Publications by authors named "Xudong Zhao"

269 Publications

A fluorescence aptasensor based on controlled zirconium-based MOFs for the highly sensitive detection of T-2 toxin.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2021 May 4;259:119893. Epub 2021 May 4.

Tianjin Key Laboratory of Risk Assessment and Control Technology for Environment and Food Safety, Tianjin Institute of Environmental and Operational Medicine, Tianjin 300050, PR China. Electronic address:

T-2 toxin is one of class A trichothecene mycotoxins produced by Fusarium, presenting genotoxic, cytotoxicity, and immunotoxicity for animals and humans. Therefore, It is urgent to establish a rapid test method with high sensitivity, good selectivity and reliability. In this research, by adjusting the synthesis conditions, a kind of NH-UiO-66 with high quenching efficiency was screened out. On this basis, we constructed a novel fluorescence sensor via Cy3-labeled aptamer (Cy3-aptamer). With the help of π-π interaction, hydrogen bond and coordination, NH-UiO-66 could adsorb and quench the fluorescence of Cy3-aptamer based on FRET and PET. In the presence of T-2 toxin, it recognized and bound to Cy3-aptamer, leading to the disintegration of the NH-UiO-66/Cy3-aptamer compound. As the energy transfer process was blocked, the fluorescence intensity was restored, enabling a highly sensitive response to T-2 toxin. There was a good linear correlation between fluorescence intensity and T-2 toxin concentration in the range of 0.5-100 ng ml . The LOD of this fluorescence aptasensor was 0.239 ng ml (S/N = 3). Besides, the recoveries of milk and beer were 89.86-108.99% (RSD = 2.0-2.6%) and 92.31-111.51% (RSD = 2.3-2.9%), respectively. The fluorescence aptasensor exhibited advantages of excellent analytical performance, convenient operation procedure and good selectivity. Predictably, the aptasensor was supposed to detect antibiotics and other pollutants, describing an intriguing blueprint and potential application prospect in food safety, biochemical sensing and environmental conservation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2021.119893DOI Listing
May 2021

Synergistic effect of carboxyl and sulfate groups for effective removal of radioactive strontium ion in a Zr-metal-organic framework.

Water Sci Technol 2021 Apr;83(8):2001-2011

State Key Laboratory of Separation Membranes and Membrane Processes, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Tiangong University, Tianjin 300387, China.

Rapid removal of radioactive strontium from nuclear wastewater is of great significance for environmental safety and human health. This work reports the effective adsorption of strontium ion in a stable dual-group metal-organic framework, Zr(OH)(BDC-(COOH))(SO) (Zr-BDC-COOH-SO), which contains strontium-chelating groups (-COOH and SO) and a strongly ionizable group (-COOH). Zr-BDC-COOH-SO exhibits very rapid adsorption kinetics (<5 min) and a maximum adsorption capacity of 67.5 mg g. The adsorption behaviors can be well fitted to the pseudo-second-order model and the Langmuir isotherm model. Further investigations indicate that the adsorption of Sr onto Zr-BDC-COOH-SO would not be obviously affected by solution pH and adsorption temperature. The feasible regeneration of the adsorbent was also demonstrated using a simple elution method. Mechanism investigation suggests that free -COOH contributes to the rapid adsorption based on electrostatic interaction, while the introduction of -SO significantly enhanced the adsorption capacity. Thus, these results suggest that Zr-BDC-COOH-SO is a potential candidate for Sr removal. They also introduce dual groups as an effective strategy for designing high-efficiency adsorbents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.2021.103DOI Listing
April 2021

A fluorescence aptasensor for the sensitive detection of T-2 toxin based on FRET by adjusting the surface electric potentials of UCNPs and MIL-101.

Anal Chim Acta 2021 May 26;1160:338450. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Tianjin Key Laboratory of Risk Assessment and Control Technology for Environment and Food Safety, Tianjin Institute of Environmental and Operational Medicine, Tianjin, 300050, PR China. Electronic address:

T-2 toxin is a class A trichothecene mycotoxin produced by Fusarium, which exhibits genotoxic, cytotoxic, and immunotoxic effects in animals and humans. In this study, we developed an aptasensor for the sensitive detection of T-2 toxin, which was based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), and acted by adjusting the electric potential on the surface of upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) and MIL-101(Cr). In addition, it combined the excellent spectral properties of UCNPs with the good adsorption quenching abilities of metal organic frameworks (MOFs). Under the action of π-π stacking interactions, the UCNPs-aptamer was adsorbed onto the surface of MIL-101, leading to fluorescence quenching due to the occurrence of FRET. After the addition of T-2 toxin, owing to its selective binding to the UCNPs-aptamer, the UCNPs-aptamer moved away from MIL-101(Cr), resulting in fluorescence recovery. Moreover, the extent of fluorescence recovery was positively correlated with the concentration of T-2 toxin. The limit of detection (LOD) of this sensor was 0.087 ng mL (S/N = 3), and a good linear correlation was observed between the fluorescence intensity and the T-2 toxin concentration in the range of 0.1-100 ng mL. Moreover, the recovery of this method was 97.52-109.53% for corn meal samples (relative standard deviation, RSD = 1.7-2.4%) and 90.81-100.02% for beer samples (RSD = 2.4-2.7%). By adjusting the surface electric potentials, the efficient fluorescence aptasensor combined the advantages of UCNPs and MIL-101(Cr) and allowed the first application of such a system in toxin detection, thereby indicating its potential food sample analysis and biochemical sensing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2021.338450DOI Listing
May 2021

Exosomal Non-Coding RNAs: Regulatory and Therapeutic Target of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Front Oncol 2021 26;11:653846. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Hepatopancreatobiliary Surgery, Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China.

