020 to 2049.

Int J Health Policy Manag 2021 Sep 7. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Infectious Diseases, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Background: Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is highly prevalent among adults in rural China and better management of those populations is of vital importance for viral hepatitis elimination. Adult immunization has been the subject of much controversy in previous studies. This study estimates the cost-effectiveness of population-based hepatitis B screening, treatment, and immunization strategy (comprehensive strategy) in rural areas with high prevalence under the national policy of sharp-drop drug prices.

Methods: We constructed a Markov model comparing 4 strategies in a 30-year horizon from the healthcare payer perspective: (1) the conventional pattern; (2) screening and treating infected (treatment); (3) screening and immunizing susceptible individuals (immunization); and (4) the comprehensive strategy. Screening intensity ranged from 50% to 100%. Outcomes were measured by costs, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs), and clinical outcomes.

Results: The costs for the conventional pattern, treatment strategy, immunization strategy, and comprehensive strategy were US$ 341, 351, 318, and 323, respectively. In addition, effects were 17.45, 17.57, 17.46, and 17.58 QALYs, respectively. The ICER of the comprehensive strategy was US$ 35/QALY gained at 50% screening intensity and 420 US$/QALY gained at 100%. The net monetary benefit increased with increasing screening intensity and declined after 90%, with the highest value of US$40 693. All new infections and 52.5% mortality could be avoided from 2020 to 2049 if all patients were properly treated and all susceptible individuals were immunized. The results were stable within a wide range of parameters.

Conclusion: It was cost-effective to implement the mass hepatitis B screening, treatment, and immunization strategy in areas of rural China with high prevalence, and the strategy gained the most net monetary benefit at a screening intensity of 90%. Although it was impractical to fulfill 100% coverage, efforts should be made to obtain more people screened.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.34172/ijhpm.2021.126DOI Listing
September 2021

Water Shutoff Moratoria Lowered COVID-19 Infection and Death Across U.S. States.

Am J Prev Med 2021 Sep 11. Epub 2021 Sep 11.

Food & Water Watch and Food & Water Action, Baltimore, Maryland.

Introduction: A total of 34 U.S. state governments imposed moratoria on water shutoffs between March and May 2020 to ensure equitable access to water during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, by the end of 2020, most of these moratoria had expired, and millions of people were exposed to the risk of water disconnections. This study examines the linkage between water equity and public health and provides policy recommendations for improving water access and health equity.

Methods: Event study was used to analyze the impact of a water shutoff moratorium on COVID-19 daily infection growth rate and daily death growth rate from April 17, 2020 to December 31, 2020. The data were collected at the state level. The model controlled for mask mandates, at-risk groups (percentage Hispanic population, percentage essential workers), and percentage health insurance coverage.

Results: During the study period, having a water shutoff moratorium in place significantly lowered the COVID-19 infection daily growth rate by 0.235% and significantly lowered the death growth rate by 0.135%. In addition, a comprehensive moratorium covering all water systems (public and private) significantly lowered the infection growth rate by 0.169% and significantly lowered the death growth rate by 0.228%.

Conclusions: This study raises attention to the importance of water equity and the need for government actions to create more uniform protections from water shutoffs across all states. A comprehensive approach to water equity can protect the health and safety of all communities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2021.07.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8433038PMC
September 2021

Identification and Pathogenicity of Fungi Associated with Leaf Spot of Muskmelon in Eastern Shandong Province, China.

Plant Dis 2021 Oct 13. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Northeast Agricultural University, 12430, School of Life Science, Changjiang No.600, Harbin, China, 150030;

Leaf spot is a serious disease in the growth and development of muskmelon, which can affect its quality and yield. In recent years, Malianzhuang Muskmelon Base, the main muskmelon producing area in Shandong Province, China, has been seriously affected by leaf spot. Since 2018, symptomatic leaves were collected from eleven production areas of this base to determine the pathogens of muskmelon foliar diseases. 200 fungal strains were isolated and 10 genera and 17 species were identified based on morphological characteristics and multi-locus phylogenetic analysis (ITS, GADPH, RPB2, HIS3, EF-1α, and LSU). The most frequently isolated species from each sampling area was Alternaria tenuissima with 77 strains, followed by A. alternata. Pathogenicity experiments showed that A. alternata, A. tenuissima, Fusarium neocosmosporiellum (formerly Neocosmospora vasinfecta), F. acuminatum, Exserohilum rostratum, Bipolaris sorokiniana, and Stagonosporopsis cucurbitacearum (formerly Didymella bryoniae) could cause symptoms highly similar to those of infected leaves observed under natural conditions in the field. Therefore, these fungal isolates are considered to be the primary pathogens causing muskmelon leaf spot, and A. tenuissima and A. alternata were the most common and virulent pathogens in this study. In addition, this is the first study of F. neocosmosporiellum, F. acuminatum, E. rostratum, and B. sorokiniana as pathogens associated to muskmelon leaf spot in China as well as the world.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-06-21-1126-REDOI Listing
October 2021

Long noncoding RNAs: fine-tuners hidden in the cancer signaling network.

Cell Death Discov 2021 Oct 11;7(1):283. Epub 2021 Oct 11.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, 110001, Shenyang, Liaoning, China.

