Publications by authors named "Xue Wang"

2,039 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

brain arteriovenous malformation formation and development: A case report.

World J Clin Cases 2022 Jun;10(18):6277-6282

Department of Neurosurgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325000, Zhejiang Province, China.

Background: Brain arteriovenous malformation (AVM), an aberrant vascular development during the intrauterine period, is traditionally considered a congenital disease. Sporadic reports of cases of AVM formation in children and adults have challenged the traditional view of its congenital origin.

Case Summary: In this report, we have presented the case of a child with a brain AVM. Magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography of the brain showed no AVM at the age of 5 years and 2 mo. Brain AVM was first detected in this child at the age of 7 years and 4 mo. The brain AVM was significantly advanced, and hemorrhage was seen for the first time at the age of 12 years and 8 mo. There was further progression in the AVM, and hemorrhage occurred again at the age of 13 years and 5 mo. Genetic analysis of this patient revealed a mutation in the (p.Asp473Val) gene.

Conclusion: In short, our case has once again confirmed the view that brain AVM is an acquired disease and is the result of the interaction of genes, environment, and molecules.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12998/wjcc.v10.i18.6277DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9254196PMC
June 2022

Retraction Note: Ofloxacin‑Loaded Niosome‑Laden Contact Lens: Improved Properties of Biomaterial for Ocular Drug Delivery.

AAPS PharmSciTech 2022 Aug 5;23(6):217. Epub 2022 Aug 5.

Department of Ophthalmology, The First People's Hospital of Lianyungang, Lianyungang, 222000, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1208/s12249-022-02354-1DOI Listing
August 2022

Effects of long-term supplementation of probiotics on cognitive function and emotion in temporal lobe epilepsy.

Front Neurol 2022 19;13:948599. Epub 2022 Jul 19.

Department of Neurology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Cognitive impairment and neuropsychiatric disorders are very common in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). These comorbidities complicate the treatment of epilepsy and seriously affect the quality of life. So far, there is still no effective intervention to prevent the development of epilepsy-associated comorbidities. Gut dysbiosis has been recognized to be involved in the pathology of epilepsy development. Modulating gut microbiota by probiotics has shown an antiseizure effect on humans and animals with epilepsy. Whether this treatment strategy has a positive effect on epilepsy-associated comorbidities remains unclear. Therefore, this study aimed to objectively assess the effect of probiotics on cognitive function and neuropsychiatric performance of patients with TLE. Participants enrolled in an epilepsy clinic were randomly assigned to the probiotic and placebo groups. These two groups were treated with probiotics or placebo for 12 weeks, and then the cognitive function and psychological performance of participants were assessed. We enrolled 76 participants in this study, and 70 subjects were finally included in the study (35 in the probiotics group and 35 in the placebo group). Our results showed significant seizure reduction in patients with TLE treated with probiotics. No significant differences were observed on cognitive function (including intelligence and memory) between groups. For neuropsychiatric performances, supplementation of probiotics significantly decreased the Hamilton Anxiety Rating and Depression Scale scores and increased the 89-item Quality of Life in Epilepsy Inventory score in patients with TLE. In conclusion, probiotics have a positive impact on seizures control, and improve anxiety, depression, and quality of life in patients with TLE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2022.948599DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9343833PMC
July 2022

Differential requirement of Hippo cascade during CTNNB1 or AXIN1 mutation driven hepatocarcinogenesis.

Hepatology 2022 Aug 3. Epub 2022 Aug 3.

Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences and Liver Center, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Background & Aims: Gain-of-function (GOF) mutations of CTNNB1 and loss-of-function (LOF) mutations of AXIN1 are recurrent genetic alterations in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We aim to investigate the functional contribution of Hippo/YAP/TAZ in GOF CTNNB1 or LOF AXIN1 mutant HCCs.

Approach & Results: The requirement of YAP/TAZ in c-Met/β-Catenin and c-Met/sgAxin1 driven HCC was analyzed using conditional Yap, Taz, and Yap;Taz knockout (KO) mice. Mechanisms of AXIN1 in regulating YAP/TAZ were investigated using AXIN1 mutated HCC cells. Hepatocyte-specific inducible TTR-CreER KO system was applied to evaluate the role of Yap;Taz during tumor progression. Cabozantinib and G007-LK combinational treatment were tested in vitro and in vivo. Nuclear YAP/TAZ was strongly induced in c-Met/sgAxin1 mouse HCC cells. Activation of Hippo via overexpression of Lats2 or concomitant deletion of Yap and Taz significantly inhibited c-Met/sgAxin1 driven HCC development, whereas the same approaches had mild effects in c-Met/β-Catenin HCCs. YAP is the major Hippo effector in c-Met/β-Catenin HCCs, and both YAP and TAZ are required for c-Met/sgAxin1 dependent hepatocarcinogenesis. Mechanistically, AXIN1 binds to YAP/TAZ in human HCC cells and regulates YAP/TAZ stability. Genetic deletion of YAP/TAZ suppresses already formed c-Met/sgAxin1 liver tumors, supporting the requirement of YAP/TAZ during tumor progression. Importantly, tankyrase inhibitor G007-LK, which targets Hippo and Wnt pathways, synergizes with cabozantinib, a c-MET inhibitor, leading to tumor regression in the c-Met/sgAxin1 HCC model.

Conclusions: Our studies demonstrate that YAP/TAZ are major signaling molecules downstream of LOF AXIN1 mutant HCCs, and targeting YAP/TAZ as an effective treatment against AXIN1 mutant human HCCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.32693DOI Listing
August 2022

Automatic evaluation of endometrial receptivity in three-dimensional transvaginal ultrasound images based on 3D U-Net segmentation.

