Publications by authors named "Xuan Chen"

441 Publications

Patterns of mental health problems before and after easing COVID-19 restrictions: Evidence from a 105248-subject survey in general population in China.

PLoS One 2021 3;16(8):e0255251. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Shantou Longhu People's Hospital, Shantou, Guangdong, China.

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has alarming implications for individual and population level mental health. Although the future of COVID-19 is unknown at present, more countries or regions start to ease restrictions. The findings from this study have provided the empirical evidence of prevalence and patterns of mental disorders in Chinese general population before and after easing most COVID-19 restrictions, and information of the factors associated with these patterns.

Methods: A cross-sectional population-based online survey was carried out from February to March 2020 in the general population across all provinces in China. The 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) was incorporated in the survey. Latent class analyses were performed to investigate the patterns of mental disorders and multinomial logistic regressions were used to examine how individual and regional risk factors can predict mental disorder patterns.

Results: Four distinctive patterns of mental health were revealed in the general population. After the ease of most COVID-19 restrictions, the prevalence of high risk of mental disorders decreased from 25.8% to 20.9% and prevalence of being high risk of unhappiness and loss of confidence decreased from 10.1% to 8.1%. However, the prevalence of stressed, social dysfunction and unhappy were consistently high before and after easing restrictions. Several regional factors, such as case mortality rate and healthcare resources, were associated with mental health status. Of note, healthcare workers were less likely to have mental disorders, compared to other professionals and students.

Conclusions: The dynamic management of mental health and psychosocial well-being is as important as that of physical health both before and after the ease of COVID-19 restrictions. Our findings may help in mental health interventions in other countries and regions while easing COVID-19 restrictions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0255251PLOS
August 2021

Case Report: Rare Iliac Vein Compression (May-Thurner) Syndrome in a Pediatric Patient.

Front Pediatr 2021 15;9:694782. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Cardiology, Children's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Iliac vein compression syndrome (IVCS) or May-Thurner syndrome occurs predominantly in young to middle-aged women. Here we reported a case of IVCS in a 5-year-old boy. The child was admitted to our vasculocardiology department with left lower extremity that had been swollen for 1 month. Blood tests revealed coagulation routine and platelets in the normal ranges. Computer tomography angiography (CTA) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed the left common iliac vein had become narrow before it entered the right common iliac vein. To further clarify, we performed angiography, which clearly showed the stenosis and the blood return of the left common iliac vein. So IVCS was diagnosed. What is more, we found the aorta descended to the right of the spine, and this may be the reason for the apparent compression of the left common iliac vein. Given the young age and mild symptoms of the child, the treatment was conservative mainly including elevation of the affected limb, wearing medical elastic socks, and short-term oral aspirin for anticoagulation. Meanwhile, the boy is being followed up closely. If the swelling of the left lower extremity significantly increases, stent placement may need to be considered in the future.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2021.694782DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8319599PMC
July 2021

Circadian Rhythms of 11-oxygenated C19 Steroids and ∆5-Steroid Sulfates in Healthy Men.

Eur J Endocrinol 2021 Jul 1. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

R Auchus, Pharmacology & Internal Medicine, Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology & Diabetes, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, United States.

Background: Many hormones display distinct circadian rhythms, driven by central regulators, hormonal bioavailability, and half-life. A set of 11-oxygenated C19 steroids (11-oxyandrogens) and pregnenolone sulfate (PregS) are elevated in congenital adrenal hyperplasia and other disorders, but their circadian patterns have not been characterized.

Participants And Methods: Peripheral blood was collected every 2 h over 24 h from healthy volunteer men (10 young, 18-30 years, and 10 older, 60-80 years). We used mass spectrometry to quantify 15 steroids, including: androstenedione (A4), testosterone (T), 11β-hydroxy- and 11-ketotestosterone (11OHT, 11KT),11β-hydroxy- and 11-ketoandrostenedione (11OHA4, 11KA4), and 4 ∆5-steroid sulfates. Diurnal models including: mesor (rhythm adjusted median), peak, and nadir concentrations, acrophase, and amplitude were computed.

Results: 11OHA4 followed a rhythm similar to cortisol: acrophase, 8AM, nadir, 9PM and were similar in young and old men. 11KT had similar diurnal patterns, but the peak was lower in older than in young men, as was the case for A4. All 4 steroid sulfates were higher in young vs. older men. PregS and 17-hydroxypregnenolone sulfate (17OHPregS) showed sustained elevations between 8AM-6PM, and nadirs around midnight, while DHEAS and AdiolS displayed minimal diurnal variations. All 4 11-oxyandrogens correlated tightly with cortisol (r from 0.54 for 11OHT to 0.81 for 11OHA4, p<0.0001 for all), but very weakly with T, supporting their adrenal origin and ACTH governance.

Conclusions: 11-oxyandrogens, PregS, and 17OHPregS display distinct circadian and age variations, which should be accounted for when used as clinical biomarkers.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/EJE-21-0348DOI Listing
July 2021

Comparison of prognosis and outcomes of catheter ablation versus drug therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation and stable coronary artery disease: A prospective propensity-score matched cohort study.

Clin Cardiol 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Cardiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing Institute of Heart Lung and Blood Vessel Diseases, Beijing, China.

Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) and stable coronary artery disease (SCAD) frequently coexist.

Hypothesis: To investigate the prognosis of catheter ablation versus drug therapy in patients with AF and SCAD.

Methods: In total, 25 512 patients with AF in the Chinese AF Registry between 2011 and 2019 were screened for SCAD. 815 patients with AF and SCAD underwent catheter ablation therapy were matched with patients by drug therapy in a 1:1 ratio. Primary end point was composite of thromboembolism, coronary events, major bleeding, and all-cause death. The secondary endpoints were each component of the primary endpoint and AF recurrence.

Results: Over a median follow-up of 45 ± 23 months, the patients in the catheter ablation group had a higher AF recurrence-free rate (53.50% vs. 18.41%, p < .01). In multivariate analysis, there was no significant difference between the strategy of catheter ablation and drug therapy in primary composite end point (adjusted HR 074, 95%CI 0.54-1.002, p = .0519). However, catheter ablation was associated with fewer all-cause death independently (adjusted HR 0.36, 95%CI 0.22-0.59, p < .01). In subgroup analysis, catheter ablation was an independent risk factor for all-cause death in the high-stroke risk group (adjusted HR 0.39, 95%CI 0.23-0.64, p < .01), not in the low-medium risk group (adjusted HR 0.17, 95%CI 0.01-2.04, p = .17).