With the development of sequencing technology, a large number of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been identified in addition to coding genes. LncRNAs, originally considered as junk RNA, are dysregulated in various types of cancer. Although protein-coding signaling pathways underlie various biological activities, and abnormal signal transduction is a key trigger and indicator for tumorigenesis and cancer progression, lncRNAs are sparking keen interest due to their versatile roles in fine-tuning signaling pathways. We are just beginning to scratch the surface of lncRNAs. Therefore, despite the fact that lncRNAs drive malignant phenotypes from multiple perspectives, in this review, we focus on important signaling pathways modulated by lncRNAs in cancer to demonstrate an up-to-date understanding of this emerging field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41420-021-00678-8DOI Listing
October 2021

SCovid: single-cell atlases for exposing molecular characteristics of COVID-19 across 10 human tissues.

Nucleic Acids Res 2021 Oct 11. Epub 2021 Oct 11.

NHC and CAMS Key Laboratory of Molecular Probe and Targeted Theranostics, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150028, China.

SCovid (http://bio-annotation.cn/scovid) aims at providing a comprehensive resource of single-cell data for exposing molecular characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) across 10 human tissues. COVID-19, an epidemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has been found to be accompanied with multiple-organ failure since its first report in Dec 2019. To reveal tissue-specific molecular characteristics, researches regarding to COVID-19 have been carried out widely, especially at single-cell resolution. However, these researches are still relatively independent and scattered, limiting the comprehensive understanding of the impact of virus on diverse tissues. To this end, we developed a single-cell atlas of COVID-19. Firstly we collected 21 single-cell datasets of COVID-19 across 10 human tissues paired with control datasets. Then we constructed a pipeline for the analysis of these datasets to reveal molecular characteristics of COVID-19 based on manually annotated cell types. The current version of SCovid documents 1 042 227 single cells of 21 single-cell datasets across 10 human tissues, 11 713 stably expressed genes and 3778 significant differentially expressed genes (DEGs). SCovid provides a user-friendly interface for browsing, searching, visualizing and downloading all detailed information.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkab881DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8524591PMC
October 2021

Hsa_circ_0024093 accelerates VSMC proliferation via miR-4677-3p/miR-889-3p/USP9X/YAP1 axis in model of lower extremity ASO.

Mol Ther Nucleic Acids 2021 Dec 8;26:511-522. Epub 2021 Aug 8.

Department of Vascular Surgery, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, No. 2000 Jiangyue Road, Shanghai 201112, China.

Arteriosclerosis obliterans (ASO) of the lower extremities is identified as a kind of cardiovascular disease with aberrant proliferation and apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Accumulating studies have demonstrated the vital role of Yes1-associated transcriptional regulator (YAP1) in VSMCs, while its upstream regulatory mechanism in VSMCs in ASO of the lower extremities needs to be further elucidated. Herein, hsa_circ_0024093, a circular RNA (circRNA) from YAP1, was identified to positively regulate the protein level of YAP1 in VSMCs. Functionally, silencing of hsa_circ_0024093 obviously impeded cell proliferation and migration and promoted apoptosis in VSMCs in the model of ASO of the lower extremities. Mechanistically, it was found that hsa_circ_0024093 could regulate the expression of USP9X, which further induced YAP1 deubiquitination to stabilize YAP1 protein. In depth, it was revealed from mechanism experiments that hsa_circ_0024093 sequestered miR-889-3p or miR-4677-3p to enhance USP9X expression. Further, rescue assays validated that hsa_circ_0024093 regulated the miR-4677-3p/miR-889-3p/USP9X axis to accelerate the proliferation and migration of VSMCs in the model of ASO of the lower extremities. These findings may provide a novel perspective for better understanding of ASO of the lower extremities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.omtn.2021.07.026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8479279PMC
December 2021

Coordination of root auxin with the fungus Piriformospora indica and bacterium Bacillus cereus enhances rice rhizosheath formation under soil drying.

ISME J 2021 Oct 7. Epub 2021 Oct 7.

Center for Plant Water-use and Nutrition Regulation and College of Life Sciences, Joint International Research Laboratory of Water and Nutrient in Crop, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, 350002, China.

Moderate soil drying (MSD) is a promising agricultural technique that can reduce water consumption and enhance rhizosheath formation promoting drought resistance in plants. The endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica (P. indica) with high auxin production may be beneficial for rhizosheath formation. However, the integrated role of P. indica with native soil microbiome in rhizosheath formation is unclear. Here, we investigated the roles of P. indica and native bacteria on rice rhizosheath formation under MSD using high-throughput sequencing and rice mutants. Under MSD, rice rhizosheath formation was significantly increased by around 30% with P. indica inoculation. Auxins in rice roots and P. indica were responsible for the rhizosheath formation under MSD. Next, the abundance of the genus Bacillus, known as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, was enriched in the rice rhizosheath and root endosphere with P. indica inoculation under MSD. Moreover, the abundance of Bacillus cereus (B. cereus) with high auxin production was further increased by P. indica inoculation. After inoculation with both P. indica and B. cereus, rhizosheath formation in wild-type or auxin efflux carrier OsPIN2 complemented line rice was higher than that of the ospin2 mutant. Together, our results suggest that the interaction of the endophytic fungus P. indica with the native soil bacterium B. cereus favors rice rhizosheath formation by auxins modulation in rice and microbes under MSD. This finding reveals a cooperative contribution of P. indica and native microbiota in rice rhizosheath formation under moderate soil drying, which is important for improving water use in agriculture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41396-021-01133-3DOI Listing
October 2021

Aucubin prevents steroid-induced osteoblast apoptosis by enhancing autophagy via AMPK activation.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 Oct 6. Epub 2021 Oct 6.

