Publications by authors named "Xue Xiao"

338 Publications

The Prevalence of Mental Problems for Chinese Children and Adolescents During COVID-19 in China: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Front Pediatr 2021 6;9:661796. Epub 2021 Oct 6.

Department of Psychiatry, Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, National Center for Children Healthy, Beijing, China.

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused mental problems among the public and medical staff in China, especially for children and adolescents, a vulnerable group that might present with more mental problems. It seems that there is a rapid growth in the mental problems (such as depression or anxiety) of Chinese children and adolescents during the outbreak of COVID-19. Although several studies reported the prevalence of depression or anxiety problems for children and adolescents, the results are different across different age groups and sex groups. Moreover, the sample size of these studies was small. In the present study, we aim to perform a meta-analysis to identify the confirmed prevalence of depression and anxiety problems for Chinese children and adolescents during home confinement. Five databases were searched including PubMed, Web of Science, PsycINFO, Google Scholar, and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and both inclusion and exclusion criteria were developed. Finally, a total of 12 studies were included in this meta-analysis. The protocol of this systematic review was registered with INPLASY (protocol ID: INPLASY202150032). It found that the pooled prevalence of mental problems was 28% (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.22-0.34), and the depression and anxiety problem for children and adolescents in China was 22% (95% CI: 0.16-0.30) and 25% (95% CI: 0.20-0.32) based on a random effect model, separately. Subgroup analysis was used to identify that there are no differences between different age groups (primary and middle school vs. high school) ( = 0.26). Meta-regression analysis was performed and the results showed that the moderator of boy percentage was a significant factor ( = 0.04). It indicated that there was an increasing number of children and adolescents with mental problems during the home confinement. It suggested that we should pay more attention to this vulnerable population during a public health crisis in the future, especially for the girls groups, and more detailed implements for mental health management were needed and should be prepared. The protocol of this systematic review was registered with INPLASY. The protocol ID was INPLASY202150032.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2021.661796DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8527981PMC
October 2021

Cobalt phosphide nanorings towards efficient electrocatalytic nitrate reduction to ammonia.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 Oct 22. Epub 2021 Oct 22.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an 710062, P. R. China.

High-quality CoP nanorings (CoP NRs) are easily achieved using a phosphorating treatment of CoOOH nanorings, and reveal high activity towards the hydrogen evolution reaction and the nitrate electrocatalytic reduction reaction due to substantial coordinately unsaturated active sites, a high surface area, and available mass transfer pathways. Consequently, the CoP NRs can achieve a faradaic efficiency of 97.1% towards NO-to-NH conversion and provide an NH yield of 30.1 mg h mg at a -0.5 V potential.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cc04952fDOI Listing
October 2021

Deficient immunoproteasome assembly drives gain of α-synuclein pathology in Parkinson's disease.

Redox Biol 2021 Oct 14;47:102167. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Department of Physiology, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Pathogenesis and Prevention of Neurological Disorders and State Key Disciplines: Physiology, School of Basic Medicine, Medical College, Qingdao University, Qingdao, China. Electronic address:

Aberrant α-synuclein (α-Syn) accumulation resulting from proteasome dysfunction is considered as a prominent factor to initiate and aggravate the neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD). Although the involvement of 26S proteasome in proteostasis imbalance has been widely accepted, our knowledge about the regulation of immunoproteasome function and its potential role in α-Syn pathology remains limited. Immunoproteasome abundance and proteolytic activities depend on the finely tuned assembly process, especially β-ring formation mediated by the only well-known chaperone proteasome maturation protein (POMP). Here, we identified that α-Syn overexpression was associated with a reduction in immunoproteasome function, which in turn limited the degradation of polo-like kinase 2 (PLK2), exacerbated α-Syn Ser129 phosphorylation and aggregation, ultimately leading to the neurodegeneration. These effects could be dramatically attenuated by β5i overexpression. Mechanistically, α-Syn suppressed the transcriptional regulation of POMP by nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2), thereby preventing the assembly of immunoproteasome β subunits. Dopaminergic neurons-specific overexpression of NRF2-POMP axis effectively rescued the aggregation of α-Syn and PD-like phenotypes. These findings characterized abnormal immunoproteasome assembly as a key contributor governing α-Syn accumulation and neurodegeneration, which might open up a new perspective for the implication of immunoproteasome in PD and provide approaches of manipulating immunoproteasome assembly for therapeutic purposes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.redox.2021.102167DOI Listing
October 2021

Paediatric oncology ward nurses' experiences of patients' deaths in China: A qualitative study.

BMC Nurs 2021 Oct 14;20(1):197. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Global Institute of Software Technology, No.5, Qinshan Rd, Suzhou, 215163, China.

Background: Considering cancer death is second only to accidental death in the number of lives claimed each year,nurses in paediatric oncology wards often experience helplessness, sadness, frustration and such other adverse emotions when they witness children's death due to cancer.However,there is a lack of qualitative studies on nurses who witness the death of children in paediatric oncology wards in China.

Method: A qualitative study was conducted using a semi-structured interview guide with 22 paediatric oncology ward nurses. Interviews were recorded and simultaneously translated and transcribed. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data.

Results: The analysis resulted in the identification of three main thematic categories: Different emotional expression, Different copingstrategies, A weak support system. Nursing managers should pay attention to problems faced by nurses in paediatric oncology wards, and take targeted measures in terms of continuing training courses, improving the psychological adaptability of oncology professional nurses, and providing them substantive support.