Conclusions: In the patients with AF and SCAD, catheter ablation was not independently associated with the primary composite endpoint compared with drug therapy. However, catheter ablation was an independent protective factor of all-cause death.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/clc.23699DOI Listing
July 2021

Breast invasive ductal carcinoma diagnosis with a three-miRNA panel in serum.

Biomark Med 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong, 515041, China.

Breast cancer, especially invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), is the cause of a great clinical burden. miRNA could be considered as a noninvasive biomarkers for IDC diagnosis. Two hundred and sixty participants (135 IDC patients and 125 healthy controls) were enrolled in a three-cohort study. The expression of 28 miRNAs in serum were detected with quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. Bioinformatic analysis was used for predicting the target genes of three selected miRNAs. The expression level of seven miRNAs (miR-9-5p, miR-34b-3p, miR-1-3p, miR-146a-5p, miR-20a-5p, miR-34a-5p, miR-125b-5p) was discrepant at the validation cohort. Through statistical test, a three-miRNA panel (miR-9-5p, miR-34b-3p, miR-146a-5p) was significant for IDC diagnosis (AUC = 0.880, sensitivity = 86.25%, specificity = 81.25%). The three-miRNA panel in serum could be used as a noninvasive biomarker in the diagnosis of IDC.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/bmm-2020-0785DOI Listing
July 2021

Preparation of carbon dots-based nanoparticles and their research of bioimaging and targeted antitumor therapy.

J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2021 Jul 7. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Resources Utilization, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin, Heilongjiang, China.

Carbon dots (CDs) are nanomaterials with excellent photoluminescence property, usually used in the field of bioimaging tumor cells. However, its practical applicability in cancer therapeutics is limited by CDs' insensitive surface properties to complicated tumor microenvironment in vivo. Herein, a new type of innovative biomimetic nanoparticles has been formed with HeLa cell membranes (CM) and multifunctional CDs containing antitumor and bioimaging activities. The CDs are prepared by a facile one-step microwave-assisted procedure. Gallic acid is used as carbon resource and antitumor active molecule. Gelatin is treated as the nitrogen resource. Citric acid monohydrate is used as the auxiliary carbon source and the Hela CM is used for tumor targeting. A series of fluorescence analyses has proved its homotypic targeting and ability of diagnosis. Besides, in vitro and in vivo antitumor experiments further indicate their better antitumor efficiency. The findings show the totally new nanoparticles' feasibilities of dealing with the clinical therapy problems as well as applying for the integration of diagnosis and targeting therapy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbm.b.34905DOI Listing
July 2021

Reversed lipid micellar hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction of rotigotine in rat plasma.

J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2021 Jul 22;1178:122583. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

School of Pharmacy, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan 030001, PR China. Electronic address:

A hollow fiber liquid phase microextraction (HF-LPME) based on a reversed lipid micelle as the extraction phase was proposed and combined with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for the determination of rotigotine in biological matrix. In the proposed procedure, pieces of hollow fibers were fastened on a magnetic stir bar using a thread to provide better precision. Rotigotine was extracted from 5 mL of diluted plasma sample phase with pH 6 into reversed lipid micelle (5 mmol/L of dipalmitoyl phosphatidyl choline in n-octanol/water) impregnated in both the wall pores and the lumen of the hollow fiber. After the extraction at 900 rpm and room temperature for 30 min, the acceptor phase of reversed lipid micelle was collected for HPLC analysis. Various parameters affecting the extraction efficiency, such as type of surfactant and organic solvent, surfactant concentration, sample phase pH, salt amount, extraction time, stirring rate, and dilution factor of the plasma sample, were investigated and optimized. Furthermore, the formed reversed lipid micelle was characterized by fluorescence method. Under the optimal conditions, the linear range of rotigotine was between 2 ng/mL and 100 ng/mL with determination coefficient (r) ≥ 0.9913. It is shown from results of method validation that the satisfactory accuracy (the relative errors between -8.5% and 3.3%), precision (the relative standard deviations from 3.8% to 8.9%), stability and matrix effect were obtained. The enrichment factor (EF) of the reversed lipid micelle-based HF-LPME for rotigotine reached 126. And the feasibility of the proposed method was confirmed by the application to the pharmacokinetic study of rotigotine in rat plasma.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jchromb.2021.122583DOI Listing
July 2021

[Tracing the sources of sedimentary organic matter in Nanyue small watershed based on C, N and C/N].

Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 2021 Jun;32(6):1998-2006

Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development in Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences/Key Laboratory for Agro-Environment, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Beijing 100081, China.

Losses of organic matter in agricultural watersheds result in eutrophication and land degra-dation, which not only threaten water quality and food security, but also lead to environmental problems such as the greenhouse gases emission. We used C, N and C/N as fingerprint markers to trace the sources of sedimentary organic matter at the outlet in the Nanyue small watershed. We analyzed the spatial distribution in watershed sedimentary organic matter and soils of typical land use types, including forest, paddy field, and vegetable fields. The Bayesian stable isotope mixing model was used to quantitatively estimate the contribution of different sources. The results showed that there was significant spatial variation of δC. The δC of sediment organic matter (-22.6‰±0.53‰) and forest soil (-23.13‰±1.71‰) was significantly higher than that of paddy soil (-25.24‰±1.4‰). The differences of δN among the sources were not significant, with sediment having the maximum (4.37±0.83)‰ and forest soil having the minimum (2.38±1.97)‰. Forest soil had the highest C/N of 16.66±7.18, while paddy soil had the lowest C/N of 11.95±0.92. The results of the Bayesian stable isotope mixture model showed that the contribution rates of forest land, paddy fields and vegetable fields to the organic matter deposited at the outlet in the watershed were 19.6%, 15.7%, and 64.7%, respectively. Paddy filed and vegetable field had a combined contribution rate of 80.4%. It was concluded that, soils of agricultural land were the main sources of organic matter deposited in the Nanyue small watershed, and that nutrient loss in the watershed would be effectively controlled by optimizing farmland management.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.13287/j.1001-9332.202106.030DOI Listing
June 2021

Acceleration of shooting and bouncing ray method based on OptiX and normal vectors correction.