Department of Bone and Joint Surgery, Peking University Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen, China.

Steroid-induced osteoblast apoptosis is a crucial pathological process in steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head (SONFH). Autophagy can resist apoptosis and AMPK plays an important role in autophagy regulation. Aucubin from the small tree Eucommia ulmoides Oliv., which has a long history of use in orthopaedics and traumatology in Asian medicine, can promote bone formation, but whether it can slow or prevent steroid-osteoblast apoptosis is unclear. Therefore, we investigated the pathogenesis of SONFH and how the osteoblast responds to aucubin under the dexamethasone stimulation. In human femoral head osteonecrosis specimens, we found that the autophage and apoptosis level were increased, and the AMPK signalling was crucial to autophagy. We observed that aucubin could prevent dexamethasone-induced apoptosis in osteoblasts by enhancing the level of autophagy. Further, we confirmed that the regulatory effect of aucubin on autophagy and apoptosis was achieved by activating AMPK signalling. We have demonstrated a mechanism of disease progression and shown that aucubin could enhance autophagy through AMPK signalling to prevent osteoblast apoptosis. These findings provide a basis for the further investigation of the potential therapeutic role of aucubin in the SONFH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.16954DOI Listing
October 2021

Poly-IgA Complexes and Disease Severity in IgA Nephropathy.

Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2021 Oct 4. Epub 2021 Oct 4.

J Jin, Division of Nephrology and Feinberg Cardiovascular and Renal Research Institute, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, United States

Poly-IgA immune complex formation and glomerular deposition play a key role in IgA nephropathy. Our study sought to develop a new methodology for one-step serological detection of poly-IgA levels. A novel ELISA method using recombinant CD89 as 'capturing' probe was established for detecting poly-IgA immune complex in the plasma. We applied semiquantitative measurements of these poly-IgA indices in patients recruited at Peking University First Hospital with IgA nephropathy or other kidney disease types, as compared to healthy controls. The longitudinal trend of the poly-IgA index, together with the association with pathological parameters and treatment responses were evaluated. Finally, we analyzed the molecular composition of poly-IgA complexes in patients by mass spectrometry. Recombinant CD89-mounted ELISA plates specifically captured plasma poly-IgA. The levels of poly-IgA immune complex (26.7, IQR 17.1-42.6 units/ml) in IgA nephropathy were significantly higher than those in healthy (15.5, IQR 10.7- 20.0 units/ml; P<0.001), or non-IgA nephropathy disease controls (14.8, IQR 10.5-21.9 units/ml; P<0.001). Higher levels of poly-IgA immune complex were associated with lower eGFR and worse kidney outcome. Accuracy parameters and concordant statistics showed good discrimination between IgA nephropathy and healthy controls based on poly-IgA index levels (AUC, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.72-0.83; P<0.001), significantly outperforming galactose deficient-IgA1 levels (AUC, 0.70; P=0.05). Corticosteroid and immunosuppressant treatments lowered poly-IgA indices. Following a recombinant CD89-directed workflow in conjunction with mass spectrometry, we also analyzed the molecular compositions of IgA immune complex in IgA nephropathy patients. Higher level of recombinant CD89-bound poly-IgA immune complex was associated with the severity of the disease, as well as treatment response to steroids and immunosuppressants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2215/CJN.01300121DOI Listing
October 2021

Rational design of a fluorescent probe and its applications of imaging and distinguishing between exogenous and endogenous HS in living cells.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2021 Sep 20;266:120407. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

School of Water Conservancy and Environment, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022, China. Electronic address:

Hydrogen sulfide (HS), a recognized environmental pollutant, comes from a wide range of sources. For example, HS will be produced in the process of plant protein corruption, the decomposition of domestic sewage and garbage, food processing (wine brewing), etc. and once the concentration is too high, it will cause significant damage of environment and human body. Besides HS is an important gas signal molecule in vivo, which can be transferred through lipid membrane. Its existence level is closely related to many diseases. If we can "visually" trace the transmembrane transmission of hydrogen sulfide, it will be very helpful for the study of oxidative stress processes, cell protection, signal transduction and related diseases closely related to HS. Although some probes can detect HS in environment, cytoplasm and organelles, there are few reports on the release and internalization of HS. In this work, we report a HS fluorescence probe that can retain on the cell membrane, named PCM. The probe PCM can not only detect endogenous and exogenous HS, but also distinguish them, this provides a general strategy for the construction of probes to detect other biomarkers. In addition, PCM has been successfully applied to the detection of endogenous and exogenous HS in zebrafish, which has the potential to become a new chemical tool and provide help for the research of HS-related diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2021.120407DOI Listing
September 2021

The role of daurisoline treatment in hepatocellular carcinoma: Inhibiting vasculogenic mimicry formation and enhancing sensitivity to sorafenib.

Phytomedicine 2021 Nov 8;92:153740. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, No. 100 Haining Road, Shanghai, 200080, China. Electronic address:

Background: Vasculogenic mimicry (VM) is a newly described tumor vascular phenomenon that is independent of traditional angiogenesis and provides an adequate blood supply for tumor growth. VM has been consistently observed in different cancer types. Hence, inhibition of VM may be considered a new anticancer therapeutic strategy.

Purpose: This study aimed to elucidate the potential anticancer effect of daurisoline (DS) on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the potential molecular mechanism by which DS inhibits VM. We also verified whether combination treatment with sorafenib and DS constitutes a novel therapeutic approach to prevent HCC progression.