Quant Imaging Med Surg 2022 Aug;12(8):4095-4108

State Key Laboratory of Robotics, Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, China.

Background: Endometrial thickness is an essential factor affecting female fertility. Clinically, ultrasound imaging is the first choice for the examination of uterine and endometrial-related diseases. However, the boundary of some endometrial is challenging to distinguish due to the effects of image resolution and noise. In addition, the irregular shape of the endometrium makes it more difficult for doctors to measure its thickness. Through the automatic segmentation and extraction of the endometrium, the maximum thickness of the endometrium can be measured automatically and accurately. This provides a quantitative index for doctors to use diagnostically.

Methods: In this study, 85 cases of three-dimensional transvaginal ultrasound (3D TVUS) images were collected retrospectively, including 75 cases of endometrial adhesion and 10 cases of non-adhesion. Firstly, the ultrasound images were filtered by block-matching and 3D filtering and speckle reducing anisotropic diffusion (SRAD). These two kinds of filtered images were combined with the original image to construct a three-channel image. Then, the augmented images were sent to 3D U-Net to realize endometrium segmentation. The performance of the segmentation models was evaluated using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC), Jaccard, sensitivity, and 95th percentile Hausdorff distance (HD95). Finally, the medial axis transform was used to extract the endometrial centerline, based on which the endometrial thickness could be automatically measured.

Results: The endometrium segmentation method proposed in this paper achieved 90.83% in Dice, 83.35% in Jaccard, 90.85% in sensitivity, and 12.75 mm in HD95 in the testing set. Taking the doctor's manual measurement as the gold standard, 94.20% of the automatic endometrial thickness measurements based on the segmentation results were within the allowable error range of clinical diagnosis.

Conclusions: This paper presents an automatic endometrium segmentation and thickness measurement method for 3D TVUS images. The experimental results show that this method has high segmentation accuracy to recognize endometrial adhesion images. Furthermore, the thickness measurement based on the segmentation results has high reliability and repeatability, and the accuracy can meet clinical diagnosis needs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/qims-21-1155DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9338380PMC
August 2022

Diagnostic Utility of Cerebrospinal Fluid α-Synuclein in Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

J Alzheimers Dis 2022 Jul 25. Epub 2022 Jul 25.

Department of Neurology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Background: Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) can be difficult to distinguish clinically from some non-prion neurological diseases. Previous studies have reported markedly increased levels of α-synuclein in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of CJD patients, indicating that it is a potential diagnostic biomarker.

Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic power of CSF α-synuclein in discriminating CJD from non-prion disorders.

Methods: The Ovid MEDLINE, Cochrane, and Embase databases were searched for articles published on or before February 25, 2022, using the search term (prion diseases OR Creutzfeldt-Jakob syndrome) AND (synuclein OR α-synuclein). The difference in CSF α-synuclein levels between CJD and non-prion diseases was calculated using random-effects models (I2 > 50%) or fixed-effects models (I2 < 50%) in terms of standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI). The publication bias was estimated using funnel plots and the Egger's test.

Results: Ten studies were included in this study. The concentrations of CSF α-synuclein were significantly higher in CJD patients compared to total non-prion controls (SMD = 1.98, 95% CI 1.60 to 2.36, p < 0.00001), tauopathies (SMD = 1.34, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.68, p < 0.00001), synucleinopathies (SMD = 1.78, 95% CI 1.11 to 2.44, p < 0.00001), or Alzheimer's (SMD = 1.14, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.33, p < 0.00001). CSF α-synuclein could distinguish CJD from non-prion diseases with overall sensitivity of 89% (95% CI 80-95%), specificity of 92% (95% CI 86-95%), and AUC of 0.96 (95% CI: 0.94-0.97).

Conclusion: CSF α-synuclein has excellent diagnostic value in discriminating CJD from non-prion neurological diseases. Given the high heterogeneity among the included studies, further studies are needed to confirm its clinical utility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-220425DOI Listing
July 2022

Paraneoplastic Pemphigus Autoantibodies Against C-terminus of Desmoplakin Induced Acantholysis and .

Front Immunol 2022 14;13:886226. Epub 2022 Jul 14.

Department of Dermatology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, China.

Paraneoplastic pemphigus (PNP) is an autoimmune bullous disease associated with underlying neoplasms and characterized by antibodies against desmoglein 3 (Dsg 3) and plakins. Autoantibodies against desmoglein 3 in sera of patients with PNP have been proven to cause acantholysis in neonatal mice. As a member of the plakin family, autoantibodies against desmoplakin were detected frequently by immunoprecipitation in the sera of PNP. The recombinant C-terminus of desmoplakin was expressed and purified to adsorb the specific autoantibodies against the C-terminus of desmoplakin. dispase-dependent keratinocyte dissociation assay and IgG passive transfer into neonatal mice assay were performed, followed by the electronic microscopy examination and TUNEL assay. We found that anti-C terminus of desmoplakin autoantibodies caused blisters and acantholysis in mice skin at a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, dissociated fragments were observed after incubation with the purified IgG against desmoplakin, compared with normal human IgG (-value =0.0207). The electronic microscopy examination showed the disconnection of keratin intermediate filaments from desmosomes. Lastly, apoptosis of keratinocytes in the TUNEL assay was all detected in the skins of neonatal mice after injection of the anti-C terminus of desmoplakin autoantibodies. Taken together, the study suggests that autoantibodies against the C-terminus of desmoplakin might be pathogenic in PNP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2022.886226DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9332891PMC
August 2022

Systemic Inflammation Response Index Is a Promising Prognostic Marker in Elderly Patients With Heart Failure: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2022 14;9:871031. Epub 2022 Jul 14.