PLoS One 2021 25;16(6):e0253743. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Science and Technology on Electromagnetic Scattering Laboratory, Beijing, China.

The present paper deals with a new efficient shooting and bouncing ray (SBR) method based on OptiX and normal vectors correction. The basic idea is to make full use of the computing resources of the RTX series graphics cards. For ray tracing, the algorithm uses OptiX to invoke the built-in RT Cores of hardware. Thus, a fast intersection test can be implemented. To reduce the error of ray tracing caused by the facetted surface characterizing the curved surface, the direction of the reflected ray is corrected by normal vectors correction. Additionally, multiple GPU cores are invoked to accelerate the calculation of far-field integration of millions of ray tubes, which can improve the efficiency of the algorithm while reducing the data transmission time of heterogeneous devices. Simulation results show that the ray path after normal vectors correction is consistent with the theoretical results, and the algorithm can predict the RCS of arbitrary facetted geometries, which is 60 times faster than the SBR method based on kd-tree.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0253743PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8232448PMC
June 2021

Treatments of unruptured brain arteriovenous malformations: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jun;100(25):e26352

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Population Medicine and Public Health, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100730, China.

Background: The best therapeutic option for unruptured brain arteriovenous malformations (bAVMs) patients is disputed.

Objective: To assess the occurrence of obliteration and complications of patients with unruptured bAVMs after various treatments.

Methods: A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and so on to identify studies fulfilling predefined inclusion criteria. Baseline, treatment, and outcomes data were extracted for statistical analysis.

Results: We identified 28 eligible studies totaling 5852 patients. The obliteration rates were 98% in microsurgery group (95% confidence interval (CI): 96%-99%, I2 = 74.5%), 97% in surgery group (95%CI: 95%-99%, I2 = 18.3%), 87% in endovascular treatment group (95%CI: 80%-93%, I2 = 0.0%), and 68% in radiosurgery group (95%CI: 66%-69%, I2 = 92.0%). The stroke or death rates were 1% in microsurgery group (95%CI: 0%-2%, I2 = 0.0%), 0% in surgery group (95%CI: 0%-1%, I2 = 0.0%), 4% in endovascular treatment group (95%CI: 0%-8%, I2 = 85.8%), and 3% in radiosurgery group (95%CI: 3%-4%, I2 = 82.9%). In addition, the proportions of hemorrhage were 2% in microsurgery group (95%CI: 1%-4%, I2 = 0.0%), 23% in endovascular treatment group (95%CI: 7%-39%), and 12% in radiosurgery group (95%CI: 12%-13%, I2 = 99.2%). As to neurological deficit, the occurrence was 9% in microsurgery group (95%CI: 6%-11%, I2 = 94.1%), 20% in surgery group (95%CI: 13%-27%, I2 = 0.0%), 14% in endovascular treatment group (95%CI: 10%-18%, I2 = 64.0%), and 8% in radiosurgery group (95%CI: 7%-9%, I2 = 66.6%).

Conclusions: We found that microsurgery might provide lasting clinical benefits in some unruptured bAVMs patients for its high obliteration rates and low hemorrhage. These findings are helpful to provide a reference basis for neurosurgeons to choose the treatment of patients with unruptured bAVMs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000026352DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8238300PMC
June 2021

A Nonlinear Relationship Between Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Urine Albumin to Creatinine Ratio in Type 2 Diabetes: A Cross-Sectional Study in China.

Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes 2021 9;14:2581-2593. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Endocrinology, Shenzhen People's Hospital, Shenzhen, 518020, Guangdong Province, People's Republic of China.

Background: Diabetic kidney disease often presents as increased urine albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR). 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) is considered as the best indicator of vitamin D status. Previous studies have shown that 25(OH)D is related to the UACR. However, evidence concerning the connection between 25(OH)D and UACR is still limited in the Chinese population.

Materials And Methods: A total of 549 participants with type 2 diabetes were enrolled in the study from Shenzhen People's Hospital, China. The participants were grouped by the tertiles of 25(OH)D level. The association between 25(OH)D and UACR was examined by multiple linear regression. A generalized additive model (GAM) was used to verify a non-linear relationship. We conducted a subgroup analysis to evaluate the robustness of the results.

Results: After adjusting for relevant variables, 25(OH)D was negatively correlated with UACR (β = -8.7, 95% CI (-12.0, -5.4)). A non-linear relationship was discovered between 25(OH)D and UACR, and the 25(OH)D threshold was 67. The effect sizes and confidence intervals on the left and right sides of the inflection point were -13.9 (-18.2, -9.6) and 8.9 (-1.1, 18.9), respectively. Subgroup analysis showed a stronger correlation could be detected in males. The same trend also could be found in patients older than 70 years old, those with using ACEI/ARB, with history of hypertension, with SBP ≥140 mmHg and eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73m.

Conclusion: The relationship between 25(OH)D and UACR is non-linear. 25(OH)D was negatively related to UACR when 25(OH)D is less than 67 nmol/L.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DMSO.S308390DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8200147PMC
June 2021

A Novel Technique for Extracorporeal Anastomosis: The Bronchus Forceps Is Applied to Reinforce the Esophageal Ring.

J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of the General Surgery, The Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, Luzhou, China.