Methods: The effects of DS on proliferation were evaluated by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8), colony formation, and 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) incorporation assays. 4',6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining and flow cytometric analysis were employed to investigate its effects on apoptosis. Western blot analysis, Matrigel tube formation assays, pulldown assays and immunofluorescence staining were applied to validate the potential mechanism by which DS inhibits VM. Mouse xenograft models were used to evaluate anticancer activities.

Results: DS inhibited HCC cell proliferation, induced HCC cell apoptosis and repressed VM formation by inactivating RhoA/ROCK2-mediated AKT and ERK-p38 MAPK signaling. Additionally, DS dramatically sensitized HCC cell lines to sorafenib, a curative anticancer drug for patients with advanced HCC.

Conclusions: Our study provides insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying DS-induced inhibition of VM, which may facilitate the development of a novel clinical anti-HCC drug. Moreover, our findings suggest that the combination of DS and sorafenib constitutes a potential therapeutic strategy for HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2021.153740DOI Listing
November 2021

Complement Activation Is Associated With Crescents in IgA Nephropathy.

Front Immunol 2021 14;12:676919. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Renal Division, Peking University First Hospital, Peking University Institute of Nephrology, Beijing, China.

Introduction: Crescents, especially those found at a percentage greater than 50%, are often associated with rapid progression of kidney disease in IgA nephropathy (IgAN). The mechanism of crescents forming in IgAN is still unclear. In this study, we aimed to evaluate whether excess complement activation participates in the formation of crescents in IgAN.

Methods: One hundred IgAN patients with various proportions of crescents-24 with 1%-24%, 27 with 25%-49%, 21 with 50%-74% 12 with more than 75%, and 16 without crescents-were included. Urinary concentrations of mannose-binding lectin (MBL), Bb, C4d, C3a, C5a, and soluble C5b-9 (sC5b-9) were measured at the time of biopsy. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were performed to evaluate predictive ability of renal survival for urine complement activation. In addition, historical C4d, C5b-9, and C3d were stained by immunohistochemistry.

Results: IgAN patients with more than 50% crescent formation showed higher complement activation levels than the other patients (urinary C3a/creatinine (C3a/Cr): 6.7295 ng/mg, interquartile range (IQR) 1.4652-62.1086 ng/mg vs. 0.1055 ng/mg, IQR 0-1.4089 ng/mg; urinary C5a/Cr: 15.6202 ng/mg, 4.3127-66.7347 ng/mg vs. 0.3280 ng/mg, IQR 0.0859-2.4439 ng/mg; urinary sC5b-9/Cr: 98.6357 ng/mg, 8.8058-1,087.4578 ng/mg vs. 1.4262 ng/mg, 0.0916-11.0858 ng/mg, all -values <0.001). The levels of urinary MBL and C4d representing lectin complement pathway showed a linear association with the proportion of crescents (r = 0.457 and 0.562, respectively, both -values <0.001). Combined urine complement products could increase the predictive ability compared with crescents alone from 0.904 to 0.944 ( = 0.062) with borderline significance. Moreover, the glomerular C4d deposition rate elevated with the increase of proportions of crescents.

Conclusion: Excess complement activation may be involved in the formation of crescents, especially diffuse crescent formation, in patients with IgAN. Urinary C4d correlated with the proportion of crescents and was a potential biomarker for disease monitoring in crescentic IgAN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.676919DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8477028PMC
September 2021

Symptoms and Health Outcomes Among Survivors of COVID-19 Infection 1 Year After Discharge From Hospitals in Wuhan, China.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 09 1;4(9):e2127403. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University (Army Medical University), Chongqing, China.

Importance: The long-term health outcomes and symptom burden of COVID-19 remain largely unclear.

Objective: To evaluate health outcomes of COVID-19 survivors 1 year after hospital discharge and to identify associated risk factors.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This retrospective, multicenter cohort study was conducted at 2 designated hospitals, Huoshenshan Hospital and Taikang Tongji Hospital, both in Wuhan, China. All adult patients with COVID-19 discharged between February 12 and April 10, 2020, were screened for eligibility. Of a consecutive sample of 3988 discharged patients, 1555 were excluded (796 declined to participate and 759 were unable to be contacted) and the remaining 2433 patients were enrolled. All patients were interviewed via telephone from March 1 to March 20, 2021. Statistical analysis was performed from March 28 to April 18, 2021.

Exposures: COVID-19.

Main Outcomes And Measures: All patients participated in telephone interviews using a series of questionnaires for evaluation of symptoms, along with a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) assessment test (CAT). Logistic regression models were used to evaluate risk factors for fatigue, dyspnea, symptom burden, or higher CAT scores.

Results: Of 2433 patients at 1-year follow-up, 1205 (49.5%) were men and 680 (27.9%) were categorized into the severe disease group as defined by the World Health Organization guideline; the median (IQR) age was 60.0 (49.0-68.0) years. In total, 1095 patients (45.0%) reported at least 1 symptom. The most common symptoms included fatigue, sweating, chest tightness, anxiety, and myalgia. Older age (odds ratio [OR], 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.02; P < .001), female sex (OR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.06-1.52; P = .008), and severe disease during hospital stay (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.18-1.74; P < .001) were associated with higher risks of fatigue. Older age (OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.03; P < .001) and severe disease (OR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.14-1.99; P = .004) were associated with higher risks of having at least 3 symptoms. The median (IQR) CAT score was 2 (0-4), and a total of 161 patients (6.6%) had a CAT score of at least 10. Severe disease (OR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.31-2.58; P < .001) and coexisting cerebrovascular diseases (OR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.07-3.54; P = .03) were independent risk factors for CAT scores of at least 10.

