Publications by authors named "Xue Yao"

143 Publications

Solvent-Evaporation Induced and Mechanistic Entropy-Enthalpy-Balance Controlled Polymer Patch Formation on Nanoparticle Surfaces.

J Phys Chem Lett 2021 Jul 22:7100-7105. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

State Key Laboratory of Supramolecular Structure and Materials, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130021, China.

The formation of polymer-patch nanoparticles (PNPs) involves a condensation process of grafted chains on a nanoparticle (NP) surface, which is conventionally achieved via a fine-tuning of the solvent quality. However, such a critical solvent condition differs dramatically between polymers, and the formation mechanism of different patchy structures remains under debate. In this study, we demonstrate by a combined simulation and experimental study that such a surface-patterning process can be easily achieved via a simple solvent evaporation process, which creates a natural nonsolvent condition and is, in principle, adaptable for all polymers. More importantly, we find that patchy structures are controlled by a delicate balance between enthalpic interaction and the entropy penalty of grafted chains. A small variation of cohesive energy density can lead to a dramatic change in patch structure. This work offers a robust yet easy approach for the fabrication of PNPs and provides new insights into polymer segregation on spherical surfaces.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpclett.1c01979DOI Listing
July 2021

A novel strategy to identify candidate diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for gastric cancer.

Cancer Cell Int 2021 Jul 2;21(1):335. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Medical Research Center, The Third People's Hospital of Chengdu, The Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Jiaotong University, 82 Qinglong Road, Chengdu, 610031, Sichuan, China.

Background: Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common cancer worldwide. It is essential to identify non-invasive diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of GC. The aim of the present study was to screen candidate biomarkers associated with the pathogenesis and prognosis of GC by a novel strategy.

Methods: The expression level of gene higher in cancer than in adjacent non-cancer tissue was defined as "positive", and the top 5% genes with "positive rate" were filtered out as candidate diagnostic biomarkers in three Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) datasets. Further, a prognostic risk model was constructed by multivariate Cox regression analysis in GEO dataset and validated in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). The expression level of candidate biomarkers was determined in serum and serum-derived exosomes of GC patients. Moreover, the effect of biomarkers in exosomes on migration of GC cells was analyzed by transwell assay.

Results: Ten candidate biomarkers (AGT, SERPINH1, WNT2, LIPG, PLAU, COL1A1, MMP7, MXRA5, CXCL1 and COL11A1) were identified with efficient diagnostic value in GC. A prognostic gene signature consisted of AGT, SERPINH1 and MMP7 was constructed and showed a good performance in predicting overall survivals in TCGA. Consistently, serum levels of the three biomarkers also showed high sensitivity and specificity in distinguishing GC patients from controls. In addition, the expression level of the three biomarkers were associated with malignant degree and decreased after surgery in GC patients. Moreover, the expression level of AGT and MMP7 in exosomes correlated positively with serum level. The exosomes derived from serum of GC patients can promote migration of SGC-7901 cells. After neutralized the expression level of three proteins in exosomes with antibodies, the migration of GC cells was obviously suppressed.

Conclusions: Our findings provided a novel strategy to identify diagnostic biomarkers based on public datasets, and suggested that the three-gene signature was a candidate diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for patients with GC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12935-021-02007-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8254335PMC
July 2021

θ-Solvent-Mediated Double-Shell Polyethylene Glycol Brushes on Nanoparticles for Improved Stealth Properties and Delivery Efficiency.

J Phys Chem Lett 2021 Jun 2;12(22):5363-5370. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

State Key Laboratory of Supramolecular Structure and Materials, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012, China.

Antifouling polymer brushes are widely used to inhibit the formation of protein corona on nanoparticles (NPs) and subsequent accumulation in the liver and spleen. Herein, we demonstrate a θ-solvent-mediated method for the preparation of gold nanoparticles with a high polyethylene glycol (PEG) grafting density. Reaching the θ-solvent by adding salt (e.g., NaSO) can significantly increase the grafting density of the PEG brush to 2.08 chains/nm. The PEG polymer brush prepared in the θ-solvent possesses a double-shell structure consisting of a concentrated polymer brush (CPB) and a semidilute polymer brush (SDPB), denoted as [email protected]@SDPB, while those prepared in a good solvent have only a SDPB shell, i.e., [email protected] Compared to the [email protected] structure, the [email protected]@SDPB structure decreases the liver accumulation from 34.0%ID/g to 23.1%ID/g, leading to an increase in tumor accumulation from 8.5%ID/g to 12.8%ID/g. This work provides new insights from the perspective of polymer physical chemistry into the improved stealth properties and delivery efficiency of NPs, which will accelerate the clinical translation of nanomedicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpclett.1c01291DOI Listing
June 2021

Mechanism of circADD2 as ceRNA in Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 13;9:639910. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Hematology and Oncology, Children's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) is the most common malignant tumor in children. Increasing evidence suggests that circular RNAs (circRNAs) play critical regulatory roles in tumor biology. However, the expression patterns and roles of circRNAs in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) remain largely unknown. circADD2 was selected by microarray assay and confirmed by qRT-PCR; effects of circADD2 were determined by CCK-8 and flow cytometry; while mice subcutaneous tumor model was designed for analysis. RNA immunoprecipitation and dual-luciferase assay were applied for mechanistic study. Protein levels were examined by Western blot assay. circADD2 was down-regulated in ALL tissues and cell lines. Overexpression of circADD2 inhibited cell proliferation and promoted apoptosis both and . Briefly, circADD2 could directly sponge miR-149-5p, and the level of AKT2, a target gene of miR-149-5p, was downregulated by circADD2. circADD2, as a tumor suppressor in ALL, can sponge miR-149-5p, and may serve as a potential biomarker for the diagnosis or treatment of ALL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.639910DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8155473PMC
May 2021

Dendrimer-assisted boronate affinity cellulose foams for the efficient and selective separation of glycoproteins.