Exosomes are small extracellular vesicles secreted by most somatic cells, which can carry a variety of biologically active substances to participate in intercellular communication and regulate the pathophysiological process of recipient cells. Recent studies have confirmed that non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) carried by tumor cell/non-tumor cell-derived exosomes have the function of regulating the cancerous derivation of target cells and remodeling the tumor microenvironment (TME). In addition, due to the unique low immunogenicity and high stability, exosomes can be used as natural vehicles for the delivery of therapeutic ncRNAs . This article aims to review the potential regulatory mechanism and the therapeutic value of exosomal ncRNAs in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), in order to provide promising targets for early diagnosis and precise therapy of HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.653846DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8044750PMC
March 2021

Stability and L-gain analysis of nonlinear positive Markov jump systems based on a switching transition probability.

ISA Trans 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

School of Control Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, PR China. Electronic address:

This paper focuses on mean exponential stability and L-gain analysis for nonlinear positive Markov jump systems (NPMJSs) based on a switching transition probability (STP), where sector nonlinear functions and delays are adopted. By developing a nonlinear stochastic copositive Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional (NSCLKF) approach, a sufficient condition for mean exponential stability of nonlinear positive time-delay Markov jump system is first presented under mode-dependent average dwell time (MDADT) switching by using linear programming (LP) approach. Further, L-gain performance analysis is obtained. Moreover, the corresponding results for NPMJSs are given under average dwell time (ADT) switching. Illustrative results are provided to verify the validity of the theoretical results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isatra.2021.04.007DOI Listing
April 2021

Transcriptome analysis of signaling pathways targeted by Ellagic acid in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj 2021 Jul 20;1865(7):129911. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Key Laboratory of Saline-alkali Vegetation Ecology Restoration, Ministry of Education, College of Life Science, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040, China. Electronic address:

Background: Ellagic acid (EA) possesses prominent inhibitory activities against various cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Our recent study demonstrated EA's activities in reducing HCC cell proliferation and tumor formation. However, the mechanisms of EA to exert its anticancer activities and its primary targets in cancer cells have not been systematically explored.

Methods: Cell proliferation assay and flow cytometric analysis were used to examine the effects of EA treatment on viability and apoptosis, respectively, of HepG2 cells. RNA-seq studies and associated pathway analyses by Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) were employed to determine EA's primary targets. Differentially expressed genes (DEG) in EA-treated HepG2 cells were verified by RT-qPCR and Western blot. Integrative analyses of the RNA-seq dataset with a TCGA dataset derived from HCC patients were conducted to verify EA-targeted genes and signaling pathways. Interaction network analysis of the DEGs, shRNA-mediated knockdown, cell viability assay, and colony formation assay were used to validate EA's primary targets.

Results: EA reduced cell viability, caused DNA damage, and induced cell cycle arrest at G1 phase of HepG2 cells. We identified 5765 DEGs encoding proteins with over 2.0-fold changes in EA-treated HepG2 cells by DESeq2. These DEGs showed significant enrichment in the pathways regulating DNA replication and cell cycle progression. As primary targets, p21 was significantly upregulated, while MCM2-7 were uniformly downregulated in response to EA treatment. Consistently, p21 knockdown desensitized liver cells to EA in cell viability and colony formation assays.

Conclusion: EA induced G1 phase arrest and promoted apoptosis of HCC cells through activating the p21 gene and downregulating the MCM2-7 genes, respectively.

General Significance: The discoveries in this study provide helpful insights into developing novel strategies in the therapeutic treatment of HCC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbagen.2021.129911DOI Listing
July 2021

Autistic traits and negative emotions in the general population during COVID-19: Mediating roles of the behavioural immune system and COVID-19 risk perception.

Psychiatry Res 2021 Apr 1;300:113918. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Psychotic Disorders, Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China; Institute of Psychology and Behavioral Science, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Identifying the susceptibility factors of the emotional response to COVID-19 is highly significant for the psychological epidemic-crisis intervention, and autistic-related traits (ATs) is likely to be one of the candidate factors. The current study explored the relationships between ATs, emotional response to COVID-19, and the behavioural immune system (BIS) measured by trait pathogen avoidance and COVID-19 risk perception in the general population. The results showed that ATs predicted increased negative emotions directly and indirectly by enhancing the activation tendency of BIS and COVID-19 risk perception. The findings provide a candidate hypothesis for the reaction characteristics to pathogen threats in individuals with ASD and expand the understanding of individual differences in response to COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2021.113918DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8015391PMC
April 2021

Variable Selection from Image Texture Feature for Automatic Classification of Concrete Surface Voids.

Comput Intell Neurosci 2021 6;2021:5538573. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

College of Information and Computer Engineering, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040, China.

Machine learning plays an important role in computational intelligence and has been widely used in many engineering fields. Surface voids or bugholes frequently appearing on concrete surface after the casting process make the corresponding manual inspection time consuming, costly, labor intensive, and inconsistent. In order to make a better inspection of the concrete surface, automatic classification of concrete bugholes is needed. In this paper, a variable selection strategy is proposed for pursuing feature interpretability, together with an automatic ensemble classification designed for getting a better accuracy of the bughole classification. A texture feature deriving from the Gabor filter and gray-level run lengths is extracted in concrete surface images. Interpretable variables, which are also the components of the feature, are selected according to a presented cumulative voting strategy. An ensemble classifier with its base classifier automatically assigned is provided to detect whether a surface void exists in an image or not. Experimental results on 1000 image samples indicate the effectiveness of our method with a comparable prediction accuracy and model explicable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/5538573DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7959925PMC
March 2021

Identifying Plant Pentatricopeptide Repeat Proteins Using a Variable Selection Method.

