Publications by authors named "Xubiao Yu"

16 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Degradation and chlorination mechanism of fumaric acid based on SO: an experimental and theoretical study.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Ningbo University, Ningbo, 315211, People's Republic of China.

It is well known that chloride ions could affect the oxidation kinetics and mechanism of contaminant based on SO in the wastewater. Here, the degradation of an organic acid, fumaric acid (FA), was investigated in the presence of chloride (0-300 mM) by the Fe(II)/peroxymonosulfate (Fe(II)/PMS) system. A negative impact of chloride was observed on the rates of FA degradation. The degree of inhibitory effect was higher in Fe(II)/PMS addition order. Some chlorinated byproducts were identified during the FA oxidation process in the presence of Cl by the ultraperformance liquid chromatography and quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometer (UPLC-QTOF-MS). With the increasing content of Cl, an accumulation of adsorbable organic halogen (AOX), an increase in acute toxicity, and an inhibition of mineralization were observed. According to the results of kinetic modeling, the production and transformation of oxidative species were dependent on Cl dosage and reaction time. SO was supposed to be the main radical for FA degradation with Cl concentration below 5 mM, whereas Cl was primarily responsible for the depletion of FA at [Cl] > 5 mM. A possible degradation pathway of FA was discussed. This study reveals the potential environmental risk of organic acid and is necessary to explore useful strategies for ameliorating the treatment of chloride-rich wastewater.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-12756-6DOI Listing
April 2021

Multiple roles of Ca in the interaction of ciprofloxacin with activated sludge: Spectroscopic investigations of extracellular polymeric substances.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jan 7;751:142246. Epub 2020 Sep 7.

Department of Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China. Electronic address:

Calcium ion is an important cation influencing the binding of recalcitrant organic contaminants with activated sludge during wastewater treatment process, but there is still unknown about its role in amphoteric fluoroquinolones binding. Binding experiments show that Ca markedly inhibited binding of ciprofloxacin (CIP) onto sludge, causing 7-203 times of CIP release. Multi-spectroscopic examinations indicate that tryptophan-like and tyrosine-like proteins in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) were dominant components for CIP binding by static quenching and forming CIP-proteins complexes. Addition of Ca into EPS and CIP binding systems induced increase of association constants (from 0.024-0.064 to 0.027-0.084 L/μmol) and binding constants (from 0.002-0.039 to 0.012-0.107) and decrease of binding sites number (from 0.893-2.007 to 0.721-1.386). Functional groups of EPS and secondary structure of proteins were remarkably changed upon reactions with CIP and Ca. Calcium ion interacted with EPS and CIP binding system in two distinct ways: Ca shielded CO in amide I in EPS for CIP binding, whereas strengthened binding between CIP and functional groups including CO in carboxyl groups in extra-microcolony polymers and OH in extra-cellular polymers by forming ternary complexes. Cation competition for CO in amide I is responsible for Ca induced CIP release from the sludge. Results suggest the highly potential release of CIP from high saline wastewater and cation-conditioned sludge which needs further monitoring and evaluation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.142246DOI Listing
January 2021

Spatiotemporal variations in chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in a mixed land-use river: Implications for surface water restoration.

J Environ Manage 2021 Jan 14;277:111498. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Ningbo University, Ningbo, Zhejiang, 315211, China.

A challenge for current surface water restoration and management in China is acquiring the source information for complex pollution scenarios in order to develop effective control strategies. As an important part of dissolved organic matter, chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) contains unique chemical signals related to various pollution sources. Spectral methods such as fluorescence excitation-emission matrices coupled with parallel factor analysis enable rapid and low-cost CDOM characterization for source tracking. In this study, a typical small-sized river flowing through mixed land-use regions in southeastern China, the Lujiang River, was investigated to determine the responses of CDOM to spatiotemporal factors. The effects of land-use patterns were reflected by the fluorescent components of terrestrial and sewage substances. A high and stable proportion of terrestrial-like components (C1 + C2) in each sampling period (i.e., March: 47.6 ± 5.7% and October: 44.3 ± 2.7%) indicated a high input of non-point source (NPS) pollution from both agriculture and urban areas. In addition, the difference in solar radiation intensity induced by climate and air quality changes was also reflected by variability in the photodegradation product component (C3) of terrestrial precursors between October (24.8 ± 2.6%) and March (4.5 ± 2.0%), suggesting that terrestrial components could be a sensitive indicator for NPS pollutant monitoring. Increased sewage impact in downstream regions was reflected by a spike in the tryptophan-like component (C4); temporal variations in C4 (paired t-Test, p < 0.005) also indicated that sewage substances were more prone to removal by microbial activity in warmer seasons. The dynamics of C4 could serve as a good indicator of sewage disposal performance. The results of this study demonstrate that CDOM data have important practical applications for existing water restoration campaigns in southeastern China, as well as substantial potential for routine water quality monitoring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2020.111498DOI Listing
January 2021

How biofilms affect the uptake and fate of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) in microplastic: Insights from an In situ study of Xiangshan Bay, China.