Conclusions And Relevance: This study found that patients with COVID-19 with severe disease during hospitalization had more postinfection symptoms and higher CAT scores.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.27403DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8482055PMC
September 2021

Modulation of Ferroelectric and Optical Properties of La/Co-Doped KNbO Ceramics.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Sep 1;11(9). Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Key Laboratory of Polar Materials and Devices (MOE), Department of Electronic Sciences, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241, China.

The phase transition, microscopic morphology and optical and ferroelectric properties are studied in a series of La- and Co-doped KNbO-based ceramics. The results show that the doping induces the transformation from the orthorhombic to the cubic phase of KNbO, significantly reduces the optical bandgap and simultaneously evidently improves the leakage, with a slight weakening of ferroelectric polarization. Further analysis reveals that (i) the Co doping is responsible for the obvious reduction of the bandgap, whereas it is reversed for the La doping; (ii) the slight deterioration of ferroelectricity is due to the doping-induced remarkable extrinsic defect levels and intrinsic oxygen vacancies; and (iii) the La doping can optimize the defect levels and inhibit the leakage. This investigation should both provide novel insight for exploring the bandgap engineering and ferroelectric properties of KNbO, and suggest its potential applications, e.g., photovoltaic and multifunctional materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano11092273DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8465139PMC
September 2021

The Disruption of the Endothelial Barrier Contributes to Acute Lung Injury Induced by A2 Infection in Mice.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Sep 13;22(18). Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Department of Epidemiology, College of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, China.

Sporadic occurrences and outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) caused by A2 (CVA2) have frequently reported worldwide recently, which pose a great challenge to public health. Epidemiological studies have suggested that the main cause of death in critical patients is pulmonary edema. However, the pathogenesis of this underlying comorbidity remains unclear. In this study, we utilized the 5-day-old BALB/c mouse model of lethal CVA2 infection to evaluate lung damage. We found that the permeability of lung microvascular was significantly increased after CVA2 infection. We also observed the direct infection and apoptosis of lung endothelial cells as well as the destruction of tight junctions between endothelial cells. CVA2 infection led to the degradation of tight junction proteins (e.g., ZO-1, claudin-5, and occludin). The gene transcription levels of von Willebrand factor (vWF), endothelin (ET), thrombomodulin (THBD), granular membrane protein 140 (GMP140), and intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) related to endothelial dysfunction were all significantly increased. Additionally, CVA2 infection induced the increased expression of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1β, and MCP-1) and the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). In conclusion, the disruption of the endothelial barrier contributes to acute lung injury induced by CVA2 infection; targeting p38-MAPK signaling may provide a therapeutic approach for pulmonary edema in critical infections of HFMD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22189895DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8467819PMC
September 2021

Estimation of Human Mobility Patterns for Forecasting the Early Spread of Disease.

Healthcare (Basel) 2021 Sep 16;9(9). Epub 2021 Sep 16.

College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073, China.

Human mobility data are indispensable in modeling large-scale epidemics, especially in predicting the spatial spread of diseases and in evaluating spatial heterogeneity intervention strategies. However, statistical data that can accurately describe large-scale population migration are often difficult to obtain. We propose an algorithm model based on the network science approach, which estimates the travel flow data in mainland China by transforming location big data and airline operation data into network structure information. In addition, we established a simplified deterministic SEIR (Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered)-metapopulation model to verify the effectiveness of the estimated travel flow data in the study of predicting epidemic spread. The results show that individual travel distance in mainland China is mainly within 100 km. There is far more travel between prefectures within the same province than across provinces. The epidemic spatial spread model incorporating estimated travel data accurately predicts the spread of COVID-19 in mainland China. The results suggest that there are far more travelers than usual during the Spring Festival in mainland China, and the number of travelers from Wuhan mainly determines the number of confirmed cases of COVID-19 in each prefecture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9091224DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8468459PMC
September 2021

Robin sequence without cleft palate: Genetic diagnoses and management implications.

Am J Med Genet A 2021 Sep 27. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

Division of Human Genetics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA.

Robin sequence (RS), the triad of micrognathia, glossoptosis, and airway obstruction, is a major cause of respiratory distress and feeding difficulties in neonates. Robin sequence can be associated with other medical or developmental comorbidities in ~50% of cases ("syndromic" RS). As well, RS is variably associated with cleft palate (CP). Previous studies have not investigated differences in clinical characteristics of children with RS based on presence or absence of CP. We retrospectively reviewed 175 children with RS and compared genetic diagnoses, medical and developmental comorbidities, severity of airway obstruction, and feeding outcomes between those with and without CP. Strikingly, 45 of 45 (100%) children with RS without CP were classified as syndromic due to presence of comorbidities unrelated to RS, while 83 of 130 (64%) children with RS with CP were classified as syndromic. Among 128 children with syndromic RS, there were no differences in severity of airway obstruction, surgical intervention rate or type, or feeding outcome at 12 months based on CP status. Our findings support the conclusion that the pathogenesis of RS without CP is distinct from RS with CP and more likely to cause additional medical or developmental problems. Alternatively, children with RS without CP and without additional anomalies present may be under recognized.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.62515DOI Listing
September 2021

Effects of Radial Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy on Flexor Spasticity of the Upper Limb in Post-stroke Patients: Study Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial.