Front Plant Sci 2021 1;12:506681. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

College of Information and Computer Engineering, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin, China.

Pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR), which is a triangular pentapeptide repeat domain, plays an important role in plant growth. Features extracted from sequences are applicable to PPR protein identification using certain classification methods. However, which components of a multidimensional feature (namely variables) are more effective for protein discrimination has never been discussed. Therefore, we seek to select variables from a multidimensional feature for identifying PPR proteins. A framework of variable selection for identifying PPR proteins is proposed. Samples representing PPR positive proteins and negative ones are equally split into a training and a testing set. Variable importance is regarded as scores derived from an iteration of resampling, training, and scoring step on the training set. A model selection method based on Gaussian mixture model is applied to automatic choice of variables which are effective to identify PPR proteins. Measurements are used on the testing set to show the effectiveness of the selected variables. Certain variables other than the multidimensional feature they belong to do work for discrimination between PPR positive proteins and those negative ones. In addition, the content of methionine may play an important role in predicting PPR proteins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.506681DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7957076PMC
March 2021

Long noncoding RNA LINC01638 contributes to laryngeal squamous cell cancer progression by modulating miR-523-5p/BATF3 axis.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 03 10;13(6):8611-8619. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110004, China.

Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) plays a critical role in tumorigenesis. How lncRNA regulates laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) progression remains poorly understood. In the present study, we found that LINC01638 was highly expressed in LSCC tissues. And LINC01638 expression was positively correlated with clinical stage and lymph node metastasis. Patients with LINC01638 high expression displayed a low survival rate. Results from CCK8, colony formation, and transwell assays showed that LINC01638 knockdown suppressed the proliferation, migration and invasion of LSCC cells . Animal experiments indicated that LINC01638 silencing attenuated tumor growth . In terms of mechanism, LINC01638 was found to sponge miR-523-5p and promote BATF3 expression. In summary, our results demonstrated that LINC01638/miR-523-5p/BATF3 axis plays a crucial function in initiating LSCC development and may be a potential target for tumor therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.202675DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8034946PMC
March 2021

The Psychometric Properties of General Adherence Scale in Chinese (GAS-C) in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Using Insulin.

Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes 2021 22;14:801-811. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Shanghai Pudong New Area Mental Health Center, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Translate General Adherence Scale (GAS) into Chinese and test its psychometric properties in middle-aged and elderly type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients using insulin in the Han people of urban China.

Subjects And Methods: We translated the GAS into Chinese and established General Adherence Scale in Chinese (GAS-C). 136 T2D subjects were selected for testing GAS-C's reliability and validity, of which 100 study subjects were retested with GAS-C two weeks later. The other 200 T2D subjects were selected for performing Confirmatory Factor Analysis(CFA). The ceiling effect and floor effect of GAS-C data were checked.

Results: No data was lost in our research. In exploratory factor analysis(EFA), the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy (KMO) =0.899, Bartlett's Test's χ=611.821 (df=10 p<0.001). The communalities of the items were between 0.740 and 0.862; The values of Measure of Sampling Adequacy (MSA) were between 0.883 and 0.945. All five items entered the factor analysis process. A common factor was extracted, and it could explain 81.403% of the total variance. CFA validated the.one-factor model was good fits with the data of GAS-C (Ratio of Chi-square to Degrees of Freedom (CMIN/DF)=2.032, Goodness of Fit Index (GFI) =0.981, Comparative Fit Index (CFI) =0.996, Tucker-Lewis Index (TLI) =0.992, Root Mean Square Residual (RMR) =0.011, Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) =0.072). Correlation analysis was performed between GAS-C and MMAS-8 to calculate the criterion-related validity (r=0.542 p<0.001). The internal consistency reliability α=0.942, Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC)= 0.941 (95% CI 0.924-0.955). The correlation coefficient r of the test-retest reliability was 0.772 (p<0.001). Spearman-Brown coefficient of split-half was 0.939. There was no floor effect and ceiling effect on the data.

Conclusion: GAS-C has good reliability and validity. It can be used for general adherence studies of middle-aged and elderly type 2 diabetic patients using insulin in the Han people of Chinese cities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DMSO.S286153DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7910110PMC
February 2021

Sandwich-Like Heterostructures of MoS /Graphene with Enlarged Interlayer Spacing and Enhanced Hydrophilicity as High-Performance Cathodes for Aqueous Zinc-Ion Batteries.

Adv Mater 2021 Mar 17;33(12):e2007480. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Materials Genome Engineering, Institute for Advanced Materials and Technology, State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, 100083, China.

Layered materials have great potential as cathodes for aqueous zinc-ion batteries (AZIBs) because of their facile 2D Zn transport channels; however, either low capacity or poor cycling stability limits their practical applications. Herein, two classical layered materials are innovatively combined by intercalating graphene into MoS gallery, which results in significantly enlarged MoS interlayers (from 0.62 to 1.16 nm) and enhanced hydrophilicity. The sandwich-structured MoS /graphene nanosheets self-assemble into a flower-like architecture that facilitates Zn-ion diffusion, promotes electrolyte infiltration, and ensures high structural stability. Therefore, this novel MoS /graphene nanocomposite exhibits exceptional high-rate capability (285.4 mA h g at 0.05 A g with 141.6 mA h g at 5 A g ) and long-term cycling stability (88.2% capacity retention after 1800 cycles). The superior Zn migration kinetics and desirable pseudocapacitive behaviors are confirmed by electrochemical measurements and density functional theory computations. The energy storage mechanism regarding the highly reversible phase transition between 2H- and 1T-MoS upon Zn-ion insertion/extraction is elucidated through ex situ investigations. As a proof of concept, a flexible quasi-solid-state zinc-ion battery employing the MoS /graphene cathode demonstrates great stability under different bending conditions. This study paves a new direction for the design and on-going development of 2D materials as high-performance cathodes for AZIBs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202007480DOI Listing
March 2021

The prevalence and related factors of metabolic syndrome in outpatients with first-episode drug-naive major depression comorbid with anxiety.