Conclusion: Nurses in paediatric oncology wards have strong stress responses to facing the death of children. They reported experiencing complex psychological feelings and have different coping attitudes. Healthcare authorities should recognise and understand the needs of paediatric oncology ward nurses, who often witness the death of children. Appropriate and effective support measures should be planned and implemented for these nurses to maintain their mental health, thus enabling them to better serve patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12912-021-00720-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8518223PMC
October 2021

A non-peptidic MAS1 agonist AVE0991 alleviates hippocampal synaptic degeneration in rats with chronic cerebral hypoperfusion.

Curr Neurovasc Res 2021 Oct 11. Epub 2021 Oct 11.

Department of Neurology, Nanjing First Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, 210006. China.

Background: Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) is a contributing factor for neurodegenerative diseases. As a recently identified heptapeptide of the brain renin-angiotensin system, angiotensin-(1-7) was revealed to activate its receptor MAS1 and thus ameliorated cognitive impairments in rats with CCH. Since hippocampal synaptic degeneration represents an important pathological basis of cognitive deficits, we hypothesize that activation of MAS1-mediated signaling may alleviate CCH-induced synaptic degeneration in the hippocampus.

Methods: In this study, we tested this hypothesis and uncovered the underlying mechanisms in a rat model of CCH induced by bilateral common carotid artery ligation surgery. At 1 week after the surgery, rats received a daily intraperitoneal injection of vehicle or a non-peptidic MAS1 agonist AVE0991 for 8 weeks. During this procedure, cerebral blood flow (CBF) was recorded. The levels of MAS1, amyloid-β (Aβ), neuroinflammatory cytokines, glial cell markers and synaptophysin in the hippocampus were assessed at the end of the treatment period.

Results: We showed that AVE0991 significantly alleviated hippocampal synaptic degeneration in rats with CCH. This protection might be achieved by facilitating CBF recovery, reducing hippocampal Aβ levels and suppressing neuroinflammatory responses.

Conclusions: These findings indicate that MAS1-mediated signaling may represent a novel therapeutic target for CCH-related neurodegenerative diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1567202618666211012095210DOI Listing
October 2021

Effects of transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation on brain functional connectivity of medial prefrontal cortex in patients with primary insomnia.

Anat Rec (Hoboken) 2021 Nov 8;304(11):2426-2435. Epub 2021 Oct 8.

Institute of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

As a representative of acupuncture and nonpharmaceutical therapy, auricular acupuncture has been widely for the treatment of insomnia. Transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS) is a combination of auricular point stimulation and vagus nerve stimulation. It can not only treat primary insomnia effectively, but also is noninvasive, painless, portable and economical. The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is a core region of default mode network (DMN), which is important for maintenance of sleep. However, the mechanism of taVNS in alleviating primary insomnia (PI) remains to be clarified. In this study, we found that taVNS could not only effectively reduce the score of Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, but also decreased functional connection (FC) between the left mPFC and bilateral dorsal anterior cingulate gyrus as well as FC between the right mPFC and the occipital cortex in patients with PI. Furthermore, the decrease in FC was positively correlated with the decline of sleep index score. Therefore, we proposed that treatment with taVNS can improve sleep quality and prolong sleep duration in patients with PI by reducing FC within DMN, FC between DMN and salience network, as well as FC between DMN and the occipital cortex. This may be one of mechanisms of taVNS in treating PI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ar.24785DOI Listing
November 2021

TpIRT1 from Polish wheat (Triticum polonicum L.) enhances the accumulation of Fe, Mn, Co, and Cd in Arabidopsis.

Plant Sci 2021 Nov 16;312:111058. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Triticeae Research Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Wenjiang, 611130, Sichuan, China. Electronic address:

Uptake and internal transport of micronutrients are essential for plant growth, development, and yield. In this regard, Iron Regulated Transporters (IRTs) from the Zinc Regulated Transporter (ZRT)/IRT-related protein (ZIP) family play an important role in transition metal uptake. Most studies have been focused on IRT1-like proteins in diploid species. Information on IRT1-like proteins in polyploids is limited. Here, we studied the function of TpIRT1A and TpIRT1B homoeologs in a tetraploid crop, Polish wheat (Triticum polonicum L.). Our results highlighted the importance of TpIRT1 in mediating the uptake and translocation of Fe, Mn, Co, and Cd with direct implications for wheat yield potential. Both TpIRT1A and TpIRT1B were located at the plasma membrane and internal vesicle-like organelle in protoplasts of Arabidopsis thaliana L. and increased Cd and Co sensitivity in yeast. The over-expression of TpIRT1B in A. thaliana increased Fe, Mn, Co, and Cd concentration in its tissues and improved plant growth under Fe, Mn, and Co deficiencies, while increased the sensitivity to Cd compared to wild type. Functional analysis of IRT1 homoeologs from tetraploid and diploid ancestral wheat species in yeast disclosed four distinct amino acid residues in TdiIRT1B (T. dicoccum L. (Schrank)) and TtuIRT1B (T. turgidum L.). Together, our results increase the knowledge of IRT1 function in a globally important crop, wheat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plantsci.2021.111058DOI Listing
November 2021

Discovery of Potential Lipid Biomarkers for Human Colorectal Cancer by In-Capillary Extraction Nanoelectrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

Anal Chem 2021 09 15;93(38):13089-13098. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

School of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, China.