Front Neurol 2021 9;12:712512. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Flexor spasticity of the upper limb is common in poststroke patients and seriously affects the recovery of upper limb function. However, there are no standard management protocols for this condition. Radial extracorporeal shock wave therapy (rESWT) is widely used for various diseases, some studies reported the effects of ESWT on reducing spasticity, but the mechanism of ESWT to reduce spasticity by affecting the excitability of stretch reflex or non-neural rheological components in spastic muscles or both is not yet clear. A large randomized controlled trial with comprehensive evaluation indicators is still needed. The study is to observe the effect of rESWT on flexor spasticity of the upper limb after stroke and explore its mechanism. A prospective, randomized, double-blind controlled trial is to be performed. One hundred participants will be recruited from the Inpatient Department of Zhujiang Hospital. Eligible patients will be randomly allocated to either receive three sessions of active rESWT (group A) or sham-placebo rESWT (group B) with 3-day intervals between each session. Assessment will be performed at baseline and at 24 h after each rESWT (t1, t2, and t3). The primary assessment outcome will be the Modified Ashworth Scale, and other assessments include surface electromyography, MyotonPRO digital muscle function evaluation, and infrared thermal imaging. All data will be analyzed using intention-to-treat principles. Multiple imputation by chained equations will be used to address missing data caused by loss to follow-up and nonresponses. Per protocol, analyses will also be performed on the participants who complete other assessments. Statistical analysis will be performed using SPSS software (version 20.0) and the significance level set at < 0.05. This trial aims to analyze the application of rESWT for the management of spasticity after stroke appropriate assessments. We hypothesized that after receiving active rESWT, patients would show greater improvement of upper limb muscles compared with patients within the sham-placebo group. The rESWT would be an alternative to traditional methods, and the results of this study may provide support for the further study of potential mechanisms. www.chictr.org.cn, identifier: ChiCTR1800016144.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2021.712512DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8459743PMC
September 2021

The cohesin stabilizer Sororin drives G-M transition and spindle assembly in mammalian oocytes.

Sci Adv 2021 Sep 24;7(39):eabg9335. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abg9335DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8462903PMC
September 2021

Analysis on Health Information Acquisition of Social Network Users by Opinion Mining: Case Analysis Based on the Discussion on COVID-19 Vaccinations.

J Healthc Eng 2021 19;2021:2122095. Epub 2021 Sep 19.

School of Journalism and Communication, Jilin University of Finance and Economics, Changchun 130117, China.

This study aims to explore phenomena and laws that occur when different users on social network platforms obtain health information by constructing an opinion mining model, analyzing the user's position on selected cases, and exploring the reflection of the phenomenon of truth decay on platforms. It selects group posts regarding the COVID-19 vaccination dispute on the Douban platform, analyzes the positions of different users, and explores phenomena related to users obtaining health information on domestic social platforms according to different topics and information behaviors. The results reveal a linear relationship between the negative and neutral attitudes of netizens on social networking platforms. Moreover, netizens tend to hold subjective language when expressing their views and attitudes, and their views on social platforms will not change easily. The study explores the health information acquisition behavior of netizens on social platforms based on the constructed user opinion mining model. The study is helpful for relevant units and platforms to make scientific decisions and provide guidance according to different positions of Internet users.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/2122095DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8455217PMC
October 2021

Serglycin induces osteoclastogenesis and promotes tumor growth in giant cell tumor of bone.

Cell Death Dis 2021 Sep 23;12(10):868. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

CAS Key Laboratory of Tissue Microenvironment and Tumor, Shanghai Institute of Nutrition and Health, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China.

Giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) is an aggressive osteolytic bone tumor characterized by the within-tumor presence of osteoclast-like multinucleated giant cells (MGCs), which are induced by the neoplastic stromal cells and lead to extensive bone destruction. However, the underlying mechanism of the pathological process of osteoclastogenesis in GCTB is poorly understood. Here we show that the proteoglycan Serglycin (SRGN) secreted by neoplastic stromal cells plays a crucial role in the formation of MGCs and tumorigenesis in GCTB. Upregulated SRGN expression and secretion are observed in GCTB tumor cells and patients. Stromal-derived SRGN promotes osteoclast differentiation from monocytes. SRGN knockdown in stromal cells inhibits tumor growth and bone destruction in a patient-derived orthotopic xenograft model of mice. Mechanistically SRGN interacts with CD44 on the cell surface of monocytes and thus activates focal adhesion kinase (FAK), leading to osteoclast differentiation. Importantly, blocking CD44 with a neutralizing antibody reduces the number of MGCs and suppresses tumorigenesis in vivo. Overall, our data reveal a mechanism of MGC induction in GCTB and support CD44-targeting approaches for GCTB treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-021-04161-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8460728PMC
September 2021

Follicular Helper CD4 T Cells, Follicular Regulatory CD4 T Cells, and Inducible Costimulator and Their Roles in Multiple Sclerosis and Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

Mediators Inflamm 2021 12;2021:2058964. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

Department of Neurology, Binzhou Medical University Hospital, Binzhou, 256603 Shandong, China.

