Publications by authors named "Xue Luo"

109 Publications

Impact of Graphene Oxide on Zero Shear Viscosity, Fatigue Life and Low-Temperature Properties of Asphalt Binder.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Jun 4;14(11). Epub 2021 Jun 4.

College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Zhejiang University, 866 Yuhangtang Road, Hangzhou 310058, China.

This study has investigated the impact of graphene oxide (GO) in enhancing the performance properties of an asphalt binder. The control asphalt binder (60/70 PEN) was blended with GO in contents of 0%, 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 2%, and 2.5%. The permanent deformation behavior of the modified asphalt binders was evaluated based on the zero shear viscosity (ZSV) parameter through a steady shear test approach. Superpave fatigue test and the linear amplitude sweep (LAS) method were used to evaluate the fatigue behavior of the binders. A bending beam rheometer (BBR) test was conducted to evaluate the low-temperature cracking behavior. Furthermore, the storage stability of the binders was investigated using a separation test. The results of the ZSV test showed that GO considerably enhanced the steady shear viscosity and ZSV value, showing a significant contribution of the GO to the deformation resistance; moreover, GO modification changed the asphalt binder's behavior from Newtonian to shear-thinning flow. A notable improvement in fatigue life was observed with the addition of GO to the binder based on the LAS test results and Superpave fatigue parameter. The BBR test results revealed that compared to the control asphalt, the GO-modified binders showed lower creep stiffness (S) and higher creep rate (m-value), indicating increased cracking resistance at low temperatures. Finally, the GO-modified asphalt binders exhibited good storage stability under high temperatures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14113073DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8200126PMC
June 2021

Modulation of microglial phenotypes by dexmedetomidine through TREM2 reduces neuroinflammation in heatstroke.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 25;11(1):13345. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Department of Tropical Medicine, Army Medical University, Chongqing, China.

No FDA approved pharmacological therapy is available to reduce neuroinflammation following heatstroke. Previous studies have indicated that dexmedetomidine (DEX) could protect against inflammation and brain injury in various inflammation-associated diseases. However, no one has tested whether DEX has neuro-protective effects in heatstroke. In this study, we focused on microglial phenotypic modulation to investigate the mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of DEX in vivo and in vitro. We found that DEX treatment reduced the expression of CD68, iNOS, TNF-α, and IL-1β, and increased the expression of CD206, Arg1, IL-10 and TGF-β in microglia, ameliorating heatstroke induced neuroinflammation and brain injury in mice. TREM2, whose neuro-protective function has been validated by genetic studies in Alzheimer's disease and Nasu-Hakola disease, was significantly promoted by DEX in the microglia. TREM2 esiRNA reversed the DEX-induced activation of PI3K/Akt signalling. Overall these findings indicated that DEX may serve, as a potential therapeutic approach to ameliorate heatstroke induced neuroinflammation and brain injury via TREM2 by activating PI3K/Akt signalling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-92906-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8233427PMC
June 2021

Does Bright Light Counteract the Post-lunch Dip in Subjective States and Cognitive Performance Among Undergraduate Students?

Front Public Health 2021 7;9:652849. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Lab of Lighting and Physio-Psychological Health, National Center for International Research on Green Optoelectronics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, China.

The post-lunch dip in alertness and performance was widely experienced during the early afternoon. Taking a short nap was documented as a practical strategy for habitual nappers to counteract the decline of alertness and performance. Yet, it remains unknown whether bright light exposure in the early afternoon working hours could alleviate the performance deficits caused by a post-lunch nap loss for habitual nappers. Seventeen undergraduate students who had a long-term habit of taking a post-lunch nap were assigned to three interventions: (1) a short nap + normal indoor light (100 lx, 4,000 K at eye level); (2) no nap + normal indoor light, and (3) no nap + blue-enriched bright light (1,000 lx, 6,500 K at eye level), in which subjective alertness (Karolinska Sleepiness Scale, KSS), mood (Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, PANAS), and task performance in sustained attention (psychomotor vigilance test, PVT), response inhibition (go/no-go task), and working memory (paced visual serial addition test, PVSAT) were measured. Results showed that a post-lunch nap deprivation significantly increased subjective sleepiness and negative mood and impaired performance in PVT and PVSAT, while exposure to bright blue-enriched white light vs. normal indoor light in the early afternoon significantly relieved such negative effects on mood, sleepiness, and performance in PVSAT; subjective positive mood and performance in PVT and go/no-go task remained unaffected with light intervention. These findings suggested that bright blue-enriched white light exposure could be a potential strategy for those who are suffering from drowsiness and low working memory following a habitual midday nap loss.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2021.652849DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8215386PMC
July 2021

Jasmonate signaling restricts root soluble sugar accumulation and drives root-fungus symbiosis loss at flowering by antagonizing gibberellin biosynthesis.