Department of Cardiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children's Hospital, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China.

Background: Heart failure (HF) is a clinical syndrome caused by ventricular dysfunction, which leads to the decline of activity tolerance and repeated hospitalization, which seriously affects the quality of life and is the main cause of death of the elderly. It has long been observed that the pathophysiological mechanism of HF is associated with systemic inflammation. This study aims to explore the association between the systemic inflammation response index (SIRI), a novel biomarker of inflammation, and outcomes in elderly patients with HF.

Methods: Data was extracted from the Medical Information Mart data for Intensive Care III (MIMIC-III) database and the Second Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University. The primary outcome was 90-day all-cause mortality. The secondary outcomes included 1-year all-cause mortality, the length of hospital or intensive care unit (ICU) stay, and the need for renal replacement therapy (RRT). Cox proportional hazards regression, linear regression, and logistic regression models were used to assess the association between SIRI levels and all-cause mortality, the length of hospital or ICU stay, the need for RRT, respectively. Moreover, Pearson correlation analysis was conducted to evaluate the correlation between SIRI and C-reactive protein (CRP).

Results: This study cohort included 3,964 patients from the MIMIC-III database and 261 patients from the Second Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University. The result suggested that SIRI was independently associated with the 90-day, and 1-year all-cause mortality in elderly patients with HF (tertile 3 vs. tertile 1: adjusted HR, 95% CI: 1.41 (1.18, 1.68), 1.19 (1.03, 1.37); trend = 0.0013, 0.0260; respectively). Elevated SIRI was associated with increased the length of hospital or ICU stay after adjusting for multiple confounders (tertile 3 vs. tertile 1: , 95% CI: 0.85 (0.16, 1.54); 0.62 (0.18, 1.06); trend = 0.0095, 0.0046; respectively). Furthermore, we found that patients with higher SIRI levels were more likely to require RRT (tertile 3 vs. tertile 1: OR, 95% CI: 1.55 (1.06, 2.28); trend = 0.0459). Moreover, we confirmed that SIRI was statistically positively correlated with CRP (correlation coefficient = 0.343, <0.001).

Conclusions: SIRI could be a novel promising inflammatory biomarker for predicting all-cause mortality in elderly patients with HF. And the patients with higher SIRI values had the longer length of hospital or ICU stay and were more likely to require for RRT. Of note, this study also verified a statistically significant positive correlation between SIRI and the inflammatory marker CRP, highlighting the importance of systemic inflammation as a determinant of outcome in patients with HF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2022.871031DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9330028PMC
July 2022

Ultrahigh Performance Triboelectric Nanogenerator Enabled by Charge Transmission in Interfacial Lubrication and Potential Decentralization Design.

Research (Wash D C) 2022 5;2022:9812865. Epub 2022 Jul 5.

School of Physics, State Key Laboratory of Power Transmission Equipment and System Security and New Technology, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, China.

Triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) is a promising strategy for harvesting low frequency mechanical energy. However, the bottlenecks of limited electric output by air/dielectric breakdown and poor durability by material abrasion seriously restrict its further improvement. Herein, we propose a liquid lubrication promoted sliding mode TENG to address both issues. Liquid lubrication greatly reduces interface material abrasion, and its high breakdown strength and charge transmission effect further enhance device charge density. Besides, the potential decentralization design by the voltage balance bar effectively suppresses the dielectric breakdown. In this way, the average power density up to 87.26 W·m·Hz, energy conversion efficiency of 48%, and retention output of 90% after 500,000 operation cycles are achieved, which is the highest average power density and durability currently. Finally, a cell phone is charged to turn on by a palm-sized TENG device at 2 Hz within 25 s. This work has a significance for the commercialization of TENG-based self-powered systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.34133/2022/9812865DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9285635PMC
July 2022

Parthanatos participates in glutamate-mediated HT22 cell injury and hippocampal neuronal death in kainic acid-induced status epilepticus rats.

CNS Neurosci Ther 2022 Jul 31. Epub 2022 Jul 31.

Department of Neurology and Neuroscience Center, First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin, People's Republic of China.

Aims: Epileptic seizures or status epilepticus (SE) can cause hippocampal neuronal death, which has detrimental effects. Parthanatos, a new form of programmed cell death, is characterized by hyperactivation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), excessive synthesis of poly ADP-ribose polymer, mitochondrial depolarization, and nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor, observed in various neurodegenerative disorders but rarely reported in epilepsy. We aimed to investigate whether parthanatos participates in the mechanism of seizure-induced hippocampal neuronal death.

Methods: Glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity cell model was used to study the mechanism of seizure-induced cell injury. Injection of kainic acid into the amygdala was used to establish the epileptic rat model. Corresponding biochemical tests were carried out on hippocampal tissues and HT22 cells following indicated treatments.

Results: In vitro, glutamate time-dependently induced HT22 cell death, accompanied by parthanatos-related biochemical events. Pretreatment with PJ34 (PARP-1 inhibitor) or small interfering RNA-mediated PARP-1 knockdown effectively protected HT22 cells against glutamate-induced toxic effects and attenuated parthanatos-related biochemical events. Application of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) rescued HT22 cell death and reversed parthanatos-related biochemical events. In vivo, PJ34 and NAC afforded protection against SE-induced hippocampal neuronal damage and inhibited parthanatos-related biochemical events.

Conclusion: Parthanatos participates in glutamate-induced HT22 cell injury and hippocampal neuronal damage in rats following epileptic seizures. ROS might be the initiating factor during parthanatos.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cns.13934DOI Listing
July 2022

A New Strategy for Highly Efficient Separation between Monovalent Cations by Applying Opposite-Oriented Pressure and Electric Fields.