Follicular helper CD4 T (TFH) cells are a specialized subset of effector T cells that play a central role in orchestrating adaptive immunity. TFH cells mainly promote germinal center (GC) formation, provide help to B cells for immunoglobulin affinity maturation and class-switch recombination of B cells, and facilitate production of long-lived plasma cells and memory B cells. TFH cells express the nuclear transcriptional repressor B cell lymphoma 6 (Bcl-6), the chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 5 (CXCR5), the CD28 family members programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) and inducible costimulator (ICOS) and are also responsible for the secretion of interleukin-21 (IL-21) and IL-4. Follicular regulatory CD4+ T (TFR) cells, as a regulatory counterpart of TFH cells, participate in the regulation of GC reactions. TFR cells not only express markers of TFH cells but also express markers of regulatory T (Treg) cells containing FOXP3, glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor (GITR), cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4), and IL-10, hence owing to the dual characteristic of TFH cells and Treg cells. ICOS, expressed on activated CD4 effector T cells, participates in T cell activation, differentiation, and effector process. The expression of ICOS is highest on TFH and TFR cells, indicating it as a key regulator of humoral immunity. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a severe autoimmune disease that affects the central nervous system and results in disability, mediated by autoreactive T cells with evolving evidence of a remarkable contribution from humoral responses. This review summarizes recent advances regarding TFH cells, TFR cells, and ICOS, as well as their functional characteristics in relation to MS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/2058964DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8452443PMC
September 2021

Dietary Sphingomyelin Metabolism and Roles in Gut Health and Cognitive Development.

Adv Nutr 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

State Key Lab of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China.

Sphingomyelin (SM) is a widely occurring sphingolipid that is a major plasma membrane constituent. Milk and dairy products are rich SM sources, and human milk has high SM content. Numerous studies have evaluated the roles of SM in maintaining cell membrane structure and cellular signal transduction. There has been a growing interest in exploring the role of dietary SM, especially from human milk, in imparting health benefits. This review focuses on recent publications regarding SM content in several dietary sources and dietary SM metabolism. SM digestion and absorption are slow and incomplete and mainly occur in the middle sections of the small intestine. This review also evaluates the effect of dietary SM on gut health and cognitive development. Studies indicate that SM may promote gut health by reducing intestinal cholesterol absorption in adults. However, there has been a lack of data supporting clinical trials. An association between milk SM and neural development is evident before childhood. Hence, additional studies and well-designed randomized controlled trials that incorporate dietary SM evaluation, SM metabolism, and its long-term functions on infants and children are required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/advances/nmab117DOI Listing
September 2021

Virulence Characterization of Puccinia graminis f. sp. avenae and Resistance of Oat Cultivars in China.

Plant Dis 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Shenyang Agricultural University, 98428, Agronomy college, Shenyang, China;

Oat stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. avenae (Pga), is one of the most devastating diseases of oat. The most cost-effective and eco-friendly strategy to control this disease is the use of resistant cultivars. However, P. graminis f. sp. avenae can overcome the resistance of cultivars by rapidly changing its virulence. Thus, information on the virulence of P. graminis f. sp. avenae populations and resistance of cultivars is critical to control the disease. The current study was conducted to monitor the virulence composition and dynamics in the P. graminis f. sp. avenae population in China and to evaluate resistance of oat cultivars. Oat leaves naturally infected by P. graminis f. sp. avenae were collected during 2018 and 2019 and 159 isolates were derived from single uredinia. The isolates were tested on 12 international differential lines, and eight races, TJJ, TBD, TJB, TJD, TJL, TJN, TGD, and TKN, were identified for the first time in China. The predominant race was TJD, virulent against Pg1, Pg2, Pg3, Pg4, Pg8, Pg9, and Pg15, accounting for 35.8% and 37.8% in 2018 and 2019, respectively. The sub-predominant races were TJN (30.2% in 2018, 28.3% in 2019) and TKN (20.8% in 2018, 12.3% in 2019). All isolates were virulent to Pg1, Pg2, Pg3, and Pg4, and avirulent to Pg6 and Pg16. The three predominant races (TJD, TJN, and TKN) were used to evaluate resistance in 30 Chinese oat cultivars at the seedling and adult-plant stages. Five cultivars, Bayan 1, Baiyan 2, Baiyan 3, Baiyan 5, and Baiyan 9, were highly resistant to the three races at both seedling and adult-plant stages. The results of the virulences and frequencies of P. graminis f. sp. avenae races and the resistant cultivars will be useful in understanding the pathogen migration and evolution and for breeding oat cultivars with stem rust resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-06-21-1239-REDOI Listing
September 2021

A Tri-state Fluorescent Switch with "Gated" Solid-state Photochromism Induced by an External Force.

Chem Asian J 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Beijing State Key Laboratory of Organic-Inorganic Composites, College of Chemical Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing, 100029, P. R. China.

Mr. Chen Qian, Dr. Zhimin Ma, Mr. Jianwei Liu, Mrs. Xue Zhang, Prof. Shitao Wang and Prof. Zhiyong Ma. In this article, we report a newly designed molecule composed of a dihydroazulene (DHA) group and a phenothiazine (PTZ) moiety, which achieves aggregation-induced emission enhancement (AIEE), mechanochromism and "gated" solid-state photochromism upon stimulation by an external force. Grinding loosens intermolecular interactions in the crystal and causes a red-shift of fluorescence from 570 nm to 600 nm. Meanwhile, the ring-opening reaction of DHA unit is activated by grinding and a remarkable photochromism could be observed from the grinded powder. The reddish emission of the grinded powder peaked at 600 nm weakened gradually and finally became dark, and a new absorption band at 470 nm emerged in the absorption spectra. Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculation results reveal that the intramolecular intramolecular charge-transfer (ICT) process is replaced by a locally excited (LE) emission on the DHA group, which leads to the quenching of fluorescence. Its impressive photochromic property inspired us to a simple but effective way to develop an encryption system which can let the correct information be displayed upon external stimulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/asia.202101002DOI Listing
September 2021

Supramolecular self-assembled DNA nanosystem for synergistic chemical and gene regulations on cancer cells.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Tianjin University, Chemistry Department, Room 328, Building 54, 300350, Tianjin, CHINA.