Water Res 2020 Oct 1;184:116118. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Light Industry, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510006, PR China.

Microplastic (MP) has been identified as an emerging vector that transports hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) across aquatic environments due to its hydrophobic surfaces and small size. However, it is also recognized that environmental factors affect MP's chemical vector effects and that attached biofilms could play a major role, although the specific mechanisms remain unclear. To explore this issue, an in situ experiment was conducted at Xiangshan Bay of southeastern China, and dynamics of HOCs (i.e., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)) and bacterial communities related to the model MP (i.e., PE fibers) were analyzed and compared. Through bacterial characterizations including the 16S rRNA approach, higher summer temperatures (31.4 ± 1.07 °C) were found to promote colonizing bacterial assemblages with larger biomasses, higher activity and more degrading bacteria than winter temperatures (13.3 ± 2.49 °C). Consequently, some sorbed pollutants underwent significant decline in the summer, and this decline was particularly the case for PAHs with low (2-3 rings) and median (4 rings) molecular weights such as phenanthrene (59.4 ± 1.6%), chrysene (70.6 ± 4.2%), fluoranthene (77.1 ± 13.3%) and benz[a]anthracene (71.5 ± 11.0%). In our winter test, however, most pollutants underwent a consistent increase throughout the 8-week exposure period. Moreover, more biorefractory pollutants including PCBs and high molecular weight (5-6 rings) PAHs accumulated regardless of bacterial characteristics. Two putative PAH-degrading bacteria appeared with high relative abundances during the summer test, i.e., family Rhodobacteraceae (18.6 ± 0.5%) and genus Sphingomicrobium (22.4 ± 3.6%), associated with drastic decreases in low (45.2 ± 0.4%) and median (66.0 ± 2.5%) molecular weight PAHs, respectively. Bacterial degradation effects of biofilms on PAHs are also supported by the correlative dynamics of salicylic acid, an important degradation intermediate of PAHs. The results of this study indicate that MP's HOC vector effects are essentially determined by interactions between attached pollutants and microbial assemblages, which are further related to bacterial activity and pollutant features. Further studies of biofilm effects on MP toxicity and on the metabolic pathways of MP-attached HOCs are required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2020.116118DOI Listing
October 2020

Fluorescence characteristics and biodegradability of dissolved organic matter (DOM) leached from non-point sources in southeastern China.

Environ Pollut 2020 Mar 17;258:113807. Epub 2019 Dec 17.

Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen, 361021, PR China.

Under the increasingly intensive measures for surface water restoration in China, point source discharge has been strictly regulated; however, for non-point sources, which constitute a large part of surface water pollutants, effective control has been difficult to reach. A comprehensive understanding of the characteristics of non-point source pollutants is essential for surface water improvement programs of cities such as Ningbo, on the southeast coast of China. Ningbo has made tremendous efforts in the past few years to control point source pollutants, but available data and management strategies on the non-point source pollutants are still limited. To this end, leachates of representative non-point source samples from the territory of Ningbo, including cropland and wetland soil, urban channel sediment, and poultry manure, were examined and compared focusing on the fluorescence characteristics and biodegradability of the dissolved organic matter (DOM). Results indicated that biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) accounting for the total DOC was 46.7 ± 0.7% for cropland, wetland (56.3 ± 6.8%), non-sewage channel (60.1 ± 0.4%), sewage channel (74.5 ± 1.1%), and poultry manure (62.7 ± 4.5%). The leachates of the studied samples showed significant differences in both the amount and composition of DOM. However, a fluorescence component representing tryptophan-like substances identified by the excitation-emission matrix (EEM) combined with parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis effectively predicted the BDOC variations among the studied samples. Moreover, under the studied nutrient concentrations, which were equivalent to Grade III water quality in China, nutrient limitation of microbial degradation was not observed. Threats to water quality, especially excessive consumption of dissolved oxygen, could be posed by the non-point source leachates due to their high bioavailability, large distribution, and weak nutrient restraint. Further investigations, including a quantitative evaluation of the non-point source pollution contribution, and pollutant blocking techniques are required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2019.113807DOI Listing
March 2020

Microplastics and associated PAHs in surface water from the Feilaixia Reservoir in the Beijiang River, China.

