Publications by authors named "Xu-Dong Tang"

106 Publications

Identification of the in vitro antiviral effect of BmNedd2-like caspase in response to Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus infection.

J Invertebr Pathol 2021 Jul 29;183:107625. Epub 2021 May 29.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Sericultural Biology and Biotechnology, School of Biotechnology, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212100, China; Key Laboratory of Silkworm and Mulberry Genetic Improvement, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Sericultural Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212100, China. Electronic address:

Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) is one of the most serious pathogens in sericulture, and the underlying antiviral mechanism in silkworm is still unclear. Bombyx mori Nedd2-like caspase (BmNc) has been identified as a candidate antiviral gene from previous transcriptome data, since it is differentially expressed in the midgut of differentially resistant silkworm strains following BmNPV infection. However, the molecular mechanism by which BmNc responds to BmNPV is unknown. In this study, the relationship between BmNc and BmNPV was confirmed by its significantly different expression in different tissues of differentially resistant strains after BmNPV infection. Moreover, the antiviral role of BmNc was confirmed by the significantly higher fluorescence signals of BV-eGFP after knockdown of BmNc in BmN cells, and a reduced signal after overexpression. This was further verified by the capsid gene vp39 expression, DNA copy number, and GP64 protein level in the RNAi and overexpression groups. Furthermore, the antiviral phenomenon of BmNc was found to be associated with apoptosis. In brief, BmNc showed a relatively high expression level in the metamorphosis stages, and the effect of BmNc on BmNPV infection following RNAi and overexpression was eliminated after treatment with the inducer, Silvestrol, and the inhibitor, Z-DEVD-FMK, respectively. Therefore, it is reasonable to conclude that BmNc is involved in anti-BmNPV infection via the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. The results provide valuable information for elucidating the molecular mechanism of silkworm resistance to BmNPV infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jip.2021.107625DOI Listing
July 2021

A Comparative Study for License Application Regulations on Proprietary Chinese Medicines in Hong Kong and Canada.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 9;8:617625. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Chinese Medicine plays a symbolic role among traditional medicines. As Chinese Medicine products are widely used around the globe, regulations for Chinese Medicine products are often used as models for the efficient regulation of natural products that are safe, and high-quality. We aimed to compare the regulatory registration requirements for Proprietary Chinese Medicines in Hong Kong and Canada. We compared registration requirements for Proprietary Chinese Medicine in Hong Kong and Canada based on publicly available information provided by the respective Regulators. A marketed product, Zhizhu Kuanzhong Capsule (SFDA approval number Z20020003; NPN approval number 80104354), was used as a case study to demonstrate the similarities and differences of the requirements in both Hong Kong and Canada. There were similarities and differences between the two regulatory systems in terms of the quality, safety and efficacy requirements. Despite the superficial appearance of similar categories and groups/classes, Hong Kong requires significantly more primary test data compared to Canada's reliance on attestation to manufacturing according the standards outlined in approved reference pharmacopeias/texts. Improved understand of the similarity and differences will enable applicants to plan appropriate strategies for gaining product approval. Exploring ways to harmonize the regulatory process has the potential to benefit manufacturers, regulators, and patients by increasing efficiency and decreasing costs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2021.617625DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7985161PMC
March 2021

Plasma Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio on the Third Day Postburn is Associated with 90-Day Mortality Among Patients with Burns Over 30% of Total Body Surface Area in Two Chinese Burns Centers.

J Inflamm Res 2021 24;14:519-526. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Burns, The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, People's Republic of China.

Introduction: Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a marker of inflammation. This study aimed to evaluate the potential role of NLR to predict 90-day mortality.

Methods: Data of 577 patients with burns over 30% of total body surface area were collected and retrospectively analyzed. The risk factors for 90-day mortality were evaluated using logistic regression analyses. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis of the 3rd day NLR was performed and the optimal cut-off value was calculated. The 90-day mortality rates were compared between high and low NLR groups using Kaplan-Meier analysis.

Results: Age, mechanical ventilation, burn index, 3rd day NLR, and 7th day red blood cell and platelet (PLT) counts were found to be independent predictive values for 90-day mortality. In contrast, percentage of total body surface area burned, inhalation injury, 1st day white blood cell and neutrophil counts, the 3rd day lymphocytes and PLT counts, and 7th day hemoglobin level were not independently associated with 90-day mortality. The area under the ROC curve of the 3rd day NLR for severe burn-delayed death prediction was 0.665 (95% confidence interval, 0.591-0.739), and the optimal cut-off value of the 3rd day NLR was 10.50. The 90-day mortality rates differed significantly between the NLR >10.5 group and the NLR ≤ 10.5 group (17.03% vs 5.92%, respectively; P < 0.01).

Conclusion: These results suggested that the 3rd day NLR was associated with an increased risk of death in severely burned patients; thus, it can provide useful information to predict 90-day mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JIR.S294543DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7917389PMC
February 2021

Chinese medicine formulas for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: Overview of systematic reviews.

World J Clin Cases 2021 Jan;9(1):102-117

Institute of Digestive Diseases, Longhua Hospital, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 200032, China.

Background: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects more than one-quarter of the global population. Due to the lack of approved chemical agents, many patients seek treatment from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formulas. A variety of systematic reviews have been published regarding the effectiveness and safety of TCM formulas for NAFLD.

Aim: To critically appraise available systematic reviews and sort out the high-quality evidence on TCM formulas for the management of NAFLD.

Methods: Seven databases were systematically searched from their inception to 28 February 2020. The search terms included "non-alcoholic fatty liver disease," "Chinese medicines," "systematic review," and their synonyms. Systematic reviews involving TCM formulas alone or in combination with conventional medications were included. The methodological quality and risk of bias of eligible systematic reviews were evaluated by using A Measure Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews 2 (AMSTAR 2) and Risk of Bias in Systematic Review (ROBIS). The quality of outcomes was assessed by the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system.

