Publications by authors named "Xu Zou"

35 Publications

Recovery of a patient with severe COVID-19 by acupuncture and Chinese herbal medicine adjuvant to standard care.

J Integr Med 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, Second Clinical College, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou 510120, Guangdong Province, China. Electronic address:

There is currently no drug or therapy that can cure the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is highly contagious and can be life-threatening in severe cases. Therefore, seeking potential effective therapies is an urgent task. An older female at the Leishenshan Hospital in Wuhan, China, with a severe case of COVID-19 with significant shortness of breath and decrease in peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO), was treated using manual acupuncture and Chinese herbal medicine granule formula Fuzheng Rescue Lung with Xuebijing Injection in addition to standard care. The patient's breath rate, SpO, heart rate, ratio of neutrophil/lymphocyte (NLR), ratio of monocyte/lymphocyte (MLR), C-reactive protein (CRP), and chest computed tomography were monitored. Acupuncture significantly improved the patient's breathing function, increased SpO, and decreased her heart rate. Chinese herbal medicine might make the effect of acupuncture more stable; the use of herbal medicine also seemed to accelerate the absorption of lung infection lesions when its dosage was increased. The combination of acupuncture and herbs decreased NLR from 14.14 to 5.83, MLR from 1.15 to 0.33 and CRP from 15.25 to 6.01 mg/L. These results indicate that acupuncture and Chinese herbal medicine, as adjuvants to standard care, might achieve better results in treating severe cases of COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joim.2021.06.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8186062PMC
June 2021

Long-term high-intensity interval training increases serum neurotrophic factors in elderly overweight and obese Chinese adults.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2021 Jun 20. Epub 2021 Jun 20.

China Institute of Sport Science, 11 Tiyuguan Road, Dongcheng District, Beijing, 100061, China.

Purpose: To compare the effects of 12-week high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and vigorous-intensity continuous training (VICT) on cognitive function, physical fitness, VOmax, serum neurotransmitters and neurotrophic factors in overweight and obese elderly individuals.

Methods: Twenty-nine physically inactive older adults (18 males and 11 females) with a mean age of 64.8 ± 3.9 years were randomly divided into a control group (CON, n = 9), an HIIT group (4 × 3 min at 90% VOmax interspersed with 3 min at 60% VOmax, n = 10) and a VICT group (25 min at 70% VOmax, n = 10) and submitted to 12 weeks of training. Cognitive function questionnaires, physical fitness, VOmax, serum neurotransmitters and neurotrophic factors were determined at baseline and post training.

Results: Twelve weeks of HIIT and VICT improved the VOmax (4.19 ± 2.21 and 1.84 ± 1.63 mL/kg/min, respectively, p = 0.005), sit-and-reach distance (8.7 ± 3.0 and 7.8 ± 3.8 cm, p = 0.033), choice reaction time (- 0.115 ± 0.15 and - 0.09 ± 0.15 s, p = 0.004) and one-leg stand time (4.4 ± 3.4 and 4.2 ± 4.0 s, p < 0.001) of the elderly participants. The serum concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (375.5 ± 247.9 and 227.0 ± 137.1 pg/ml, p = 0.006), nerve growth factor (33.9 ± 16.7 and 23.3 ± 14.5 pg/ml, p = 0.037), neurotrophin-3 (24.2 ± 9.33 and 16.3 ± 5.91 pg/ml, p = 0.006) and neurotrophin-4 (10.4 ± 3.8 and 7.8 ± 5.0 pg/ml, p = 0.029) increased significantly in the HIIT and VICT groups after training. In addition, compared to VICT, HIIT significantly increased VOmax and the serum neurotrophin-3 concentration. Serum concentrations of the neurotransmitters acetylcholine, dopamine and serotonin trended upward with training. No significant change was observed in the cognitive function questionnaire scores (p > 0.05).