Sci Rep 2021 Feb 8;11(1):3324. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

CAS Key Laboratory of Mental Health, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with depression, but its role in major depressive disorder comorbid with anxiety (AMD) is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and clinical correlates of MetS in first-episode drug-naive (FEDN) patients with AMD in a Chinese Han population. In total, 1380 FEDN outpatients with AMD were recruited in this cross-sectional study. The sociodemographic features, clinical characteristics, history of suicide attempts, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels, and MetS parameters of each subject were evaluated. All subjects were rated on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A), and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale positive symptom subscale. The prevalence of MetS among AMD patients was 8.04%. Compared to the non-MetS group, age, age of onset, TSH level, HAM-A and HAM-D scores, history of attempted suicide, and comorbid psychiatric symptoms were higher in the MetS group. Those in this group were also more likely to be married, and they had a lower educational level. Furthermore, age, psychiatric symptoms, suicide attempts, and higher TSH levels were independently associated with MetS in AMD patients. This study suggests a lower prevalence of MetS in FEDN patients with AMD in a Chinese Han population. Older age, comorbid psychiatric symptoms, history of attempted suicide, and higher TSH levels are related factors for MetS in AMD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-81653-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7870819PMC
February 2021

Usefulness of candidate mRNAs and miRNAs as biomarkers for mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

Int J Neurosci 2021 Mar 14:1-14. Epub 2021 Mar 14.

Department of Psychiatry, Shanghai Pudong New Area Mental Health Center, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Objective: To explore potential molecular mechanisms and novel biomarkers of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD).

Methods: The mRNA expression datasets GSE63060 and GSE63061 and the miRNA expression dataset GSE120584 were obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and miRNA (DEmiRs) were identified in the normal, MCI, and AD groups. Mfuzz clustering and weighted correlation network analyses (WGCNA) were conducted, followed by pathway and functional enrichment analyses and miRNA-mRNA network construction. Furthermore, phenotypic correlation analysis and experimental verification were performed on key DEGs and DEmiRs.

Results: In total, 3,000 intersected DEGs from GSE63060/GSE63061 and 817 DEmiRs from GSE120584 were obtained. Mfuzz and WGCNA analyses revealed 106 DEGs including ribosomal protein L11 () and 28 DEmiRs including miR-6764-5p. These DEGs and DEmiRs were mainly enriched in pathways like Ribosome. Moreover, 5 key DEGs including cytohesin 4 () and 6 crucial DEmiRs including miR-6734-3p were identified by miRNA-mRNA interaction network analysis. Phenotypic correlation analysis showed that and miR-6734-3p were correlated with patients' age. The results of quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis confirmed that expression was significantly downregulated in the MCI and AD groups compared to that in the normal group, while the expression of , miR-6764-5p, and miR-6734-3p was remarkably upregulated in the MCI and AD groups.

Conclusions: miR-6764-5p might contribute to MCI and AD by targeting in the ribosome pathway. Therefore, miR-6734-3p and its target mRNA might be used as novel biomarkers for MCI and AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00207454.2021.1886098DOI Listing
March 2021

Smad4 deficiency substitutes Cdkn2b but not Cdkn2a downregulation in pancreatic cancer following induction of genetic events in adult mice.

Pancreatology 2021 Mar 13;21(2):418-427. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Laboratory of Animal Tumor Models/Department of Thoracic Surgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China; Key Laboratory of Animal Models and Human Disease Mechanisms of Chinese Academy of Sciences/Key Laboratory of Bioactive Peptides of Yunnan Province, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan, China; KIZ-SU Joint Laboratory of Animal Model and Drug Development, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu, China. Electronic address:

Background: Minor progress in pancreatic cancer treatment and prognosis implies that more reliable animal models are urgently needed to decipher its molecular mechanisms and preclinical research. We recently reported a genetically engineered adult mouse model where Cdkn2b downregulation was required together with Cdkn2a downregulation to inactivate the Rb pathway. Besides, the role of Smad4, which is mutated more frequently than Cdkn2b in human pancreatic cancer, was determined critical on the development of the pancreas tumor by some reports. However, the impact of Smad4 deficiency in combination with PDAC-relevant mutations, such as Cdkn2a when induced in adult pancreas has not been completely elucidated in mice.

Methods: Lentiviral delivered oncogene/tumor suppressors in adult pancreas. The development of pancreatic cancer was monitored. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunofluorescence were performed for pathological identification of the pancreatic cancer. Real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunofluorescence and western blot were used to test gene expression.

Results: Loss of Smad4 could cooperate with alterations of KRAS, Trp53, and Cdkn2a to induce pancreatic cancer in adult mice. The role of Smad4 was mainly in downregulating the expression of Cdkn2b and further inducing phosphorylation of the Rb1 protein.