Results: Seven systematic reviews were ultimately included. All systematic reviews were conducted based on randomized controlled trials and published in the last decade. According to the AMSTAR 2 tool, one systematic review was judged as having a moderate confidence level, whereas the other studies were rated as having a low or extremely low level of confidence. The ROBIS tool showed that the included systematic reviews all had a high risk of bias due to insufficient consideration of identified concerns. According to the GRADE system, only two outcomes were determined as high quality; namely, TCM formulas with the HuoXueHuaYu principle were better than conventional medications in ultrasound improvement, and TCM formulas were superior to antioxidants in alanine aminotransferase normalization. Other outcomes were downgraded to lower levels, mainly because of heterogeneity among studies, not meeting optimal information sample size, and inclusion of excessive numbers of small sample studies. Nevertheless, the evidence quality of extracted outcomes should be further downgraded when applying to clinical practice due to indirectness.

Conclusion: The quality of available systematic reviews was not satisfactory. Researchers should avoid repeatedly conducting systematic reviews in this area and focus on designing rigorous randomized controlled trials to support TCM formula applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12998/wjcc.v9.i1.102DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7809658PMC
January 2021

The Effects of A Mosquito Salivary Protein on Sporozoite Traversal of Host Cells.

J Infect Dis 2021 Aug;224(3):544-553

Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.

Malaria begins when Plasmodium-infected Anopheles mosquitoes take a blood meal on a vertebrate. During the initial probing process, mosquitoes inject saliva and sporozoites into the host skin. Components of mosquito saliva have the potential to influence sporozoite functionality. Sporozoite-associated mosquito saliva protein 1 (SAMSP1; AGAP013726) was among several proteins identified when sporozoites were isolated from saliva, suggesting it may have an effect on Plasmodium. Recombinant SAMSP1 enhanced sporozoite gliding and cell traversal activity in vitro. Moreover, SAMSP1 decreased neutrophil chemotaxis in vivo and in vitro, thereby also exerting an influence on the host environment in which the sporozoites reside. Active or passive immunization of mice with SAMSP1 or SAMSP1 antiserum diminished the initial Plasmodium burden after infection. Passive immunization of mice with SAMSP1 antiserum also added to the protective effect of a circumsporozoite protein monoclonal antibody. SAMSP1 is, therefore, a mosquito saliva protein that can influence sporozoite infectivity in the vertebrate host.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiaa759DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8328219PMC
August 2021

Herbal medicines in functional dyspepsia-Untapped opportunities not without risks.

Neurogastroenterol Motil 2021 02 30;33(2):e14044. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Xiyuan Hospital, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

Background: Contemporary treatments for functional dyspepsia have limitations. Herbal medicine has been suggested as adjunctive treatment. With growing scientific recognition and public interests, an in-depth review of this is timely.

Aims/purpose: To evaluate the therapeutic potential and problems that may be associated with the adoption of herbal medicines in functional dyspepsia.

Methods: We reviewed the treatment landscape of functional dyspepsia and assessed the scientific community's interest in herbal medicine. Preclinical pharmacological and clinical trial data were reviewed for several herbal medicines available in the market. Challenges associated with adoption of herbal medicine in mainstream medicine were critically evaluated.

Results: We found that herbal medicines frequently comprise a combination of herbs with multiple reported pharmacological effects on gastrointestinal motility and secretory functions, as well as cytoprotective and psychotropic properties. We identified a number of commercially available herbal products that have undergone rigorous clinical trials, involving large numbers of well-defined subjects, reporting both efficacy and safety for functional dyspepsia. Persisting concerns include lack of rigorous assessments for majority of products, toxicity, consistency of ingredients, dose standardizations, and quality control. We provide a quality framework for its evaluation.

Conclusions: We commend herbal medicine as a viable future option in managing functional dyspepsia. An attractive appeal of herbal medicine is the prospect to simultaneously target multiple pathophysiological mechanisms. Wider adoption and acceptance of herbal medicines in treatment algorithms of functional dyspepsia will require the application of the scientific rigor expected of chemical therapies, to all stages of their development and evaluation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nmo.14044DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7900952PMC
February 2021

is Involved in the Response against BmNPV Infection by the Mitochondrial Apoptosis Pathway.

Insects 2020 Sep 22;11(9). Epub 2020 Sep 22.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Sericultural Biology and Biotechnology, School of Biotechnology, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang 212018, China.

Discovery of the anti-BmNPV ( nuclearpolyhedrovirus) silkworm strain suggests that some kind of antiviral molecular mechanism does exist but is still unclear. Apoptosis, as an innate part of the immune system, plays an important role in the response against pathogen infections and may be involved in the anti-BmNPV infection. Several candidate genes involved in the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway were identified from our previous study. () was one of them, but the antiviral mechanism is still unclear. In this study, sequences of BmApaf-1 were characterized. It was found to contain a unique transposase_1 functional domain and share high CARD and NB-ARC domains with other species. Relatively high expression levels of were found at key moments of embryonic development, metamorphosis, and reproductive development. Further, the significant difference in expression of in different tissues following virus infection indicated its close relationship with BmNPV, which was further validated by RNAi and overexpression in BmN cells. Briefly, infection of budded virus with enhanced green fluorescent protein (BV-EGFP) was significantly inhibited at 72 h after overexpression of , which was confirmed after knockdown of with siRNA. Moreover, the downstream genes of , including () and (), were upregulated after overexpression of in BmN cells, which was consistent with the RNAi results. Furthermore, the phenomenon of in response to BmNPV infection was determined to be related to apoptosis using the apoptosis inducer NSC348884 and inhibitor Z-DEVD-FMK. Therefore, is involved in the response against BmNPV infection by the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. This result provides valuable data for clarifying the anti-BmNPV mechanism of silkworms and breeding of resistant silkworm strains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/insects11090647DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7563707PMC
September 2020

Epigastric pain syndrome: What can traditional Chinese medicine do? A randomized controlled trial of Biling Weitong Granules.

World J Gastroenterol 2020 Jul;26(28):4170-4181

Department of Gastroenterology, Xiyuan Hospital of China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100091, China.

Background: Recent research suggests that although prokinetic agents, acid suppressors, and radical treatment for infection may be effective in patients with functional dyspepsia (FD), a large proportion of patients still fail to respond to these treatments or may suffer from severe adverse reactions. Many traditional Chinese medicinal herbs can regulate the status of the entire body and have special advantages in the treatment of functional diseases. The present study was designed to verify the efficacy of Biling Weitong Granules (BLWTG), a traditional Chinese medicinal herbal compound formula, in alleviating epigastric pain syndrome (EPS) in FD patients, in an attempt to provide an effective prescription for the clinical treatment of this disease.