Discovering cancer biomarkers is of significance for clinical medicine and disease diagnosis. In this article, we develop an in-capillary extraction nanoelectrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ICE-nanoESI-MS) method to rapidly and investigate human colorectal cancer for discovering lipid biomarkers. The ICE-nanoESI-MS method is performed using a tungsten microdissecting probe for microsampling of surgical human colorectal cancer tumors and their paired distal noncancerous tissues during/after surgery. After sampling, the tungsten probe and the adhered tissues are inserted into a nanospray tip prefilled with some solvent for simultaneous in-capillary extraction and nanoESI-MS detection under ambient and open-air conditions. Online coupling of the Paternò-Büchi reaction and radical-direct fragmentation with ICE-nanoESI-MS is easily realized, which provides the opportunity to precisely determine carbon-carbon double bond (C═C) locations and stereospecific numbering () positions of lipid biomarkers. Subsequently, a total of 12 pairs of colorectal cancer tumors and distal noncancerous tissues from different patients are investigated by our proposed ICE-nanoESI-MS method. A significant increase in lysophospholipids and fatty acids as well as a significant decrease in ceramides are discovered, and lysophospholipids are found as the potential biomarkers related to the formation and pathogenesis of human colorectal cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.1c03249DOI Listing
September 2021

Microbubble Functionalization with Platelet Membrane Enables Targeting and Early Detection of Sepsis-Induced Acute Kidney Injury.

Adv Healthc Mater 2021 Sep 12:e2101628. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

Department of Anesthesiology, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510630, P. R. China.

The morbidity and mortality of sepsis-induced acute kidney injury (SAKI) remain high. Early detection using molecular ultrasound imaging may reduce mortality and improve the prognosis. Inspired by the intrinsic relationship between platelets and SAKI, platelet membrane-coated hybrid microbubbles (Pla-MBs) are designed for early recognition of SAKI. Pla-MBs are prepared by ultrasound-assisted recombination of liposomes and platelets, consisting of inherent platelet membrane isolated from platelets. By coating with platelet membranes, Pla-MBs are endowed with various adhesive receptors (such as integrin αIIbβ3), providing a benefit for selective adhesion to damaged endothelium in SAKI. In a rat SAKI model, by combining the advantages of molecular ultrasound imaging and platelet membrane, Pla-MBs display platelet-mimicking properties and achieve the early targeted diagnosis of SAKI prior to the regular laboratory markers of kidney function. Moreover, the expression of platelet-binding proteins (von Willebrand factor and fibrinogen) in the kidneys shows consistent results with molecular ultrasound imaging. Together, microbubble functionalization with platelet membranes is diagnostically beneficial for SAKI and might be a promising modality for endothelial injury diseases in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adhm.202101628DOI Listing
September 2021

Nrf1 promotes heart regeneration and repair by regulating proteostasis and redox balance.

Nat Commun 2021 09 6;12(1):5270. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Department of Molecular Biology, the Hamon Center for Regenerative Science and Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.

Following injury, cells in regenerative tissues have the ability to regrow. The mechanisms whereby regenerating cells adapt to injury-induced stress conditions and activate the regenerative program remain to be defined. Here, using the mammalian neonatal heart regeneration model, we show that Nrf1, a stress-responsive transcription factor encoded by the Nuclear Factor Erythroid 2 Like 1 (Nfe2l1) gene, is activated in regenerating cardiomyocytes. Genetic deletion of Nrf1 prevented regenerating cardiomyocytes from activating a transcriptional program required for heart regeneration. Conversely, Nrf1 overexpression protected the adult mouse heart from ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Nrf1 also protected human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes from doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity and other cardiotoxins. The protective function of Nrf1 is mediated by a dual stress response mechanism involving activation of the proteasome and redox balance. Our findings reveal that the adaptive stress response mechanism mediated by Nrf1 is required for neonatal heart regeneration and confers cardioprotection in the adult heart.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-25653-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8421386PMC
September 2021

Epigenetic Inactivation of Acetyl-CoA Acetyltransferase 1 Promotes the Proliferation and Metastasis in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma by Blocking Ketogenesis.

Front Oncol 2021 16;11:667673. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

Life Science Institute, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, China.

The dysregulation of epigenetic modification and energy metabolism cooperatively contribute to the tumorigenesis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). However, the detailed mechanisms underlying their joint contribution to NPC development and progression remain unclear. Here, we investigate the role of Acy1 Coenzyme A Acyltransferases1 (ACAT1), a key enzyme in the metabolic pathway of ketone bodies, in the proliferation and metastasis of NPC and to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms. Ketogenesis, plays a critical role in tumorigenesis. Previously, we reported two enzymes involved in ketone body metabolism mediate epigenetic silencing and act as tumor suppressor genes in NPC. Here, we identify another key enzyme, Acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase 1 (ACAT1), and show that its transcriptional inactivation in NPC is due to promoter hypermethylation. Ectopic overexpression of ACAT1 significantly suppressed the proliferation and colony formation of NPC cells . The migratory and invasive capacity of NPC cells was inhibited by ACAT1. The tumorigenesis of NPC cells overexpressing ACAT1 was decreased . Elevated ACAT1 in NPC cells was accompanied by an elevated expression of CDH1 and a reduced expression of vimentin and SPARC, strongly indicating that ACAT1 is involved in regulating epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). We also found that ACAT1 contributes to increased intracellular levels of β-hydroxybutyrate (β-HB). Exogenously supplied β-HB significantly inhibits the growth of NPC cells in a dose-dependent manner. In summary, ACAT1 may function as a tumor suppressor modulation of ketogenesis and could thus serve as a potential therapeutic target in NPC. In summary, our data suggest that regulation of ketogenesis may serve as adjuvant therapy in NPC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.667673DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8415477PMC
August 2021

Submucosal tunnel endoscopic resection for a large leiomyoma originating from the muscularis propria in the upper esophagus.