For laparoscopic gastrectomy, it is significant to reduce the incidence of anastomotic leakage. The authors develop a novel technique for safe extracorporeal anastomosis that employs the bronchus forceps to reinforce the esophageal ring. From January 2017 to July 2020, 173 consecutive patients with gastric cancer received laparoscopic total gastrectomy or laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy. One hundred thirty-one patients only underwent extracorporeal anastomosis with a purse-string suture instrument (PSI) and a 25 mm circular stapler (Ethicon Intraluminal Circular Staplers CDH25A, Ethicon) (Conventional Surgery Group). In addition to these tools for extracorporeal anastomosis, the surgeon creatively used bronchus forceps to reinforce the esophageal ring on the anvil of circular stapler in 42 patients (Bronchus Forceps Ligation Group). The condition and the mean diameter of the narrowest part of the esophageal rings, postoperative outcomes, and complications were compared between the two groups. Under direct vision, the esophageal rings were more complete in the Bronchus Forceps Ligation Group. Furthermore, the mean diameter of the narrowest part of the esophageal rings in the Bronchus Forceps Ligation Group was wider than that in the Conventional Surgery Group (4.34 ± 0.84 versus 2.68 ± 0.74 mm;  < .001). Meanwhile, the incidence of anastomotic leakage was lower in the Bronchus Forceps Ligation Group. Although reinforcing the anvil with the bronchus forceps will add additional surgery time, almost all can be done in less than 5 minutes. With applying the bronchus forceps to reinforce the esophageal ring on the anvil of the circular stapler, the extracorporeal anastomosis can be performed more safely.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/lap.2021.0233DOI Listing
June 2021

RAD001 targeted HUVECs reverses 12-lipoxygenase-induced angiogenesis in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 Jul 13;25(14):6936-6947. Epub 2021 Jun 13.

Departments of Radiation Oncology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, China.

12-LOX plays an important role in the progression of various malignancies. However, the underlying mechanisms of the action of 12-LOX and tumour treatment strategies remain not fully defined. In this study, we investigated the possible roles of 12-LOX in ESCC and explored the new therapeutic target. Approximately 73% of ESCC tissues showed marked up-regulation of 12-LOX, which was associated with poor prognosis. 12-LOX overexpression was positively correlated with the malignant progression of ESCC as demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo. Up-regulation of 12-LOX significantly increased the proliferation of ESCC cells and the xenograft volume. Moreover, 12-LOX up-regulation promoted tube formation of HUVECs and tumour angiogenesis in xenografts. Mechanism investigation indicated that 12-LOX overexpression led to activation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and the up-regulation of VEGF in ESCC cells. Subsequent analysis indicated that the RAD001 could reverse the 12-LOX-induced promoting effect on ESCC. Specifically, the application of RAD001 inhibited the proliferation of ESCC cells and the tube-forming ability of HUVECs. In the drug group, the xenografts exhibited significant volume reduction and angiogenesis inhibition. We demonstrated that RAD001 could inhibit HUVEC migration. These findings presented the evidence that RAD001 had distinct roles on HUVECs and could exert anti-tumour effects by targeting not only the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway but the angiogenesis in ESCC.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.16705DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8278093PMC
July 2021

Intratumoral steroid profiling of adrenal cortisol-producing adenomas by liquid chromatography- mass spectrometry.

J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2021 Jun 2;212:105924. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA. Electronic address:

Endogenous Cushing syndrome (CS) is an endocrine disorder marked by excess cortisol production rendering patients susceptible to visceral obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, osteoporosis and diabetes mellitus. Adrenal CS is characterized by autonomous production of cortisol from cortisol-producing adenomas (CPA) via adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent mechanisms. A limited number of studies have quantified the steroid profiles in sera from patients with CS. To understand the intratumoral steroid biosynthesis, we quantified 19 steroids by mass spectrometry in optimal cutting temperature compound (OCT)-embedded 24 CPA tissue from patients with overt CS (OCS, n = 10) and mild autonomous cortisol excess (MACE, n = 14). Where available, normal CPA-adjacent adrenal tissue (AdjN) was also collected and used for comparison (n = 8). Immunohistochemistry (IHC) for CYP17A1 and HSD3B2, two steroidogenic enzymes required for cortisol synthesis, was performed on OCT sections to confirm the presence of tumor tissue and guided subsequent steroid extraction from the tumor. LC-MS/MS was used to quantify steroids extracted from CPA and AdjN. Our data indicated that CPA demonstrated increased concentrations of cortisol, cortisone, 11-deoxycortisol, corticosterone, progesterone, 17OH-progesterone and 16OH-progesterone as compared to AdjN (p < 0.05). Compared to OCS, MACE patient CPA tissue displayed higher concentrations of corticosterone, 18OH-corticosterone, 21-deoxycortisol, progesterone, and 17OH-progesterone (p < 0.05). These findings also demonstrate that OCT-embedded tissue can be used to define intra-tissue steroid profiles, which will have application for steroid-producing and steroid-responsive tumors.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsbmb.2021.105924DOI Listing
June 2021

Ginsenoside Rh1 Improves Type 2 Diabetic Nephropathy through AMPK/PI3K/Akt-Mediated Inflammation and Apoptosis Signaling Pathway.

Am J Chin Med 2021 27;49(5):1215-1233. Epub 2021 May 27.

College of Chinese Medicinal Materials, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun 130118, P. R. China.

Although ginseng ( C.A. Meyer) has received extensive attention in the treatment and prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the past few decades, there are few studies on the complications of T2DM. At present, obesity-linked diabetic nephropathy (DN) has become the most prevailing element of the end-stage renal failure in the world. The aim of this work is to evaluate the ameliorative effects of ginsenoside Rh1 (G-Rh1) on DN induced by high fat diet plus streptozotocin (HFD/STZ) through some potential and combined mechanisms of action. The results showed that G-Rh1 treatment at 5 and 10 mg/kg for 8 weeks exerted excellent effects in controlling fasting blood glucose (FBG), improving glucose tolerance, and increasing insulin level. In addition, G-Rh1 effectively prevents the excessive production of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), a diabetic nephropathy marker, in HFD/STZ induced DN mice. Meanwhile, oxidation indicators including SOD, GSH, and MDA were improved by G-Rh1 treatment to varying degrees. It is worth noting that G-Rh1 not only inhibits the secretion of Nox1 and Nox4 in kidney tissues, but also has an inhibitory effect on inflammatory factors and NF-[Formula: see text]B signaling pathway. Importantly, further in-depth research on molecular mechanisms provides vital evidence that the ameliorative effect of G-Rh1 on DN is related to the inhibition of apoptosis and the AMPK/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. In summary, G-Rh1 may be of great value in improving the treatment of DN although more experimental data is needed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/S0192415X21500580DOI Listing
May 2021

Tracking Salmonella enterica by whole genome sequencing of isolates recovered from broiler chickens in a poultry production system.