Aim: To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of BLWTG in treating EPS in patients with FD.

Methods: In this multicenter, stratified, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group clinical trial, eligible patients were randomized into the BLWTG and placebo groups who were treated for 6 wk. Efficacy indicators including the severity and frequency of EPS and the time to pain resolution and safety indicators including adverse events were observed and compared.

Results: The baseline demographic data and clinical characteristics, such as epigastric pain symptoms, pain intensity, and frequency of attacks, were matched between the two groups before randomization. After 6 wk of treatment and after the center effect was eliminated, the epigastric pain was significantly improved in 28.33% and 85.59% of the patients in the placebo and BLWTG groups, respectively ( < 0.05). At 6 wk, the resolution rate of epigastric pain was 15% and 69.49% in the placebo and BLWTG groups, respectively ( < 0.05). The differences of total FD clinical score between these two groups were significant ( < 0.05) at 2, 4, and 6 wk ( < 0.05). The scores of each item and the total score in the Functional Digestive Disorders Quality of Life Questionnaire showed significant differences between the two groups at 6 wk after both the center and interaction effects were eliminated ( < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the incidence of adverse events between the two groups, and no serious adverse event was noted during the observation.

Conclusion: Compared with placebo, BLWTG markedly improved EPS in FD patients without causing serious adverse reactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v26.i28.4170DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7403800PMC
July 2020

Retraction notice to "Direct and simultaneous detection of organic and inorganic ingredients in herbal powder preparations by Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopic imaging" [SAA (2016) 176-182].

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2020 10 30;240:118605. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Key Laboratory of Bioorganic Phosphorus Chemistry & Chemical Biology (Ministry of Education), Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2020.118605DOI Listing
October 2020

Tojapride Reverses Esophageal Epithelial Inflammatory Responses on Reflux Esophagitis Model Rats.

Chin J Integr Med 2021 Aug 4;27(8):604-612. Epub 2020 Apr 4.

Department of Gastroenterology, Xiyuan Hospital, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing, 100091, China.

Objective: To investigate the mechanism of Tojapride, a Chinese herbal formula extract, on strengthening the barrier function of esophageal epithelium in rats with reflux esophagitis (RE).

Methods: Ten out of 85 SD rats were randomly selected as the sham group (n10), and 75 rats were developed a reflux esophagitis model (RE) by the esophageal and duodenal side-to-side anastomosis. Fifty successful modeling rats were divided into different medicated groups through a random number table including the model, low-, medium-, and high-dose of Tojapride as well as omeprazole groups (n10). Three doses of Tojapride [5.73, 11.46, 22.92 g/(kg•d)] and omeprazole [4.17 mg/(kg•d)] were administrated intragastrically twice daily for 3 weeks. And the rats in the sham and model groups were administered 10 mL/kg distilled water. Gastric fluid was collected and the supernatant was kept to measure for volume, pH value and acidity. Esophageal tissues were isolated to monitor the morphological changes through hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, and esophageal epithelial ultrastructure was observed by transmission electron microscopy. The expressions of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells p65 (NF-KBp65), κB kinase beta (IKKß), occludin, and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) in the esophageal tissues were measured by immunohistochemistry and Western blot, respectively.

Results: The gastric pH value in the model group was significantly lower than the sham group (P<0.05). Compared with the model group, gastric pH value in the omeprazole and medium-dose of Tojapride groups were significantly higher (P<0.05). A large area of ulceration was found on the esophageal mucosa from the model rats, while varying degrees of congestion and partially visible erosion was observed in the remaining groups. Remarkable increase in cell gap width and decrease in desmosome count was seen in RE rats and the effect was reversed by Tojapride treatment. Compared with the sham group, the IKKß levels were significantly higher in the model group (P<0.05). However, the IKKß levels were down-regulated after treatment by all doses of Tojapride (P<0.01 or P<0.05). The occluding and ZO-1 levels decreased in the model group compared with the sham group (Ps0.01 or Ps0.05), while both indices were significantly up-regulated in the Tojapride-treated groups (P<0.01 or P<0.05).

Conclusions: Tojapride could improve the pathological conditions of esophageal epithelium in RE rats. The underlying mechanisms may involve in down-regulating the IKKß expression and elevating ZO-1 and occludin expression, thereby alleviating the inflammation of the esophagus and strengthening the barrier function of the esophageal epithelium.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11655-019-3027-5DOI Listing
August 2021

Tojapride prevents CaSR-mediated NLRP3 inflammasome activation in oesophageal epithelium irritated by acidic bile salts.

J Cell Mol Med 2020 01 20;24(2):1208-1219. Epub 2019 Dec 20.

Department of Gastroenterology, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Xiyuan Hospital, Beijing, China.

Impairment of the oesophageal epithelium in patients with reflux oesophagitis (RE) is a cytokine-mediated injury rather than a chemical burn. The present study was conducted to explore CaSR/NLRP3 inflammasome pathway activation and cytokines IL-1β and IL-18 release in oesophageal epithelia injured by refluxates and the effects of Tojapride on that signal regulation. Using a modified RE rat model with Tojapride administration and Tojapride-pretreated SV40-immortalized human oesophageal epithelial cells (HET-1A) exposed to acidic bile salts pretreated with Tojapride, we evaluated the therapeutic effects of Tojapride on oesophageal epithelial barrier function, the expression of CaSR/NLRP3 inflammasome pathway-related proteins and the release of downstream cytokines in response to acidic bile salt irritation. In vivo, Tojapride treatment ameliorated the general condition and pathological lesions of the oesophageal epithelium in modified RE rats. In addition, Tojapride effectively blocked the CaSR-mediated NLRP3 inflammasome activation in modified RE rats. In vitro, Tojapride treatment can reverse the harmful effect of acidic bile salts, which reduced transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER), up-regulated the CaSR-mediated NLRP3 inflammasome pathway and increased caspase-1 activity, LDH release and cytokines secretion. Taken together, these data show that Tojapride can prevent CaSR-mediated NLRP3 inflammasome activation and alleviate oesophageal epithelial injury induced by acidic bile salt exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.14631DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6991659PMC
January 2020

Arsenic-Containing Qinghuang Powder () is an Alternative Treatment for Elderly Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patients Refusing Low-Intensity Chemotherapy.