Plant Sci 2021 Aug 19;309:110940. Epub 2021 May 19.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Microbes and Functional Genomics, Jiangsu Engineering and Technology Research Center for Industrialization of Microbial Resources, College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, China. Electronic address:

Jasmonate restricts accumulation of constitutive and fungus-induced root soluble sugars at flowering stage, and thus reduces root beneficial fungal colonization, but little is known about how these are achieved. To determine whether jasmonate-mediated depletion of soluble sugars is the result of direct phytohormonal cross-talk or indirect induced defensive secondary metabolism, we first profiled soluble sugar and tryptophan (Trp)-derived defensive secondary metabolites in the roots of wild-type and jasmonate signaling-impaired Arabidopsis thaliana at flowering upon a beneficial fungus Phomopsis liquidambaris inoculation. Next, jasmonate and gibberellin signaling were manipulated to determine the relationship between jasmonate and gibberellin, and to quantify the effects of these phytohormones on fungal colonization degree, soluble sugar accumulation, Trp-derived secondary metabolites production, and sugar source-sink transport and metabolism. Gibberellin complementation increased Ph. liquidambaris colonization and rescued jasmonate-dependent root soluble sugar depletion and phloem sugar transport and root invertase activity without influencing jasmonate-induced Trp-derived secondary metabolites production at flowering. Furthermore, jasmonate signaling antagonized gibberellin biosynthesis in Ph. liquidambaris-inoculated roots. Our results suggest a phytohormonal antagonism model that jasmonate signaling restricts root soluble sugar accumulation through antagonizing gibberellin biosynthesis rather than through promoting Trp-derived secondary metabolites production and thus drives beneficial fungal colonization decline at flowering.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plantsci.2021.110940DOI Listing
August 2021

Synergistic effect of docosahexaenoic acid or conjugated linoleic acid with caffeic acid on ameliorating oxidative stress of HepG2 cells.

J Food Sci 2021 Jul 12;86(7):3240-3251. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

College of Food Science, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang, P.R. China.

Exploring the synergistic effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) or conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) with caffeic acid (CA) on ameliorating oxidative stress, thereby introducing CA to DHA or CLA will contribute significantly to enhance the bioactivity. We observed that DHA or CLA with CA promoted the recovery of intact individual morphology and the decline of cavities inside the nucleus and apoptosis under the observation of confocal laser scanning microscopy and fluorescent inverted microscope. The activity of intracellular antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage, pyruvate and malondialdehyde and reactive oxygen species (ROS), cellular morphology, and cell cycle were analyzed. Our results showed that DHA or CLA with CA enhanced the activity of CAT and GSH-Px, decreased LDH leakage and the number of apoptotic, significantly inhibited (ROS-induced cellular injury. Cell arrest in G1 and G2 phase during cell mitosis was reduced by the measurement of flow cytometry. DHA or CLA combined with CA could markedly strengthen the free radical scavenging and endogenous antioxidant defense capacity on HepG2 cells. This study provides a new direction in the application of synergies to antioxidant compounds. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Caffeic acid (CA) can synergize with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) or conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) to enhance antioxidant capacity. This study highlighted an effect of ameliorating oxidative stress injury DHA or CLA with CA on HepG2 cells. The data indicated that DHA or CLA with CA might be used to relieve oxidative stress damage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.15775DOI Listing
July 2021

Promotion of Differentiating Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (BMSCs) into Cardiomyocytes via HCN2 and HCN4 Cotransfection.

Biomed Res Int 2021 13;2021:5529276. Epub 2021 May 13.

Medical College of Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu 225001, China.

Aim: Investigation of the influences HCN2 and HCN4 has on bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) on cardiomyocyte differentiation.

Methods: Miniature adult pigs were used for bone marrow extraction and isolation of BMSCs. The identification of these BMSCs was done by using flow cytometry for the detection of expressed surface antigens CD45, CD11B, CD44, and CD90. Using HCN2 and HCN4 genes cotransfected into BMSCs as group HCN2+HCN4 while myocardial induction solution was used to induced BMSC differentiation in the BMSC induction group. Myocardial marker proteins -actin and cTnT were detected by immunofluorescence staining, while -actin, cTnT, and Desmin myocardial marker proteins expressed were detected by Western blot. The whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to identify and detect cellular HCN2 channels, HCN4 channel current activation curve, and the inhibitory effect of CsCl on heterologous expression currents.

Results: Flow cytometry results showed that CD45 and CD11B were expressed negatively while CD90 and CD44 were positive. Post HCN2 and HCN4 gene transfection, immunofluorescence staining, and Western blot showed significantly increased HCN2, HCN4, -actin, and cTnT expressed in group HCN2+HCN4 were, which could be compared to the expression levels in the BMSC-induced group. The HCN2+HCN4 group was able to document cell membrane channel ion currents that were similar to If properties.

Conclusion: HCN2 and HCN4 overexpression can considerably enhance the MSC ability to differentiate into cardiomyocytes in vitro and restore the ionic current.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/5529276DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8140823PMC
May 2021

Dexmedetomidine exerts a protective effect on ischemic brain injury by inhibiting the P2X7R/NLRP3/Caspase-1 signaling pathway.

Brain Res Bull 2021 May 12;174:11-21. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Neurology, Anyang People's Hospital, Anyang, Henan, 455000, China.

Dexmedetomidine (Dex) has been suggested to exert a protective function in ischemic brain injury. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the intrinsic mechanisms of Dex in regulating microglia pyroptosis in ischemic brain injury via the purinergic 2X7 receptor (P2X7R)/NLRP3/Caspase-1 signaling pathway. First, permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (p-MCAO) rat model was established, followed by the measurement of behavioral deficit, neuronal injury, the volume of brain edema and the infarct size. Dex treatment was suggested to alleviate the neurological deficits in p-MCAO rats and reduce the brain water content and infarct size. Additionally, rat microglia were cultured in vitro and a model of oxygen and glucose (OGD) was established. Microglia cell activity and ultrastructure were detected. Dex could increase cell activity and reduce LDH activity, partially reversing the changes in cell morphology. Furthermore, the activation of P2X7R/NLRP3/Caspase-1 pathway was tested. The obtained findings indicated Dex suppressed microglial pyroptosis by inhibiting the P2X7R/NLRP3/Caspase-1 pathway. Inhibition of P2X7R or NLRP3 could inhibit Caspase-1 p10 expression, improve cell activity, and reduce LDH activity. The same result was verified in vivo experiments. This study indicated that Dex inhibited microglia pyroptosis by blocking the P2X7R/NLRP3/Caspase-1 pathway, thus playing a protective role against ischemic brain injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2021.05.006DOI Listing
May 2021

High Performance p-i-n Photodetectors on Ge-on-Insulator Platform.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Apr 27;11(5). Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Key Laboratory of Microelectronics Devices & Integrated Technology, Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China.