Carbohydr Polym 2021 Aug 17;265:118082. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Shaanxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Papermaking Technology and Specialty Paper Development, National Demonstration Center for Experimental Light Chemistry Engineering Education, Key Laboratory of Paper Based Functional Materials of China National Light Industry, Shaanxi University of Science and Technology, Xian, 710021, China.

Surfaces engineered to identify and enrich glycoproteins are of considerable interest in the diagnostic and detection fields. A boronate affinity (BA) material was proposed as a potential candidate for the isolation of glycoproteins. However, this material has the disadvantages of low efficiency and non-degradability. Herein, a novel dendrimer-amplified BA cellulose foam (PEI-PBA-CF) was fabricated via a mild two-step approach. The as-prepared PEI-PBA-CF exhibited a rapid adsorption equilibrium rate (within 60 min) and outstanding adsorption capacity for horseradish peroxidase (537.4 mg g) and ovalbumin (495.5 mg g). Furthermore, competitive adsorption experiments demonstrated that PEI-PBA-CF could achieve selective separation and purification of glycoproteins from complex biological samples due to the synergistic effect of the improved BA capacity by the dendrimer and the well-interconnected porous structure of the biomass matrix. Consequently, these cellulose foams might present new application opportunities in analytical and biomedical fields.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2021.118082DOI Listing
August 2021

New compound heterozygous CYP4V2 mutations in bietti crystalline corneoretinal dystrophy.

Gene 2021 Jul 5;790:145698. Epub 2021 May 5.

Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Shenzhen Eye Hospital, Jinan University, Shenzhen 518040, China; School of Optometry, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518040, China. Electronic address:

Bietti crystalline corneoretinal dystrophy (BCD) is an autosomal recessive retinal dystrophy which is caused by the mutations of CYP4V2, usually progressing to legal blindness by the 5th or 6th decade of life. Here we identified CYP4V2 compound heterozygous mutations in two female siblings with BCD without subjective symptoms. After 381 pathogenic genes related to retinal diseases were screened by targeted sequence capture array techniques and confirmed by Sanger sequencing, two compound heterozygous mutations in CYP4V2 were found. One was missense mutation c.1198C>T (p.R400C) and the other was frameshift mutation c.802-8_810delinsGC (p.V268_E329del). Optical coherence tomography (OCT) showed that the ellipsoid zone was absent in the macular regions and electroretinogram (ERG) revealed poor cone and rod responses. Compound heterozygous mutations in CYP4V2 are related to the BCD. Our study expands our knowledge of heterogenic phenotypes and genotypes through genetic diagnosis of the BCD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2021.145698DOI Listing
July 2021

Clinical characteristics of tumor lysis syndrome in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Sci Rep 2021 May 6;11(1):9656. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Hematology and Oncology, Children's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is a common and fatal complication of childhood hematologic malignancies, especially acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The clinical features, therapeutic regimens, and outcomes of TLS have not been comprehensively analyzed in Chinese children with ALL. A total of 5537 children with ALL were recruited from the Chinese Children's Cancer Group, including 79 diagnosed with TLS. The clinical characteristics, treatment regimens, and survival of TLS patients were analyzed. Age distribution of children with TLS was remarkably different from those without TLS. White blood cells (WBC) count ≥ 50 × 10/L was associated with a higher risk of TLS [odds ratio (OR) = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.6-4.5]. The incidence of T-ALL in TLS children was significantly higher than that in non-TLS controls (OR = 4.7, 95% CI = 2.6-8.8). Hyperphosphatemia and hypocalcemia were more common in TLS children with hyperleukocytosis (OR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.0-6.9 and OR = 5.4, 95% CI = 2.0-14.2, respectively). Significant differences in levels of potassium (P = 0.004), calcium (P < 0.001), phosphorus (P < 0.001) and uric acid (P < 0.001) were observed between groups of TLS patients with and without increased creatinine. Laboratory analysis showed that older age was associated with a higher level of creatinine. Calcium level was notably lower in males. WBC count, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatinine levels were significantly higher in T-ALL subgroup, whereas procalcitonin level was higher in B-ALL children. Older age, infant, a higher level of WBC and T-ALL were risk factors TLS occurrence. Hyperleukocytosis has an impact on the severity of TLS, while renal injury may be an important feature in the process of TLS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-88912-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8102476PMC
May 2021

Steric Hindrance- and Work Function-Promoted High Performance for Electrochemical CO Methanation on Antisite Defects of MoS and WS.

ChemSusChem 2021 May 28;14(10):2255-2261. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Key Laboratory of Automobile Materials (Jilin University), Ministry of Education, P. R. China.

CO methanation from electrochemical CO reduction reaction (CORR) is significant for sustainable environment and energy, but electrocatalysts with excellent selectivity and activity are still lacking. Selectivity is sensitive to the structure of active sites, and activity can be tailored by work function. Moreover, intrinsic active sites usually possess relatively high concentration compared to artificial ones. Here, antisite defects Mo and W , intrinsic atomic defects of MoS and WS with a transition metal atom substituting a S column, were investigated for CORR by density functional theory calculations. The steric hindrance from the special bowl structure of Mo and W ensured good selectivity towards CO methanation. Coordination environment variation of the active sites, the under-coordinated Mo or W atoms, effectively lowered the work function, making Mo and W highly active for CO methanation with the required potential of -0.47 and -0.49 V vs. reversible hydrogen electrode, respectively. Moreover, high concentration of active sites and minimal structural deformation during the catalytic process of Mo and W enhanced their attraction for future commercial application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cssc.202100457DOI Listing
May 2021

[Effect evaluation of bedside ultrasound monitoring of left ventricular functional parameters combined with clinical indicators on veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation].

Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue 2021 Mar;33(3):329-333

Department of Ultrasonography, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430060, Hubei, China. Corresponding author: Guo Ruiqiang, Email:

Objective: To explore the monitoring value of left ventricular functional parameters obtained by bedside ultrasound combined with clinically relevant indicators in patients with veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO).