Small 2022 Jul 30:e2203396. Epub 2022 Jul 30.

State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing, 100871, China.

Biological ion channels exhibit excellent ion selectivity, but it has been challenging to design their artificial counterparts, especially for highly efficient separation of similar ions. Here, a new strategy to achieve high selectivity between alkali metal ions with artificial nanostructures is reported. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and experiments are combined to study the transportation of monovalent cations through graphene oxide (GO) nanoslits by applying pressure or/and electric fields. It is found that the ionic transport selectivity under the pressure driving reverses compared with that under the electric field driving. Moreover, MD simulations show that different monovalent cations can be separated with unprecedentedly high selectivity by applying opposite-oriented pressure and electric fields. This highly efficient separation originates from two distinctive ionic transporting modes, that is, hydration shells drive ions under pressure, but drag ions under the electric field. Hence, ions with different hydration strengths can be efficiently separated by tuning the net mobility induced by the two types of driving forces when the selected ions are kept moving while the other ones are immobilized. And nanoconfinement is confirmed to enhance the separation efficacy. This discovery paves a new avenue for separating similar ions without elaborately designing biomimetic nanostructures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202203396DOI Listing
July 2022

3D-QSAR analysis of the interactions of flavonoids with human organic cation transporter 2.

Toxicol Lett 2022 Jul 25;368:1-8. Epub 2022 Jul 25.

School of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, PR China. Electronic address:

Flavonoids are a class of phenolic and polyphenolic compounds widely distributed in vegetables, fruits, grains and herbs. Organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) mediates the renal secretion of organic cations and is a key site of drug-drug interactions (DDIs). In this study, we systematically investigated the inhibitory effect of 28 flavonoids on OCT2-mediated uptake of 4-4-dimethylaminostyryl-N-methylpyridinium (ASP). Among them, scullcapflavone II demonstrated the strongest inhibitory effect on OCT2-mediated uptake of ASP (IC =11.2 μM) in a competitive manner. Next, 3D-QSAR analyses of flavonoid OCT2 inhibitors were performed using both CoMFA and CoMSIA models. The date revealed that bulky substituents at the C-3 and C-4 positions of ring C as well as the C-7 position of ring A could prevent the interactions of flavonoids with OCT2. In contrast, a hydrophilic and negatively charge substituent on ring A was favorable for the interactions of flavonoids with OCT2. Consequently, baicalin (IC =220.2 μM) with a uronic acid substituent on ring A exhibited a stronger inhibition than baicalein (IC =294.5 μM); quercetin-3-O-galactoside (IC =497.4 μM) was a stronger inhibitor of OCT2 than rhamnetin 3-galactoside (IC =1409.0 μM). Taken together, our findings could be valuable in elucidating and predicting the interactions of flavonoids with OCT2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2022.07.811DOI Listing
July 2022

Deletion of Abi3/Gngt2 influences age-progressive amyloid β and tau pathologies in distinctive ways.

Alzheimers Res Ther 2022 07 27;14(1):104. Epub 2022 Jul 27.

Center for Translational Research in Neurodegenerative Disease, University of Florida, 1275 Center Drive, Gainesville, FL, 32610, USA.

Background: The S209F variant of Abelson Interactor Protein 3 (ABI3) increases risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD), but little is known about its function in relation to AD pathogenesis.

Methods: Here, we use a mouse model that is deficient in Abi3 locus to study how the loss of function of Abi3 impacts two cardinal neuropathological hallmarks of AD-amyloid β plaques and tau pathology. Our study employs extensive neuropathological and transcriptomic characterization using transgenic mouse models and adeno-associated virus-mediated gene targeting strategies.

Results: Analysis of bulk RNAseq data confirmed age-progressive increase in Abi3 levels in rodent models of AD-type amyloidosis and upregulation in AD patients relative to healthy controls. Using RNAscope in situ hybridization, we localized the cellular distribution of Abi3 in mouse and human brains, finding that Abi3 is expressed in both microglial and non-microglial cells. Next, we evaluated Abi3 mice and document that both Abi3 and its overlapping gene, Gngt2, are disrupted in these mice. Using multiple transcriptomic datasets, we show that expression of Abi3 and Gngt2 are tightly correlated in rodent models of AD and human brains, suggesting a tight co-expression relationship. RNAseq of the Abi3-Gngt2 mice revealed upregulation of Trem2, Plcg2, and Tyrobp, concomitant with induction of an AD-associated neurodegenerative signature, even in the absence of AD-typical neuropathology. In APP mice, loss of Abi3-Gngt2 resulted in a gene dose- and age-dependent reduction in Aβ deposition. Additionally, in Abi3-Gngt2 mice, expression of a pro-aggregant form of human tau exacerbated tauopathy and astrocytosis. Further, using in vitro culture assays, we show that the AD-associated S209F mutation alters the extent of ABI3 phosphorylation.

Conclusions: These data provide an important experimental framework for understanding the role of Abi3-Gngt2 function and early inflammatory gliosis in AD. Our studies also demonstrate that inflammatory gliosis could have opposing effects on amyloid and tau pathology, highlighting the unpredictability of targeting immune pathways in AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13195-022-01044-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9327202PMC
July 2022

Graphene-nanopocket-encaged PtCo nanocatalysts for highly durable fuel cell operation under demanding ultralow-Pt-loading conditions.