Chin J Integr Med 2020 May 17;26(5):339-344. Epub 2019 Dec 17.

Department of Hematology, Xiyuan Hospital, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing, 100091, China.

Objective: To analyze the overall survival (OS) of elderly acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients treated with oral arsenic-containing Qinghuang Powder (, QHP) or low-intensity chemotherapy (LIC).

Methods: Forty-two elderly AML patients treated with intravenous or subcutaneous LIC (1 month for each course, at least 3 courses) or oral QHP (3 months for each course, at least 2 courses) were retrospectively analyzed from January 2015 to December 2017. The main endpoints of analysis were OS and 1-, 2-, 3-year OS rates of patients, respectively. And the adverse reactions induding bone marrow suppression, digestive tract discomfort and myocardia injury were observed.

Results: Out of 42 elderly AML patients, 22 received LIC treatment and 20 received QHP treatment, according to patients' preference. There was no significant difference on OS between LIC and QHP patients (13.0 months vs. 13.5 months, >0.05). There was no significant difference on OS rates between LIC and QHP groups at 1 year (59.1% vs. 70.0%), 2 years (13.6% vs. 15%), and 3 years (4.6% vs. 5.0%, all >0.05). Furthermore, there was no significant difference of OS on prognosis stratification of performance status > 2 (12 months vs. 12 months), age> 75 year-old (12.0 months vs. 12.5 months), hematopoietic stem cell transplant comorbidity index >2 (12 months vs. 13 months), poor cytogenetics (12 months vs. 8 months), and diagnosis of secondary AML (10 months vs. 14 months) between LIC and QHP patients (>0.05).

Conclusion: QHP may be an alternative treatment for elderly AML patients refusing LIC therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11655-019-3050-6DOI Listing
May 2020

Chang'an II Decoction ( II )-Containing Serum Ameliorates Tumor Necrosis Factor-α-Induced Intestinal Epithelial Barrier Dysfunction via MLCK-MLC Signaling Pathway in Rats.

Chin J Integr Med 2020 Oct 25;26(10):745-753. Epub 2019 Nov 25.

Department of Gastroenterology, Xiyuan Hospital, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing, 100091, China.

Objective: To investigate the effect of Chang'an II Decoction ( II ))-containing serum on intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction in rats.

Methods: Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-induced injury of Caco-2 monolayers were established as an inflammatory model of human intestinal epithelium. Caco-2 monolayers were treated with blank serum and Chang'an II Decoction-containing serum that obtained from the rats which were treated with distilled water and Chang'an II Decoction intragastrically at doses of 0.49, 0.98, 1.96 g/(kg·d) for 1 week, respectively. After preparation of containing serum, cells were divided into the normal group, the model group, the Chang'an II-H, M, and L groups (treated with 30 ng/mL TNF-α and medium plus 10% high, middle-, and low-doses Chang'an II serum, respectively). Epithelial barrier function was assessed by transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and permeability of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled dextran. Transmission electron microscopy was used to observe the ultrastructure of tight junctions (TJs). Immunofluorescence of zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), claudin-1 and nuclear transcription factor-kappa p65 (NF-κ Bp65) were measured to determine the protein distribution. The mRNA expression of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The expression levels of MLCK, myosin light chain (MLC) and p-MLC were determined by Western blot.

Results: Chang'an II Decoction-containing serum significantly attenuated the TER and paracellular permeability induced by TNF-α. It alleviated TNF-α-induced morphological alterations in TJ proteins. The increases in MLCK mRNA and MLCK, MLC and p-MLC protein expressions induced by TNF-α were significantly inhibited in the Chang'an II-H group. Additionally, Chang'an II Decoction significantly attenuated translocation of NF-κ Bp65 into the nucleus.

Conclusion: High-dose Chang'an II-containing serum attenuates TNF-α-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction. The underlying mechanism may be involved in inhibiting the MLCK-MLC phosphorylation signaling pathway mediated by NF-κ Bp65.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11655-019-3034-6DOI Listing
October 2020

Rifampicin induces clathrin-dependent endocytosis and ubiquitin-proteasome degradation of MRP2 via oxidative stress-activated PKC-ERK/JNK/p38 and PI3K signaling pathways in HepG2 cells.

Acta Pharmacol Sin 2020 Jan 17;41(1):56-64. Epub 2019 Jul 17.

Institute of Gastroenterology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University (Army Medical University), Chongqing, 400038, China.

It was reported that antituberculosis medicines could induce liver damage via oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated the effects of rifampicin (RFP) on the membrane expression of multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) and the relationship between oxidative stress and RFP-induced endocytosis of MRP2 in HepG2 cells. We found that RFP (12.5-50 μM) dose-dependently decreased the expression and membrane localization of MRP2 in HepG2 cells without changing the messenger RNA level. RFP (50 μM) induced oxidative stress responses that further activated the PKC-ERK/JNK/p38 (protein kinase C-extracellular signal-regulated kinase/c-JUN N-terminal kinase/p38) and PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) signaling pathways in HepG2 cells. Pretreatment with glutathione reduced ethyl ester (2 mM) not only reversed the changes in oxidative stress indicators and signaling molecules but also diminished RFP-induced reduction in green fluorescence intensity of MRP2. We conducted co-immunoprecipitation assays and revealed that a direct interaction existed among MRP2, clathrin, and adaptor protein 2 (AP2) in HepG2 cells, and their expression was clearly affected by the changes in intracellular redox levels. Knockdown of clathrin or AP2 with small interfering RNA attenuated RFP-induced decreases of membrane and total MRP2. We further demonstrated that RFP markedly increased the ubiquitin-proteasome degradation of MRP2 in HepG2 cells, which was mediated by the E3 ubiquitin ligase GP78, but not HRD1 or TEB4. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that RFP-induced oxidative stress activates the PKC-ERK/JNK/p38 and PI3K signaling pathways that leads to clathrin-dependent endocytosis and ubiquitination of MRP2 in HepG2 cells, which provides new insight into the mechanism of RFP-induced cholestasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41401-019-0266-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7468545PMC
January 2020

Post-marketing Re-evaluation of Tongxiening Granules () in Treatment of Diarrhea-Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Multi-center, Randomized, Double-Blind, Double-Dummy and Positive Control Trial.