Methods: A retrospective study was conducted. A total of 24 patients receiving VA-ECMO adjuvant support in Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University from June 2018 to January 2020 were selected. The bedside ultrasound was performed on the first day of ECMO support, the day before weaning, the clinical indicators before weaning were obtained. The differences in clinical indicators and the left ventricular functional parameters between the two groups of whether weaning successfully were compared; univariate Logistic regression analysis was used to screen out the related factors affecting weaning.

Results: Sixteen patients were successful weaned and 8 patients failed. Compared with the weaning failure group, patients in the weaning success group required less continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT, cases: 4 vs. 6, P < 0.05), mean arterial pressure (MAP) before weaning was higher [mmHg (1 mmHg = 0.133 kPa): 84.64±9.55 vs. 62.30±8.79, P < 0.05], and the pulse oxygen saturation (SpO) was also higher (0.966±0.670 vs. 0.866±0.061, P < 0.05), while vasoactive-inotropic score (VIS), serum creatinine (SCr) and serum lactic acid (Lac) were lower [VIS score: 7.27±1.42 vs. 16.93±8.52, SCr (μmol/L): 123.60±83.64 vs. 213.10±117.39, Lac (mmol/L): 1.94±0.91 vs. 5.62±5.48, all P < 0.05]. Univariate Logistic regression analysis showed that the MAP, VIS, SCr, Lac, SpO before weaning were the related factors affecting weaning [odds ratio (OR) were 0.306, -0.740, -0.011, -0.632, -4.069; 95% confidence interval (95%CI) were 1.065-1.732, 0.235-0.899, 0.979-0.999, 0.285-0.992 and 0.001-0.208; P values were 0.014, 0.022, 0.038, 0.047, 0.002]. In the weaning success group, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), velocity of mitralannulus in systolic (LatSa), maximum flow velocity of aortic valve (AV-Vmax), velocity-time integral (VTI), left ventricular global longitudinal strain (LVGLS), left ventricular global longitudinal strain rate (LVGLSr) were all increased on the day before ECMO weaning compared with the first day of ECMO support [LVEF: 0.40±0.05 vs. 0.28±0.07, LatSa (cm/s): 6.81±0.91 vs. 4.62±1.02, AV-Vmax (cm/s): 104.81±33.98 vs. 64.44±16.85, VTI (cm): 14.56±3.11 vs. 7.96±1.98, LVGLS: (-8.95±2.59)% vs. (-5.26±1.28)%, LVGLSr (1/s): -0.48±0.11 vs. -0.29±0.09], whereas the ECMO flow was significantly reduced (L/min: 1.46±0.47 vs. 2.64±0.31), the differences were statistically significant (all P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in left ventricular functional parameters between the first day of ECMO support and the day before ECMO weaning in the weaning failure group. Compared with the weaning failure group, the weaning success group had higher LVEF, LatSa, AV-Vmax, VTI, LVGLS, LVGLSr on the day before ECMO weaning [LVEF: 0.40±0.05 vs. 0.26±0.07, LatSa (cm/s): 6.81±0.91 vs. 4.31±1.03, AV-Vmax (cm/s): 104.81±33.98 vs. 67.67±18.46, VTI (cm): 14.56±3.11 vs. 7.75±2.77, LVGLS: (-8.95±2.59)% vs. (-4.81±1.81)%, LVGLSr (1/s): -0.48±0.11 vs. -0.30±0.10, all P < 0.05] and lower ECMO flow (L/min: 1.46±0.47 vs. 2.20±0.62, P < 0.05).

Conclusions: Bedside echocardiographic left ventricular function parameters (LVEF, LatSa, AV-Vmax, VTI, LVGLS, LVGLSr) combined with clinical indicators (MAP, VIS, SCr, Lac, SpO) were helpful to evaluate the therapeutic effect of patients receiving VA-ECMO support and can provide important guiding value in the selection of VA-ECMO weaning timing and the judgment of prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn121430-20201023-00684DOI Listing
March 2021

Suppression of Calcineurin Enhances the Toxicity of Cry1Ac to .

Front Microbiol 2021 11;12:634619. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

State Key Laboratory of Wheat and Maize Crop Science, College of Plant Protection, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou, China.

Insect resistance to (Bt) insecticidal proteins has rapidly evolved with the expansion of the planting area of transgenic Bt crops. Pyramiding RNA interference (RNAi) and Bt in crops is urgently needed to counter the rapid increase in pest resistance. The ideal "pyramid" strategy simultaneously targets different action pathways that exert synergetic effects on each other. Here, we identified a dephosphatase, namely, calcineurin (HaCAN), which might enhance the insecticidal activity of Cry1Ac against by regulating immune gene expression via dephosphatase activity, but not by acting as a receptor. Notably, blocking enzyme activity or knocking down endogenous HaCAN significantly promoted the enhancement in Cry1Ac toxicity to insect larvae and cells. Correspondingly, the increase in HaCAN activity reduced the cytotoxicity of Cry1Ac as shown by the heterologous expression of HaCAN. Our results provide a probable that HaCAN is an important candidate gene for pyramiding RNAi and Cry1Ac crops to control cotton bollworm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.634619DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7904703PMC
February 2021

Enhanced optical asymmetry in supramolecular chiroplasmonic assemblies with long-range order.

Science 2021 03 25;371(6536):1368-1374. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

State Key Laboratory of Supramolecular Structure and Materials, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun, China.

Chiral assemblies of plasmonic nanoparticles are known for strong circular dichroism but not for high optical asymmetry, which is limited by the unfavorable combination of electrical and magnetic field components compounded by strong scattering. Here, we show that these limitations can be overcome by the long-range organization of nanoparticles in a manner similar to the liquid crystals and found in helical assemblies of gold nanorods with human islet amyloid polypeptides. A strong, polarization-dependent spectral shift and the reduced scattering of energy states with antiparallel orientation of dipoles activated in assembled helices increased optical asymmetry -factors by a factor of more than 4600. The liquid crystal-like color variations and the nanorod-accelerated fibrillation enable drug screening in complex biological media. Improvement of long-range order can also provide structural guidance for the design of materials with high optical asymmetry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.abd8576DOI Listing
March 2021

The complete mitochondrial DNA sequence of Chuanbai Rex rabbit ().