Conclusion: HIIT is suitable for elderly adults and is more effective than VICT for improving VOmax and serum neurotrophin-3 concentrations.

Chinese Clinical Trial Registry Number: No. ChiCTR1900022315, date of registration: 4 April 2019.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-021-04746-wDOI Listing
June 2021

[Relationship between programmed cell death and myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury and new perspectives of traditional Chinese medicine intervention].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2021 Mar;46(6):1345-1356

the Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine Guangzhou 510000,China.

Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury(MIRI) is an urgent problem in clinical treatment. As cardiomyocytes are terminal cells, MIRI-induced cardiomyocyte death will irreversibly damage the structure and function of the heart. In previous studies, apoptosis was considered to be the only way to regulate cell death, while necrosis could not be regulated. However, current studies have shown that cell necrosis could also be regulated, which was collectively called programmed cell death(PCD). Regulated cell death is actively mediated through molecular pathways, so there is the possibility of inhibiting this signaling to reduce MIRI. At present, PCD mainly includes apoptosis, autophagy, necrosis, pyroptosis and ferroptosis. As a unique treature in China, traditional Chinese medicine has the advantages of multiple pathways, multiple targets, low toxicity, less side effects and low economic costs. With the in-depth study of the efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine against MIRI, it has been confirmed that traditional Chinese medicine could regulate PCD to reduce MIRI. Therefore, this paper focuses on the relationship between PCD and MIRI, and new studies on intervention with relevant traditional Chinese medicine, with the aim to provide new MIRI prevention and treatment methods from the perspective of "intervention of PCD".
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20201222.601DOI Listing
March 2021

Effect and safety of Chinese herbal medicine granules in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective, single-center study with propensity score matching.

Phytomedicine 2021 May 5;85:153404. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

Department of Emergency, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, China; Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Research on Emergency in TCM, Guangzhou, China; State Key Laboratory of Dampness Syndrome of Chinese Medicine, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Background: Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been used for severe illness caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but its treatment effects and safety are unclear.

Purpose: This study reviews the effect and safety of CHM granules in the treatment of patients with severe COVID-19.

Methods: We conducteda single-center, retrospective study on patients with severe COVID-19 in a designated hospital in Wuhan from January 15, 2020 to March 30, 2020. The propensity score matching (PSM) was used to assess the effect and safety of the treatment using CHM granules. The ratio of patients who received treatment with CHM granules combined with usual care and those who received usual care alone was 1:1. The primary outcome was the time to clinical improvement within 28 days, defined as the time taken for the patients' health to show improvement by decline of two categories (from the baseline) on a modified six-category ordinal scale, or to be dischargedfrom the hospital before Day 28.

Results: Using PSM, 43 patients (45% male) aged 65.6 (57-70) yearsfrom each group were exactly matched. No significant difference was observed in clinical improvement of patients treated with CHM granules compared with those who received usual (p = 0.851). However, the use of CHM granules reduced the 28-day mortality (p = 0.049) and shortened the duration of fever (4 days vs. 7 days, p = 0.002). The differences in the duration of cough and dyspnea and the difference in lung lesion ratio on computerized tomography scans were not significant.Commonly,patients in the CHM group had an increased D-dimer level (p = 0.036).

Conclusion: Forpatients with severe COVID-19, CHM granules, combined with usual care, showed no improvement beyond usual care alone. However, the use of CHM granules reduced the 28-day mortality rate and the time to fever alleviation. Nevertheless, CHM granules may be associated with high risk of fibrinolysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2020.153404DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7642753PMC
May 2021

Nuanxin capsule enhances cardiac function by inhibiting oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial dependent apoptosis through AMPK/JNK signaling pathway.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Mar 1;135:111188. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

The Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangdong Provincial Hospital of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, 510006, China; Dongguan Kanghua Hospital, Dongguan, 523080, China. Electronic address:

Objective: Oxidative stress and apoptosis play critical roles in the pathogenesis of heart failure (HF).Nuanxin capsule (NX) is a Chinese medicine that has outstanding protective effects on HF. The present study aimed to elucidate whether NX could protect HF against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis through intrinsic mitochondrial pathway.