Conclusions: These findings show an essential role of Smad4 deficiency in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) formation. This model better recapitulates the adult onset, clonal origin, and genetic alterations in human PDAC and can be simply generated on a large-scale.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pan.2021.01.004DOI Listing
March 2021

Finite-Time-Prescribed Performance-Based Adaptive Fuzzy Control for Strict-Feedback Nonlinear Systems With Dynamic Uncertainty and Actuator Faults.

IEEE Trans Cybern 2021 Jan 15;PP. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

In this article, finite-time-prescribed performance-based adaptive fuzzy control is considered for a class of strict-feedback systems in the presence of actuator faults and dynamic disturbances. To deal with the difficulties associated with the actuator faults and external disturbance, an adaptive fuzzy fault-tolerant control strategy is introduced. Different from the existing controller design methods, a modified performance function, which is called the finite-time performance function (FTPF), is presented. It is proved that the presented controller can ensure all the signals of the closed-loop system are bounded and the tracking error converges to a predetermined region in finite time. The effectiveness of the presented control scheme is verified through the simulation results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TCYB.2020.3046316DOI Listing
January 2021

Adaptive Optimal Control for Unknown Constrained Nonlinear Systems With a Novel Quasi-Model Network.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2021 Jan 14;PP. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

A policy-iteration-based algorithm is presented in this article for optimal control of unknown continuous-time nonlinear systems subject to bounded inputs by utilizing the adaptive dynamic programming (ADP). Three neural networks (NNs), called critic network, actor network, and quasi-model network, are utilized in the proposed algorithm to give approximations of the control law, the cost function, and the function constituted by partial derivatives of value functions with respect to states and unknown input gain dynamics, respectively. At each iteration, based on the least sum of squares method, the parameters of critic and quasi-model networks will be tuned simultaneously, which eliminates the necessity of separately learning the system model in advance. Then, the control law is improved by satisfying the necessary optimality condition. Then, the proposed algorithm's optimality and convergence properties are exhibited. Finally, the simulation results demonstrate the availability of the proposed algorithm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNNLS.2020.3046614DOI Listing
January 2021

Adaptive-Critic Design for Decentralized Event-Triggered Control of Constrained Nonlinear Interconnected Systems Within an Identifier-Critic Framework.

IEEE Trans Cybern 2021 Jan 5;PP. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

This article studies the decentralized event-triggered control problem for a class of constrained nonlinear interconnected systems. By assigning a specific cost function for each constrained auxiliary subsystem, the original control problem is equivalently transformed into finding a series of optimal control policies updating in an aperiodic manner, and these optimal event-triggered control laws together constitute the desired decentralized controller. It is strictly proven that the system under consideration is stable in the sense of uniformly ultimate boundedness provided by the solutions of event-triggered Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equations. Different from the traditional adaptive critic design methods, we present an identifier-critic network architecture to relax the restrictions posed on the system dynamics, and the actor network commonly used to approximate the optimal control law is circumvented. The weights in the critic network are tuned on the basis of the gradient descent approach as well as the historical data, such that the persistence of excitation condition is no longer needed. The validity of our control scheme is demonstrated through a simulation example.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TCYB.2020.3037321DOI Listing
January 2021

A Semi-automatic Diagnosis of Hip Dysplasia on X-Ray Films.

Front Mol Biosci 2020 17;7:613878. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Department of Computer Science and Technology, College of Information and Computer Engineering, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin, China.

Diagnosis of hip joint plays an important role in early screening of hip diseases such as coxarthritis, heterotopic ossification, osteonecrosis of the femoral head, etc. Early detection of hip dysplasia on X-ray films may probably conduce to early treatment of patients, which can help to cure patients or relieve their pain as much as possible. There has been no method or tool for automatic diagnosis of hip dysplasia till now. A semi-automatic method for diagnosis of hip dysplasia is proposed. Considering the complexity of medical imaging, the contour of acetabulum, femoral head, and the upper side of thigh-bone are manually marked. Feature points are extracted according to marked contours. Traditional knowledge-driven diagnostic criteria is abandoned. Instead, a data-driven diagnostic model for hip dysplasia is presented. Angles including CE, sharp, and Tonnis angle which are commonly measured in clinical diagnosis, are automatically obtained. Samples, each of which consists of these three angle values, are used for clustering according to their densities in a descending order. A three-dimensional normal distribution derived from the cluster is built and regarded as the parametric model for diagnosis of hip dysplasia. Experiments on 143 X-ray films including 286 samples (i.e., 143 left and 143 right hip joints) demonstrate the effectiveness of our method. According to the method, a computer-aided diagnosis tool is developed for the convenience of clinicians, which can be downloaded at http://www.bio-nefu.com/HIPindex/. The data used to support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding authors upon request. This data-driven method provides a more objective measurement of the angles. Besides, it provides a new criterion for diagnosis of hip dysplasia other than doctors' experience deriving from knowledge-driven clinical manual, which actually corresponds to very different way for clinical diagnosis of hip dysplasia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmolb.2020.613878DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7773838PMC
December 2020

Influencing Factors and Machine Learning-Based Prediction of Side Effects in Psychotherapy.