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2021 Jan 17;6(1):129-130. Epub 2021 Jan 17.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Sichuan Agricultural University, Wenjiang, Sichuan Province, China.

Chuanbai Rex Rabbit ( domesticus) is a hybrid breed in Sichuan, China. In this study, we reveal the mitochondrial genome sequence of the Chuanbai Rex Rabbit for the first time. The length of the mitochondrial genome is 17,179 bp and contains 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 14 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and 1 D-loop sequence. We further provide a phylogenetic tree showing relationships among Chuanbai Rex Rabbit and other Leporidae species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2020.1848476DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7832598PMC
January 2021

Crowd Scene Analysis Encounters High Density and Scale Variation.

IEEE Trans Image Process 2021 12;30:2745-2757. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Crowd scene analysis receives growing attention due to its wide applications. Grasping the accurate crowd location is important for identifying high-risk regions. In this article, we propose a Compressed Sensing based Output Encoding (CSOE) scheme, which casts detecting pixel coordinates of small objects into a task of signal regression in encoding signal space. To prevent gradient vanishing, we derive our own sparse reconstruction backpropagation rule that is adaptive to distinct implementations of sparse reconstruction and makes the whole model end-to-end trainable. With the support of CSOE and the backpropagation rule, the proposed method shows more robustness to deep model training error, which is especially harmful to crowd counting and localization. The proposed method achieves state-of-the-art performance across four mainstream datasets, especially achieves excellent results in highly crowded scenes. A series of analysis and experiments support our claim that regression in CSOE space is better than traditionally detecting coordinates of small objects in pixel space for highly crowded scenes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TIP.2021.3049963DOI Listing
February 2021

Chemokine networks modulating natural killer cell trafficking to solid tumors.

Cytokine Growth Factor Rev 2021 06 16;59:36-45. Epub 2021 Jan 16.

Department of Industrial and Physical Pharmacy, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, 47907, USA; Center for Cancer Research, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, 47907 USA. Electronic address:

Natural killer (NK) cell-based cell therapy has been emerging as a powerful weapon in the treatment of multiple malignancies. However, the inadequate infiltration of the therapeutic NK cells into solid tumors remains a big challenge to their clinical utility. Chemokine networks, which play essential roles in the migration of lymphocytes, have been recognized as critical in driving the intratumoral infiltration of NK cells via interactions between soluble chemokines and their receptors. Often, such interactions are complex and disease-specific. In the context of NK cells, chemokine receptors of note have included CCR2, CCR5, CCR7, CXCR3, and CX3CR1. The immunobiology of chemokine-receptor interactions has fueled the development of approaches that hope to improve the infiltration of NK cells into the microenvironment of solid tumors. Stimulation of NK cells ex vivo in the presence of various cytokines (such as IL-2, IL-15, and IL-21) and genetic engineering of NK cells have been utilized to alter the chemokine receptor profile and generate NK cells with higher infiltrating capacity. Additionally, the immune-suppressive tumor microenvironment has also been targeted, by introducing, either directly or indirectly, chemokine ligands which NK cells are able to respond to, ultimately creating a more hospitable niche for NK cell trafficking. Such strategies have promoted the infiltration and activity of infused NK cells into multiple solid tumors. In this review, we discuss how chemokine receptors and their ligands coordinate and how they can be manipulated to regulate the trafficking, distribution, and residence of NK cells in solid tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cytogfr.2020.12.003DOI Listing
June 2021

Purification of hypocrellins from Shiraia bambusicola by coordinated high-speed countercurrent chromatography using cupric chloride as a complexing agent.

J Sep Sci 2021 Apr 2;44(7):1383-1390. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Qilu University of Technology (Shandong Academy of Sciences), Jinan, P. R. China.

Hypocrellins are anthraquinone that can act as excellent photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy. In the present work, we found that high-speed countercurrent chromatography using cupric chloride as a complexing agent effectively separated hypocrellins from Shiraia bambusicola extract. The optimal two-phase solvent system consisted of petroleum ether/ethyl acetate/methanol/water (7:3:5.5:4.5, v/v/v/v), with 0.01 mol/L cupric chloride in the lower phase at pH of 2.45. This lower phase served as the mobile phase, whereas the upper phase acted as the stationary phase. Employing a continuous separation mode, three continuous injections were found to allow the purification of 1.2 g of crude extract in approximately 12 h. Hypocrellin B (10.8 mg), hypocrellin A (16.2 mg), and hypocrellin C (15.6 mg) were obtained from this process. Simulation of complexation of hypocrellin A with divalent copper ion by computational chemistry calculations indicated that three pairs of hydroxyl and carbonyl groups in hypocrellin A had similar binding energies, and demonstrated that hypocrellin A and B owned different metal-to-ligand ratios as compared to hypocrellin C. These factors could modify the partitioning of these compounds in two-phase solvent system, and resulting in a suitable separation factor. This method would also be used to purify other anthraquinones from natural products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jssc.202001133DOI Listing
April 2021

Neurotropin exerts neuroprotective effects after spinal cord injury by inhibiting apoptosis and modulating cytokines.

J Orthop Translat 2021 Jan 23;26:74-83. Epub 2020 Mar 23.

Tianjin Key Laboratory of Spine and Spinal Cord, International Science and Technology Cooperation Base of Spinal Cord Injury, ICMRS Collaborating Center for Spinal Cord Injury, Department of Orthopaedics, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, China.