Methods: In vivo, HF was induced by transverse aortic constriction. NX and Compound C (Comp C) were administered to C57BL/6 J mice for over a 4-week period. Cardiac function was assessed with echocardiography. In vitro, H9c2 cells were exposed to HO in the presence or absence of NX and Compound C. Cell viability, cytotoxicity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and mitochondrial function by oxygen consumption rate (OCR) were detected. The expressions of cytochrome c, BAX, Bcl-2, cleaved caspase-3, AMPK and JNK were evaluated by western blotting.

Results: The results indicated that NX significantly improved cardiac function and enhanced the cell viability, ΔΨm and mitochondrial respiration. Also NX treatment reduced cell cytotoxicity and ROS production. Moreover, NX inhibited mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis by upregulating AMPK and downregulating JNK both in vivo and in vitro. The protective effects of NX on cardiac function by reducing oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial dependent apoptosis were reversed by Compound C treatment.

Conclusions: These findings demonstrated that NX effectively improved cardiac function in TAC mice by reducing oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial dependent apoptosis by activating AMPK/JNK signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2020.111188DOI Listing
March 2021

Erratum to hydrogen/oxygen mixed gas inhalation improves disease severity and dyspnea in patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 in a recent multicenter, open-label clinical trial.

J Thorac Dis 2020 Aug;12(8):4591-4592

State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Disease, Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Health, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.21037/jtd-2020-057.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jtd-2020-062DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7475564PMC
August 2020

Case of professor Xu ZOU's acupuncture technique for "benefiting kidney and strengthening anti-pathogenic " in promoting the absorption of COVID-19.

World J Acupunct Moxibustion 2020 Oct 23;30(3):167-170. Epub 2020 Jul 23.

Second Clinical School, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou 510405, China (, 510405, ).

A case of the absorption of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) promoted by professor Xu ZOU's acupuncture technique for "benefiting kidney and strengthening anti-pathogenic " is introduced. A female patient suffered from COVID-19, 64 years old, had been treated with acupuncture and Chinese herb granules for 10 days on the base of the oral administration of moxifloxacin. In the re-examination, the chest CT image indicated that the absorption of COVID-19 was obvious as compared with before, the nucleic acid test of novel corona virus was negative and the patient narrated no obvious discomfort. Acupuncture therapy plays its active adjuvant effect in the whole process of the treatment of COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wjam.2020.07.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7377728PMC
October 2020

Hydrogen/oxygen mixed gas inhalation improves disease severity and dyspnea in patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 in a recent multicenter, open-label clinical trial.

J Thorac Dis 2020 Jun;12(6):3448-3452

State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Disease, Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Health, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jtd-2020-057DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7330772PMC
June 2020

Effect of Tongguan Capsules () on Restenosis after Coronary Stent Implantation: Study Protocol for A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Chin J Integr Med 2021 Jan 24;27(1):16-23. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Key Discipline of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Second Clinical College, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, 510405, China.

Background: Although percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) had become widely employed therapeutic procedure for coronary artery disease, stent restenosis limited the benefits of this revascularization and the question how to prevent such events remained unresolved. While numerous empirical observations suggested Tongguan Capsules (), a patented Chinese Medicine, could decrease frequency and duration of angina pectoris attacks, evidence supporting its efficacy on restenosis remained inadequate.

Objective: This trial was designed to determine whether Tongguan Capsules would reduce restenosis rate in patients after successful stent implantation.