Rev Esp Enferm Dig 2021 Sep 2. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Gastroenterology, The People's Hospital of Leshan.

A 57-year-old woman undergoing esophago-gastroduodenoscopy (EGD) for dysphagia was found to have in the esophagus at 20 cm from incisors a mass with a central depression. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) showed a well defined 3 x 3 cm esophageal mass and endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) revealed a heterogeneously hypoechoic mass originated from the muscularis propria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17235/reed.2021.8205/2021DOI Listing
September 2021

Intrapleural Administration With Rh-Endostatin and Chemical Irritants in the Control of Malignant Pleural Effusion: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Front Oncol 2021 3;11:649999. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Department of General Practice, Affiliated Hospital of Zunyi Medical University, Zunyi, China.

Introduction: A modified and recombinant human endostatin (Rh-endostatin) is often used in the control of malignant pleural effusion (MPE) through intrapleural infusion.

Objectives: To demonstrate the clinical response, survival, and safety of Rh-endostatin plus chemical irritants, their optimal combinations, treatment threshold, and optimal usage, we performed a new systematic review and meta-analysis.

Methodology: All randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were collected from Chinese and English electronic databases (from inception until August 2020). We pooled the data using a series of meta-analyses and summarized the evidence quality following the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach.

Results: We included 75 RCTs recruiting 4,678 patients, which reported six combinations for Rh-endostatin plus chemical irritants. Among the six combinations, only Rh-endostatin plus cisplatin (DDP) with enough trials might improve the complete response [2.29 (1.93, 2.71)] and quality of life [3.01 (2.49, 3.63)] and reduce treatment failure [0.29 (0.25, 0.33)] and progressive disease [0.27 (0.22, 0.34)]. It might not increase the risk of adverse drug reactions. For patients with lung cancer, moderate to massive effusion, initial treatment, Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) score ≥60, or anticipated survival time ≥3 months, Rh-endostatin (30-45 mg each time, once or twice a week 3-4 times) plus DDP (30-60 mg/m) obtained a significant improvement in clinical response and a reduction of failure and progressive disease. Most results had good robustness and moderate quality.

Conclusions: Current evidence suggests that Rh-endostatin with DDP may be an optimal combination, which may improve clinical response and reduce failure and progressive disease with good safety. Rh-endostatin (30-40 mg each time, once or twice a week 3-4 times) with DDP (30-40 mg/m) may be an optimal usage for achieving an ideal response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.649999DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8369576PMC
August 2021

Specialized endothelial tip cells guide neuroretina vascularization and blood-retina-barrier formation.

Dev Cell 2021 Aug 16;56(15):2237-2251.e6. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Centre de Recherche, CHU St. Justine, Montréal, QC H3T 1C5, Canada; Département de Pathologie et Biologie Cellulaire, Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC H3T 1J4, Canada. Electronic address:

Endothelial tip cells guiding tissue vascularization are primary targets for angiogenic therapies. Whether tip cells require differential signals to develop their complex branching patterns remained unknown. Here, we show that diving tip cells invading the mouse neuroretina (D-tip cells) are distinct from tip cells guiding the superficial retinal vascular plexus (S-tip cells). D-tip cells have a unique transcriptional signature, including high TGF-β signaling, and they begin to acquire blood-retina barrier properties. Endothelial deletion of TGF-β receptor I (Alk5) inhibits D-tip cell identity acquisition and deep vascular plexus formation. Loss of endothelial ALK5, but not of the canonical SMAD effectors, leads to aberrant contractile pericyte differentiation and hemorrhagic vascular malformations. Oxygen-induced retinopathy vasculature exhibits S-like tip cells, and Alk5 deletion impedes retina revascularization. Our data reveal stage-specific tip cell heterogeneity as a requirement for retinal vascular development and suggest that non-canonical-TGF-β signaling could improve retinal revascularization and neural function in ischemic retinopathy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.devcel.2021.06.021DOI Listing
August 2021

Genome-wide mapping reveals R-loops associated with centromeric repeats in maize.

Genome Res 2021 Aug 9;31(8):1409-1418. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

State Key Laboratory of Plant Cell and Chromosome Engineering, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China.

R-loops are stable chromatin structures comprising a DNA:RNA hybrid and a displaced single-stranded DNA. R-loops have been implicated in gene expression and chromatin structure, as well as in replication blocks and genome instability. Here, we conducted a genome-wide identification of R-loops and identified more than 700,000 R-loop peaks in the maize () genome. We found that sense R-loops were mainly enriched in promoters and transcription termination sites and relatively less enriched in gene bodies, which is different from the main gene-body localization of sense R-loops in and At the chromosome scale, maize R-loops were enriched in pericentromeric heterochromatin regions, and a significant portion of R-loops were derived from transposable elements. In centromeres, R-loops preferentially formed within the binding regions of the centromere-specific histone CENH3, and centromeric retrotransposons were strongly associated with R-loop formation. Furthermore, centromeric retrotransposon R-loops were observed by applying the single-molecule imaging technique of atomic force microscopy. These findings elucidate the fundamental character of R-loops in the maize genome and reveal the potential role of R-loops in centromeres.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/gr.275270.121DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8327920PMC
August 2021

Effect of feeding a diet comprised of various corn silages inclusion with peanut vine or wheat straw on performance, digestion, serum parameters and meat nutrients in finishing beef cattle.