Background/objective: Spinal cord injury (SCI) severely and irreversibly damages the central nervous system. Neurotropin (NTP), a nonprotein extract obtained from inflamed rabbit skin inoculated with vaccinia virus, is a drug that has been used for more than sixty years to alleviate neuropathic pain. It also reportedly exerts a neuroprotective role in peripheral nerves and in response to various central nervous system diseases, such as brain injury and Alzheimer disease. However, whether NTP promotes SCI recovery remains unknown. This study evaluated NTP's effects after SCI and explored its underlying mechanisms in a rat contusion model of SCI.

Method: NTP was intraperitoneally administered to adult female Wistar rats subjected to contusion-induced SCI. Functional recovery was evaluated with behavioural scores and electrophysiological examinations. Tissue recovery was assessed with magnetic resonance imaging as well as histological staining with haematoxylin and eosin and Luxol Fast Blue. Neuronal survival and gliosis were observed after NeuN and glial fibrillary acidic protein immunofluorescence. Levels of apoptosis were demonstrated with TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining, Caspase-3 and B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) Western blot, and Annexin V/propidium iodide flow cytometry. A protein antibody chip analysis was performed to evaluate the expression levels of 67 rat cytokines.

Results: NTP treatment improved the hindlimb locomotor recovery of the injured animals as well as their electrophysiological outcomes after SCI. A dosage of 50 NTP units/kg was found to optimize the efficacy of NTP. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed that lesion sizes decreased after NTP treatment. The haematoxylin and eosin and Luxol Fast Blue staining showed significant increases in the amount of spared tissue. The NeuN and glial fibrillary acidic protein immunofluorescence revealed that NTP treatment increased neuronal survival and reduced gliosis in tissue samples obtained from the lesion's epicentre. That NTP inhibited apoptosis was confirmed by the decreased number of TUNEL-positive cells, level of Caspase-3 expression, and number of Annexin V/propidium iodide-positive cells, as well as the increased level of Bcl-2 expression. The protein array analysis identified 28 differentially expressed proteins in the NTP group, and the gene ontology (GO) analysis showed that the enriched differentially expressed proteins implicate janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) signalling pathways. The expression levels of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 6, thymus chemokine-1(TCK-1), and lipopolysaccharide-induced CXC chemokine (LIX) decreased after NTP treatment, whereas the levels of prorepair cytokine hepatocyte growth factor and adiponectin increased.

Conclusion: Our research provides evidence that NTP can improve functional outcomes and alleviate secondary injury after SCI by inhibiting apoptosis and modulating cytokines.

The Translational Potential Of This Article: The multicomponent NTP might have broad target spectra in SCI pathophysiology and halt the secondary injury cascade. As a safe drug that features sixty years of clinical use as an analgesic, translating this demonstrated efficacy of NTP to addressing SCI in human patients may potentially be accelerated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jot.2020.02.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7773959PMC
January 2021

Some Problems Should be Paid Attention to in the Application of Palpebral Marginal Incision Techniques for Double-Eyelid Surgery.

Aesthetic Plast Surg 2021 06 5;45(3):1354-1356. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Department of Plastic Surgery, Zibo Central Hospital, No. 54 The Communist Youth League Road, Zibo, 255000, Shandong, People's Republic of China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00266-020-02067-5DOI Listing
June 2021

CLAG-M chemotherapy followed by umbilical cord blood stem cell transplantation for primary refractory acute myeloid leukaemia in a child: A case report.

World J Clin Cases 2020 Nov;8(22):5603-5610

Department of Haematology and Oncology, Children's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210008, Jiangsu Province, China.

Background: The prognosis of paediatric primary refractory/relapsed acute myeloid leukaemia (R/R AML) remains poor. Intensive therapy is typically used as salvage treatment for those with R/R AML. No data are currently available about the use of the CLAG-M protocol as salvage therapy in paediatric patients with R/R AML.

Case Summary: An 8-year-old patient was diagnosed with acute myeloid leukaemia by bone marrow morphology and immunophenotype. The patient showed poor response to two cycles of induction therapy with 60% blast cells in the bone marrow after the second induction cycle. The patient achieved complete remission after being treated with the CLAG-M protocol as salvage therapy before undergoing umbilical cord blood stem cell transplantation. Morphological complete remission with haematological recovery has hitherto been maintained over 4 mo. Abnormal gene mutations detected at diagnosis were undetectable after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Conclusion: Here we present a paediatric patient with primary refractory acute myeloid leukaemia who was successfully treated with the CLAG-M protocol. Given the positive results of the presented patient, large-scale clinical studies are required to assess the role of the CLAG-M protocol in the salvage treatment of refractory or relapsed AML in childhood.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12998/wjcc.v8.i22.5603DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7716300PMC
November 2020

Operation mode of plastic surgery during COVID-19 epidemic: The experience of the department of plastic surgery in Zibo Central Hospital.

J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2021 04 13;74(4):890-930. Epub 2020 Dec 13.

Department of Ophthalmology, Zibo Central Hospital, No. 54 The Communist Youth League Road, Zibo 255000, Shandong Province, China. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjps.2020.12.027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7832478PMC
April 2021

Biodegradation and decolourization of methyl red by LH1.

Prep Biochem Biotechnol 2020 Nov 23:1-8. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

College of Chemistry and Life Sciences, Suzhou University of Science and Technology, Suzhou, PR China.

Azo dyes constitute a significant environmental burden due to its toxicity, carcinogenicity, and hard biodegradation. The report here is focused on the decolorization and degradation treatment of azo dye methyl red (MR). Decolorization of MR using LH1 isolated from activated sludge was investigated. The maximum decolorization rate of 92.3% was obtained under the optimized conditions of sucrose as carbon source, 5d incubation age, pH 6.0, 140 mg/L initial concentration of MR and 2.5 g/L initial concentration of NaNO. Biodegradation products of MR were investigated using HPLC-MS, FTIR, and GC-MS assays. It was revealed the three bonds of -C-N = in MR aromatic nucleus were disrupted, and benzoic acid was detected. Micronucleus test with L. and L. demonstrated that MCN‰ (micronucleus permillage) of MR metabolites was less than MR solution. These findings provided evidence that LH1 is a candidate for MR degradation in industrial wastewater treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10826068.2020.1848868DOI Listing
November 2020

Identification of CTLA-4 associated with tumor microenvironment and competing interactions in triple negative breast cancer by co-expression network analysis.