Int J Food Microbiol 2021 Jul 17;350:109246. Epub 2021 May 17.

Key Laboratory of Bio-Resource and Eco-Environment of Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University; Animal Disease Prevention and Food Safety Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Chengdu, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Salmonella enterica is a major cause of foodborne diseases, and is also an important pathogenic bacterium in poultry industry. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) has become a crucial molecular typing technology used for the surveillance of the pathogenic bacteria. In the present study, we adopted WGS for tracking transmission of S. enterica in the production chain of broiler chickens. A total of 74 S. enterica strains were isolated from the different steps of breeding and slaughtering in a large production enterprise in Sichuan Province, China. The isolation rate of Salmonella was the highest in procedure of defeathering (50.0%) and evisceration (36.7%). Serotype identification showed that 74 Salmonella isolates included 7 serotypes, among which Mbandaka accounted for the highest proportions (35.1%). WGS revealed that 74 strains belonged to 7 different sequence types (STs), as well as 7 different ribosomal STs and 35 core genome STs. cgMLST-based Minimum Spanning Trees and phylogenetic tree based on the SNPs indicated that three serotypes, Mbandaka, Indiana and Kentucky, could be clonally transmitted between broiler farm and slaughterhouse. Heterogeneous resistant phenotypes and genotypes were found in two serotypes, Indiana and Kentucky. Our study indicated WGS in an accurate tool for molecular typing of S. enterica. Routine surveillance of S. enterica in the production chain of broiler chickens is needed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2021.109246DOI Listing
July 2021

The PHD transcription factor Cti6 is involved in the fungal colonization and aflatoxin B1 biological synthesis of Aspergillus flavus.

IMA Fungus 2021 May 18;12(1):12. Epub 2021 May 18.

Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Fungi and Mycotoxins of Fujian Province, Key Laboratory of Biopesticide and Chemical Biology of Education Ministry, Proteomic Research Center, and School of Life Sciences, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, 350002, China.

Aspergillus flavus and its main secondary metabolite AFB1 pose a serious threat to several important crops worldwide. Recently, it has been reported that some PHD family transcription factors are involved in the morphogenesis and AFB1 biological synthesis in A. flavus, but the role of Cti6, a PHD domain containing protein in A. flavus, is totally unknown. The study was designed to reveal the biological function of Cti6 in the fungus by deletion of cti6, and its two domains (PHD and Atrophin-1) through homologous recombination, respectively. The results showed that Cti6 might up-regulate the mycelium growth, conidiation, sclerotia formation and AFB1 biological synthesis of A. flavus by its PHD domain, while Atrophin-1 also improved the conidiation of the fungus. The qRT-PCR analysis showed that Cti6 increased the conidiation of the fungus through AbaA and BrlA mediated conidiation pathway, triggered the formation of sclerotia by orthodox sclerotia formation pathway, and improved the production of AFB1 by orthodox AFB1 synthesis pathway. Crops models analysis showed that A. flavus Cti6 plays vital role in colonization and the production of AFB1 on the host grains mainly via PHD domain. Bioinformatics analysis showed Cti6 is conservative in Aspergillus spp., and mCherry mediated subcellular localization showed that most Cti6 accumulated in the nuclei, which reflected that Cti6 performed its important biological function in the nuclei in Aspergillus spp.. The results of the current study elucidate the roles of PHD domain containing proteins in the mechanism of the infection of crops by A. flavus, and provided a novel target for effectively controlling the contamination of Aspergillus spp. to crops.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s43008-021-00062-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8130384PMC
May 2021

Intermittent Hypoxic Preconditioning: A Potential New Powerful Strategy for COVID-19 Rehabilitation.

Front Pharmacol 2021 30;12:643619. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

College of Rehabilitation Science, Shanghai University of Medicine and Health Sciences, Shanghai, China.

COVID-19 is a highly infectious respiratory virus, which can proliferate by invading the ACE2 receptor of host cells. Clinical studies have found that the virus can cause dyspnea, pneumonia and other cardiopulmonary system damage. In severe cases, it can lead to respiratory failure and even death. Although there are currently no effective drugs or vaccines for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19, the patient's prognosis recovery can be effectively improved by ameliorating the dysfunction of the respiratory system, cardiovascular systems, and immune function. Intermittent hypoxic preconditioning (IHP) as a new non-drug treatment has been applied in the clinical and rehabilitative practice for treating chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), diabetes, coronary heart disease, heart failure, hypertension, and other diseases. Many clinical studies have confirmed that IHP can improve the cardiopulmonary function of patients and increase the cardiorespiratory fitness and the tolerance of tissues and organs to ischemia. This article introduces the physiological and biochemical functions of IHP and proposes the potential application plan of IHP for the rehabilitation of patients with COVID-19, so as to provide a better prognosis for patients and speed up the recovery of the disease. The aim of this narrative review is to propose possible causes and pathophysiology of COVID-19 based on the mechanisms of the oxidative stress, inflammation, and immune response, and to provide a new, safe and efficacious strategy for the better rehabilitation from COVID-19.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.643619DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8120309PMC
April 2021

Changes of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Kidney and Liver Injuries in Rats Based on Metabolomics Analysis.

J Inflamm Res 2021 6;14:1807-1825. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Pharmacy, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, 130021, People's Republic of China.

Background: The bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was the classic inducer to establish many inflammatory disease models, especially multiple organ injury. Evidences indicated that the mechanism that causes inflammation response is not just related to cytokine release. The main aim of this study was to better elucidate the possible links between metabolic changes and the pathogenesis of LPS-induced acute liver and kidney in order to understand the mechanisms and screening therapeutic targets for developing early diagnostic strategies and treatments.

Methods: An experimental rat model was established by intraperitoneal injection of 10 mg/kg LPS. An untargeted metabolomics analysis of the serum in the LPS and control groups was carried out using ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/QTOF-MS). LPS-induced pathological damage in the lungs, liver, kidneys, and colon was observed, along with changes in biochemical indexes, indicating that there was a severe inflammatory response in many organs after administration of LPS for 8 h. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) showed distinct separation in the serum metabolite profiles between the LPS and control groups, indicating significant changes in endogenous metabolites.