Anim Biosci 2021 Jun 23. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Curtin University Sustainability Policy (CUSP) Institute, Curtin University, Perth 6845, Australia.

Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the feeding value, meat nutrients and associative effects of a diet comprised of various corn silages inclusion with peanut vine or wheat straw in finishing beef cattle.

Methods: One hundred and eighty Simmental crossbred beef steers were blocked and assigned to the follow treatments: (1) whole plant corn silage-based diet (Control, WPCS), (2) mixed forages-based diet (replacing a portion of corn silage with wheat straw, WPCSW), (3) corn stalklage-based diet (CS), and (4) sweet corn stalklage-based diet (SCS). Each group consisted of 5 repeated pens with 9 steers/pen. The diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isoenergetic with same forage to concentrate ratio. Experimental diets were fed for 90 d.

Results: The effective ruminal degradability of dry matter and crude protein were highest for WPCS diet (P < 0.05), for NDF was highest in SCS diet (P < 0.05). The average daily gain was greater for cattle offered the WPCS diet, intermediate with WPCSW and SCS and lowest with CS (P < 0.001). The concentration of non-esterified fatty acid in serum was higher for steers fed with CS and SCS diets than those offered WPCS and WPCSW steers (P < 0.001). The treatments did not affect the general nutritional contents and amino acids composition of Longissimus dorsi of steers (P > 0.05).

Conclusion: The corn silage-based diet exhibited the highest feeding value. The sweet corn stalklage and wheat straw as an alternative to corn silage offered to beef cattle had limited influence on feeding value and meat nutrients. However, the value of a corn stalklage-based diet was relatively poor. To sum up, when the high quality forage resources, such as corn silage, are in short supply, or the growth rate of beef cattle decreases in the later finishing period, the sweet stalklage and wheat straw could be used as a cheaper alternative in feedlot cattle diet without sharp reducing economic benefits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5713/ab.21.0088DOI Listing
June 2021

Guaiane-type sesquiterpenoids from Cinnamomum migao H. W. Li: And their anti-inflammatory activities.

Phytochemistry 2021 Oct 1;190:112850. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Natural Product Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200240, PR China; Shanghai Key Laboratory for Molecular Engineering of Chiral Drugs, School of Pharmacy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200240, PR China. Electronic address:

The phytochemical assessment of Cinnamomum migao H. W. Li fruits illustrated the isolation and identification of ten undescribed guaiane-type sesquiterpenoids "miganoids A-J″ and one undescribed sesquiterpene "7(S)-(hydroxypropanyl)-3-methyl-2-(4-oxopentyl) cyclohex-2-en-1-one". The extensive analysis of HRESIMS, 1D NMR, 2D NMR, experimental circular dichroism (ECD), and calculated (ECD) analysis entirely corroborated the configuration and confirmation of these isolated compounds. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory properties of the reported compounds were established by determining the LPS induced nitric oxide production. In the current study, miganoid C is testified the most active compound with about 89% NO inhibition. Additionally, miganoids C, E, and G also exhibited moderate inhibitory effects against the pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6). The IC values for miganoid C and miganoid G were determined as 19.4 and 14.5 μΜ against TNF-α mRNA, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2021.112850DOI Listing
October 2021

Peripheral IL-6/STAT3 signaling promotes beiging of white fat.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res 2021 Sep 24;1868(10):119080. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an 271018, China. Electronic address:

Interleukin-6 (IL-6) can reportedly centrally affect the thermogenesis of brown fat. However, whether the peripheral IL-6 signaling regulates beiging of white fat remains largely unknown. In vitro experiments indicated IL-6-KO-derived white adipocytes exhibited lower thermogenic gene expression compared to the WT, associating with reduced phosphorylation of STAT3 at Tyr705. Mechanistically, exogenous IL-6 application increased the p-STAT3 level, thus the phosphorylated STAT3 bound to the promoter regions, and enhanced the transcription of Pparγ and Ucp1. The protein interaction of PGC-1α with PPARγ was increased by IL-6, which also contributed to stimulate Ucp1 expression. In vivo experiments demonstrated that IL-6 KO decreased the beiging potential of white fat with suppressed STAT3 Tyr705 phosphorylation. Accordingly, IL-6-KO mature mice were associated with disrupted glucose homeostasis and accelerated hepatic steatosis. Collectively, we identified a novel function of peripheral IL-6/STAT3 signaling which is essential for beiging of white fat, such ensuring fat and glucose homeostasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbamcr.2021.119080DOI Listing
September 2021

The Optimal Adjuvant Strategy of Aidi Injection With Gemcitabine and Cisplatin in Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer: A Meta-analysis of 70 Randomized Controlled Trials.

Front Pharmacol 2021 28;12:582447. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of General Practice, Affiliated Hospital of Zunyi Medical University, Zunyi, China.