Chemosphere 2019 Apr 4;221:834-840. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

School of Chemical Engineering and Light Industry, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510006, China. Electronic address:

Microplastics have been a prevalent and persistent contamination problem in the global aquatic environment. In particular, microplastics that can adsorb persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and therefore transfer these POPs to organisms in the aquatic environment have received much attention. In this study, an investigation of microplastics in the surface water of the Feilaixia Reservoir (Guangdong Province, China), which is an important part of people's daily lives in Guangdong Province was carried out, mainly focusing on the characteristics and spatial distribution of microplastics, as well as microplastics and their adsorded PAHs in the surface water of the Feilaixia Reservoir were investigated. The average abundance of microplastics in the surface water of the Feilaixia Reservoir was 0.56 ± 0.45 items/m. Six kinds of polymers, including polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), expanded polystyrene (EPS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET), were identified, among which PP (52.31%) and PE (27.39%) were the major compositions. Four shapes of microplastics, i.e., foams, films, fragments and fibers were found, and films (37.78%) being the main shape. The most common typical size of the plastic particles ranged from 0.6 to 2 mm (41.36%). The total concentration of the sixteen PAHs carried on the EPS, PE and PP microplastics ranged from 282.4 to 427.3 ng/g; chrysene, benzo [ghi] perylene, and phenanthrene were abundant in the samples, at concentrations of 39.5-89.6 ng/g, 34.6-56.8 ng/g and 25.6-45.6 ng/g, respectively. Based on the ratios of the PAH isomers (Flut/Py < 1 and Phe/Ant >10), it was speculated that the source of the PAHs may be derived from the imperfect combustion of fossil fuels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.01.022DOI Listing
April 2019

Assessment of microplastics derived from mariculture in Xiangshan Bay, China.

Environ Pollut 2018 Nov 1;242(Pt B):1146-1156. Epub 2018 Aug 1.

Faculty of Architectural, Civil Engineering and Environment, Ningbo University, Ningbo, Zhejiang, 315211, PR China.

Mariculture activities including enclosure, raft and cage cultures employ a variety of plastic gear such as fishing nets, buoyant material and net cages. The plastic gear poses a potential source of microplastics to the coastal environment, but relevant data on the impacts of mariculture are still limited. To this end, a semi-enclosed narrow bay (i.e., Xiangshan Bay, China) with a long-term mariculture history was investigated to assess how mariculture activities affect microplastics in seawater and sediment. The results indicated that mariculture-derived microplastics accounted for approximately 55.7% and 36.8% of the microplastics in seawater and sediment, respectively. The average microplastic abundances of seawater and sediment were 8.9 ± 4.7 (mean ± SD, n = 18) items/m seawater and 1739 ± 2153 (n = 18) items/kg sediment, respectively. The types of mariculture-derived microplastics included polyethylene (PE) foam, PE nets, PE film, polypropylene (PP) rope, polystyrene (PS) foam and rubber. PE foam had the highest proportion (38.6%) in the seawater samples. High usage rates and the porous structure of PE foam led to the high abundance. The average microplastic sizes of seawater and sediment are 1.54 ± 1.53 mm and 1.33 ± 1.69 mm, respectively. The spatial variations in the abundance and size of microplastics implied that the mariculture-derived microplastics in Xiangshan Bay were transported along the Bay to the open sea. The results of this study indicate that mariculture activity can be a significant source of microplastics. Further research is required to investigate how the high microplastic abundance in mariculture zone affects marine organisms, especially cultured seafood.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2018.07.133DOI Listing
November 2018

Sorption behaviors of phenanthrene on the microplastics identified in a mariculture farm in Xiangshan Bay, southeastern China.

Sci Total Environ 2018 Jul 28;628-629:1617-1626. Epub 2018 Feb 28.

Faculty of Architectural, Civil Engineering and Environment, Ningbo University, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315211, PR China.