Nat Nanotechnol 2022 Jul 25. Epub 2022 Jul 25.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

The proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) as an attractive clean power source can promise a carbon-neutral future, but the widespread adoption of PEMFCs requires a substantial reduction in the usage of the costly platinum group metal (PGM) catalysts. Ultrafine nanocatalysts are essential to provide sufficient catalytic sites at a reduced PGM loading, but are fundamentally less stable and prone to substantial size growth in long-term operations. Here we report the design of a graphene-nanopocket-encaged platinum cobalt ([email protected]) nanocatalyst with good electrochemical accessibility and exceptional durability under a demanding ultralow PGM loading (0.070 mg cm) due to the non-contacting enclosure of graphene nanopockets. The [email protected] delivers a state-of-the-art mass activity of 1.21 A mg, a rated power of 13.2 W mg and a mass activity retention of 73% after an accelerated durability test. With the greatly improved rated power and durability, we project a 6.8 g loading for a 90 kW PEMFC vehicle, which approaches that used in a typical catalytic converter.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41565-022-01170-9DOI Listing
July 2022

Prospective surveillance of human adenovirus in acute respiratory infections reveals epidemiological features and the disappearance of species B during the COVID-19 pandemic in Beijing, China.

J Infect 2022 Jul 22. Epub 2022 Jul 22.

Beijing Center for Disease Control and Prevention/Beijing Academy for Preventive Medicine/Beijing Institute of Tuberculosis Control Research and Prevention, Institute for immunization and prevention, No.16 Hepingli Middle Street, Dongcheng, Beijing 100013, China; College of Public Health, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069, China. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2022.07.015DOI Listing
July 2022

Discovery of the Relationship between Distribution and Aflatoxin Production Capacity of and Soil Types in Peanut Planting Areas.

Toxins (Basel) 2022 Jun 22;14(7). Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Key Laboratory of Detection for Biotoxins and Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Oil Crops, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Oil Crops Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Wuhan 430062, China.

In order to study the relationship between the distribution and aflatoxin production capacity of and soil types, 35 soil samples were collected from the main peanut planting areas in Xiangyang, which has 19.7 thousand square kilometers and is located in a special area with different soil types. The soil types of peanut planting areas in Xiangyang are mainly sandy loam and clay loam, and most of the soil is acidic, providing unique nature conditions for this study. The results showed that the population in clay loam (9050 cfu/g) was significantly larger than that in sandy loam (3080 cfu/g). The percentage of atoxigenic strains isolated from sandy loam samples was higher than that from clay loam samples, reaching 58.5%. Meanwhile the proportion of high toxin-producing strains from clay loam (39.7%) was much higher than that from sandy loam (7.3%). Under suitable culture conditions, the average aflatoxin production capacity of isolates from clay loam samples (236.97 μg/L) was higher than that of strains from sandy loam samples (80.01 μg/L). The results inferred that under the same regional climate conditions, the density and aflatoxin production capacity of in clay loam soil were significantly higher than that in sandy loam soil. Therefore, peanuts from these planting areas are at a relatively higher risk of contamination by and aflatoxins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins14070425DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9322012PMC
June 2022

Relationship between Preoperative Hemoglobin and Hospital Stays in Patients Receiving Prime Total Knee Arthroplasty.

Comput Intell Neurosci 2022 15;2022:3627688. Epub 2022 Jul 15.

Department of Nursing, Honghui Hospital, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.

Previous evidence has shown that preoperative hemoglobin is related to poor prognosis after primary total knee arthroplasty. Reviewing cohort research was conducted at the third-level academic medical center in Singapore and involved 2,676 patients. Population statistics, complications, preoperative hemoglobin (Hb) levels, length of hospital stay (LOS), and readmission information of thirty days were obtained. Anemia was defined based on the World Health Organization (WHO). LOS extension was with the definition as no less than six days with >1/75 LOS corresponding to the data. According to the study requirements, we finally collected 2273 patients. We plotted the relationship between hemoglobin levels and length of stay. We analyzed 2273 patients, with 140 cases of Hb ≤ 11.0 g/dL, 831 cases of Hb 11.0-12.9 g/dL, and the other 1320 cases of Hb ≥ 13.0 g/dL. The mean age of patients with prolonged LOS (68.4 ± 8.2 years) was higher than that of patients with familiar LOS (65.9 ± 8.0 years). In addition, patients with extended LOS had higher ASA-PS values, a history of cerebrovascular accidents (CVA), diabetes mellitus (DM), and ischemic heart disease (IHD) ( < 0.001), repeated surgery within 30 days, HB, and operative time (min) ( < 0.01). Variables independently related to increased risk of extended LOS included general anesthesia (GA) (adjusted OR (aOR) 1.4, =0.005, =0.005), CVA (aOR 3.0, < 0.001), DM (aOR 1.4, =0.032), and HB < 11 g/dL. Variables increased LOS included HB ≥ 13 g/dL (aOR 0.4, < 0.001) and Hb 11.0-12.9 g/dL (aOR 0.5, =0.001). Hb was 14 g/dL, and LOS decreased by at least 0.24 days for each 1 g increase in preoperative Hb before the inflection point (95%CI 0.12 to 0.36, =0.0001). Anemia is familiar in patients receiving elective total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in Singapore. Thus, this study describes that the preoperative hemoglobin was associated with length of stay. We found that on the left where HB was 14, length of stay decreased with increased hemoglobin values. We recommend preoperative correction of anemia to determine the diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/3627688DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9307341PMC
July 2022

The Effect of Thunder-Fire Moxibustion on Lumbar Disc Herniation: Study Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial.

Front Public Health 2022 6;10:930830. Epub 2022 Jul 6.