Chin J Integr Med 2019 Dec 10;25(12):887-894. Epub 2019 Jul 10.

Harbin Concise Pharmaceutical Technology Development Co., Ltd., Harbin, 150001, China.

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Tongxiening Granules (, TXNG) in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with predominant diarrhea (IBS-D).

Methods: A randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, and positive parallel controlled clinical trial was conducted from October 2014 to March 2016. Totally 342 patients from 13 clinical centers were enrolled and randomly assigned (at the ratio of 1:1) to a treatment group (171 cases) and a control group (171 cases) by a random coding table. The patients in the treatment group were administered orally with TXNG (5 g per time) combined with pinaverium bromide Tablet simulator (50 mg per time), 3 times per day. The patients in the control group were given TXNG simulator (5 g per time) combined with pinaverium bromide Tablets (50 mg per time), 3 times per day. The treatment course lasted for 6 weeks. The improvement of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Symptom Severity Score (IBS-SSS) was used to evaluate the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes included adequate relief (AR) rate, Irritable Bowel Syndrome-Quality of Life Questionnaire (IBS-QOL), Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA), Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD), and the recurrence rate at follow-ups. Safety indices including the adverse events (AEs) and related laboratory tests were evaluated.

Results: Primary outcome: IBS-SSS at baseline, weeks 2, 4, 6 showed no statistical significance in both full analysis set (FAS) and per protocol set (PPS, P>0.05). After 6 weeks of treatment, the total effective rate of IBS-SSS scores in the treatment group (147/171,86.0%) was higher than the control group (143/171, 83.6%) by FAS (P>0.05). In regard to secondary outcomes, after 6-week treatment, there was no significant difference in AR rate, total score of IBS-QOL, improvement of HAMD and HAMA total scores between the two groups (P>0.05). The recurrence rate at 8-week follow-up was 12.35% (10/18) in treatment group and 15.79% (12/76) in control group, respectively (P>0.05). A total of 21 AEs occurred in 15 cases, of which 11 occurred in 8 cases in the treatment group and 10 AEs in 7 cases in the control group. The incidence of AEs had no statistical significance between the two goups (P>0.05).

Conclusion: Tongxiening Granules could relieve the symptoms of patients with IBS-D and the treatment effect was comparable to pinaverium bromide. (No. ChiCTR-IPR-15006415).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11655-019-3030-xDOI Listing
December 2019

The serum level of CC chemokine ligand 18 correlates with the prognosis of non-small cell lung cancer.

Int J Biol Markers 2019 Jun 3;34(2):156-162. Epub 2019 May 3.

1 Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Guangdong Medical University, P.R. China.

Background: CC chemokine ligand 18 (CCL18) is a chemotactic cytokine involved in the pathogenesis and progression of various cancers. Our previous research showed that the expression of CCL18 is obviously higher in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) than in the adjacent normal tissues, suggesting its role in NSCLC.

Methods: We further examined the serum level of CCL18 in 80 NSCLC patients with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and simultaneously analyzed the survival curve of these patients by the Kaplan-Meier method, and then utilized a log-rank test to evaluate the correlation of CCL18 expression with the malignant progression of NSCLC.

Results: Our results showed that the median serum concentration of CCL18 was significantly elevated to 436.11 ng/mL in NSCLC patients compared to 41.97 ng/ml in healthy people (<0.01), which was also positively related to the expression of lung cancer biomarkers carcinoma-embryonic antigen and cytokeratin fragment antigen 21-1. Moreover, correlation analysis showed that an increased level of serum CCL18 was associated with a worse survival time in NSCLC patients.

Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the serum CCL18 level of NSCLC patients was negatively correlated with the prognosis, thus suggesting that CCL18 may serve as a potential circulating biomarker for NSCLC diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1724600819829758DOI Listing
June 2019

Shen-ling-bai-zhu-san, a spleen-tonifying Chinese herbal formula, alleviates lactose-induced chronic diarrhea in rats.

J Ethnopharmacol 2019 Mar 31;231:355-362. Epub 2018 Jul 31.

Xiyuan Hospital, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100091, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Shen-ling-bai-zhu-san (SLBZS) was firstly documented in ancient Chinese medical works "Tai Ping Hui Min He Ji Ju Fang" in Song-dynasty. It has been widely used for treating gastrointestinal disorders such as diarrhea with poor appetite for about 900 years. The present study is to observe the effects of SLBZS on high lactose diet-induced chronic diarrhea.

Materials And Methods: Rats were subjected to a high lactose diet to induce chronic diarrhea, which were then administrated with SLBZS or smecta. General symptom, body weight, food consumption, water intake and fecal fluid content were recorded every day. The intestinal absorption function was determined by d-xylose uptake assay. The ultrastructures of intestine segments including jejunum, ileum, proximal and distal colon were observed by transmission electron microscopy. Additionally, sodium transport proteins including γ-epithelial sodium channel (ENAC-γ) and sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit alpha-1 (ATP1A1) in distal colon were detected by immunohistochemistry and western blotting.

Results: Diarrheal rats produced watery or loose, sticky feces, and presented inactiveness and grouping. A high lactose diet caused a significant decline in body weight, serum d-xylose level as well as food consumption rather than water intake. In contrast, general symptoms were improved to a certain extent and body weight loss was alleviated in the rats treated by SLBZS for one week. Fecal fluid content in diarrheal rats treated by SLBZS presented a gradual decrease trend with about 55% in the end, which was significantly less than the model group with about 81%. Meanwhile, SLBZS significantly improved the serum d-xylose level and reversed abnormal changes of tight junctions and microvilli in intestine. Additionally, SLBZS significantly modulated the abnormal expressions of ENAC-γ and ATP1A1 in distal colon of diarrheal rats.

Conclusions: These findings suggested that SLBZS exhibited ameliorating effects against lactose-induced diarrhea, which might be attributed to its modulations on intestinal absorption function as well as mucosal ultrastructure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2018.07.031DOI Listing
March 2019

New steroidal glycosides from the fibrous roots of Ophiopogon japonicus.