In this article, we demonstrated novel methods to improve the performance of p-i-n photodetectors (PDs) on a germanium-on-insulator (GOI). For GOI photodetectors with a mesa diameter of 10 μm, the dark current at -1 V is 2.5 nA, which is 2.6-fold lower than that of the Ge PD processed on Si substrates. This improvement in dark current is due to the careful removal of the defected Ge layer, which is formed with the initial growth of Ge on Si. The bulk leakage current density and surface leakage density of the GOI detector at -1 V are as low as 1.79 mA/cm and 0.34 μA/cm, respectively. GOI photodetectors with responsivity of 0.5 and 0.9 A/W at 1550 and 1310 nm wavelength are demonstrated. The optical performance of the GOI photodetector could be remarkably improved by integrating a tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) layer on the oxide side due to the better optical confinement and resonant cavity effect. These PDs with high performances and full compatibility with Si CMOS processes are attractive for applications in both telecommunications and monolithic optoelectronics integration on the same chip.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano11051125DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8145456PMC
April 2021

Purpurin, a anthraquinone induces ROS-mediated A549 lung cancer cell apoptosis via inhibition of PI3K/AKT and proliferation.

J Pharm Pharmacol 2021 Jul;73(8):1101-1108

Department of Thoracic Oncology, Jilin Cancer Hospital, Jilin, Changchun 130000, China.

Objectives: In this study, we sought to evaluate purpurin, a natural biomedicine and a potential inhibitor in decreasing the growth rate of lung cancer cells by modulating the role of PI3K/AKT signalling-associated proliferation and apoptosis.

Methods: A549 cells were treated with purpurin (30 μM) for 24 and 48 h incubation, respectively, and it has been analysed for cytotoxicity, ROS-mediated apoptotic staining. Moreover, purpurin-mediated lipid peroxidation and GSH were measured by biochemical estimation. Furthermore, PI3K/AKT signalling-mediated cell proliferation and apoptotic gene expression done were by western blot.

Key Findings: In this study, we observed that purpurin could effectively kill A549 cancer cell lines and leads to cell death, thus conforming increased cytotoxicity, production of ROS-mediated enhancement of lipid peroxidation, nuclear fragmentation and apoptosis. Moreover, the GSH content of A549 cell lines was also diminished after treatment with purpurin. This study demonstrates that purpurin inhibits the phosphorylated PI3K/AKT molecules mediated cyclin-D1 and PCNA, thereby inducing apoptosis by observing increased proapoptotic mediators Bax, cleaved PARP, cytochrome-c, caspase-9 and caspase-3; and decreased Bcl-2 expression in the lung cancer cell lines.

Conclusion: This result concluded that purpurin eliminates the A549 lung cancer cells by blocking the PI3K/AKT pathway thereby inducing apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpp/rgab056DOI Listing
July 2021

GABAergic retinal ganglion cells regulate innate defensive responses.

Neuroreport 2021 May;32(7):643-649

Eye Center, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei.

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is regarded as the most important inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, including the retina. However, the roles of GABA-immunolabeled retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) have not been explored. Here, we report the expression of GABAergic RGCs that project to many brain areas in mice, including the superior colliculus. Selective ablation of the superior colliculus-projecting GABAergic RGCs, leaving other GABAergic RGCs intact, reduces the looming stimulus-induced defensive response without affecting image-forming functions; it also significantly enhances glucose metabolism in the superior colliculus, as determined by [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose PET (FDG PET). Our findings demonstrate that superior colliculus-projecting GABAergic RGCs control the visually active defensive response by regulating superior colliculus neurons.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/WNR.0000000000001652DOI Listing
May 2021

Purification, Structural Characteristics, and Biological Activities of Exopolysaccharide Isolated From SN-8.

Front Microbiol 2021 26;12:644226. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

College of Food Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, China.

In this study, a novel exopolysaccharide (EPS) was extracted from Shen Nong's (SN)-8 which can be obtained from Dajiang. After the purification step, EPS-8-2 was obtained with molecular weights of 1.46 × 10 Da. The structural characterization of EPS indicated that the EPS belonged to the class polysaccharide, mainly composed of glucan and also contained certain mannose residues that were found to be connected by α-1,6 glycosidic bonds. Moreover, the results demonstrated that EPS displayed a significant capacity to scavenge free radical to some extent, and this anti-oxidant potential was found to be concentration dependent. The results further revealed that EPS displayed a significant inhibitory potential on the growth of HepG2 cells by promoting apoptosis and induced cell cycle arrest in G1 and G2 phases. Overall, these results suggested that EPS can be explored as a possible anti-cancer agent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.644226DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8033024PMC
March 2021

Effects of enzymatic treatments on the hydrolysis and antigenicity reduction of natural cow milk.

Food Sci Nutr 2021 Feb 30;9(2):985-993. Epub 2020 Dec 30.

College of Food Science Shenyang Agricultural University ShenYang China.