J Cancer 2020 9;11(21):6365-6375. Epub 2020 Sep 9.

Department of Medical Oncology, the First Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

The study of CTLA-4 inhibitors has been one of the hot spots in the field of tumor immunotherapy. As the most immunogenic subtype of breast cancer, Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) has a great potential in the treatment strategy. The aim of this study was to explore the relevant genes and pathways of CTLA-4 in TNBC and to explore the prognostic value, so as to provide a theoretical basis for clinical studies. We used the data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) to analyze the expression of CTLA-4 in different types of breast cancer, and analyzed the TNBC data of CTLA-4 related co-expression genes by WGCNA and enrichment analysis. LncRNA-miRNA-CTLA-4 network was constructed to explore the immune infiltration and immune checkpoint associated with CTLA-4. The effect of CTLA-4 on clinical outcomes in TNBC patients was also evaluated. Finally, we used data from GEO database to verify the differences of CTLA-4 in different molecular types of breast cancer and related prognostic results. CTLA-4 was significantly higher in TNBC than in Luminal subtype and Her-2 + subtype (0.019 and 0.001, separately), and was significantly higher in ER and PR negative samples than in ER and PR positive samples (0.001). CTLA-4 related genes mainly enriched in biological process of leukocyte differentiation, regulation of leukocyte activation and T cell activation. Hsa-mir-92a was found to be a survival significance marker associated with CTLA-4 and lncRNA-miRNA-CTLA-4 network was constructed. The results of immune infiltration analysis showed that CTLA-4 was mainly related with T cell (0.74). For immune checkpoints analysis, CTLA-4 was mainly related to PDCD1(0.72) and CD28(0.64). In TNBC, high expression of CTLA-4 is related to good survival (0.0061). Results consistent with previous analysis were obtained in the GEO database, the expression of CTLA-4 in TNBC was significantly higher than that in non-TNBC (0.001), CTLA-4 was associated with favorable survival of TNBC (0.001). Among all types of breast cancer, the expression of CTLA-4 was the highest in TNBC.CTLA-4 in TNBC can be regulated by hsa-mir-92a to form ceRNA networks and influence the prognosis of TNBC patients through the leukocyte differentiation, regulation of leukocyte activation and T cell activation pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/jca.46301DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7532512PMC
September 2020

Laparoscopic resection of a large clinically silent paraganglioma at the organ of Zuckerkandl: a rare case report and review of the literature.

BMC Urol 2020 Oct 7;20(1):156. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

Department of Urology, Shanxi Bethune Hospital, No. 99 Longcheng Street, Taiyuan, 030032, Shanxi, China.

Background: Large paraganglioma of the Zuckerkandl organ (POZ) is extremely rare. The patient can occasionally be paucisymptomatic, further obscuring the diagnosis and carrying high mortality. Recommended treatment for large paraganglioma (PGL) is open surgical removal. We report a case of successful laparoscopic resection of a large POZ with normal blood pressure in a 45-year-old man.

Case Presentation: A 45-year-old man was hospitalized because of hyperglycemia. Computed tomography of the abdomen and the serum and urinary catecholamine levels confirmed the diagnosis of large POZ. But his blood pressure was normal and he underwent laparoscopic tumor excision successfully. During 6 months follow-up after laparoscopy, serum and urinary catecholamines were normal but glycaemia remained high level. DNA analysis of the succinate dehydrogenase complex subunits B (SDHB) and SDHD revealed no mutation.

Conclusions: POZ is an unusual mass and preoperative diagnosis can be difficult in clinically silent cases. PGL cannot be excluded in patients with normal blood pressure. Even a large POZ can be excised laparoscopically by following proper techniques.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12894-020-00732-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7542907PMC
October 2020

Liproxstatin-1 is an effective inhibitor of oligodendrocyte ferroptosis induced by inhibition of glutathione peroxidase 4.

Neural Regen Res 2021 Mar;16(3):561-566

International Cooperation Base of Spinal Cord Injury, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Spine and Spinal Cord, Department of Orthopedics, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, China.

Our previous studies showed that ferroptosis plays an important role in the acute and subacute stages of spinal cord injury. High intracellular iron levels and low glutathione levels make oligodendrocytes vulnerable to cell death after central nervous system trauma. In this study, we established an oligodendrocyte (OLN-93 cell line) model of ferroptosis induced by RSL-3, an inhibitor of glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4). RSL-3 significantly increased intracellular concentrations of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde. RSL-3 also inhibited the main anti-ferroptosis pathway, i.e., SLC7A11/glutathione/glutathione peroxidase 4 (xCT/GSH/GPX4), and downregulated acyl-coenzyme A synthetase long chain family member 4. Furthermore, we evaluated the ability of several compounds to rescue oligodendrocytes from ferroptosis. Liproxstatin-1 was more potent than edaravone or deferoxamine. Liproxstatin-1 not only inhibited mitochondrial lipid peroxidation, but also restored the expression of GSH, GPX4 and ferroptosis suppressor protein 1. These findings suggest that GPX4 inhibition induces ferroptosis in oligodendrocytes, and that liproxstatin-1 is a potent inhibitor of ferroptosis. Therefore, liproxstatin-1 may be a promising drug for the treatment of central nervous system diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1673-5374.293157DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7996026PMC
March 2021

Transparent Microcrystalline Cellulose/Polyvinyl Alcohol Paper as a New Platform for Three-Dimensional Cell Culture.

Anal Chem 2020 10 2;92(20):14219-14227. Epub 2020 Oct 2.

The Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of Ministry of Education, School of Life Science and Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, P. R. China.