J Asian Nat Prod Res 2018 Aug 17;20(8):744-751. Epub 2018 Jul 17.

a E-Institute of Chinese Traditional Internal Medicine, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine , Shanghai 201203 , China.

Two new steroidal glycosides (named fibrophiopogonins A, B), along with one known glycoside, were isolated from the fibrous roots of Ophiopogon japonicus (Liliaceae). Comprehensive spectroscopic analysis, including 2D NMR spectroscopy, and the results of acid hydrolysis allowed the chemical structure of the compounds to be assigned as 26-[(O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-D-glucopyranosyl)]-barogenin- 3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)]-β-D-glucopyranoside and (25R)-26-[(O- β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranosyl)]- 3β,22α,26- trihydroxyfurost- 5-ene-3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)]-β-D-glucopyranoside. This is the first isolation of a cholestane glycoside with disaccharide moiety from a Ophiopogon species. The cytotoxic activities of 1~3 against A375 and MCF-7 cells are described.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10286020.2018.1478819DOI Listing
August 2018

c-Kit mutation reduce intestinal epithelial cell proliferation and migration, but not influence intestinal permeability stimulated by lipopolysaccharide.

Acta Histochem 2018 Aug 20;120(6):534-541. Epub 2018 Jun 20.

Digestive Laboratory of Traditional Chinese Medicine Research Institute of Spleen and Stomach Diseases, Xiyuan Hospital, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

The proto-oncogene c-kit, as a marker of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) in the gastrointestinal tract, plays an important role in the ICCs. Although limited evidences showed c-kit is present in the colonic epithelium but its roles remain unclear. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the expression, location and function of c-kit in the intestinal epithelium. Immunofluorescence, western blotting, and RT-PCR were performed to detect the expression and location of c-kit in the intestinal mucosa of WT mice. We investigated intestinal epithelial proliferation and migration in vivo by performing 5-Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation and Ki-67 staining in WT and Wads mice. An Ussing chamber with fluorescein-isothiocyanate dextran 4000 was used to detect the transepithelial electric resistance (TER), short circuit current (ISC) and permeability across ex vivo colon segments under control and endotoxaemia conditions. We demonstrated that c-kit was located and expressed in the gut crypt compartment in WT mice, which was demonstrated in the c-kit mutant mice (Wads ). In addition, both the number of proliferating cells and the percentage of the distance migrated were lower in the Wads mice than those in the WT mice. Moreover, the intestinal permeability, TER and tight junction were unaltered in the Wads mice under endotoxic conditions compared with those in both the control condition and the WT mice. Altogether, these observations imply that the expression of c-kit in the colonic epithelium is involved in the proliferation and permeability of the colonic epithelium.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acthis.2018.05.012DOI Listing
August 2018

Efficacy and safety of Xiangsha Liujunzi granules for functional dyspepsia: A multi-center randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical study.

World J Gastroenterol 2017 Aug;23(30):5589-5601

Lin Lv, Feng-Yun Wang, Xiang-Xue Ma, Zhen-Hua Li, Hai-Jie Ji, Li-Qun Bian, Bei-Hua Zhang, Ting Chen, Xiao-Lan Yin, Xu-Dong Tang, Department of Gastroenterology, Xiyuan Hospital of China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100091, China.

Aim: To assess the efficacy and safety of a Chinese herbal medicine (CHM), Xiangsha Liujunzi granules, in the treatment of patients with functional dyspepsia (FD).

Methods: We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with patients from three centers. Two hundred and sixteen subjects diagnosed with FD according to ROME III criteria and confirmed by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and spleen-deficiency and Qi-stagnation syndrome were selected to receive Xiangsha Liujunzi granules or placebo for 4 wk in a 2:1 ratio by blocked randomization. The subjects also received follow-up after the 4-wk intervention. Herbal or placebo granules were dissolved in 300 mL of water. Participants in both groups were administered 130 mL (45 °C) three times a day. Participants were evaluated prior to and following 4 wk of the intervention in terms of changes in the postprandial discomfort severity scale (PDSS) score, clinical global impression (CGI) scale score, hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) score, traditional Chinese medicine symptoms score (SS), scores of various domains of the 36-item short form health survey (SF-36), gastric emptying (GE) and any observed adverse effects.

Results: Compared with the placebo group, patients in the CHM group showed significant improvements in the scores of PDSS, HADS, SS, SF-36 and CGI scale ( < 0.05 or < 0.01). They also showed the amelioration in the GE rates of the proximal stomach and distal stomach ( < 0.05 or < 0.01).

Conclusion: Xiangsha Liujunzi granules offered significant symptomatic improvement in patients with FD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v23.i30.5589DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5558122PMC
August 2017

Protein composition analysis of polyhedra matrix of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) showed powerful capacity of polyhedra to encapsulate foreign proteins.

Sci Rep 2017 08 18;7(1):8768. Epub 2017 Aug 18.

College of Biotechnology, Jiangsu University of Science and technology, 2# Mengxi Road, Zhenjiang, 212018, Jiangsu, P.R. China.

Polyhedra can encapsulate other proteins and have potential applications as protein stabilizers. The extremely stable polyhedra matrix may provide a platform for future engineered micro-crystal devices. However, the protein composition of the polyhedra matrix remains largely unknown. In this study, the occlusion-derived virus (ODV)-removed BmNPV polyhedra matrix fraction was subjected to SDS-PAGE and then an LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis using a Thermo Scientific Q Exactive mass spectrometer. In total, 28 host and 91 viral proteins were identified. The host components were grouped into one of six categories, i.e., chaperones, ubiquitin and related proteins, host helicases, cytoskeleton-related proteins, RNA-binding proteins and others, according to their predicted Pfam domain(s). Most viral proteins may not be essential for polyhedra assembly, as evidenced by studies in the literature showing that polyhedra formation occurs in the nucleus upon the disruption of individual genes. The structural role of these proteins in baculovirus replication will be of significant interest in future studies. The immobilization of enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) into the polyhedra by fusing with the C-terminus of BM134 that is encoded by open reading frame (ORF) 134 suggested that the polyhedra had a powerful capacity to trap foreign proteins, and BM134 was a potential carrier for incorporating proteins of interest into the polyhedra.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-08987-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5562830PMC
August 2017

A preparation model of Chinese medicine decoction placebo.