Incorporating multiple molecular interactions within a system to realize the metabolic reprogramming of cancer cells is prospected to be of great potential in cancer therapy. Herein, we report a supramolecular self-assembled DNA nanosystem, which reprogrammed the cellular antioxidant system via synergistic chemical and gene regulations. In the nanosystem, amphipathic telluroether was coordinated with Mn(II) to self-assemble into micelle, on which a siNrf2 integrated DNA network was assembled. The great electron-donating capability of telluroether was revealed to greatly promote Mn(II)-based Fenton-like reaction to generate subversive ·OH in cancer cells. In response to adenosine triphosphoric acid, the siNrf2 was specially released in cytoplasm for down-regulating expression of detoxification enzymes, which enhanced chemocatalysis-mediated oxidative stress in cancer cells, thus significantly suppressing tumor progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202111900DOI Listing
September 2021

Novel nanoliposomes alleviate contrast-induced acute kidney injury in New Zealand rabbits by mediating inflammatory response.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Aug;9(15):1250

Department of Cardiology, Tianjin Chest Hospital, Tianjin, China.

Background: The purpose of the research was to investigate the preventive effect of nanoliposomes on contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) in New Zealand rabbits and to provide a theoretical basis for clinically effective prevention and treatment of CIN and the development of new contrast agents.

Methods: A total of 48 New Zealand rabbits were divided into four groups randomly, there were 12 rabbits in eacj group: (I) control group; (II) contrast group; (III) hydration prevention group; and (IV) nanoliposome group. The changes of serum creatinine (SCr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were messured before and after injection of iopromide. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect inflammatory and oxidative stress indexes, including neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipoprotein (NGAL), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malondialdehyde (MDA). Twenty-four hours after injection of the contrast medium, the rabbits were killed and the pathological changes were observed under an electron microscope.

Results: There were statistical significances in sCr and BUN values among the four groups at both 8 hours and 24 hours after injection of the contrast medium. Serum NGAL and TNF-α levels were also significantly different among the four groups (P<0.05) 24 hours after injection of the contrast medium. The incidence rate of CIN in each group was statistically significant. Nanoliposomes had obvious advantages over hydration prevention in NGAL and TNF-α levels.

Conclusions: Nanoliposomes can prevent the occurrence of CIN and reduce the damage of contrast agent to the kidney by reducing inflammatory reaction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-21-3201DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8421945PMC
August 2021

A Rh-substituted polyoxometalate with an acetate-modified building block {AsWO(CHCOO)}.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 Oct 5;57(79):10250-10253. Epub 2021 Oct 5.

Henan Key Laboratory of Polyoxometalate Chemistry, Institute of Molecular and Crystal Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan 475004, P. R. China.

The first example of Rh-substituted organic-inorganic hybrid arsenotungstate [HN(CH)]{[Na(HO)]NaAsW(CHCOO)O Rh(N(CH))}·HO (1) synthesised in an aqueous solution by the conventional method is reported. Two [Rh(N(CH))] fragments are imbedded into the vacancy of the [NaAsW(CHCOO)O] unit by Rh-As bonds [2.439(1) Å], which are observed in POM chemistry for the first time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cc03646gDOI Listing
October 2021

promotes colorectal cancer tumorigenesis and metastasis through STAT3.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 Sep 15;13(18):22164-22175. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of General Surgery, Hebei Medical University Third Affiliated Hospital, Shijiazhuang 050000, Hebei, China.

Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B3 is a gene that encodes an organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B3, a membrane-bound multi-specific transporter in hepatocytes. was first reported in hepatocytes. Later, it was found that its expression is higher in colorectal cancer (CRC) than in the adjacent normal tissue. However, the role of in CRC is not well elucidated. In this study, the correlation between and the overall survival (OS) of CRC patients was evaluated using data from the GEO database. This study evaluated the relationship between and the clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of CRC patients. The effects of knockdown, on human CRC cell proliferation, migration, and invasion and CRC tumorigenesis and metastasis were also examined. In addition, next-generation sequencing was used to identify mediators. The results confirmed the association between and poor OS of CRC patients, and was identified as the top hub gene associated with the OS. The study showed that high expression was associated with poor tumor differentiation, advanced disease stage, tumor invasion, lymph node metastasis, and poor OS. Next-generation sequencing revealed that knockdown affected the expression of several genes involved in cancer invasion, metastasis, and DNA repair. Moreover, the western blot analysis showed that knockdown downregulated p-STAT3, MMP-2, and MMP-9. In summary, we demonstrated that acts as a novel carcinogen in the CRC that drives the CRC tumorigenesis and metastasis. inhibitors, alone or in combination with current drugs, may have therapeutic benefits in CRC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.203502DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8507254PMC
September 2021
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