Cow milk (CM) allergy is one of the most common food allergies worldwide; the most abundant CM proteins, such as casein (CN), β-lactoglobulin (β-LG), and ɑ-lactalbumin (ɑ-LA), are all potentially allergenic. Reducing the antigenicity of CM continues to be a major challenge. However, previous studies have focused on the antigenicity of individual allergic CM proteins. Thus, in the present study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of different food-grade enzymes on the antigenicity of CN, β-LG, ɑ-LA in natural CM. The degree of hydrolysis (DH) and molecular mass (MW) distribution of CM hydrolysates were assessed. Additionally, the residual antigenicity of CM hydrolysates was evaluated through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blotting with anti-CN, anti-β-LG, and anti-ɑ-LA rabbit polyclonal antibodies. The results showed that Alcalase- and Protamex-mediated hydrolysis could efficiently reduce the antigenicity of CN, β-LG, and ɑ-LA, inducing a higher DH, the loss of density of CM proteins, and the increasing levels of low MW (<3 kDa) peptides in CM hydrolysates. Further, Protamex and Alcalase could more efficiently hydrolyze the major allergenic components of CM than the other enzymes, which could represent an advantage for the development of hypoallergenic CM. These findings add further knowledge about the study and development of hypoallergenic CM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.2066DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7866585PMC
February 2021

Fermentation: An Unreliable Seed Treatment for Bacterial Fruit Blotch of Watermelon.

Plant Dis 2021 Apr 12;105(4):1026-1033. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of Plant Pathology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China.

is a seedborne pathogen that causes bacterial fruit blotch (BFB), a global threat to watermelon production. Treating watermelon seeds to eliminate is a critical component of BFB management, and several strategies have been evaluated to mitigate the impact of the disease. In China, watermelon seed producers routinely incubate seeds in watermelon juice (fermentation) to reduce the risk of seed infection by and seedling transmission of BFB. However, there has been limited effort to evaluate the efficacy of fermentation in mitigating seed infection. The current study showed that fermented watermelon fruit juice could inhibit population growth and demonstrated that the low pH conditions, not the temperature dynamic, generated during fermentation might play a major role in growth inhibition and could induce the viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state in . We developed an effective method that was based on propidium monoazide PCR to detect viable cells under low pH conditions or in fermented watermelon fruit juice. We also provided evidence that VBNC cells induced by fermented watermelon fruit juice could not be resuscitated and did not retain their virulence on watermelon seedlings. However, VBNC cells could be resuscitated in Luria-Bertani medium. Based on these observations, we conclude that fermentation in watermelon fruit juice may not be an effective seed treatment for BFB because it may increase the seed infection by .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-05-20-1056-REDOI Listing
April 2021

Cerium oxide nanoparticles protect red blood cells from hyperthermia-induced damages.

J Biomater Appl 2021 Jul 22;36(1):36-44. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Department of Tropical Medicine, College of Preventive Medicine, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Heat stroke and severe fever cause anemia, although the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here, we report the use of Cerium oxide nanoparticles in protection of red blood cells against damage caused by exposure to short-term hyperthermia (42°C, 10 min). Red blood cells exposed to hyperthermia exhibited extradition senescence with higher density, smaller size and lower zeta potential relative to those under normal physiological environment (37°C, 10 min). Furthermore, hyperthermia-exposed cells exhibited significantly higher reactive oxygen species (ROS) production compared to the normal conditions. Importantly, the preconditional treatment, using Ceria nanoparticles (CNPs), ameliorated senescence and apoptosis in red blood cells damaged by hyperthermia by reducing ROS levels. Summarily, short-term hyperthermia caused a significant increase in ROS in red blood cells, and resulted in senescence and apoptosis. These may be possible mechanisms of pathological changes in red blood cells exposed to heat stroke or severe fever. Overall, these findings indicate that CNPs strongly inhibit ROS production, and effectively ameliorates hyperthermia-induced damages in red blood cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0885328220979091DOI Listing
July 2021

Comparative proteomic analysis of three Lactobacillus plantarum strains under salt stress by iTRAQ.

J Sci Food Agric 2021 Jun 14;101(8):3457-3471. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

The Key Laboratory of Dairy Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Ministry of Education, Department of Food Science and Engineering, Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, Hohhot, China.

Background: Lactobacillus plantarum, a common species of lactic acid bacteria, is used to improve the flavor of traditional fermented food. Under salt stress, different strains of L. plantarum can respond differently. In this work, proteomics and bioinformatics analysis of L. plantarum strains (ATCC14917, FS5-5, and 208) grown under salt stress (240 g L sodium chloride (NaCl)) were investigated based on the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation method.

Results: Although 171 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were observed, only 44, 57, and 112 DEPs were identified in the strains ATCC14917, FS5-5, and 208 respectively. There were 33, 191, and 179 specific DEPs in ATCC14917 versus FS5-5, in 208 versus FS5-5, and in strain 208 versus ATCC14917 in 240 g L NaCl. These DEPs indicate that the three strains, from pickles, fermented soybean paste, and fermented milk, may have different salt stress responses. Gene Ontology enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis showed that most DEPs observed were involved in protein biosynthesis, nucleotide metabolism, and sugar metabolism. Twenty-six significantly different DEPs that were possibly associated with salt response were selected and further analyzed for gene expression level and pattern by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Pyruvate kinase and cysteine desulfurase had similar expression patterns in all three strains; glutamate decarboxylase expression was upregulated in FS5-5 and significantly upregulated in strain 208; RNA polymerase subunit alpha was downregulated in FS5-5 but upregulated in strain 208.

Conclusions: These results also showed that the salt stress response of strain 208 may involve higher numbers of genes than the other strains. This research provides a theoretical basis for improvement of salt tolerance of L. plantarum in industrial production. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.10976DOI Listing
June 2021

Association Between Plasma Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2 and Plaque Vulnerability in TIA Patients With Unilateral Middle Cerebral Artery Stenosis.