Methods: Approximately 400 patients undergoing percutaneous coronary stent deployment were enrolled and randomized to control group or Tongguan Capsules (4.5 g/d) for 3 months. All patients received standard anti-platelet, anti-coagulation and lipid-decreasing treatments, concurrently. The primary clinical endpoint was the 12-month incidence of the major adverse cardiovascular events (defined as cardiac death, myocardial infarction, and recurrence of symptoms requiring additional revascularization). The angiographic end point was restenosis rate at 6 months.

Conclusion: This study would provide important evidence for the use of Tongguan Capsules in patients after stent implantation in combination with routine therapies, which may significantly reduce incidence of the restenosis so as to potentially improve the clinical outcomes. (registration number: ChiCTR-TRC- ChiCTR-IIR-17011407).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11655-020-2722-6DOI Listing
January 2021

Crystal phase-dependent electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution performance of ruthenium-boron intermetallics.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2020 Mar;56(20):3061-3064

State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012, P. R. China.

Four crystal phases of ruthenium-boron intermetallics, including Ru7B3, RuB, Ru2B3 and RuB2, are selectively synthesized. With the increase in boron content for the ruthenium-boron intermetallics, Ru-B hybridization interactions decrease. And their hydrogen-evolution electrocatalytic performances are compared, with those of RuB2 exhibiting the best electrocatalytic activity and stability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cc00070aDOI Listing
March 2020

Transition-Metal-Boron Intermetallics with Strong Interatomic d-sp Orbital Hybridization for High-Performance Electrocatalysis.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2020 Mar 30;59(10):3961-3965. Epub 2020 Jan 30.

State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun, 130012, P. R. China.

A theoretical and experimental study gives insights into the nature of the metal-boron electronic interaction in boron-bearing intermetallics and its effects on surface hydrogen adsorption and hydrogen-evolving catalytic activity. Strong hybridization between the d orbitals of transition metal (T ) and the sp orbitals of boron exists in a family of fifteen T -boron intermatallics (T :B=1:1), and hydrogen atoms adsorb more weakly to the metal-terminated intermetallic surfaces than to the corresponding pure metal surfaces. This modulation of electronic structure makes several intermetallics (e.g., PdB, RuB, ReB) prospective, efficient hydrogen-evolving materials with catalytic activity close to Pt. A general reaction pathway towards the synthesis of such T B intermetallics is provided; a class of seven phase-pure T B intermetallics, containing V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo, W, and Ru, are thus synthesized. RuB is a high-performing, non-platinum electrocatalyst for the hydrogen evolution reaction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.201915663DOI Listing
March 2020

Ultrafast surface modification of NiS nanosheet arrays with Ni-Mn bimetallic hydroxides for high-performance supercapacitors.

Sci Rep 2018 Mar 14;8(1):4478. Epub 2018 Mar 14.

State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun, 130012, P. R. China.

Amorphous Ni-Mn bimetallic hydroxide film on the three-dimensional nickle foam (NF)-supported conductive NiS nanosheets (denoted as [email protected]/NF) is successfully synthesized by an ultrafast process (5 s). The fascinating structural characteristic endows [email protected]/NF electrodes better electrochemical performance. The specific capacitance of 2233.3 F g at a current density of 15 A g can achieve high current density charge and discharge at 20/30 A g that the corresponding capacitance is 1529.16 and 1350 F g, respectively. As well as good cycling performance after 1000 cycles can maintain 72% at 15 A g. The excellent performance can be attributed to unique surface modification nanostructures and the synergistic effect of the bimetallic hydroxide film. The impressive results provide new opportunity to produce advanced electrode materials by simple and green route and this material is expected to apply in high energy density storage systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-22448-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5852135PMC
March 2018

[Analysis of on medication rules for Qi-deficiency and blood-stasis syndrome of chronic heart failure based on data mining technology].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2017 Jan;42(1):182-186

Guangdong Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou 510120, China.