Aidi injection (Aidi) is composed of cantharidin, astragaloside, ginsenoside, and elentheroside E. As an important adjuvant therapy, Aidi in combination with gemcitabine and cisplatin (GP) is often used in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We performed a new evaluation to demonstrate the clinical efficacy and safety of the Aidi and GP combination and further explored an optimal strategy for achieving an ideal response and safety level in advanced NSCLC. We collected all the related trials from Chinese and English-language databases, analyzed their methodological bias risk using the Cochrane evaluation Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1.0, extracted all the data using a predefined data extraction form, pooled the data using a series of meta-analyses, and finally summarized the quality of evidence using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. We included 70 trials with 5,509 patients. Compared with GP alone, the Aidi and GP combination showed a significant improvement in the objective response rate (ORR) [1.82 (1.62-2.04)], disease control rate (DCR) [2.29 (1.97-2.67)], and quality of life (QOL) [3.03 (2.55-3.60)] and a low incidence of hematotoxicity and gastrointestinal and hepatorenal toxicity. Aidi might be more suitable for patients who are first-treated, elderly, or patients with a Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) score ≥ 60 or anticipated survival time (AST) ≥3 months. An Aidi (50 ml/day, 7-14 days/cycle for one to two cycles), gemcitabine (1000 mg/m), and cisplatin (20-30 mg/m, 40-50 mg/m, or 60-80 mg/m) might be an optimal regimen for realizing an ideal response and safety level. Most results were robust and of moderate quality. Current evidence indicates that Aidi's value in adjuvant chemotherapy may be broad-spectrum, not just for some regimens. The Aidi and GP combination may show a good short-term response, antitumor immunity, and safety level in patients with NSCLC. Aidi (50 ml/day, 7-14 days/cycle for one and two cycles) with GEM (1000 mg/m) and DDP (20-30 mg/m or 40-50 mg/m) may be an optimal regimen for realizing an ideal goal in patients who are first-treatment, elderly, or have a KPS score ≥ 60 or AST≥3 months.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.582447DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8194277PMC
May 2021

Asymmetric Sulfoxidation of Thioether Catalyzed by Soybean Pod Shell Peroxidase to Form Enantiopure Sulfoxide in Water-in-Oil Microemulsions: A Kinetic Model.

Chem Asian J 2021 Aug 21;16(15):2075-2086. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, College of Chemical Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Mailbox 70, 53 Zhengzhou Road, Qingdao, 266042, P. R. China.

Esomeprazole with chiral sulfoxides structure is used to treat gastric ulcer disease. Soybean pod shell peroxidase (SPSP) is a peroxidase extracted from soybean pods shells which are one of the most abundant natural resources in the world. In the production of chiral sulfoxides catalyzed by SPSP, it is very important to establish the reaction kinetic model and explore the reaction mechanism for the development of the process, however, there is no report on the establishment of the model. Asymmetric sulfoxidation reactions catalyzed by SPSP in water-in-oil microemulsions were carried out, and the King-Altman approach was used to establish a kinetic model. A yield of 91% and e.e. value of 96% for esomeprazole were obtained at the activity of SPSP of 3200 U ml and 50 °C for 5 h. The mechanism with a two-electron reduction of SPSP-I is accompanied with a single-electron transfer to SPSP-I and nonenzymatic reactions, indicating that three concomitant sub-mechanisms contribute to the asymmetric oxidation involving five enzymatic and two nonenzymatic reactions, which can represent the asymmetric sulfoxidation of organic sulfides to form enantiopure sulfoxides. With 5.44% of the average relative deviation, a kinetic model fitting experimental data was developed. The enzymatic reactions may follow ping-pong mechanism with substrate inhibition of H O and product inhibition of esomeprazole, while nonenzymatic reactions follow a power law. Those results indicate that SPSP with a lower cost and higher thermal stability may be used as an effective substitute for horseradish peroxidase.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/asia.202100467DOI Listing
August 2021

Integrated metabolomics and 16S rDNA sequencing to investigate the mechanism of immune-enhancing effect of health Tonic oral liquid.

Food Res Int 2021 06 22;144:110323. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510006, China. Electronic address:

Health Tonic oral liquid (HT) is a popular functional food in China and is used to enhance host immune response. However, its mechanisms of action are still poorly understood. In this work, we combined ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q/TOF MS) serum metabolomics with 16S rDNA sequencing to evaluate the effects of HT on metabolomics profiling and microbial community signatures. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) contents in fecal were quantified through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results indicated that HT use leads to a significant increase in IgG, IgM and IgA. Thirty-four metabolites were identified and quantified using metabolomics, most were aromatic amino acids and metabolites involved in glucose metabolism. HT intervention significantly increased the abundance of Alloprevotella, which may contribute to intestinal barrier integrity and inflammatory response inhabitation. Most SCFAs were highly expressed following HT intake. In summary, HT use maintains glucose and lipid metabolism balance, promotes high expressions of beneficial bacteria, and exerts promising immunomodulatory effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2021.110323DOI Listing
June 2021

Recognition of the inherently unstable H2A nucleosome by Swc2 is a major determinant for unidirectional H2A.Z exchange.

Cell Rep 2021 May;35(8):109183

National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, CAS Center for Excellence in Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China. Electronic address:

The multisubunit chromatin remodeler SWR1/SRCAP/p400 replaces the nucleosomal H2A-H2B dimer with the free-form H2A.Z-H2B dimer, but the mechanism governing the unidirectional H2A-to-H2A.Z exchange remains elusive. Here, we perform single-molecule force spectroscopy to dissect the disassembly/reassembly processes of the H2A nucleosome and H2A.Z nucleosome. We find that the N-terminal 1-135 residues of yeast SWR1 complex protein 2 (previously termed Swc2-Z) facilitate the disassembly of nucleosomes containing H2A but not H2A.Z. The Swc2-mediated nucleosome disassembly/reassembly requires the inherently unstable H2A nucleosome, whose instability is conferred by three H2A α2-helical residues, Gly47, Pro49, and Ile63, as they selectively weaken the structural rigidity of the H2A-H2B dimer. It also requires Swc2-ZN (residues 1-37) that directly anchors to the H2A nucleosome and functions in the SWR1-catalyzed H2A.Z replacement in vitro and yeast H2A.Z deposition in vivo. Our findings provide mechanistic insights into how the SWR1 complex discriminates between the H2A nucleosome and H2A.Z nucleosome, establishing a simple paradigm for the governance of unidirectional H2A.Z exchange.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2021.109183DOI Listing
May 2021

CMOS-based cryogenic control of silicon quantum circuits.