Front Neurol 2020 16;11:574036. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, China.

Plasma lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) has emerged as a novel biomarker for coronary atherosclerosis. However, the association between Lp-PLA2 and plaque vulnerability in atherosclerosis of cervicocerebral arteries remains poorly defined, especially for intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (ICAS). We aimed to investigate the association between Lp-PLA2 and plaque vulnerability in transient ischemic attack (TIA) patients with unilateral middle cerebral artery stenoses (MCAs). In this study, a total of 207 patients were enrolled from April 2017 to April 2020. Clinical data were collected, and MCA plaques were examined with high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (HRMRI). Baseline characteristics of patients were collected during hospitalization. Statistical comparisons were performed using Pearson's chi-squared test, Mann-Whitney U test, and the Breslow-Day/Tarone's test for the determination of heterogeneity in different age strata. Multivariate binary logistic analysis was used to investigate the potential independent predictors that were highly correlated to plaque vulnerability. The results showed that a high Lp-PLA2 level (>221 ng/ml) was associated with plaque vulnerability in TIA patients with unilateral MCAs. High Lp-PLA2 was independently associated with plaque vulnerability in patients ≤ 60 years old [multivariate adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 9.854; 95% CI, 2.458-39.501] but not in patients >60 years old (multivariate adjusted OR = 1.901; 95% CI, 0.640-5.650). Predictors of plaque vulnerability in different age strata were also different. Lp-PLA2 levels may be correlated to plaque vulnerability in TIA patients with unilateral MCAs and might be a diagnostic biomarker for plaque vulnerability in this kind of patients, especially for ones aged ≤ 60 years old.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2020.574036DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7596647PMC
October 2020

First detection and molecular identification of Babesia sp. from the giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca, in China.

Parasit Vectors 2020 Oct 29;13(1):537. Epub 2020 Oct 29.

Sichuan Key Laboratory of Conservation Biology for Endangered Wildlife, Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding, Sichuan Academy of Giant Panda, 1375 Panda Road, Chenghua District, 610081, Sichuan, China.

Background: Parasitic infections are among the important causes of death of giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) that hamper their survival in the wild. There are about 35 species of parasites which have been identified in giant pandas, but no information is currently available regarding the infection of Babesia in giant pandas. Babesia spp. are common intraerythrocytic parasite in wildlife, transmitted by ixodid ticks, which cause babesiosis. Clinical signs of babesiosis include fever, hemolysis, anemia, jaundice and death.

Methods: A species of Babesia was detected in the blood of a giant panda based on morphology and PCR amplification of the 18S rRNA gene. The phylogenetic relationship of Babesia sp. infecting giant panda was assessed by gene sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis.

Results: Our analysis revealed that the Babesia isolate detected was most similar to an unidentified species of Babesia identified in black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus) from Japan (Babesia sp. Iwate, AB586027.1) with a 99.56% sequence similarity, followed by Babesia sp. EBB (AB566229.1, 99.50%) and Babesia sp. Akita (AB566229.1, 99.07%).

Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first report of Babesia detected in the giant panda. The results indicate that this Babesia sp. may be a novel species, currently named Babesia sp. strain EBP01.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-020-04412-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7597363PMC
October 2020

miR-371b-5p promotes cell proliferation, migration and invasion in non-small cell lung cancer via SCAI.

Biosci Rep 2020 11;40(11)

Department of Basic Medicine, Jiangsu College of Nursing, Huai'an, Jiangsu 223005, China.

Objective: Multiple gene targets have been reported for treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), however, the accompanying genetic tolerance was reported increasingly. Therefore, it is important to find new biomarkers or therapeutic targets in treatment of NSCLC.

Methods: The expression levels of miR-371b-5p were detected by qRT-PCR in NSCLC tissues and cell lines. To evaluate the effect of miR-371b-5p on NSCLC progression, we first transfected the miR-371b-5p inhibitor for construction of the miR-371b-5p down-regulated cell model. Then the cell proliferation, migration, invasion and cell apoptosis were detected. In addition, the expression levels of adhesion factors were detected. The target gene of miR-371b-5p was identified by bioinformatics analysis, and rescue experiment was conducted to validate the effect of miR-371b-5p on proliferation, migration and invasion of NSCLC.

Results: Our findings revealed that the miR-371b-5p was overexpressed in NSCLC and could markedly promote the cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Expression levels of both intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) were significantly down-regulated when treated by miR-371b-5p inhibitor. Moreover, dual-luciferase reporter assay showed that the miR-371b-5p targeted SCAI in regulation of cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and the expression of miR-371b-5p was negatively associated with SCAI in NSCLC tissues and cell lines. Rescue experiment revealed that the miR-371b-5p could rescue the effect of SCAI on cell proliferation, migration and invasion.

Conclusion: Our results suggest that the miR-371b-5p and SCAI may serve as novel prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets for NSCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BSR20200163DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7672804PMC
November 2020

Cytotoxic effects of dental prosthesis grinding dust on RAW264.7 cells.

Sci Rep 2020 09 1;10(1):14364. Epub 2020 Sep 1.

School and Hospital of Stomatology, China Medical University, Liaoning Provincial Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Shenyang, 110002, China.