Recently, with the accumulation of evidence that microplastic can be ingested by a variety of marine organisms, microplastic sorption behaviors towards organic contaminants (OCs) have become the subject of more studies due to the concerns about the contaminant vector effect. In this study, the priority microplastics identified in a mariculture farm in Xiangshan Bay, China, including polyethylene (PE) and nylon fibers (i.e., derived from new fishing ropes and nets), were examined for their sorption behaviors. The results indicate that both plastic fibers show linear isotherms towards phenanthrene, a common target hydrophobic organic contaminant (HOC), revealing the characteristics of a partitioning mechanism. The sorption capacity of PE fiber was found to be 1-2 orders of magnitude higher (evaluated by Freundlich parameter log K) than that of nylon fiber, suggesting the importance of plastic surface functional groups (i.e., with or without hydrophilic groups). By comparing carbon normalized log K with literature data, the organic affinity of PE fiber was found to be 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than that of vectors, such as carbonaceous geosorbents (CG), but was 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than that of marine sediments. Small size and rough surface tended to enhance the sorption of plastic fibers of phenanthrene. In addition, phenol (log K: 1.46), a low-hydrophobicity compound, showed approximately 3 orders of magnitude lower sorption amounts onto both fibers compared to phenanthrene (log K: 4.46), indicating the selectivity of hydrophobicity. The results of this study demonstrate that the high abundance of plastic fibers distributed in mariculture farms could lead to a higher contaminant transfer effect than marine sediments, and their effects on cultured seafood (e.g., crab and fish) need further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.02.146DOI Listing
July 2018

Impacts of land-use on surface waters at the watershed scale in southeastern China: Insight from fluorescence excitation-emission matrix and PARAFAC.

Sci Total Environ 2018 Jun 2;627:647-657. Epub 2018 Feb 2.

The Belle W. Baruch Institute of Coastal Ecology and Forest Science, Clemson University, Georgetown, 29440, USA; School of Agricultural, Forestry and Environmental Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson 29634, USA.

In recent years, the Chinese government has strengthened its efforts in surface water protection and restoration through strict policies and heavy investments. A clear understanding of the impacts of land use on water quality is necessary in order to ensure an effective and efficient implementation of the ongoing surface water restoration program in China. To this end, four small watersheds (less than 5000 ha) in southeastern China, which have clear gradients in the intensities of agriculture (17.0-45.4%), forest (35.2-73.6%) and built-up area (3.3-8.5%), were investigated regarding the impacts of land use on water quality. In addition to the general water quality indices, characteristic components derived by fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (FEEMs) coupled with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) were employed to explore a more accurate association between land use and water quality. The results show that agricultural intensity has significant effects by elevating the concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC, an approximate six-fold increase) and total phosphorous (TP, an approximate four-fold increase) in the surface waters. A total of five PARAFAC components representing terrestrial (three components) and protein-like (two components) substances were identified. The PARAFAC results indicate that land-use patterns affected the dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the aspects of both amount and composition. The intensity (R.U.) of the terrestrial components showed a strong correlation (r = 0.95, p = 0.01) with agricultural land percentage. Moreover, although the proportion of built-up area varies with a relatively small range, a protein-like component could predict its impact with excellent sensitivity (r = 0.94, p = 0.02), whereas the general water quality indices were incapable of predicting the impact due to their multiple sources. The results of this study demonstrate that the FEEMs-PARAFAC technique provides an inexpensive and effective tool for policy makers to overcome the insensitivity of general water quality indices, particularly for the restoration of watersheds with complex land-use patterns.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.01.279DOI Listing
June 2018

Occurrence and distribution of microplastics at selected coastal sites along the southeastern United States.

Sci Total Environ 2018 Feb 14;613-614:298-305. Epub 2017 Sep 14.

Baruch Institute of Coastal Ecology & Forest Science, Clemson University, Georgetown, SC 29440, United States; Environmental Engineering & Earth Science, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634, United States; Department of Forestry & Environmental Conservation, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634, United States. Electronic address:

To investigate the occurrence and distribution of microplastics in the southeastern coastal region of the United States, we quantified the amount of microplastics in sand samples from multiple coastal sites and developed a predictive model to understand the drift of plastics via ocean currents. Sand samples from eighteen National Park Service (NPS) beaches in the Southeastern Region were collected and microplastics were isolated from each sample. Microplastic counts were compared among sites and local geography was used to make inferences about sources and modes of distribution. Samples were analyzed to identify the composition of particles using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). To predict the spatiotemporal distribution and movements of particles via coastal currents, a Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) was applied. Microplastics were detected in each of the sampled sites although abundance among sites was highly variable. Approximately half of the samples were dominated by thread-like and fibrous materials as opposed to beads and particles. Results of FTIR suggested that 24% consisted of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), while about 68% of the fibers tested were composed of man-made cellulosic materials such as rayon. Based on published studies examining sources of microplastics, the shape of the particles found here (mostly fibers) and the presence of PET, we infer the source of microplastics in coastal areas is mainly from urban areas, such as wastewater discharge, rather than breakdown of larger marine debris drifting in the ocean. Local geographic features, e.g., the nearness of sites to large rivers and urbanized areas, explain variance in amount of microplastics among sites. Additionally, the distribution of simulated particles is explained by ocean current patterns; computer simulations were correlated with field observations, reinforcing the idea that ocean currents can be a good predictor of the fate and distribution of microplastics at the sites sampled here.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.09.100DOI Listing
February 2018