Graduate School, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

Background: Lumbar disc herniation (LDH) is a common disease seen in orthopedics; it is caused by nucleus pulposus herniation. Its clinical manifestations are low back pain, radiating pain of the lower limbs, and cauda equina symptoms that seriously affect patients' quality of life. At present, oral analgesics are commonly used in the treatment of LDH; but they can produce gastrointestinal reactions and other side effects. Thunder-fire moxibustion is a method that is widely used in China to treat pain syndromes. This study aimed to design a randomized controlled trial to explore the effectiveness and safety of thunder-fire moxibustion in the treatment of lumbar disc herniation.

Methods: Ninety patients will be enrolled and randomly divided into one of two groups: the thunder-fire moxibustion group and the acetaminophen group. The thunder-fire moxibustion group will be treated with moxa sticks at BL25, GV3, BL23, and GV4; and after 15 min of local whirling moxibustion, the contralateral acupoints will be treated with moxibustion for 15 min. The study period will include two 10-day courses of treatment, for a total study duration of 20 days. The acetaminophen group participants will take one acetaminophen sustained-release tablet twice a day for the duration of the study period. In contrast, the thunder-fire moxibustion group participants will be treated with thunder-fire moxibustion every other day for 30 min. The primary outcome will be the Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) score. Visual analog scale (VAS) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) will be used as the secondary outcome measures. Adverse events (AEs) will also be recorded. Assessments will be conducted at baseline, the end of the first and second courses of treatment.

Discussion: This study will determine whether thunder-fire moxibustion is more effective and safer than acetaminophen in the treatment of patients with LDH.

Trial Registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (http://www.chictr.org.cn), ChiCTR2000036079.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2022.930830DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9298968PMC
July 2022

Association between trichlorophenols and neurodegenerative diseases: A cross-sectional study from NHANES 2003-2010.

Chemosphere 2022 Jul 20;307(Pt 2):135743. Epub 2022 Jul 20.

Science and Technology Innovation Center, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Purpose Of The Research: To evaluate the association of the exposure of trichlorophenols (TCPs) on the morbidity and mortality of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) using the data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2010. Multivariable logistic regression models and COX regression were used to evaluate the association between TCP exposure and the AD and PD risk. Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) methods were used to screen latent covariates.

Principal Results: A total of 6333 participants over the age of 18 years were included in the analysis. After the adjustments for major confounders, participants with higher concentrations of urinary 2,4,6-TCP had higher risk of AD (odds ratios (ORs), 3.19; 95% CI: 1.07, 9.45) than the group below the limit of detection (LOD). Compared to group of below the LOD, higher urinary concentrations of 2,4,5-TCP was associated with higher risk of all-cause mortality in PD patients (log-rank P = 0.022) and all participants (log-rank P < 0.001) without adjustments for confounders. In addition, a higher risk of all-cause mortality in all participants with high urinary concentrations of 2,4,6-TCP (log-rank P = 0.001) was found without adjustments for confounders. With the adjustments for major confounders, participants with higher concentrations of urinary 2,4,5-TCP had a higher risk of death in patients with PD (hazard ratios (HRs), 53.19; 95% CI: 2.82, 1004.13) than in the group below the LOD.

Major Conclusions: Exposure to high concentration of 2,4,6-TCP may increase the risk of AD, and the level of 2,4,5-TCP may be associated with the risk of death in patients with PD. Our findings reveal the potential toxicity of TCPs, highlight the potential impact of TCPs on neurodegenerative diseases, and express concerns regarding the use of organochlorine pesticides.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2022.135743DOI Listing
July 2022

Predicting the humification degree of multiple organic solid waste during composting using a designated bacterial community.

Waste Manag 2022 Aug 20;150:257-266. Epub 2022 Jul 20.

College of Life Science, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, China.

Microbes are the drivers for disposing of organic solid waste (OSW) during aerobic fermentation. Notwithstanding, the significance of microbes is underestimated in numerous studies on aerobic fermentation product assessments. Here, we investigated the humification degree (HD), and the humic acid content was assessed in terms of the bacterial community. The bacterial communities were useful indicators for making predictions and even correctly determined the categories of OSWs with 94% accuracy. The bacterial codes can also provide a better prediction of HD. Our results demonstrate that the bacteria code is a reliable biological method to assess HD effectively. Bacterial codes can be used as ecological and biological indicators to evaluate the quality of aerobic fermentation of different materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2022.07.007DOI Listing
August 2022

Glutamine deficiency promotes recurrence and metastasis in colorectal cancer through enhancing epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

J Transl Med 2022 07 22;20(1):330. Epub 2022 Jul 22.

Department of Biobank, China-Japan Union Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, China.

Background: Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid in the body and plays a vital role in colorectal cancer (CRC) cell metabolism. However, limited studies have investigated the clinical and prognostic significance of preoperative serum glutamine levels in patients with colorectal cancer, and the underlying mechanism has not been explored.

Methods: A total of 121 newly diagnosed CRC patients between 2012 and 2016 were enrolled in this study. Serum glutamine levels were detected, and their associations with clinicopathological characteristics, systemic inflammation markers, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and prognosis were analysed. In addition, the effect of glutamine depletion on recurrence and metastasis was examined in SW480 and DLD1 human CRC cell lines, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related markers were detected to reveal the possible mechanism.

Results: A decreased preoperative serum level of glutamine was associated with a higher T-class and lymph node metastasis (P < 0.05). A higher serum level of glutamine correlated with a lower CEA level (r = - 0.25, P = 0.02). Low glutamine levels were correlated with shorter overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that serum glutamine was an independent prognostic factor for DFS (P = 0.018), and a nomogram predicting the probability of 1-, 3- and 5-year DFS after radical surgery was built. In addition, glutamine deficiency promoted the migration and invasion of CRC cells. E-cadherin, a vital marker of EMT, was decreased, and EMT transcription factors, including zeb1and zeb2, were upregulated in this process.