Respiratory diseases, including pulmonary fibrosis, silicosis, and allergic pneumonia, can be caused by long-term exposure to dental prosthesis grinding dust. The extent of the toxicity and pathogenicity of exposure to PMMA dust, Vitallium dust, and dentin porcelain dust differs. The dust from grinding dental prosthesis made of these three materials was characterized in terms of morphology, particle size, and elemental composition. The adverse effects of different concentrations of grinding dust (50, 150, 300, 450, and 600 μg ml) on RAW264.7 macrophages were evaluated, including changes in cell morphology and the production of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The dust particles released by grinding dental prosthesis made of these materials had different morphologies, particle sizes, and elemental compositions. They also induced varying degrees of cytotoxicity in RAW264.7 macrophages. A possible cytotoxicity mechanism is the induction of lipid peroxidation and plasma membrane damage as the dust particles penetrate cells. Therefore, clinicians who regularly work with these materials should wear the appropriate personal protection equipment to minimize exposure and reduce the health risks caused by these particulates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-71485-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7463159PMC
September 2020

Peptidomic analysis of pilose antler and its inhibitory effect on triple-negative breast cancer at multiple sites.

Food Funct 2020 Sep;11(9):7481-7494

College of Food Science and Technology, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110866, China. and College of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110866, China.

Pilose antler (PA) is a traditional Chinese functional food that has been reported to inhibit breast cancer; however, the specific substances that exert this effect and the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. This study aims to identify the specific proteins in PA water-soluble polypeptides (PAWPs) that are involved in cancer inhibition and determine the effects of PAWPs on triple-negative breast cancer in mice. In this study, peptidomic analysis of 105 varieties of polypeptides from PAWPs was carried out using LC-MS, 22 of which had functions that could potentially suppress tumors, including endopeptidase inhibitors, metal ion-binding proteins, angiogenesis inhibitors, intercellular adhesion proteins, and extracellular matrix repair proteins. Furthermore, we showed that intragastric administration of PAWPs into mice inhibited the growth and metastasis of triple-negative 4T1 breast tumors. PAWPs activated the expression of cleaved-caspase3 and increased tumor apoptosis, resulting in the reduction of platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM-1/CD31) expression and the number of blood vessels, as well as the inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2 and 9, increasing the ratio of Cadherin-1 (CDH1)/Cadherin-2 (CDH2) and inhibiting epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in these tumors. Therefore, PAWPs inhibit the progression and metastasis of triple-negative 4T1 breast cancer at multiple key sites in mice and contain various tumor suppressor proteins that are potentially involved in these processes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0fo01531hDOI Listing
September 2020

Coexistence of Low-Grade Fetal Adenocarcinoma and Adenocarcinoma in situ of the Lung Harboring Different Genetic Mutations: A Case Report and Review of Literature.

Onco Targets Ther 2020 7;13:6675-6680. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Department of Pathology, College of Basic Medical Sciences and the First Affiliated Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang, People's Republic of China.

Low-grade fetal lung adenocarcinoma (L-FLAC) is an exceptionally rare pulmonary tumor, presenting with unclear histological and molecular features. In particular, the potential driver genes of L-FLAC remain elusive. To date, only five reports have documented genetic aberrations in L-FLAC. In the current study, we describe an unusual case of L-FLAC coexisting with adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) of the lung, harboring different genetic mutations. A 39-year-old non-smoker female patient was referred to our hospital with the chief complaint of dyspnea for 20 days. Chest computed tomography (CT) revealed a 2.5×1.5×1.5 cm nodule in the right middle lobe, with no mediastinal lymph node enlargement or distant metastases. Thoracoscopic surgery was performed to remove the nodules. Histopathological analysis of the tissue sections, based on findings from immunohistochemical staining, confirmed a diagnosis of L-FLAC coexisting with AIS of the lung. Next-generation sequencing revealed L-FLAC-based mutations in and , and AIS harboring mutations. Currently, the patient remains recurrence-free 17 months after the initial diagnosis. This report presents the first case demonstrating the coexistence of L-FLAC and AIS in the same pulmonary nodule, harboring different genetic mutations. Based on the literature review, this is the second reported case of L-FLAC bearing mutations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OTT.S260993DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7354012PMC
July 2020

Structure, Morphology, and Photoelectric Performances of Te-SbSe Thin Film Prepared via Magnetron Sputtering.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2020 Jul 11;10(7). Epub 2020 Jul 11.

ISCR (Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes)-CNRS, UMR 6226, Univ. Rennes, F-35000 Rennes, France.

Antimony selenide (SbSe) has been widely investigated as a promising absorber material for photovoltaic devices. However, low open-circuit voltage (V) limits the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of SbSe-based cells, largely due to the low-charge carrier density. Herein, high-quality n-type (Tellurium) Te-doped SbSe thin films were successfully prepared using a homemade target via magnetron sputtering. The Te atoms were expected to be inserted in the spacing of (SbSe) ribbons based on increased lattice parameters in this study. Moreover, the thin film was found to possess a narrow and direct band gap of approximately 1.27 eV, appropriate for harvesting the solar energy. It was found that the photoelectric performance is related to not only the quality of films but also the preferred growth orientation. The Te-SbSe film annealed at 325 °C showed a maximum photocurrent density of 1.91 mA/cm with a light intensity of 10.5 mW/cm at a bias of 1.4 V. The fast response and recovery speed confirms the great potential of these films as excellent photodetectors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano10071358DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7408397PMC
July 2020

Determination of allosteric and active sites responsible for catalytic activity of delta 12 fatty acid desaturase from Geotrichum candidum and Mortierella alpina by domain swapping.