Nature 2021 05 12;593(7858):205-210. Epub 2021 May 12.

QuTech, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands.

The most promising quantum algorithms require quantum processors that host millions of quantum bits when targeting practical applications. A key challenge towards large-scale quantum computation is the interconnect complexity. In current solid-state qubit implementations, an important interconnect bottleneck appears between the quantum chip in a dilution refrigerator and the room-temperature electronics. Advanced lithography supports the fabrication of both control electronics and qubits in silicon using technology compatible with complementary metal oxide semiconductors (CMOS). When the electronics are designed to operate at cryogenic temperatures, they can ultimately be integrated with the qubits on the same die or package, overcoming the 'wiring bottleneck'. Here we report a cryogenic CMOS control chip operating at 3 kelvin, which outputs tailored microwave bursts to drive silicon quantum bits cooled to 20 millikelvin. We first benchmark the control chip and find an electrical performance consistent with qubit operations of 99.99 per cent fidelity, assuming ideal qubits. Next, we use it to coherently control actual qubits encoded in the spin of single electrons confined in silicon quantum dots and find that the cryogenic control chip achieves the same fidelity as commercial instruments at room temperature. Furthermore, we demonstrate the capabilities of the control chip by programming a number of benchmarking protocols, as well as the Deutsch-Josza algorithm, on a two-qubit quantum processor. These results open up the way towards a fully integrated, scalable silicon-based quantum computer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03469-4DOI Listing
May 2021

LncRNA GAS8-AS1 downregulates lncRNA NEAT1 to inhibit glioblastoma cell proliferation.

Brain Behav 2021 06 4;11(6):e02128. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Neurology, People's Hospital of Deyang City, Deyang, China.

Background: LncRNA GAS8-AS1 has been reported to participate in several types of cancer, while its role in glioblastoma (GBM) is unknown. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the function of GAS8-AS1 in GBM and the underlying mechanisms.

Methods: The expression levels of GAS8-AS1 and NEAT1 in GBM patients and the healthy controls were measured by performing RT-qPCR. Diagnostic values of plasma GAS8-AS1 and NEAT1 for GBM were analyzed by performing ROC curve analysis with GBM patients as true positive cases and the healthy controls as true negative cases. Linear regression analysis was performed to study the correlation between the expression levels of GAS8-AS1 and NEAT1. The expression levels of GAS8-AS1 and NEAT1 in GBM cells were also determined by RT-qPCR. CCK-8 and transwell invasion assays were performed to detect the proliferation and invasion of GBM cells. Western blot assay was performed to detect the expression levels of β-catenin, Axin2, c-myc, cyclin D1, and GAPDH in GBM cells.

Results: GAS8-AS1 was downregulated, while lncRNA NEAT1 was upregulated in the plasma of GBM patients. Altered expression levels of GAS8-AS1 and NEAT1 distinguished GBM patients from the healthy controls. The expression of GAS8-AS1 and NEAT1 was inversely correlated only in GBM patients. Overexpression of GAS8-AS1 reduced the expression levels of NEAT1 in GBM cells, while knock-down of GAS8-AS1 increased the expression levels of NEAT1. However, overexpression of NEAT1 showed no significant effects on the expression of GAS8-AS1. Knock-down of GAS8-AS1 promoted GBM cell proliferation and invasion and enhanced the activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. However, the effects of knock-down of GAS8-AS1 were alleviated by the knock-down of NEAT1.

Conclusion: Overexpression of GAS8-AS1 inhibits GBM cell proliferation and invasion by downregulating NEAT1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/brb3.2128DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8213648PMC
June 2021

Three new guaiane-type sesquiterpenoids and a monoterpenoid from Merr.

Nat Prod Res 2020 Dec 1:1-14. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Department of Natural Product Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Three undescribed guaiane-type sesquiterpenes (), and a monoterpenoid () along with eleven known compounds () were isolated from the crude extract of Merr. The structures of all the isolated compounds were extensively elucidated on the basis of comprehensive spectroscopic techniques (HRESIMS, 1 D NMR, and 2 D NMR). Their relative and absolute configurations were comprehensively established by NOESY spectroscopy, circular dichroism (ECD) and the calculated ECD analysis. All the isolates were tested for anti-inflammatory activity by measuring the amount of nitric oxide production. Amongst tested compounds, compounds exhibited moderate inhibitory activities against the production of nitric oxide with IC value of 35.5, 32.1, 46.7 M in RAW264.7 cells stimulated by LPS, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2020.1853727DOI Listing
December 2020

DNA polymerase Gp90 activities and regulations on strand displacement DNA synthesis revealed at single-molecule level.