To analyze the medication features and the regularity of prescriptions of traditional Chinese medicine in treating patients with Qi-deficiency and blood-stasis syndrome of chronic heart failure based on modern literature. In this article, CNKI Chinese academic journal database, Wanfang Chinese academic journal database and VIP Chinese periodical database were all searched from January 2000 to December 2015 for the relevant literature on traditional Chinese medicine treatment for Qi-deficiency and blood-stasis syndrome of chronic heart failure. Then a normalized database was established for further data mining and analysis. Subsequently, the medication features and the regularity of prescriptions were mined by using traditional Chinese medicine inheritance support system(V2.5), association rules, improved mutual information algorithm, complex system entropy clustering and other mining methods. Finally, a total of 171 articles were included, involving 171 prescriptions, 140 kinds of herbs, with a total frequency of 1 772 for the herbs. As a result, 19 core prescriptions and 7 new prescriptions were mined. The most frequently used herbs included Huangqi(Astragali Radix), Danshen(Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma), Fuling(Poria), Renshen(Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma), Tinglizi(Semen Lepidii), Baizhu(Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma), and Guizhi(Cinnamomum Ramulus). The core prescriptions were composed of Huangqi(Astragali Radix), Danshen(Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma) and Fuling(Poria), etc. The high frequent herbs and core prescriptions not only highlight the medication features of Qi-invigorating and blood-circulating therapy, but also reflect the regularity of prescriptions of blood-circulating, Yang-warming, and urination-promoting therapy based on syndrome differentiation. Moreover, the mining of the new prescriptions provide new reference and inspiration for clinical treatment of various accompanying symptoms of chronic heart failure. In conclusion, this article provides new reference for traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of chronic heart failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20161222.040DOI Listing
January 2017

Ultrafast Formation of Amorphous Bimetallic Hydroxide Films on 3D Conductive Sulfide Nanoarrays for Large-Current-Density Oxygen Evolution Electrocatalysis.

Adv Mater 2017 Jun 29;29(22). Epub 2017 Mar 29.

State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun, 130012, P. R. China.

Developing nonprecious oxygen evolution electrocatalysts that can work well at large current densities is of primary importance in a viable water-splitting technology. Herein, a facile ultrafast (5 s) synthetic approach is reported that produces a novel, efficient, non-noble metal oxygen-evolution nano-electrocatalyst that is composed of amorphous Ni-Fe bimetallic hydroxide film-coated, nickel foam (NF)-supported, Ni S nanosheet arrays. The composite nanomaterial (denoted as [email protected] S /NF) shows highly efficient electrocatalytic activity toward oxygen evolution reaction (OER) at large current densities, even in the order of 1000 mA cm . [email protected] S /NF also gives an excellent catalytic stability toward OER both in 1 m KOH solution and in 30 wt% KOH solution. Further experimental results indicate that the effective integration of high catalytic reactivity, high structural stability, and high electronic conductivity into a single material system makes [email protected] S /NF a remarkable catalytic ability for OER at large current densities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.201700404DOI Listing
June 2017

A comparative study of microcystin-LR degradation by electrogenerated oxidants at BDD and MMO anodes.

Chemosphere 2016 Dec 30;165:381-387. Epub 2016 Sep 30.

State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, Key Laboratory of Yangtze Water Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, 200092, PR China.

This study investigated the electrochemical degradation of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) using boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and mixed metal oxides (MMO, IrOTaO/Ti) anode in different medium. In-situ electrogenerated oxidants including hydroxyl radical, active chlorine, and persulfate were confirmed in phosphate, chloride, and sulfate medium, respectively. Different from MMO anode, hydroxyl radical was observed to play a significant role in chlorine generation at BDD anode in chloride medium. Besides, BDD anode could activate sulfate electrochemically due to its high oxygen evolution potential, and MC-LR degradation rate increased with the decrease of solution pH. The effects of natural organic matters (NOM) and algal organic matters (AOM) on MC-LR degradation were evaluated and NOM presented stronger inhibition ability than AOM. Furthermore, the intermediates generated in MC-LR degradation in chloride and sulfate medium were identified by LC/MS/MS and possible degradation pathways were proposed based on the experiments results. Benzene ring and conjugated diene bonds of Adda group and double bonds of Mhda group were found to be the reactive sites of MC-LR. Overall, this study broadens the knowledge of electrochemical oxidation in removing microcystins in algae-laden water.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.09.057DOI Listing
December 2016

Synthesis of Hollow β-Phase GeO2 Nanoparticles.