Enzyme Microb Technol 2020 Aug 22;138:109563. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

College of Food Science, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110866, PR China. Electronic address:

Cheese lacks essential fatty acids (EFAs). Delta 12 fatty acid desaturase (FADS12) is a critical enzyme required for EFA biosynthesis in fermentation of the predominant strains of cheese. Previously, we identified the FADS12 gene and characterized its function for the first time in Geotrichum candidum, a dominant strain used to manufacture soft cheese with white rind. In this study, we analyzed the molecular mechanism of FADS12 function by swapping domains from Mortierella alpina and G. candidum that had, respectively, high and low oleic acid conversion rates. The results revealed three regions that are essential to this process, including regions from the end of the second transmembrane domain to the beginning of the third transmembrane domain, from the end of the third transmembrane domain to the beginning of the fourth transmembrane domain, and from the 30-amino acid from the end of the sixth transmembrane domain to the C-terminal end region. Based on our domain swapping analyses, nine pairs of amino acids including H112, S118, H156, Q161, K301, R306, E307, A309 and S323 in MaFADS12 (K123, A129, N167, M172, T302, D307, I308, E310 and D324 in GcFADS12) were identified as having a significantly effect on FADS12 catalytic efficiency, and linoleic acid and its analogues (12,13-cyclopropenoid fatty acid) were found to inhibit the catalytic activity of FADS12 and related recombinant enzymes. Furthermore, the molecular mechanism of FADS12 inhibition was analyzed. The results revealed two allosteric domains, including one domain from the N-terminal region to the beginning of the first transmembrane domain and another from the 31 amino acid from the end of the sixth transmembrane domain to the C terminus. Y4 and F398 amino acid residues from MaFADS12 and eight pairs of amino acids including G56, L60, L344, G10, Q13, S24, K326 and L344 in MaFADS12 (while Y66, F70, F345, F20, Y23, Y34, F327 and F345 in GcFADS12) played a pivotal role in FADS12 inhibition. Finally, we found that both allosteric and active sites were responsible for the catalytic activity of FADS12 at various temperatures, pH, and times. This study offers a solid theoretical basis to develop preconditioning methods to increase the rate at which GcFADS12 converts oleic and linoleic acids to produce higher levels of EFAs in cheese.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enzmictec.2020.109563DOI Listing
August 2020

Improved osteogenic differentiation of human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells on gradient nanostructured Ti surface.

J Biomed Mater Res A 2020 09 17;108(9):1824-1833. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, China.

Titanium (Ti) and Ti-based alloys are widely used in the manufacture of dental and orthopedic implants. However, how to improve their osteogenic differentiation ability is still a key issue to be resolved. In this study, gradient nanostructured surface (GNS) samples were prepared by surface mechanical grinding treatment, and coarse-grained (CG) samples were obtained by recrystallization annealing, making sure that the two kinds of specimens had similar roughness. Then, human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs) were cocultured with the two kinds of Ti to investigate the material effects on the cellular functions. The results demonstrated that the grains with size ~56 nm were formed on the surface of the GNS Ti, and the grain size gradually increases from the sample surface to interior. Compared to the CG samples, the GNS ones could make the adhesion effect of the hAMSCs better, and promote the cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation more significantly, the preliminary mechanism of which might be due to their specific nanostructure, the thicker oxide layer formed on their surface and the enhanced hardness. Our results indicated that the gradient nanostructured Ti materials could enhance both osteogenic differentiation and mechanical properties, which may possess broader applications in bone tissue engineering and clinical implanting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbm.a.36948DOI Listing
September 2020

A predatory myxobacterium controls cucumber Fusarium wilt by regulating the soil microbial community.

Microbiome 2020 04 6;8(1):49. Epub 2020 Apr 6.

Key Laboratory of Microbial Resources Collection and Preservation, Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, 100081, People's Republic of China.

Background: Myxobacteria are micropredators in the soil ecosystem with the capacity to move and feed cooperatively. Some myxobacterial strains have been used to control soil-borne fungal phytopathogens. However, interactions among myxobacteria, plant pathogens, and the soil microbiome are largely unexplored. In this study, we aimed to investigate the behaviors of the myxobacterium Corallococcus sp. strain EGB in the soil and its effect on the soil microbiome after inoculation for controlling cucumber Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC).

Results: A greenhouse and a 2-year field experiment demonstrated that the solid-state fermented strain EGB significantly reduced the cucumber Fusarium wilt by 79.6% (greenhouse), 66.0% (2015, field), and 53.9% (2016, field). Strain EGB adapted to the soil environment well and decreased the abundance of soil-borne FOC efficiently. Spatiotemporal analysis of the soil microbial community showed that strain EGB migrated towards the roots and root exudates of the cucumber plants via chemotaxis. Cooccurrence network analysis of the soil microbiome indicated a decreased modularity and community number but an increased connection number per node after the application of strain EGB. Several predatory bacteria, such as Lysobacter, Microvirga, and Cupriavidus, appearing as hubs or indicators, showed intensive connections with other bacteria.

Conclusion: The predatory myxobacterium Corallococcus sp. strain EGB controlled cucumber Fusarium wilt by migrating to the plant root and regulating the soil microbial community. This strain has the potential to be developed as a novel biological control agent of soil-borne Fusarium wilt. Video abstract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40168-020-00824-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7137222PMC
April 2020

Downregulation of miR-26b-5p, miR-204-5p, and miR-497-3p Expression Facilitates Exercise-Induced Physiological Cardiac Hypertrophy by Augmenting Autophagy in Rats.

Front Genet 2020 19;11:78. Epub 2020 Feb 19.

College of Physical Education, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai, China.