Results: The untargeted metabolomics analysis showed that there were 127 significantly different serum metabolites and 53 altered pathways after LPS administration, including pathways related to the metabolism of D-glutamine and D-glutamate, taurine and hypotaurine, beta-alanine, glutathione, and butanoate, which are involved in the inflammatory response, oxidative stress, and amino acid metabolism.

Conclusion: The study suggested that LPS-induced acute liver and kidney injury mainly involves inflammatory response, oxidative stress, and protein synthesis, finally causing multi-organ damage. Correcting the disturbances to the metabolites and metabolic pathways may help to prevent and/or treat LPS-induced acute liver and kidney damage.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JIR.S306789DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8110281PMC
May 2021

Molecular Interaction and Evolution of Jasmonate Signaling With Transport and Detoxification of Heavy Metals and Metalloids in Plants.

Front Plant Sci 2021 14;12:665842. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

School of Science, Western Sydney University, Penrith, NSW, Australia.

An increase in environmental pollution resulting from toxic heavy metals and metalloids [e.g., cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), and lead (Pb)] causes serious health risks to humans and animals. Mitigation strategies need to be developed to reduce the accumulation of the toxic elements in plant-derived foods. Natural and genetically-engineered plants with hyper-tolerant and hyper-accumulating capacity of toxic minerals are valuable for phytoremediation. However, the molecular mechanisms of detoxification and accumulation in plants have only been demonstrated in very few plant species such as and rice. Here, we review the physiological and molecular aspects of jasmonic acid and the jasmonate derivatives (JAs) in response to toxic heavy metals and metalloids. Jasmonates have been identified in, limiting the accumulation and enhancing the tolerance to the toxic elements, by coordinating the ion transport system, the activity of antioxidant enzymes, and the chelating capacity in plants. We also propose the potential involvement of Ca signaling in the stress-induced production of jasmonates. Comparative transcriptomics analyses using the public datasets reveal the key gene families involved in the JA-responsive routes. Furthermore, we show that JAs may function as a fundamental phytohormone that protects plants from heavy metals and metalloids as demonstrated by the evolutionary conservation and diversity of these gene families in a large number of species of the major green plant lineages. Using ATP-Binding Cassette G (ABCG) transporter subfamily of six representative green plant species, we propose that JA transporters in Subgroup 4 of ABCGs may also have roles in heavy metal detoxification. Our paper may provide guidance toward the selection and development of suitable plant and crop species that are tolerant to toxic heavy metals and metalloids.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.665842DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8079949PMC
April 2021

Yiqi Jiedu Huayu Decoction Alleviates Renal Injury in Rats With Diabetic Nephropathy by Promoting Autophagy.

Front Pharmacol 2021 12;12:624404. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Combination of Chinese and Western Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Diabetic nephropathy (DN), a common microvascular complication of diabetes, is one of the main causes of end-stage renal failure (ESRD) and imposes a heavy medical burden on the world. Yiqi Jiedu Huayu decoction (YJHD) is a traditional Chinese medicine formula, which has been widely used in the treatment of DN and has achieved stable and reliable therapeutic effects. However, the mechanism of YJHD in the treatment of DN remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of YJHD in the treatment of DN. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a normal control group, a diabetic group, an irbesartan group, and three groups receiving different doses of YJHD. Animal models were constructed using streptozotocin and then treated with YJHD for 12 consecutive weeks. Blood and urine samples were collected during this period, and metabolic and renal function was assessed. Pathological kidney injury was evaluated according to the kidney appearance, hematoxylin-eosin staining, Masson staining, periodic-acid Schiff staining, periodic-acid Schiff methenamine staining, and transmission electron microscopy. The expression levels of proteins and genes were detected by immunohistochemistry, western blotting, and real-time qPCR. Our results indicate that YJHD can effectively improve renal function and alleviate renal pathological injury, including mesangial matrix hyperplasia, basement membrane thickening, and fibrosis. In addition, YJHD exhibited podocyte protection by alleviating podocyte depletion and morphological damage, which may be key in improving renal function and reducing renal fibrosis. Further study revealed that YJHD upregulated the expression of the autophagy-related proteins LC3II and Beclin-1 while downregulating p62 expression, suggesting that YJHD can promote autophagy. In addition, we evaluated the activity of the mTOR pathway, the major signaling pathway regulating the level of autophagy, and the upstream PI3K/Akt and AMPK pathways. YJHD activated the AMPK pathway while inhibiting the PI3K/Akt and mTOR pathways, which may be crucial to its promotion of autophagy. In conclusion, our study shows that YJHD further inhibits the mTOR pathway and promotes autophagy by regulating the activity of the PI3K/Akt and AMPK pathways, thereby improving podocyte injury, protecting renal function, and reducing renal fibrosis. This study provides support for the application of and further research into YJHD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.624404DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8072057PMC
April 2021

[Retracted] H19 promotes the migration and invasion of colon cancer by sponging miR‑138 to upregulate the expression of HMGA1.

Int J Oncol 2021 06 17;58(6). Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of General Surgery, The Affiliated Hospital, Southwest Medical University, Luzhou, Sichuan 646000, P.R. China.

Following the publication of this paper, it was drawn to our attention by an interested reader that a row of tumour images featured in Fig. 5A of the above paper were strikingly similar to those featured in Fig. 7A of an article appearing in [Zhang X, Gao F, Zhou L, Wang H, Shi G and Tan X: UCA1 regulates the growth and metastasis of pancreatic cancer by sponging miR‑135a. Oncol Res 25: 1529‑1541, 2017]. Furthermore, similarities in the data were also identified comparing Fig. 4A in the above paper with Fig. 6A in the same paper published in by Zhang . Finally, immunohistochemistry data featured in Fig. 5G were strikingly similar to data featured in Fig. 7G in the following article [Li Y, Luo H, Xiao N, Duan J Wang Z and Wang S: Long noncoding RNA SChLAP1 accelerates the proliferation and metastasis of prostate cancer via targeting miR‑198 and promoting the MAPK1 pathway. Oncol Res 26: 131‑143, 2018]. The Editor asked the authors for an explanation to account for the appearance of strikingly similar data in their paper independently, although the authors never responded within a reasonable time to confirm that the paper should be retracted. The Editor has therefore made the executive decision to retract this paper. The Editor apologizes to the readership for any inconvenience caused. [the original article was published in International Journal of Oncology 50: 1801‑1809, 2017; DOI: 10.3892/ijo.2017.3941].
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ijo.2021.5206DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8025963PMC
June 2021

Effects of the E1 activating enzyme UBA2 on porcine oocyte maturation, apoptosis, and embryonic development in vitro.