J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2015 Feb;15(2):1732-7

We fabricated mono-dispersed hollow waxberry shaped β-quartz GeO2 by a facile one-step synthesis in emulsion at room temperature. TEM images indicated that hollow waxberry shaped GeO2 were consisted of nano-sphere whose average size were estimated to be 20 nm. The growth mechanism and optical properties of the products were also investigated. It was found that addition of n-butanol and PVP were crucial factors to control the morphology of GeO2. The possible formation mechanism of the hollow interior is proposed as the Ostwald ripening. The optical properties of the β-GeO2 nanoparticles with hollow shapes were also studied with photoluminescence spectrum, which reveals a broad emission, suggesting potential applications in electronic and optoelectronic nanodevices. These attractive results provide us a new simple method further used to fabricate other specific hollow structure and indicate hollow waxberry shaped GeO2 may have potential applications in light-emitting nanodevices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jnn.2015.9062DOI Listing
February 2015

All-solid-state reference electrodes based on colloid-imprinted mesoporous carbon and their application in disposable paper-based potentiometric sensing devices.

Anal Chem 2015 Mar 10;87(5):2981-7. Epub 2015 Feb 10.

Department of Chemistry, University of Minnesota , 207 Pleasant Street SE, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, United States.

Reference electrodes are used in almost every electroanalytical measurement. Here, all-solid-state reference electrodes are described that employ colloid-imprinted mesoporous (CIM) carbon as solid contact and a poly(vinyl chloride) reference membrane to contact the sample. Such a reference membrane is doped with a moderately hydrophilic ionic liquid and a hydrophobic redox couple, leading to well-defined constant potentials at the interfaces of this membrane to the sample and to the solid contact, respectively. Due to the intrinsic properties of CIM carbon, reference electrodes with a CIM carbon solid contact exhibit excellent resistance to common interfering agents such as light and O2, with outstanding potential stability in continuous potentiometric measurements. The potential drift of CIM carbon-based reference electrodes without redox couple is as low as 1.7 μV/h over 110 h, making them the most stable all-solid-state reference electrodes reported so far. To demonstrate the compatibility of CIM carbon-based reference electrodes with miniaturized potentiometric systems, these reference electrodes were integrated into paper-based potentiometric sensing devices, successfully replacing the conventional reference electrode with its reference electrolyte solution. As a proof of concept, disposable paper-based Cl(-) sensing devices that contain stencil-printed Ag/AgCl-based Cl(-) selective electrodes and CIM carbon-based reference electrodes were constructed. These sensing devices are inexpensive, easy to use, and offer highly reproducible Cl(-) measurements with sample volumes as low as 10 μL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ac504556sDOI Listing
March 2015

Paper-based potentiometric ion sensing.

Anal Chem 2014 Oct 23;86(19):9548-53. Epub 2014 Sep 23.

Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University , 12 Oxford Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, United States.