Chin J Integr Med 2017 Aug 29;23(8):631-634. Epub 2016 Dec 29.

Department of Gastroenterology, Xiyuan Hospital, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing, 100091, China.

Chinese medicine (CM) decoction placebo is one of the key factors restricting the placebo-controlled clinical trial of CM. In this article, based on the analysis of the diffificulties in preparing CM placebo, the production requirements for placebo were put forward. Moreover, in accordance with clinical practices, a production method and evaluation process of CM decoction placebo was proposed, to provide a reference for clinical research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11655-016-2538-6DOI Listing
August 2017

Robust signatures detection of Majorana fermions in superconducting iron chains.

Sci Rep 2016 11 18;6:36600. Epub 2016 Nov 18.

School of Science, Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan Anhui, 232001, China.

We theoretically propose an optical means to detect Majorana fermions in superconducting iron (Fe) chains with a hybrid quantum dot-nanomechanical resonator system driven by two-tone fields, which is very different from the current tunneling spectroscopy experiments with electrical means. Based on the scheme, the phenomenon of Majorana modes induced transparency is demonstrated and a straightforward method to determine the quantum dot-Majorana fermions coupling strength is also presented. We further investigate the role of the nanomechanical resonator, and the resonator behaving as a phonon cavity enhances the exciton resonance spectrum, which is robust for detecting of Majorana fermions. The coherent optical spectrum affords a potential supplement to detecte Majorana fermions and supports Majorana fermions-based topological quantum computation in superconducting iron chains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep36600DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5114679PMC
November 2016

[Analysis of Animal Modeling Methods for Functional Dyspepsia].

Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi 2016 Nov;36(11):1378-1380

Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a common disease in clinics. It is necessary to establish suitable animal models for clarifying the pathogenesis of FD. FD belongs to "Piman" (abdominal disten- sion) , "Weiwantong" (epigastric pain) , "Caoza" (epigastric upset) in Chinese medicine (CM). It is inor- ganic disease but functional disease. There is no unified standard for FD animal models. Pi deficiency syndrome model is often used as FD animal model now, but they are not completely the same thing. Au- thors summarized and analyzed common methods for FD modeling.
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November 2016

[Analysis of Response of IBS-SSS, AR, and IBS-QOL in IBS Clinical Effect Evaluation].

Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi 2016 10;36(10):1191-1196

Objective To observe the response of common indices for clinical effect evaluation on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), thereby providing reference for IBS related clinical indices in clinical trials of Chinese medicine (CM). Methods A randomized, double-blinded, placebo control trial was set up. Totally 58 diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-D) patients were randomly assigned to the test group (28 cases) and the control group (30 cases). Patients in the test group took Chang'an Recipe I (CR I), while those in the control group took CR I placebo. The therapeutic course for all was 8 weeks. Defeca- tion related symptoms was taken as significance in clinics. Principal component analysis was performed in symptoms index. IBS symptom severity score (IBS-SSS) and IBS quality of life (IBS-QOL) were taken as dependent variables. Main component value and the integral of hospital anxiety and depression scale a (HADa) and hospital anxiety and depression scale d (HADd) were taken as independent variables. Their linear correlation was analyzed. Adequate relief (AR) value was taken as dependent variable, while symptoms index was taken as independent variable. Their Logistic regression correlation was analyzed. Main component value A and B of symptoms index were taken as measurement index. A group with effi- cacy was selected from the test group or the control group, and response analyzed in patients of this group. Results There was statistical difference in main component value of A and B in the test group after treatment (P <0.05). So data of the test group were taken as referential standard, the responsibili- ties of IBS-SSS, AR, IBS-QOL were observed. (1) The score of IBS-SSS had a linear regression with defecation related symptoms and anxiety scores, and its responsibility was higher with an effect size of 1.59. (2) Response to each AR was linearly related to defecation related symptoms.(3) The score of IBS-QOL was not obviously correlated with defecation related symptoms, but with moderate response to anxiety state (an effect size of 0. 61). Domains of dysphoria and worries about health could reflect clinical changes with the effect size of 0. 50 and 0. 70 respectively. Conclusions IBS-SSS had better clinical response, which was suitable for IBS clinical effect evaluation. Response to each AR was related with defe- cation related symptoms. But attention should be paid to its clinical meaning. IBS-QOL had a moderate effect size. It was suggested to be used in long-term clinical research.
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October 2016

Therapeutic Effect of Chang'an I Recipe ( I ) on Irritable Bowel Syndrome with Diarrhea: A Multicenter Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

Chin J Integr Med 2018 Sep 3;24(9):645-652. Epub 2016 Aug 3.

Department of Gastroenterology, Xiyuan Hospital, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing, 100091, China.

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Chinese medicine (CM) decoction Chang'an I Recipe ( I ) in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea (IBS-D).

Method: A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was designed. Based on the order of inclusion, the IBS-D patients were randomly assigned to the treatment group or the placebo control group, administrated with Chang'an I Recipe or placebo, 150 mL/bag, 3 times daily, for 8 weeks. The primary indices of efficacy included the effective rates of IBS symptom severity score (IBS-SSS) and the differences in adequate relief (AR) responder; the secondary indexes of efficacy included the changes in scores of the IBS Quality of Life (IBS-QOL) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) scales. The safety indices included adverse events and related laboratory tests.

Results: A total of 216 patients were included, with 109 in the treatment group and 107 in the control group, and finally 206 were included in the full analysis set (FAS), 191 were included in the per protocol set (PPS). In FAS, the total effective rate was 67.6% and 40.2% for the treatment and control groups, respectively, with 95% confidence interval (CI) for difference in the effective rates between the two groups of 14.4%-40.2%; while in PPS, the total effective rate was 71.3% and 41.2% for the treatment and control groups, respectively (95% CI 16.6%-43.4%). The consistent conclusions of FAS and PPS showed a better efficacy in the treatment group. Both FAS and PPS showed higher AR responder in the treatment group (FAS: 59.6% vs. 35.5%; PPS: 62.8% vs. 38.1%). As for IBS-QOL, the total score and scores in various dimensions of IBS-QOL were not significantly different between the two groups (P>0.05). Both anxiety and depression scales of HAD were not significantly different between the two groups (P>0.05). No adverse events or laboratory abnormalities were found to be obviously related to the tested drugs or clinically significant.