FASEB J 2021 05;35(5):e21607

Key Laboratory of Environment and Female Reproductive Health, West China School of Public Health & West China Fourth Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Strand displacement DNA synthesis (SDDS) is an essential step in DNA replication. With magnetic tweezers, we investigated SDDS kinetics of wild-type gp90 and its exonuclease-deficient polymerase gp90 exo at single-molecule level. A novel binding state of gp90 to the fork flap was confirmed prior to SDDS, suggesting an intermediate in the initiation of SDDS. The rate and processivity of SDDS by gp90 exo or wt-gp90 are increased with force and dNTP concentration. The rate and processivity of exonuclease by wt-gp90 are decreased with force. High GC content decreases SDDS and exonuclease processivity but increases exonuclease rate for wt-gp90. The high force and dNTP concentration and low GC content facilitate the successive SDDS but retard the successive exonuclease for wt-gp90. Furthermore, increasing GC content accelerates the transition from SDDS or exonuclease to exonuclease. This work reveals the kinetics of SDDS in detail and offers a broader cognition on the regulation of various factors on SDDS at single-polymerase level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.202100033RRDOI Listing
May 2021

Nitrogen-Doped Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Enhance Bone Remodeling through Immunomodulatory Functions.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jun 28;13(21):25290-25305. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an 271018, China.

It has been reported that multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) can reportedly positively affect growth and differentiation of bone-related cells and therefore offer great potential in biomedical applications. To overcome negative immune responses that limit their application, specific doping and functionalization can improve their biocompatibility. Here, we demonstrated that nitrogen-doped carboxylate-functionalized MWCNTs (N-MWCNTs) enhance bone remodeling both and with excellent biocompatibility, via stimulation of both bone resorption and formation. We revealed that 0.2 μg/mL N-MWCNTs not only increase the transcription of osteoblastogenic and osteoclastogenic genes but also up-regulate the activities of both TRAP and AKP in the differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). Additionally, intramuscular administration of N-MWCNTs at a dosage of 1.0 mg/kg body weight enhances bone mineral density and bone mass content in mice, as well as induces potentiated degree of TRAP- and ARS-positive staining in the femur. The positive regulation of N-MWCNTs on bone remodeling is initiated by macrophage phagocytosis, which induces altered production of inflammatory cytokines by immune response pathways, and consequently up-regulates IL1α, IL10, and IL16. These cytokines collectively regulate the central osteoclastogenic transcription factor NFATc1 and osteoblastogenic BMP signaling, the suppression of which confirmed that these factors respectively participate in N-MWCNT-mediated regulation of osteoclastic and osteoblastic bone marrow stem cell activities. These results suggest that N-MWCNTs can be readily generalized for use as biomaterials in bone tissue engineering for metabolic bone disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c05437DOI Listing
June 2021

Material and relational asymmetry: The role of receivers' wealth and power status in children's resource allocation.

J Exp Child Psychol 2021 08 14;208:105147. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Collaborative Innovation Center of Assessment for Basic Education Quality, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Asymmetries in social status, specifically social status related to wealth and relational power, appear to influence the ways in which children allocate resources. However, the impact of wealth and relational power status on children's resource allocation decisions has yet to be examined among children developing within a Chinese cultural context. In addition, how children weight the relative importance of these factors when they exist concurrently is not well understood. In Study 1, we examined the impact of recipients' wealth and relational power status on Chinese children's (3- to 8-year-olds; N = 199) allocation decisions. We found that across both categories of social status, 3- and 4-year-olds gave more to high-status individuals, whereas 7- and 8-year-olds gave more to low-status individuals, despite younger children also showing a strong egalitarian preference when the resources could be allocated equally. In Study 2, we investigated how children (3- to 8-year-olds; N = 219) weigh the relative importance of these two types of social status in situations where the level of recipients' wealth and relational power were either consistent or in conflict. When they needed to allocate the resources unequally, the youngest children were found to place greater emphasis on wealth over relational power and favored the high-status individual, whereas older children tended to favor the low-status individual and placed greater importance on relational power over wealth. Overall, we found a consistent age-related shift from favoring high-status individuals toward compensating low-status individuals, suggesting a developing concern for social equity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2021.105147DOI Listing
August 2021

POLE and Mismatch Repair Status, Checkpoint Proteins and Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes in Combination, and Tumor Differentiation: Identify Endometrial Cancers for Immunotherapy.

Front Oncol 2021 19;11:640018. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Pathology, Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, China.

Objective: Although Polymerase-epsilon (POLE)-mutated and mismatch repair (MMR)-deficient endometrial cancers (ECs) are considered as promising candidates for anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy, selecting only these patients may exclude other patients who could potentially respond to this treatment strategy, highlighting the need of additional biomarkers for better patient selection. This study aims to evaluate potential predictive biomarkers for anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy in addition to POLE mutation (POLEm) and MMR deficiency (MMRd).

Methods: We performed next generation sequencing for POLE from 202 ECs, and immunohistochemistry for MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, PMS2, CD3, CD8, PD-1 and PD-L1 on full-section slides from these ECs. We assessed the association of POLEm and MMRd with clinicopathologic features, expression of check point proteins, and density of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). Prognostic impact of these immune markers was also evaluated.

Results: POLEm, MMRd and high-grade tumors exhibited elevated level of TILs. Increased expression of PD-1 and PD-L1 was observed in MMRd and high-grade ECs. A subgroup of MMR proficient ECs also harbored increased density of TILs, and positive expression of PD-1 and PD-L1. In addition, negative expression of checkpoint proteins and high density of TILs in combination was associated with good prognosis.

Conclusions: Candidates for PD-1 blockade may extend beyond POLEm and MMRd ECs, additional factors such as tumor grade, and combination of TILs levels and expression of checkpoint proteins may need to be considered for better patient selection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.640018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8017289PMC
March 2021
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