This paper describes the design and fabrication of ion-sensing electrochemical paper-based analytical devices (EPADs) in which a miniaturized paper reference electrode is integrated with a small ion-selective paper electrode (ISPE) for potentiometric measurements. Ion-sensing EPADs use printed wax barriers to define electrochemical sample and reference zones. Single-layer EPADs for sensing of chloride ions include wax-defined sample and reference zones that each incorporate a Ag/AgCl electrode. In EPADs developed for other electrolytes (potassium, sodium, and calcium ions), a PVC-based ion-selective membrane is added to separate the sample zone from a paper indicator electrode. After the addition of a small volume (less than 10 μL) of sample and reference solutions to different zones, ion-sensing EPADs exhibit a linear response, over 3 orders of magnitude, in ranges of electrolyte concentrations that are relevant to a variety of applications, with a slope close to the theoretical value (59.2/z mV). Ion-selective EPADs provide a portable, inexpensive, and disposable way of measuring concentrations of electrolyte ions in aqueous solutions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ac5018088DOI Listing
October 2014

Calibration-free ionophore-based ion-selective electrodes with a Co(II)/Co(III) redox couple-based solid contact.

Anal Chem 2014 Sep 20;86(17):8687-92. Epub 2014 Aug 20.

Department of Chemistry, University of Minnesota , 207 Pleasant Street SE, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, United States.

A high electrode-to-electrode reproducibility of the emf response of solid contact ion-selective electrodes (SC-ISEs) requires a precise control of the phase boundary potential between the ion-selective membrane (ISM) and the underlying electron conductor. To achieve this, we introduced previously ionophore-free ion exchanger membranes doped with a well controlled ratio of oxidized and reduced species of a redox couple as redox buffer and used them to make SC-ISEs that exhibited highly reproducible electrode-to-electrode potentials. Unfortunately, ionophores were found to promote the loss of insufficiently lipophilic species from the ionophore-doped ISMs into aqueous samples. Here we report on an improved redox buffer platform based on equimolar amounts of the much less hydrophilic Co(III) and Co(II) complexes of 4,4'-dinonyl-2,2'-bipyridyl, which makes it possible to extend the redox buffer approach to ionophore-based ISEs. For example, K(+)-selective electrodes based on the ionophore valinomycin exhibit electrode-to-electrode standard deviations as low as 0.7 mV after exposure of freshly prepared electrodes for 1 h to aqueous solutions. Exposure of freshly prepared ISE membranes to humidity prior to their first contact to electrolyte solution minimizes the initial (reproducible) emf drift. This redox buffer has also been successfully applied to sodium, potassium, calcium, hydrogen, and carbonate ion-selective electrodes, which all exhibit the high selectivity over interfering ions as expected for ionophore-doped ISE membranes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ac501625zDOI Listing
September 2014

Ion-selective electrodes with colloid-imprinted mesoporous carbon as solid contact.

Anal Chem 2014 Jul 1;86(14):7111-8. Epub 2014 Jul 1.

Department of Chemistry, University of Minnesota , 207 Pleasant St. SE, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, United States.

A new type of solid-contact ion-selective electrode (SC-ISE) has been developed that uses colloid-imprinted mesoporous (CIM) carbon with 24 nm diameter, interconnected mesopores as the intermediate layer between a gold electrode and an ionophore-doped ISE membrane. For a demonstration, valinomycin was used as K(+) ionophore, and a good Nernstian response with a slope of 59.5 mV/decade in the range from 10(-5.2) to 10(-1.0) M was observed. The high purity, low content of redox-active surface functional groups and intrinsic hydrophobic characteristics of CIM carbon prepared from mesophase pitch lead to outstanding performance of these sensors, with excellent resistance to the formation of a water layer and no interference caused by light, O2, and CO2. When a redox couple is introduced as an internal reference species, calibration-free SC-ISEs can be made with a standard deviation of E° as low as 0.7 mV. Moreover, the interconnected mesopore structure of ISE membrane-infused CIM carbon facilitates both ion and electron conduction and provides a large interfacial area with good ion-to-electron transduction. Because of the large double layer capacitance of CIM carbon, CIM carbon-based SC-ISEs exhibit excellent potential stability, as shown by chronopotentiometry and continuous potentiometric measurements. The capacitance of these electrodes as determined by chronopotentiometry is 1.0 mF, and the emf drift over 70 h is as low as 1.3 μV/h, making these electrodes the most stable SC-ISEs reported so far.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ac501633rDOI Listing
July 2014

Effect of computer radiation on weight and oxidant-antioxidant status of mice.