Anim Sci J 2021 Jan;92(1):e13548

Department of Animal Science, College of Agriculture, Yanbian University, Yanji, China.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the E1 activating enzyme UBA2 on the expression of the SUMO-1 protein during in vitro maturation (IVM) of pig oocytes and embryonic development. In the 5 μg/ml UBA2 treatment group, the expression of the anti-apoptotic gene Bcl-2 and the embryo cleavage rate was significantly increased, while the proapoptotic gene Bax was significantly reduced. When 10 μg/ml UBA2 was added, the in vitro maturation rate, blastocyst rate, and SUMO-1 protein content of oocytes increased significantly (p < .05), and the expression of proapoptotic gene Caspase3 was significantly decreased (p < .05), while the viability of cumulus cells was extremely significantly reduced (p < .01). In summary, UBA2 can regulate the content of the SUMO-1 protein in mature pig oocytes in vitro, which in turn affects the maturation rate of oocytes, expression of apoptosis genes, cumulus cell viability, and the development of embryos after fertilization.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/asj.13548DOI Listing
January 2021

The effect of two endodontic sealers and interval before post-preparation and cementation on the bond strength of fiber posts.

Clin Oral Investig 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610041, China.

Objectives: To evaluate the effect of different endodontic sealers (epoxy resin-based and bioceramic-based) and the time of post-cementation on the bond strength of a fiber post cemented with resin cement.

Methods: Forty human premolars were instrumented and divided into 4 groups. According to the type of sealer and the time of post-cementation: AH-IM (AH Plus, post-cemented immediately after root canal treatment), SP-IM (iRoot SP, post-cemented immediately after root canal treatment), AH-OW (AH Plus, post-cementation after one week), and SP-OW (iRoot SP, post-cementation after one week). In each group, the samples were submitted to push-out test, and failure mode was assessed. Levene's test, one-way ANOVA, and Kruskal-Wallis analysis were applied for statistical analysis (α = 5%).

Results: The highest mean push-out bond strength was obtained from the SP-IM group in the apical part (10.45 ± 5.15MPa), while the lowest was observed in samples from the AH-OW group in the middle part (2.63 ± 1.54 MPa). One-way ANOVA showed that within the same root region, the time of post-cementation had a negative influence on the bonding strength in the SP groups in the middle and apical portion (P<0.05), however, when comparing the effect of type of sealers on bonding strength between the OW groups or IM groups within the same root region, no significant difference was observed regardless of the post cementation time (P>0.05).

Conclusions: The bond strength of the fiber post was higher when the post was cemented immediately after root canal treatment when the bioceramic sealer was applied.

Clinical Relevance: The correct choice of an endodontic sealer and the proper time of post-cementation may help to obtain the best quality of post-and-core restoration.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00784-021-03920-wDOI Listing
April 2021

Evaluation of the Genetic Variation Spectrum Related to Corneal Dystrophy in a Large Cohort.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 18;9:632946. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Shenyang Industrial Technology Institute of Ophthalmology, Shenyang, China.

Aims: To characterize the genetic landscape and mutation spectrum of patients with corneal dystrophies (CDs) in a large Han ethnic Chinese Cohort with inherited eye diseases (IEDs).

Methods: Retrospective study. A large IED cohort was recruited in this study, including 69 clinically diagnosed CD patients, as well as other types of eye diseases patients and healthy family members as controls. The 792 genes on the Target_Eye_792_V2 chip were used to screen all common IEDs in our studies, including 22 CD-related genes.

Results: We identified 2334 distinct high-quality variants on 22 CD-related genes in a large IEDs cohort. A total of 21 distinct pathogenic or likely pathogenic mutations were identified, and the remaining 2313 variants in our IED cohort had no evidence of CD-related pathogenicity. Overall, 81.16% ( = 56/69) of CD patients received definite molecular diagnoses, and transforming growth factor-beta-induced protein (), , and genes covered 91.07, 7.14, and 1.79% of the diagnosed cases, respectively. Twelve distinct disease-associated mutations in the gene were identified, 11 of which were previously reported and one is novel. Four of these mutations (p.D123H, p.M502V, p.P501T, and p.P501A) were redefined as likely benign in our Han ethnic Chinese IED cohort after performing clinical variant interpretation. These four mutations were detected in asymptomatic individuals but not in CD patients, especially the previously reported disease-causing mutation p.P501T. Among 56 CD patients with positive detected mutations, the recurrent mutations were p.R124H, p.R555W, p.R124C, p.R555Q, and p.R124L, and the proportions were 32.14, 19.64, 14.29, 10.71, and 3.57%, respectively. Twelve distinct pathogenic or likely pathogenic mutations of were detected in 28 individuals. The recurrent mutations were p.Y358H, p.R140X, and p.R205W, and the proportions were 25.00, 21.43, and 14.29%, respectively. All individuals associated with were missense mutations; 74.19% associated with mutations were missense mutations, and 25.81% were non-sense mutations. Hot regions were located in exons 4 and 12 of individuals and located in exon 3 of individuals. No mutations were identified.

Conclusion: For the first time, our large cohort study systematically described the variation spectrum of 22 CD-related genes and evaluated the frequency and pathogenicity of all 2334 distinct high-quality variants in our IED cohort. Our research will provide East Asia and other populations with baseline data from a Han ethnic population-specific level.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.632946DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8012530PMC
March 2021

HMGB1 Mediated Inflammation and Autophagy Contribute to Endometriosis.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 19;12:616696. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Quanzhou First Hospital Affiliated to Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, China.

Aim: High mobility group box (HMGB)-1 has been implicated in endometriosis due to the important regulatory roles of inflammation in endometriosis. The aim of the present study was to explore the roles of HMGB-1 in endometriosis and to elucidate the underlying mechanism.