Conclusion: Chang'an I Recipe was more effective than placebo in the treatment of IBS-D, with no obvious adverse reactions. (No.ChiCTR-TRC-09000328).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11655-016-2596-9DOI Listing
September 2018

Evidence-based Chinese medicine clinical practice guideline for stomach pain in Hong Kong.

Chin J Integr Med 2017 Oct 23;23(10):793-800. Epub 2016 Jun 23.

Hong Kong Chinese Medicine Study Centre, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR, China.

Stomach pain in Chinese medicine (CM) is a very common disorder in clinical practice and it has been listed as one of the pilot three conditions in Hong Kong to develop evidence-based CM clinical practice guidelines (CM CPGs). The aim of this stomach Pain CPG is to summarize the treatment methods of stomach pain with CM and evaluate reasonably, then to guide local licensed CM practitioners and provide beneficial reference for social medical decision makers and patients. In this manuscript, we defined stomach pain in CM and the category of chronic gastritis in Western medicine. The clinical manifestation, CM pattern classification, and CM intervention including herbal medicine treatment based on pattern differentiation, symptomatic treatment, acupuncture treatment, regulation and nursing were illustrated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11655-016-2586-yDOI Listing
October 2017

Pseudomonas aeruginosa mannose-sensitive hemagglutinin inhibits proliferation and invasion via the PTEN/AKT pathway in HeLa cells.

Oncotarget 2016 Jun;7(24):37121-37131

The Second People's Hospital of Hunan Province, Clinical Medical College of Hunan University of Chinese Medicine, Changsha 410007, China.

We investigated the effects of Pseudomonas aeruginosa mannose-sensitive hemagglutinin (PA-MSHA) on the proliferation and invasion of human cervical cancer cell lines, as well as the molecular pathways underlying these effects. MTT cell proliferation assays revealed a time- and concentration-dependent cytotoxic effect of PA-MSHA on HeLa cells but not H8 cells. Flow cytometry with propidium iodide and annexin-V-fluorescein isothiocyanate labeling (FITC) indicated that various concentrations of PA-MSHA could induce apoptosis and G2-M cell cycle arrest in HeLa cells. PA-MSHA also impaired the migration and invasion abilities of HeLa cells in Wound healing and Transwell invasion assays. Western blot results demonstrated that PA-MSHA reduced the expression of p-AKT, p-GSK3β, BCL-2, Vimentin and β-catenin, but increased the levels of PTEN, BAD, BAX and E-cadherin in HeLa cells. Importantly, PTEN siRNA induced the activity of p-AKT, while PA-MSHA partly inhibited this induction, indicating that PA-MSHA may reduce the cell proliferation and invasion potential by activating PTEN and thus inhibiting the AKT pathway in vitro. These data suggest the potential application of PA-MSHA to the treatment of human cervical cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.9467DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5095063PMC
June 2016

Direct and simultaneous detection of organic and inorganic ingredients in herbal powder preparations by Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopic imaging.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2016 08 23;165:176-182. Epub 2016 Apr 23.

Key Laboratory of Bioorganic Phosphorus Chemistry & Chemical Biology (Ministry of Education), Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China. Electronic address:

Herbal powder preparation is a kind of widely-used herbal product in the form of powder mixture of herbal ingredients. Identification of herbal ingredients is the first and foremost step in assuring the quality, safety and efficacy of herbal powder preparations. In this research, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopic identification method is proposed for the direct and simultaneous recognition of multiple organic and inorganic ingredients in herbal powder preparations. First, the reference spectrum of characteristic particles of each herbal ingredient is assigned according to FT-IR results and other available information. Next, a statistical correlation threshold is determined as the lower limit of correlation coefficients between the reference spectrum and a larger number of calibration characteristic particles. After validation, the reference spectrum and correlation threshold can be used to identify herbal ingredient in mixture preparations. A herbal ingredient is supposed to be present if correlation coefficients between the reference spectrum and some sample particles are above the threshold. Using this method, all kinds of herbal materials in powder preparation Kouqiang Kuiyang San are identified successfully. This research shows the potential of FT-IR microspectroscopic identification method for the accurate and quick identification of ingredients in herbal powder preparations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2016.04.043DOI Listing
August 2016

NPs/NPRs Signaling Pathways May Be Involved in Depression-Induced Loss of Gastric ICC by Decreasing the Production of mSCF.

PLoS One 2016 10;11(2):e0149031. Epub 2016 Feb 10.

Central Laboratory, The First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116011, Liaoning Province, China.

It is well known that natriuretic peptides (NPs) are involved in the regulation of gastrointestinal motility. Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are the pacemaker cells of gastrointestinal motility and gastrointestinal dyskinesia is one of the important digestive tract symptoms of depression. However, it is unclear whether they are involved in depression-induced loss of ICC. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the natriuretic peptide signaling pathway and depression-induced loss of gastric ICC in depressed rats. These results showed that the expression of c-kit and stem cell factor (SCF) in smooth muscle layers of stomach were down-regulated in depressed rats at the mRNA and protein levels. The expression of natriuretic peptide receptor (NPR)-A, B and C were up-regulated in the stomach of depressed rats at the mRNA and protein levels. NPR-A, B and C can significantly decrease the expression of SCF to treat cultured gastric smooth muscle cells (GSMCs) obtained from normal rats with different concentrations of C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP). Pretreatment of cultured GSMCs with 8-Brom-cGMP (8-Br-cGMP, a membrane permeable cGMP analog), cANF (a specific NPR-C agonist) and CNP (10-6 mol/L) demonstrated that 8-Br-cGMP had a similar effect as CNP, but treatment with cANF did not. The results of the methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay indicated that high concentrations of cANF (10-6 mol/L) restrained the proliferation of cultured GSMCs. Taken together, these results indicate that the up-regulation of the NPs/NPR-C and NPs/NPR-A, B/cGMP signaling pathways may be involved in depression-induced loss of gastric ICC.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0149031PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4749124PMC
July 2016
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