Front Psychiatry 2020 3;11:537442. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Shanghai Pudong New Area Mental Health Center, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Side effects in psychotherapy are a common phenomenon, but due to insufficient understanding of the relevant predictors of side effects in psychotherapy, many psychotherapists or clinicians fail to identify and manage these side effects. The purpose of this study was to predict whether clients or patients would experience side effects in psychotherapy by machine learning and to analyze the related influencing factors. A self-compiled "Psychotherapy Side Effects Questionnaire (PSEQ)" was delivered online by a WeChat official account. Three hundred and seventy participants were included in the cross-sectional analysis. Psychotherapy outcomes were classified as participants with side effects and without side effects. A number of features were selected to distinguish participants with different psychotherapy outcomes. Six machine learning-based algorithms were then chosen and trained by our dataset to build outcome prediction classifiers. Our study showed that: (1) the most common side effects were negative emotions in psychotherapy, such as anxiety, tension, sadness, and anger, etc. (24.6%, 91/370); (2) the mental state of the psychotherapist, as perceived by the participant during psychotherapy, was the most relevant feature to predict whether clients would experience side effects in psychotherapy; (3) a Random Forest-based machine learning classifier offered the best prediction performance of the psychotherapy outcomes, with an F1-score of 0.797 and an AUC value of 0.804. These numbers indicate a high prediction performance, which allowed our approach to be used in practice. Our Random Forest-based machine learning classifier could accurately predict the possible outcome of a client in psychotherapy. Our study sheds light on the influencing factors of the side effects of psychotherapy and could help psychotherapists better predict the outcomes of psychotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.537442DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7744296PMC
December 2020

Computer-Aided System Application Value for Assessing Hip Development.

Front Physiol 2020 1;11:587161. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

College of Information and Computer Engineering, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin, China.

Purpose: A computer-aided system was used to semiautomatically measure Tönnis angle, Sharp angle, and center-edge (CE) angle using contours of the hip bones to establish an auxiliary measurement model for developmental screening or diagnosis of hip joint disorders.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed bilateral hip x-rays for 124 patients (41 men and 83 women aged 20-70 years) who presented at the Affiliated Zhongshan Hospital of Dalian University in 2017 and 2018. All images were imported into a computer-aided detection system. After manually outlining hip bone contours, Tönnis angle, Sharp angle, and CE angle marker lines were automatically extracted, and the angles were measured and recorded. An imaging physician also manually measured all angles and recorded hip development, and Pearson correlation coefficients were used to compare computer-aided system measurements with imaging physician measurements. Accuracy for different angles was calculated, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve was used to represent the diagnostic efficiency of the computer-aided system.

Results: For Tönnis angle, Sharp angle, and CE angle, correlation coefficients were 0.902, 0.887, and 0.902, respectively; the accuracies of the computer-aided detection system were 89.1, 93.1, and 82.3%; and the AUROC curve values were 0.940, 0.956, and 0.948.

Conclusion: The measurements of Tönnis angle, Sharp angle, and CE angle using the semiautomatic system were highly correlated with the measurements of the imaging physician and can be used to assess hip joint development with high accuracy and diagnostic efficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2020.587161DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7736091PMC
December 2020

Later-Onset Hypertension Is Associated With Higher Risk of Dementia in Mild Cognitive Impairment.

Front Neurol 2020 26;11:557977. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

Shanghai Pudong New Area Mental Health Center, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

To investigate the correlation between hypertension development and the progression of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to dementia in middle-aged and elderly people. A population-based longitudinal cognition survey of people aged 55+ was conducted. The hypertension onset age was estimated by self-reported information and medical insurance card records. To study the effect of later-onset hypertension on dementia, the incidence of dementia was compared between the two groups. Of 277 hypertensive MCI participants without dementia, 56 (20.22%) progressed to dementia (MCIp) over the 6-year follow-up. The proportion of MCIp participants in the old-age-onset hypertension group (≥65 years) was higher than that in the middle-age-onset hypertension group (27.0 vs. 15.4%, respectively; = 5.538, = 0.019). In the old-age-onset hypertension group, the proportion of MCIp without diabetes mellitus was higher than those with diabetes mellitus (24.7 vs. 12.6%, respectively; = 5.321, = 0.021) and those with increased pulse pressure was higher than those without increased pulse pressure (33.3 vs. 15.4%, respectively; = 3.902, = 0.048). However, the cox proportional hazard showed that older age was the only risk factor for MCIp (HR = 0.618, = 0.000). These results suggest that individuals with later-onset hypertension may have greater cognition decline, even with blood pressure maintained at 130/80 mmHg with antihypertensive management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2020.557977DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7726443PMC
November 2020

Immunosorbent assay based on upconversion nanoparticles controllable assembly for simultaneous detection of three antibiotics.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Mar 28;406:124703. Epub 2020 Nov 28.

Tianjin Key Laboratory of Risk Assessment and Control Technology for Environment and Food Safety, Tianjin Institute of Environmental and Operational Medicine, Tianjin 300050, PR China. Electronic address:

The abuse of antibiotics leads to an increase in resistant strains, which in turn leads to the development of superbugs that pose great difficulties for the treatment of human diseases. A high-throughput and highly sensitive avidin biotin complex immunosorbent assay based on upconversion nanoparticles controllable assembly (ABC-ULISA) for the detection of antibiotics was developed, which enabled accurate quantitative detection in a shorter period of time. Streptavidin and biotin-labeled upconversion nanoparticles form avidin-biotin-upconversion complex, which was then combined with biotinylated antibody to achieve double amplification of the signal, further improving detection sensitivity. Upconversion nanoparticles with 808 nm excitation provide better penetration without the need for an external source. The 96-well enzyme-linked plate was used as a detection platform to meet the high-throughput needs. ABC-ULISA was used to simultaneously detect three antibiotics with a limit of detection of 0.15 ng/mL for sulfamethazine, 0.03 ng/mL for sarafloxacin, and 0.05 ng/mL for tetracycline. The detection limit of ABC-ULISA was much lower than the traditional ELISA and ordinary ULISA. Moreover, ABC-ULISA was also versatile, and the corresponding target can be detected by changing different antibodies. The results were stable and reliable, and the equipment could be miniaturized, which was expected to be commercialized and on-site.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.124703DOI Listing
March 2021

Cortical Complexity in People at Ultra-High-Risk for Psychosis Moderated by Childhood Trauma.