Conclusions: This study elucidated that preoperative serum glutamine is an independent prognostic biomarker to predict CRC progression and suggested that glutamine deprivation might promote migration and invasion in CRC cells by inducing the EMT process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12967-022-03523-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9308325PMC
July 2022

KAT7 promoted gastric cancer progression through promoting YAP1 activation.

Pathol Res Pract 2022 Jul 14;237:154020. Epub 2022 Jul 14.

Department of Gastroenterology, Shaanxi Provincial People's Hospital, Xi'an, Shaanxi province 710068, China. Electronic address:

Lysine acetyltransferase 7 (KAT7) was upregulated in gastric cancer (GC) patient tissues, and associated with poor prognosis and metastasis. However, its specific role in GC remains unclear. This study aimed to annotate the role of KAT7 in GC cells. The results showed that the overexpression of KAT7 promoted cell growth, migration, and invasion, while KAT7 inhibition has the opposite effect. Besides, KAT7 participated in cell cycle phase distribution and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process of GC cells. In addition, KAT7 promoted the transcription and nuclear translocation of Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1) in MKN45 cells. Silence of YAP1 partly reversed the promoting effect of KAT7 on GC cells progression. In summary, this study indicates that KAT7 promoted GC cells progression through promoting YAP1 activation, contributes to understand the specific role of KAT7 in GC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prp.2022.154020DOI Listing
July 2022

Strategy for embryo transfer to improve pregnancy outcomes in advanced maternal age.

Zygote 2022 Jul 21:1-9. Epub 2022 Jul 21.

Department of Gynecology Endocrine and Reproductive Center, State Key Laboratory of Complex Severe and Rare Disease, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

The purpose of this retrospective study was to optimize the transplantation strategy for women of advanced maternal age to achieve live births within the shortest time. Data were collected from patients older than 40 years who underwent assisted reproductive therapy at our centre from 1 January 2009 to 31 December 2019. In total, 1023 cases of fresh cleavage embryo transfer (CET) cycles, 280 cases of frozen-thawed blastocyst transfer (FBT) cycles, and 26 cases of frozen-thawed CET (FCET) cycles were included. The main outcome was the live birth rate (LBR). The secondary outcomes were the clinical pregnancy rate (CPR) and neonatal outcomes. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to adjust for confounding factors. The blastocyst formation rate of patients older than 40 years was 23.5%, the freezing cycle rate was 19.8%, and the fresh-embryo transfer rate was 83.0%. The implantation rate, CPR, and LBR were significantly different among the CET, FCET, and FBT groups. There were no significant differences in multiple pregnancies and abortion rates among the groups, and neonatal outcomes were similar. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that, compared with the CET group, LBR did not increase in the FCET group, whereas LBR increased in the FBT group. For patients older than 40 years when having approximately eight embryos after fertilization, blastocyst transfer can be considered after fully discussing the advantages and disadvantages of blastocyst culture. Alternatively, CET can be performed first, followed by FBT if the cleavage embryo transfer is unsuccessful.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0967199422000259DOI Listing
July 2022

Clinical efficacy of chemotherapy in colorectal cancer patients over 80 years old.

Int J Colorectal Dis 2022 Jul 20. Epub 2022 Jul 20.

Department of Gastroenterology, The Second Hospital, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, 247 Beiyuan Street, Jinan, Shandong, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common and aggressive gastrointestinal cancer, and the prognostic impact associated with chemotherapy in super elderly (over 80 years old) patients remains poorly defined. We aimed to define the effect of chemotherapy on the prognosis of patients with CRC over 80 years old.

Patients And Methods: A retrospective study including CRC patients over 80 years old was conducted. The patients were screened from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database from 2010 to 2015. Overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) were applied as the primary and secondary outcome. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to evaluate factors associated with OS and CSS. Survival curves of OS and CSS were estimated by Kaplan-Meier method and compared by log-rank test.

Results: In total, 14,748 CRC patients over 80 years old were included in this study. The median patient age was 85 (IQR: 82-87). All patients were divided into surgical group and non-surgical group. The OS and CSS of the surgical group were significantly better than those of the non-surgical group (P < 0.001). Chemotherapy can improve OS and CSS for patients with stage III and IV (P < 0.001) in surgical group. For the super elderly patients with CRC, chemotherapy significantly improved OS and CSS in all TNM stages in non-surgical group.

Conclusion: For super elderly patients with colorectal cancer, tumor treatment should not be abandoned because of their age. It is necessary to carry out clinical trials in super elderly patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00384-022-04222-7DOI Listing
July 2022

Low Self-Concept Clarity Inhibits Self-Control: The Mediating Effect of Global Self-Continuity.

Pers Soc Psychol Bull 2022 Jul 20:1461672221109664. Epub 2022 Jul 20.

Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China.

Whether and how self-concept clarity (SCC) affects self-control has not been sufficiently explored in empirical research. We proposed that low SCC inhibits self-control through a lower sense of global self-continuity. The results of five studies provided converging support for our mediation model ( = 898). Compared with participants with high SCC, participants with low SCC scored lower on self-control scales (Studies 1 and 2), spent less time practicing to improve their performance on a tedious task (Study 3), and were less likely to stay focused on an ongoing task (Study 4) or to adhere to the exercise plan to stay healthy (Study 5). Global self-continuity mediated the effects of low SCC on self-control (Studies 1-5) even after emotional affect (Study 5) and self-esteem (Studies 4 and 5) were controlled for. These findings highlight the importance of fostering SCC for coping with self-control failures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/01461672221109664DOI Listing
July 2022

Burnout among doctors in China through 2020: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Heliyon 2022 Jul 28;8(7):e09821. Epub 2022 Jun 28.