Multilayered and stacked cellulose paper has emerged as a promising platform for construction of three-dimensional (3D) cell culture because of its low cost, good biocompatibility, and high porosity. However, its poor light transmission makes it challenging to directly and clearly monitor cell behaviors (e.g., growth and proliferation) on the paper-based platform using an optical microscope. In this work, we developed a transparent microcrystalline cellulose/polyvinyl alcohol (MCC/PVA) paper with irregular pores through dissolution and regeneration of microcrystalline nanocellulose, addition of a porogen reagent (NaCl), and subsequently dipping in PVA solutions. The transparent MCC paper displays high porosity (up to 90%), adjustable pore size (between 23 and 46 μm), large thickness (from 315 to 436 μm), and high light transmission under water (>95%). Through further modification of the transparent MCC paper with PVA, the obtained transparent MCC/PVA paper shows enhanced mechanical properties (dry and wet strengths), good hydrophilicity (with a contact angle of 70.8°), and improved biocompatibility (cell viability up to 90%). By stacking and destacking multiple layers of the transparent MCC/PVA paper, it has been used for both two-dimensional and three-dimensional cell culture platforms. The transparent MCC/PVA paper under water enables both direct observation of cell morphology by an optical microscope via naked eyes and fluorescence microscope after staining. We envision that the developed transparent MCC/PVA paper holds great potential for future applications in various bioanalytical and biomedical fields, such as drug screening, tissue engineering, and organ-on-chips.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.0c03458DOI Listing
October 2020

Diagnostic value of orbicularis oculi muscle electromyography in functional epiphora.

World J Clin Cases 2020 Jul;8(14):3000-3005

Department of Ophthalmology, Zibo Central Hospital, Zibo 255000, Shandong Province, China.

Background: Functional epiphora is a clinical condition which is not due to an anatomic defect. Most studies agree that it involves the action of the orbicularis oculi muscle, particularly its deeper segment (Horner's muscle), but the exact mechanism is not clear.

Aim: To evaluate the orbicularis oculi muscle in functional epiphora patients using electromyography (EMG).

Methods: A total of 8 Chinese patients (16 eyes) with functional epiphora were enrolled in this study, and ten volunteers (10 eyes) were included as normal controls. Five epiphora patients (five eyes) with facial palsy served as positive controls. Quantitative EMG was performed in the deeper segment of orbicularis oculi muscle. The average duration of each EMG waveform was measured.

Results: The average duration of EMG waveforms in the normal control group, the functional epiphora group, and the facial palsy group were 6.39 ± 0.73 ms, 9.39 ± 1.32 ms and 11.2 ± 1.42 ms, respectively. The duration of EMG waveforms was significantly longer in the functional epiphora group than in the normal control group ( < 0.05), and shorter than that in the facial palsy group ( < 0.05).

Conclusion: These data indicate the presence of neurogenic orbicularis oculi muscle damage in epiphora patients, which may be the cause of functional epiphora. The etiology of neurogenic damage in the orbicularis oculi muscle requires further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12998/wjcc.v8.i14.3000DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7385609PMC
July 2020

Nanoparticle-Mediated Intracellular Protection of Natural Killer Cells Avoids Cryoinjury and Retains Potent Antitumor Functions.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2020 May 13;7(9):1902938. Epub 2020 Mar 13.

Department of Industrial and Physical Pharmacy Purdue University West Lafayette IN 47907 USA.

The ability of natural killer (NK) cells to mediate potent antitumor immunity in clinical adoptive transfer settings relies, in large part, on their ability to retain cytotoxic function following cryopreservation. To avoid potential systemic toxicities associated with infusions of NK cells into patients in the presence of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), interest in alternative cryoprotective agents (CPAs) with improved safety profiles has grown. Despite the development of various sugars, amino acids, polyols, and polyampholytes as cryoprotectants, their ability to promote protection from intracellular cryodamage is limited because they mostly act outside of the cell. Though ways to shuttle cryoprotectants intracellularly exist, NK cells' high aversity to manipulation and freezing has meant they are highly understudied as targets for the development of new cryopreservation approaches. Here, the first example of a safe and efficient platform for the intracellular delivery of non-DMSO CPAs to NK cells is presented. Biocompatible chitosan-based nanoparticles are engineered to mediate the efficient DMSO-free cryopreservation of NK cells. NK cells cryopreserved in this way retain potent cytotoxic, degranulation, and cytokine production functions against tumor targets. This not only represents the first example of delivering nanoparticles to NK cells, but illustrates the clinical potential in manufacturing safer allogeneic adoptive immunotherapies "off the shelf."
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.201902938DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7201255PMC
May 2020

Layer-Specific Strain for Long-Term Outcome Prediction After First-Onset Myocardial Infarction.

Ultrasound Med Biol 2020 06 26;46(6):1435-1441. Epub 2020 Mar 26.

Echo Lab, Department of Ultrasound Imaging, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei, China.

Many studies have reported the prognostic value of global strain obtained with speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, as a novel method derived from STE, layer-specific strain has seldom been evaluated with respect to prediction of AMI outcomes. We sought to investigate the predictive value of layer-specific strain and whether it has incremental value compared with conventional parameters, such as left ventricular ejection fraction and wall motion score index, and STE parameters. Our study was prospective. Ninety-two patients with first-onset AMI were enrolled and underwent echocardiography before coronary intervention for analysis of global and layer-specific strain. Cox proportional hazard ratio (HR) and receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were performed for the prediction of cardiac events and cardiac death. Fifty-three patients have had cardiac events during follow-up. Endocardial longitudinal strain has received relatively higher HRs for risk predictions of both cardiac events (HR = 1.69) and cardiac death (HR = 3.21) adjusted with clinical data. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves of the longitudinal strain at the endocardial layer from layer-specific strain were higher than those of global strain and conventional parameters for cardiac event prediction (p ˂ 0.05, all). Layer-specific strain is valuable for cardiac risk prediction after infarction and has incremental values in addition to conventional and global STE parameters. Myocardial damage at the endocardial layer was closely related to outcomes of AMI patients at long-term follow-ups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2020.02.013DOI Listing
June 2020

Study protocol of a multicenter phase III randomized controlled trial investigating the efficiency of the combination of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and neoadjuvant laparoscopic intraperitoneal hyperthermic chemotherapy (NLHIPEC) followed by R0 gastrectomy with intraoperative HIPEC for advanced gastric cancer (AGC): dragon II trial.