Front Psychiatry 2020 10;11:594466. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Philipps-Universität Marburg and Marburg University Hospital, Marburg, Germany.

Subjects with ultra-high risk (UHR) states for psychosis show brain structural volume changes similar to first-episode psychosis and also elevated incidence of environmental risk factors like childhood trauma. It is unclear, however, whether early neurodevelopmental trajectories are altered in UHR. We screened a total of 12,779 first-year Chinese students to enroll 36 UHR subjects (based on clinical interviews) and 59 non-UHR healthy controls for a case-control study of markers of early neurodevelopment. Subjects underwent 3T MRI scanning and clinical characterization, including the childhood trauma questionnaire (CTQ). We then used the CAT12 toolbox to analyse structural brain scans for cortical surface complexity, a spherical harmonics-based marker of early neurodevelopmental changes. While we did not find statistically significant differences between the groups, a trend level finding for reduced cortical complexity (CC) in UHR vs. non-UHR subjects emerged in the left superior temporal cortex (and adjacent insular and transverse temporal cortices), and this trend level association was significantly moderated by childhood trauma (CTQ score). Our findings indicate that UHR subjects tend to show abnormal cortical surface morphometry, in line with recent research; more importantly, however, this association seems to be considerably modulated by early environmental impacts. Hence, our results provide an indication of environmental or gene × environment interactions on early neurodevelopment leading up to elevated psychosis risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.594466DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7685197PMC
November 2020

Implementation of quarantine in China during the outbreak of COVID-19.

Psychiatry Res 2020 Apr 30;289:113038. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Department of Psychiatry, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University, Kunming Yunnan 650101, China. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2020.113038DOI Listing
April 2020

Dual-Strategy of Cation-Doping and Nanoengineering Enables Fast and Stable Sodium-Ion Storage in a Novel Fe/Mn-Based Layered Oxide Cathode.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2020 Nov 24;7(21):2002199. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Materials Genome Engineering School of Mathematics and Physics University of Science and Technology Beijing Beijing 100083 China.

Iron/manganese-based layered transition metal oxides have risen to prominence as prospective cathodes for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) owing to their abundant resources and high theoretical specific capacities, yet they still suffer from rapid capacity fading. Herein, a dual-strategy is developed to boost the Na-storage performance of the Fe/Mn-based layered oxide cathode by copper (Cu) doping and nanoengineering. The P2-NaCuFeMnO cathode material synthesized by electrospinning exhibits the pearl necklace-like hierarchical nanostructures assembled by nanograins with sizes of 50-150 nm. The synergistic effects of Cu doping and nanotechnology enable high Na coefficients and low ionic migration energy barrier, as well as highly reversible structure evolution and Cu/Fe/Mn valence variation upon repeated sodium insertion/extraction; thus, the P2-NaCuFeMnO nano-necklaces yield fabulous rate capability (125.4 mA h g at 0.1 C with 56.5 mA h g at 20 C) and excellent cyclic stability (≈79% capacity retention after 300 cycles). Additionally, a promising energy density of 177.4 Wh kg is demonstrated in a prototype soft-package Na-ion full battery constructed by the tailored nano-necklaces cathode and hard carbon anode. This work symbolizes a step forward in the development of Fe/Mn-based layered oxides as high-performance cathodes for SIBs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.202002199DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7610329PMC
November 2020

Comparing the reliability and validity of the SF-36 and SF-12 in measuring quality of life among adolescents in China: a large sample cross-sectional study.

Health Qual Life Outcomes 2020 Nov 9;18(1):360. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Research Center for Quality of Life and Applied Psychology, Key Laboratory for Quality of Life and Psychological Assessment and Intervention, Guangdong Medical University, 1#, Xincheng Avenue, Songshanhu District, Dongguan, 523808, Guangdong, China.

Objective: We compare the reliability and validity of the Short Form 36 (version 1, SF-36) and the Short Form 12 (version 1, SF-12) in adolescence, the period of life when a child develops into an adult, i.e., the period from puberty to maturity terminating legally at the age of majority (10-19 years), thus supplying evidence for the selection of instruments measuring the quality of life (QOL) and decision-making processes of adolescents in China.

Methods: Stratified cluster random sampling was adopted according to geographical location, and the SF-36 was administered to assess QOL. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to show correlation. Cronbach's alpha and construct reliability (CR) were used to evaluate the reliability of SF-36 and SF-12, while criterion validity and average variance extracted (AVE, convergence validity) were used to evaluate validity. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to calculate the load factors for the items of the SF-36 and SF-12, then to obtain the CR and AVE. The Semejima grade response model (logistic two-parameter module) in item response theory was used to estimate item discrimination, item difficulty, and item average information for the items of the SF-36 and SF-12.

Results: 19,428 samples were included in the study. The mean age of respondents was 14.78 years (SD = 1.77). Reliability of each domain of the SF-36 was better than for the corresponding domain of the SF-12. The domains of PF, RP, BP, and GH in SF-36 had good construct reliability (CR > 0.6). The criterion validities of some domains of the SF-36 were a little higher in some corresponding dimensions of the SF-12, except for PCS. The convergence validities of the SF-12 were higher than the SF-36 in PF, RP, BP, and PCS. The items of BP, SF, RP, and VT in the SF-12 had acceptable discrimination of items that were higher than in the SF-36. The items' average amounts of information on BP, VT, SF, RE, and MH in the SF-36 and SF-12 were poor.