Neurology Department, Xuanwu Hospital Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100053, China.

Objective: To analyze surveys measuring the prevalence of burnout among Chinese doctors and reveal the overall prevalence, characteristics, timeline, and factors related to burnout.

Methods: A comprehensive search was conducted on China National Knowledge Infrastructure, WANFANG, PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO and Cochrane Library databases from their inception to 28 February 2021. Random-effects meta-analyses, meta-regression and planned subgroup analyses were performed, and the standardized mean difference was adopted for comparisons between subgroups. Egger's and Begg's tests were performed to evaluate publication bias. Heterogeneity across the studies was tested using the I statistic. The study protocol was registered on PROSPERO (CRD42018104249).

Results: In total, 3,210 records were reviewed; 64 studies including 48,638 Chinese doctors were eligible for meta-analysis. The prevalence of burnout increased continuously from 2008 to 2017 and decreased significantly from 2018 to 2020, a little increase from 2020 to 2021. The overall prevalence of burnout was 75.48% (95% CI, 69.20 to 81.26; I = 99.23%, P < 0.001), and high burnout was 9.37% (95% CI, 4.91 to 15.05, I = 98.88%, P < 0.001). The prevalence of emotional exhaustion was 48.64% (95% CI, 38.73 to 58.59; I = 99.53%, P < 0.001), depersonalization was 54.67% (95% CI, 46.95 to 62.27; I = 99.20%, P < 0.001), and reduced personal accomplishment was 66.53% (95% CI, 58.13 to 74.44; I = 99.37%, P < 0.001). Gender, marriage, professional title and specialty all influenced burnout.

Conclusions: The results showed that the total prevalence of doctor burnout in China is very high. The prevalence of burnout varies by location. Gender, marital status and professional title all affect burnout scores.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2022.e09821DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9287156PMC
July 2022

A giant benign leiomyoma of the lung: A case report.

Asian J Surg 2022 Jul 15. Epub 2022 Jul 15.

Department of Oncology, The First People's Hospital of Guangyuan, Guangyuan, Sichuan, 628017, PR China. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asjsur.2022.06.175DOI Listing
July 2022

Distance-Based Analysis with Quantile Regression Models.

Stat Biosci 2021 Jul 27;13(2):291-312. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, USA.

Non-standard structured, multivariate data are emerging in many research areas, including genetics and genomics, ecology, and social science. Suitably defined pairwise distance measures are commonly used in distance-based analysis to study the association between the variables. In this work, we consider a linear quantile regression model for pairwise distances. We investigate the large sample properties of an estimator of the unknown coefficients and propose statistical inference procedures correspondingly. Extensive simulations provide evidence of satisfactory finite sample properties of the proposed method. Finally, we applied the method to a microbiome association study to illustrate its utility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12561-021-09306-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9285981PMC
July 2021

BcMettl4-Mediated DNA Adenine N-Methylation Is Critical for Virulence of .

Front Microbiol 2022 30;13:925868. Epub 2022 Jun 30.

College of Plant Health and Medicine, Engineering Research Center for Precision Pest Management for Fruits and Vegetables of Qingdao, Shandong Engineering Research Center for Environment-Friendly Agricultural Pest Management, Shandong Province Key Laboratory of Applied Mycology, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao, China.

DNA adenine N-methylation (6mA) plays a critical role in various biological functions, but its occurrence and functions in filamentous plant pathogens are largely unexplored. is an important pathogenic fungus worldwide. A systematic analysis of 6mA in was performed in this study, revealing that 6mA is widely distributed in the genome of this fungus. The 2 kb regions flanking many genes, particularly the upstream promoter regions, were susceptible to methylation. The role of BcMettl4, a 6mA methyltransferase, in the virulence of was investigated. disruption and point mutations of its catalytic motif "DPPW" both resulted in significant 6mA reduction in the genomic DNA and in reduced virulence of . RNA-Seq analysis revealed a total of 13 downregulated genes in the disruption mutant ΔBcMettl4 in which methylation occurred at the promoter sites. These were involved in oxidoreduction, secretory pathways, autophagy and carbohydrate metabolism. Two of these genes, and , were independently disrupted. Knockout of led to reduced sclerotium formation, while disruption of resulted in dramatically decreased conidium formation and pathogenicity. These observations indicated that 6mA provides potential epigenetic markers in and that BcMettl4 regulates virulence in this important plant pathogen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2022.925868DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9279130PMC
June 2022

Cyclocytidine hydrochloride inhibits the synthesis of relaxed circular DNA of hepatitis B virus.

PeerJ 2022 12;10:e13719. Epub 2022 Jul 12.

School of Basic Medicine and Life Science, Hainan Medical University, Haikou, China.

Background: Cyclocytidine hydrochloride (HCl) has been reported to inhibit DNA synthesis by affecting DNA polymerase. Here, we tested the antiviral effect of cyclocytidine on hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA synthesis, which is reliant on DNA polymerase activity.

Materials And Methods: Cyclocytidine HCl was treated to HBV-producing HepAD38 cells or added to an endogenous polymerase reaction, and HBV DNA was detected by Southern blot.

Results: Treatment of 20 µM cyclocytidine HCl significantly decreased the production of relaxed circular (rc) DNA in HepAD38 cells and block rcDNA synthesis in endogenous polymerase reaction (EPR), a cell free assay, possibly by inhibiting the HBV DNA polymerase activity.

Conclusion: Cyclocytidine HCl could inhibit the synthesis of HBV rcDNA, the precursor of covalently closed circular DNA, and this result provides a case for the usage of "old" drugs for "new" applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.13719DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9285472PMC
July 2022
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