Exercise-induced autophagy is associated with physiological left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), and a growing body of evidence suggests that microRNAs (miRNAs) can regulate autophagy-related genes. However, the precise role of miRNAs in exercise induced autophagy in physiological LVH has not been fully defined. In this study, we investigated the microRNA-autophagy axis in physiological LVH and deciphered the underlying mechanism using a rat swimming exercise model. Rats were assigned to sedentary control (CON) and swimming exercise (EX) groups; those in the latter group completed a 10-week swimming exercise without any load. For studies, H9C2 cardiomyocyte cell line was stimulated with IGF-1 for hypertrophy. We found a significant increase in autophagy activity in the hearts of rats with exercise-induced physiological hypertrophy, and miRNAs showed a high score in the pathway enriched in autophagy. Moreover, the expression levels of miR-26b-5p, miR-204-5p, and miR-497-3p showed an obvious increase in rat hearts. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of miR-26b-5p, miR-204-5p, and miR-497-3p markedly attenuated IGF-1-induced hypertrophy in H9C2 cells by suppressing autophagy. Furthermore, miR-26b-5p, miR-204-5p, and miR-497-3p attenuated autophagy in H9C2 cells through targeting ULK1, LC3B, and Beclin 1, respectively. Taken together, our results demonstrate that swimming exercise induced physiological LVH, at least in part, by modulating the microRNA-autophagy axis, and that miR-26b-5p, miR-204-5p, and miR-497-3p may help distinguish physiological and pathological LVH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2020.00078DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7042403PMC
February 2020

Corrigendum: Critical Role of Alternative M2 Skewing in miR-155 Deletion-Mediated Protection of Colitis.

Front Immunol 2019;10:3153. Epub 2020 Feb 13.

Institute of Immunology, PLA, Army Medical University, Chongqing, China.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2018.00904.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.03153DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7031493PMC
February 2020

Characterization of Recovery in Asphalt Binders.

Materials (Basel) 2020 Feb 19;13(4). Epub 2020 Feb 19.

College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Zhejiang University, 866 Yuhangtang Road, Hangzhou 310058, China.

The recovery property of asphalt binders plays an important role in the performance and service life of asphalt pavements. Since the internal stress is the driving force for the recovery of asphalt binders, the accurate measurement of the internal stress is full of significance. Based on this rationale, this paper aims to measure the internal stress of asphalt binders using a creep and step-loading recovery (CSR) test and characterizing the recovery behaviors by the internal stress. One base asphalt binder and one styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS)-modified binder are selected in this study. The key elements of the CSR test are carefully designed and its accuracy is verified in three aspects, including the loading conditions, the effect of disturbance by step-loads, and accuracy of measured internal stress. Then, a kinetics-based recovery model is proposed to evaluate and predict the recovery properties of asphalt binders from its causal relationship. The constant-rate recovery activation energy indicates a major difference with nondestructive and destructive loading conditions, while the fast-rate recovery activation energy keeps almost constant regardless of the loading conditions. After that, the healing activation energy is calculated by using the kinetics-based recovery model and the results indicate that SBS modified asphalt binder shows better healing abilities than a base binder.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma13040920DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7079628PMC
February 2020

Swimming Exercise Protects against Insulin Resistance via Regulating Oxidative Stress through Nox4 and AKT Signaling in High-Fat Diet-Fed Mice.

J Diabetes Res 2020 21;2020:2521590. Epub 2020 Jan 21.

College of Physical Education, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234, China.

Nonpharmaceutical therapies such as exercise training and diet intervention are widely used for the treatment of insulin resistance (IR). Although the skeletal muscle is the major peripheral tissue of glucose metabolism under insulin stimulation, the mechanism underlying muscle IR is poorly understood. Using a high-fat diet-induced IR mouse model, we here show that NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) upregulation mediates the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that causes metabolic syndrome featuring IR. The Nox4 expression level was markedly elevated in IR mice, and Nox4 overexpression was sufficient to trigger IR. Conversely, downregulation of Nox4 expression through exercise training prevented diet-induced IR by reducing the production of ROS and enhancing the AKT signaling pathway. Thus, this study indicates that exercise might improve IR through a reduction of Nox4-induced ROS in the skeletal muscle and enhancement of AKT signal transduction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/2521590DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6995488PMC
November 2020

TREM2 Regulates Heat Acclimation-Induced Microglial M2 Polarization Involving the PI3K-Akt Pathway Following EMF Exposure.

Front Cell Neurosci 2019 15;13:591. Epub 2020 Jan 15.

Department of Tropical Medicine, Army Medical University, Chongqing, China.

The function of triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-2 (TREM2) has been described within microglia with a beneficial activated phenotype. However, the role of TREM2 underlying microglial phenotypic alterations in the cross-tolerance protection of heat acclimation (HA) against the inflammatory stimuli electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure is less well known. Here, we investigated the TREM2-related signaling mechanism induced by HA in EMF-stimulated N9 microglial cells (N9 cells). We found that EMF exposure significantly increased the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6), and the expression of M1 markers (CD11b and CD86); meanwhile, decreased the levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10) and the expression of M2 markers (CD206 and Arg1) in N9 cells. Clearly, HA treatment decreased the secretion of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 and the expression of CD11b and CD86, and enhanced the production of IL-4 and IL-10 and the expression of CD206 and Arg1. Moreover, TREM2 esiRNA and selective inhibitor of PI3K clearly decreased anti-inflammatory cytokines production, M2 markers expression, and phosphorylation of PI3K and Akt following HA plus EMF stimulation. These results indicate that TREM2 and PI3K-Akt pathway are involved in the cross-tolerance protective effect of HA in microglial polarization towards the EMF exposure. This finding inspires future studies that aim to explore the non-drug approaches underlying EMF stimulation and other central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fncel.2019.00591DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6974802PMC
January 2020