Methods: Endometrial specimens were collected from women with endometriosis and healthy volunteers. Immunohistochemistry staining was used to determine the expression patterns and localization of HMGB-1 in the normal, eutopic and ectopic endometrial tissues. Western blotting and qRT-PCR were used to determine the mRNA and protein levels of inflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-1β], autophagy-related markers [beclin-1, autophagy-related (atg)13, microtubule-associated protein light chain (LC)3-I, LC-II and p62] and HMGB-1, respectively. Spearman's rank correlation analysis was employed to investigate the correlation between HMGB-1 with inflammatory cytokines and beclin-1. Besides, human endometrial stromal cells (HESCs) were isolated from ectopic endometrium and subsequently transfected with shRNA against HMGB-1. After the transfected cells were subjected to hypoxia, ELISA was used to determine the levels of HMGB-1 and inflammatory cytokines in the cell supernatant. Western blotting was used to determine the expression levels of autophagy-related markers in the cells.

Results: Positive correlations were observed between HMGB-1 and the inflammatory cytokines. In addition, a positive correlation was also identified between HMGB-1 and beclin-1 in the ectopic endometrium. Further results demonstrated that autophagy-related markers beclin-1, atg13 and p62 were significantly upregulated in the ectopic endometrium. In addition, HMGB-1 knockdown suppressed the levels of inflammatory cytokines IL-6, TNF-α and IL-1β and autophagy-related markers beclin-1 and atg13, while upregulated p62 in HESCs under hypoxic condition.

Conclusion: Knockdown of HMGB-1 under hypoxic condition regulated inflammatory cytokines and autophagy-related markers. HMGB-1 might contribute to the development of endometriosis in part through regulating inflammatory response and autophagy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2021.616696DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8018282PMC
March 2021

HSP70/DNAJ Family of Genes in the Brown Planthopper, : Diversity and Function.

Genes (Basel) 2021 03 10;12(3). Epub 2021 Mar 10.

State Key Laboratory for Managing Biotic and Chemical Threats to the Quality and Safety of Agro-Products, Key Laboratory of Biotechnology in Plant Protection of MOA of China and Zhejiang Province, Institute of Plant Virology, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211, China.

Heat shock 70kDa proteins (HSP70s) and their cochaperones DNAJs are ubiquitous molecular chaperones, which function as the "HSP70/DNAJ machinery" in a myriad of biological processes. At present, a number of HSP70s have been classified in many species, but studies on DNAJs, especially in insects, are lacking. Here, we first systematically identified and characterized the HSP70 and DNAJ family members in the brown planthopper (BPH), , a destructive rice pest in Asia. A total of nine HSP70 and 31 DNAJ genes were identified in the BPH genome. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses revealed the high diversity of the NlDNAJ family. Additionally, spatio-temporal expression analysis showed that most NlHSP70 and NlDNAJ genes were highly expressed in the adult stage and gonads. Furthermore, RNA interference (RNAi) revealed that seven NlHSP70s and 10 NlDNAJs play indispensable roles in the nymphal development, oogenesis, and female fertility of under physiological growth conditions; in addition, one HSP70 () was found to be important in the thermal tolerance of eggs. Together, our results in this study shed more light on the biological roles of HSP70/DNAJ in regulating life cycle, coping with environmental stresses, and mediating the interactions within, or between, the two gene families in insects.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes12030394DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7999391PMC
March 2021

Alteration of -Methyladenosine mRNA Methylation in a Rat Model of Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury.

Front Neurosci 2021 16;15:605654. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Neurosurgery, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, China.

Aim: This study was conducted in order to reveal the alterations in the -methyladenosine (m6A) modification profile of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury model rats.

Materials And Methods: Rats were used to establish the middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion (MCAO/R) model. MeRIP-seq and RNA-seq were performed to identify differences in m6A methylation and gene expression. The expression of m6A methylation regulators was analyzed in three datasets and detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, western blot, and immunofluorescence.

Results: We identified 1,160 differentially expressed genes with hypermethylated or hypomethylated m6A modifications. The differentially expressed genes with hypermethylated m6A modifications were involved in the pathways associated with inflammation, while hypomethylated differentially expressed genes were related to neurons and nerve synapses. Among the m6A regulators, FTO was specifically localized in neurons and significantly downregulated after MCAO/R.

Conclusion: Our study provided an m6A transcriptome-wide map of the MACO/R rat samples, which might provide new insights into the mechanisms of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2021.605654DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8009187PMC
March 2021

Thrombolysis Combined Therapy Using [email protected]/uPA Nanoparticles.

Front Chem 2021 11;9:643411. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Vascular Surgery, The Second People's Hospital of Anhui, Province, Hefei, China.

Massive hemorrhage caused by the uncontrolled release of thrombolysis drugs is a key issue of thrombolysis therapy in clinical practice. In this study, we report a near-infrared (NIR) light-triggered drug delivery system, i.e., [email protected] (CSP) nanoparticles, for the loading of a thrombolytic drug (urokinase plasminogen activators, uPA). CSP nanoparticles with the CuS nanoparticles as photothermal agents and mesoporous SiO for the loading of uPA were synthesized using a facile hydrothermal method. The CSP core-shell nanoparticles were demonstrated to possess excellent photothermal performance, exhibiting a photothermal conversion efficiency of up to 52.8%. Due to the mesoporous SiO coating, the CSP core-shell nanoparticles exhibited appropriate pore size, high pore volume, and large surface area; thus, they showed great potential to be used as drug carriers. Importantly, the release of uPA from [email protected]/uPA (CSPA) carriers can be promoted by the NIR laser irradiation. The drug loading content of uPA for the as-prepared NIR-triggered drug delivery system was calculated to be 8.2%, and the loading efficiency can be determined to be as high as 89.6%. Due to the excellent photothermal effect of CSP nanocarriers, the NIR-triggered drug delivery system can be used for infrared thermal imaging . The thrombolysis assessment demonstrated that the NIR-triggered drug delivery system showed excellent thrombolytic ability under the irradiation of an 808 nm laser, showing the combined therapy for thrombolysis. As far as we know, the CSPA core-shell nanoparticles used as NIR-triggered drug delivery systems for thrombolysis have not been reported.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fchem.2021.643411DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7991581PMC
March 2021
-->