BMC Cancer 2020 Mar 17;20(1):224. Epub 2020 Mar 17.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Gastric Neoplasms, Shanghai Institute of Digestive Surgery, Department of Surgery, Rui Jin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200025, China.

Background: Even though treatment modalities such as adjuvant systemic radio-chemotherapy and neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) have individually have improved overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) rates in advanced Gastric Cancer (AGC), the peritoneum still presides as a common site of treatment failure and disease recurrence. The role of hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) has been acknowledged as prophylaxis for peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) in AGC patients and in this study, we aim at investigating the safety and efficacy of the combination of neoadjuvant laparoscopic HIPEC (NLHIPEC) with NAC in the neoadjuvant phase followed by surgery of curative intent with intraoperative HIPEC followed by adjuvant chemotherapy (AC).

Methods: In this multicenter Phase III randomized controlled trial, 326 patients will be randomly separated into 2 groups into a 1:1 ratio after laparoscopic exploration. The experiment arm will receive the proposed comprehensive Dragon II regimen while the control group will undergo standard R0 D2 followed by 8 cycles of AC with oxaliplatin with S-1 (SOX) regimen. The Dragon II regimen comprises of 1 cycle of NLHIPEC for 60mins at 43 ± 0.5 °C with 80 mg/m of Paclitaxel followed by 3 cycles of NAC with SOX regimen and after assessment, standard R0 D2 gastrectomy with intraoperative HIPEC followed by 5 cycles of SOX regimen chemotherapy. The end-points for the study are 5 year PFS, 5 year OS, peritoneal metastasis rate (PMR) and morbidity rate.

Discussion: This study is one of the first to combine NLHIPEC with NAC in the preoperative phase which is speculated to provide local management of occult peritoneal carcinomatosis or peritoneal free cancer cells while NAC will promote tumor downsizing and down-staging. The addition of the intraoperative HIPEC is speculated to manage dissemination due to surgical trauma. Where the roles of intraoperative HIPEC and NAC have individually been investigated, this study provides innovative insight on a more comprehensive approach to management of AGC at high risk of peritoneal recurrence. It is expected that the combination of NLHIPEC with NAC and HIPEC will increase PFS by 15% and decrease PMR after gastrectomy of curative intent.

Trial Registration: World Health Organization Clinical Trials - International Registry Platform (WHO-ICTRP) with Registration ID ChiCTR1900024552, Registered Prospectively on the 16th July, 2019.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-020-6701-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7077163PMC
March 2020

Neuroprotective effect of deferoxamine on erastininduced ferroptosis in primary cortical neurons.

Neural Regen Res 2020 Aug;15(8):1539-1545

Department of Orthopedics, General Hospital of Tianjin Medical University; International Science and Technology Cooperation Base of Spinal Cord Injury, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Spine and Spinal Cord Injury, Tianjin, China.

The iron chelator deferoxamine has been shown to inhibit ferroptosis in spinal cord injury. However, it is unclear whether deferoxamine directly protects neurons from ferroptotic cell death. By comparing the survival rate and morphology of primary neurons and SH-SY5Y cells exposed to erastin, it was found that these cell types respond differentially to the duration and concentration of erastin treatment. Therefore, we studied the mechanisms of ferroptosis using primary cortical neurons from E16 mouse embryos. After treatment with 50 μM erastin for 48 hours, reactive oxygen species levels increased, and the expression of the cystine/glutamate antiporter system light chain and glutathione peroxidase 4 decreased. Pretreatment with deferoxamine for 12 hours inhibited these changes, reduced cell death, and ameliorated cellular morphology. Pretreatment with the apoptosis inhibitor Z-DEVD-FMK or the necroptosis inhibitor necrostain-1 for 12 hours did not protect against erastin-induced ferroptosis. Only deferoxamine protected the primary cortical neurons from ferroptosis induced by erastin, confirming the specificity of the in vitro ferroptosis model. This study was approved by the Animal Ethics Committee at the Institute of Radiation Medicine of the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, China (approval No. DWLL-20180913) on September 13, 2018.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1673-5374.274344DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7059591PMC
August 2020

Photodirected Morphing Structures of Nanocomposite Shape Memory Hydrogel with High Stiffness and Toughness.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2019 Nov 11;11(46):43631-43640. Epub 2019 Nov 11.

Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Macromolecular Synthesis and Functionalization, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering , Zhejiang University , Hangzhou 310027 , China.

Shape memory hydrogels have drawn increasing attention in recent years. Practical applications require these hydrogels to have good mechanical properties as well as contactless stimulations to trigger the shape deformations. Here we report a stiff and tough shape memory hydrogel that can transform to various configurations sequentially by phototriggered site-specific deformations. Response of the shape memory hydrogel to near-infrared (NIR) light irradiation was achieved by incorporating gold nanorods (AuNRs) into the glassy gel matrix of poly(methacrylic acid--methacrylamide) without compromising the excellent mechanical properties. Owing to the photothermal effect of the AuNRs, the localized temperature rise led to a dramatic decrease in Young's modulus (from 200 to 2 MPa) of the prestretched hydrogel and bending deformation with a programmable direction and amplitude. More complex three-dimensional configurations can be obtained by multidirectional prestretching and shape memorizing the individual parts of the nanocomposite hydrogel. Furthermore, the AuNRs embedded in the gel were aligned along the prestretching direction, leading to anisotropic plasmon resonance. These photomediated programmable deformations of tough shape memory hydrogels should find applications in the biomedical and engineering fields.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.9b16894DOI Listing
November 2019
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