Occurrence of microplastics in the beach sand of the Chinese inner sea: the Bohai Sea.

Environ Pollut 2016 Jul 2;214:722-730. Epub 2016 May 2.

The School of Coastal and Marine Systems Science, Coastal Carolina University, Conway, SC, 29528, United States.

The occurrence of microplastics in the beach sand of the Bohai Sea was investigated for the first time. The Bohai Sea is the largest Chinese inner sea and its coastal region is one of the most densely urbanized and industrialized zones of China. Samples from three costal sites (i.e., Bijianshan, Xingcheng and Dongdaihe) were collected, quantified and identified for microplastic analysis. Effects of sample depth and tourism activity were investigated. Surface samples (2 cm) contained higher microplastic concentrations than deep samples (20 cm). Samples from the bathing beach exhibited higher microplastic concentrations than the non-bathing beach, suggesting the direct contribution of microplastics from tourism activity. Of eight types of microplastics that were found, PEVA (polyethylene vinyl acetate), LDPE (light density polyethylene) and PS (polystyrene) were the largest in abundances. Moreover, the non-plastic items from samples were analyzed and results revealed that the majority abundance of the observed non-plastics were viscose cellulose fibers. Further studies are required to evaluate the environmental hazards of microplastics, especially as they may "act as a contaminant transporter" to the Bohai Sea ecosystem.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2016.04.080DOI Listing
July 2016

Removal of cyanide compounds from coking wastewater by ferrous sulfate: Improvement of biodegradability.

J Hazard Mater 2016 Jan 22;302:468-474. Epub 2015 Oct 22.

School of Bioscience and Bioengineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510006, PR China.

The effect of ferrous sulfate (FeSO4) treatment on the removal of cyanide compounds and the improvement of biodegradability of coking wastewater were investigated by varying Fe:TCN molar ratios. Results suggested that the reaction between FeSO4 and coking wastewater was a two-step process. At the first step, i.e., 0≤Fe:TCN≤1.0, the reaction mechanisms were dominated by the precipitation of FeS, the complexation of CN(-), and the coagulation of organic compounds. The COD of coking wastewater decreased from 3748.1 mg/L to 3450.2 mg/L, but BOD5:COD (B/C) was improved from 0.30 to 0.51. At the second step, i.e., 1.0
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2015.10.013DOI Listing
January 2016

Spectroscopic characterization of dissolved organic matter in coking wastewater during bio-treatment: full-scale plant study.

Water Sci Technol 2015 ;72(8):1411-20

School of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, China E-mail: The Key Lab of Pollution Control and Ecosystem Restoration in Industry Clusters, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510006, China.

This paper taking a full-scale coking wastewater (CWW) treatment plant as a case study aimed to characterize removal behaviors of dissolved organic matter (DOM) by UV spectra and fluorescence excitation-emission matrix-parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC), and investigate the correlations between spectroscopic indices and water quality parameters. Efficient removal rates of chemical oxygen demand (COD), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total nitrogen (TN) after the bio-treatment were 91.3%, 87.3% and 69.1%, respectively. UV270 was proven to be a stable UV absorption peak of CWW that could reflect the mixture of phenols, heterocyclics, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and their derivatives. Molecular weight and aromaticity were increased, and also the content of polar functional groups was greatly reduced after bio-treatment. Three fluorescent components were identified by PARAFAC: C1 (tyrosine-like), C2 (tryptophan-like) and C3 (humic-like). The removal rate of protein-like was higher than that of humic-like and C1 was identified as biodegradable substance. Correlation analysis showed UV270 had an excellent correlation with COD (r=0.921, n=60, P<0.01) and DOC (r=0.959, n=60, P<0.01) and significant correlation (r=0.875, n=60, P<0.01) was also found between C2 and TN. Therefore, spectroscopic characterization could provide novel insights into removal behaviors of DOM and potential to monitor water quality real-time during CWW bio-treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.2015.333DOI Listing
February 2016

Occurrence of microplastics in the coastal marine environment: First observation on sediment of China.