Conclusion: Two component (PCS and MCS) measurements of the SF-12 appeared to perform at least as well as the SF-36 in cross-sectional settings in adolescence, but the reliability and validity of the 8 domains of the SF-36 were better than those of the SF-12. Some domains, for instance SF and BP, were not suitable for adolescents or need to be studied further.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12955-020-01605-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7654067PMC
November 2020

A copper monosulfide-nanoparticle-based fluorescent probe for the sensitive and specific detection of ochratoxin A.

Talanta 2021 Jan 22;222:121678. Epub 2020 Sep 22.

Tianjin Key Laboratory of Risk Assessment and Control Technology for Environment and Food Safety, Tianjin Institute of Environmental and Operational Medicine, Tianjin, 300050, China. Electronic address:

The mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA) is a secondary metabolite derived from multiple Aspergillus and Penicillium strains. The development of a rapid, sensitive, and simple method for OTA detection is important to ensure food biosafety and safeguard public health. In this study, we designed a highly specific and sensitive assay for the detection of OTA using copper monosulfide (CuS) nanoparticles conjugated to an anti-OTA antibody (CuS-Ab NPs) and a fluorescent probe for Cu. When OTA is present in the solution, the OTA antigen, bound to the microplate, is competed off by the soluble OTA for binding to CuS-Ab NPs. After washing, the CuS-Ab NPs and bound OTA are removed. Subsequently, HCl is added to dissolve the CuS-Ab NPs bound to the OTA antigen, releasing Cu and activating the Cu fluorescent probe. Thus, the resultant fluorescence emission is inversely proportional to the OTA content in the solution. Under optimal conditions, this method detected 0.1-100 ng mL OTA with a limit of detection of 0.01 ng mL. The assay was tested using corn, soybean, and coffee samples, with recoveries ranging from 94% to 110%. This strategy provides a new approach for the detection of mycotoxins and other small-molecule analytes with broad application potential in food safety and quality control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2020.121678DOI Listing
January 2021

Variable selection from a feature representing protein sequences: a case of classification on bacterial type IV secreted effectors.

BMC Bioinformatics 2020 Oct 27;21(1):480. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

College of Information and Computer Engineering, Northeast Forestry University, No. 26 Hexing Road, Harbin, 150040, China.

Background: Classification of certain proteins with specific functions is momentous for biological research. Encoding approaches of protein sequences for feature extraction play an important role in protein classification. Many computational methods (namely classifiers) are used for classification on protein sequences according to various encoding approaches. Commonly, protein sequences keep certain labels corresponding to different categories of biological functions (e.g., bacterial type IV secreted effectors or not), which makes protein prediction a fantasy. As to protein prediction, a kernel set of protein sequences keeping certain labels certified by biological experiments should be existent in advance. However, it has been hardly ever seen in prevailing researches. Therefore, unsupervised learning rather than supervised learning (e.g. classification) should be considered. As to protein classification, various classifiers may help to evaluate the effectiveness of different encoding approaches. Besides, variable selection from an encoded feature representing protein sequences is an important issue that also needs to be considered.

Results: Focusing on the latter problem, we propose a new method for variable selection from an encoded feature representing protein sequences. Taking a benchmark dataset containing 1947 protein sequences as a case, experiments are made to identify bacterial type IV secreted effectors (T4SE) from protein sequences, which are composed of 399 T4SE and 1548 non-T4SE. Comparable and quantified results are obtained only using certain components of the encoded feature, i.e., position-specific scoring matix, and that indicates the effectiveness of our method.

Conclusions: Certain variables other than an encoded feature they belong to do work for discrimination between different types of proteins. In addition, ensemble classifiers with an automatic assignment of different base classifiers do achieve a better classification result.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12859-020-03826-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7590791PMC
October 2020

HUWE1 mediates inflammasome activation and promotes host defense against bacterial infection.

J Clin Invest 2020 12;130(12):6301-6316

Key Laboratory of Animal Models and Human Disease Mechanisms of the Chinese Academy of Sciences/Key Laboratory of Bioactive Peptides of Yunnan Province, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, China.

The mechanism by which inflammasome activation is modulated remains unclear. In this study, we identified an AIM2-interacting protein, the E3 ubiquitin ligase HUWE1, which was also found to interact with NLRP3 and NLRC4 through the HIN domain of AIM2 and the NACHT domains of NLRP3 and NLRC4. The BH3 domain of HUWE1 was important for its interaction with NLRP3, AIM2, and NLRC4. Caspase-1 maturation, IL-1β release, and pyroptosis were reduced in Huwe1-deficient bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) compared with WT BMDMs in response to stimuli to induce NLRP3, NLRC4, and AIM2 inflammasome activation. Furthermore, the activation of NLRP3, NLRC4, and AIM2 inflammasomes in both mouse and human cells was remarkably reduced by treatment with the HUWE1 inhibitor BI8622. HUWE1 mediated the K27-linked polyubiquitination of AIM2, NLRP3, and NLRC4, which led to inflammasome assembly, ASC speck formation, and sustained caspase-1 activation. Huwe1-deficient mice had an increased bacterial burden and decreased caspase-1 activation and IL-1β production upon Salmonella, Francisella, or Acinetobacter baumannii infection. Our study provides insights into the mechanisms of inflammasome activation as well as a potential therapeutic target against bacterial infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI138234DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7685759PMC
December 2020