Mar Pollut Bull 2015 Sep 17;98(1-2):274-80. Epub 2015 Jul 17.

Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Light Industry, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 51006, China.

Microplastics in sediments from the Beibu Gulf and the coastline of China Sea were investigated to evaluate the occurrence and abundance of microplastics in China for the first time. Microplastics (<5mm) were taken from sediments by a flotation method. The number of microplastics was counted by a fluorescence microscope, an instrument that is rarely used in the detection of microplastics in sediments. This instrument led to results that were satisfactory. Compared with other sampled areas, microplastics were found in massive concentrations in China. Four types of microplastics, HDPE, PET, PE and PS, were identified. The results will provide useful background information for further investigations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2015.07.028DOI Listing
September 2015

Water quality of small seasonal wetlands in the Piedmont ecoregion, South Carolina, USA: Effects of land use and hydrological connectivity.

Water Res 2015 Apr 13;73:98-108. Epub 2015 Jan 13.

The Belle W. Baruch Institute of Coastal Ecology and Forest Science, Clemson University, Georgetown, SC 29440, USA; Department of Forestry and Environmental Conservation, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634, USA. Electronic address:

Small, shallow, seasonal wetlands with short hydroperiod (2-4 months) play an important role in the entrapment of organic matter and nutrients and, due to their wide distribution, in determining the water quality of watersheds. In order to explain the temporal, spatial and compositional variation of water quality of seasonal wetlands, we collected water quality data from forty seasonal wetlands in the lower Blue Ridge and upper Piedmont ecoregions of South Carolina, USA during the wet season of February to April 2011. Results indicated that the surficial hydrological connectivity and surrounding land-use were two key factors controlling variation in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) in these seasonal wetlands. In the sites without obvious land use changes (average developed area <0.1%), the DOC (p < 0.001, t-test) and TDN (p < 0.05, t-test) of isolated wetlands were significantly higher than that of connected wetlands. However, this phenomenon can be reversed as a result of land use changes. The connected wetlands in more urbanized areas (average developed area = 12.3%) showed higher concentrations of dissolved organic matter (DOM) (DOC: 11.76 ± 6.09 mg L(-1), TDN: 0.74 ± 0.22 mg L(-1), mean ± standard error) compared to those in isolated wetlands (DOC: 7.20 ± 0.62 mg L(-1), TDN: 0.20 ± 0.08 mg L(-1)). The optical parameters derived from UV and fluorescence also confirmed significant portions of protein-like fractions likely originating from land use changes such as wastewater treatment and livestock pastures. The average of C/N molar ratios of all the wetlands decreased from 77.82 ± 6.72 (mean ± standard error) in February to 15.14 ± 1.58 in April, indicating that the decomposition of organic matter increased with the temperature. Results of this study demonstrate that the water quality of small, seasonal wetlands has a direct and close association with the surrounding environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2015.01.007DOI Listing
April 2015

Development of organovermiculite-based adsorbent for removing anionic dye from aqueous solution.

J Hazard Mater 2010 Aug 20;180(1-3):499-507. Epub 2010 Apr 20.

College of Environmental Science & Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510006, PR China.

This paper reports on the development of organovermiculite-based adsorbent for removing Congo Red (CR), a model anionic dye, from aqueous solution. The organovermiculite was prepared using hexadecyl trimethylammonium bromide (HDTMAB) with variations in cation exchange capacity (CEC) and was then characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results from the adsorption experiments showed that with the organic modification of 50, 100, and 200% CEC, the adsorption capacity of vermiculite towards CR was greatly improved from 2.6 to 74.07, 175.44 and 192.31 mg/g, respectively, at 298 K. The adsorption isotherm experiment was conducted at different temperatures (298, 308 and 318 K), and it was found that the uptake of CR increased with increasing temperature. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were applied and the Langmuir model was found to fit the equilibrium data better. The adsorption kinetics was found to follow the pseudo-second-order model. In addition, various thermodynamic parameters such as changes in enthalpy, entropy, and the Gibbs free energy were calculated, showing adsorption to be an endothermic yet spontaneous process. The results indicated that the organovermiculite may be an effective adsorbent for the removal of anionic dyes from wastewater.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2010.04.059DOI Listing
August 2010