Nutr Hosp 2014 Oct 20;31(3):1183-6. Epub 2014 Oct 20.

School of public Health, Wannan Medical College, Wuhu,Anhui 241002, China..

Objectives: To explore the effects of computer radiation on weight and oxidant-antioxidant status of mice, and further to confirm that whether vitamin C has protective effects on computer radiation.

Methods: Sixty Male adult ICR mice were randomly divided into six groups. each group give different treatment as follows: group A was control, group B given vitamin C intake, group C given 8 h/day computer radiation exposure, group D given vitamin C intake and 8 h/day computer radiation group E given 16 h/day computer radiation exposure, group F given vitamin C intake plus exposure to 16 h/day computer radiation. After seven weeks, mice was executed to collect the blood samples, for detecting total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and alkaline phosphatases (ALP)content in serum or liver tissue were determined by ELISA.

Results: No difference was found for the change of weight among six groups at different week. In the group C, D and F, the liver tissue T-AOC level were higher than the group A. In the group B, C and E, the serum ALP level were lower than the group A (P<0.05).

Conclusions: The study indicate that computer radiation may have an adverse effect on T-AOC and ALP level of mice, and vitamin C have protective effect against computer radiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3305/nh.2015.31.3.8200DOI Listing
October 2014

Solid contact ion-selective electrodes with a well-controlled Co(II)/Co(III) redox buffer layer.

Anal Chem 2013 Oct 18;85(19):9350-5. Epub 2013 Sep 18.

Department of Chemistry, University of Minnesota , 207 Pleasant St. SE, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, United States.

Solid contact ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) typically have an intermediate layer between the ion-selective membrane and the underlying solid electron conductor that is designed to reduce the irreproducibility and instability of the measured electromotive force (emf). Nevertheless, the electrode-to-electrode reproducibility of the emf of current solid contact ISEs is widely considered to be unsatisfactory. To address this problem, we report here a new method of constructing this intermediate layer based on the lipophilic redox buffer consisting of the Co(III) and Co(II) complexes of 1,10-phenanthroline ([Co(phen)3](3+/2+)) paired with tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate as counterion. The resulting electrodes exhibit emf values with an electrode-to-electrode standard deviation as low as 1.7 mV after conditioning of freshly prepared electrodes for 1 h. While many prior examples of solid contact ISEs also used intermediate layers that contained redox active species, the selection of a balanced ratio of the reduced and oxidized species has typically been difficult and was often ignored, contributing to the emf irreproducibility. The ease of the control of the [Co(phen)3](3+)/[Co(phen)3](2+) ratio explains the high emf reproducibility, as confirmed by the emf decrease of 58 mV per 10-fold increase in the ratio of the reduced and oxidized redox buffer species. Use of a gold electrode modified with a self-assembled 1-hexanethiol monolayer as underlying electron conductor suppresses the formation of a water layer and results in an electrode-to-electrode standard deviation of E° of 1.0 mV after 2 weeks of exposure to KCl solution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ac4022117DOI Listing
October 2013

[Effect of clinical pathways based on integrative medicine for patients with chronic heart failure: a multi-center research].

Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi 2013 Jun;33(6):741-6

Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, Guangdong Provincial Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou 510120, China.

Objective: To assess a multi-center study effectiveness of clinical pathways based on integrative medicine (IM) for chronic heart failure (CHF) patients.

Methods: A combined method of historical control study and clinical study on concurrent control was used. After the standard management for clinical pathways was carried out in four hospitals at home, the effects on hospitalization days, medical expenses, clinical efficacy, patient satisfaction, and quality of life were assessed.

Results: Results of non-concurrent historical control study showed that: the hospital stay was significantly shorter in the pathways group than in the retrospective group (12.59 days vs 18.44 days), and the total cost of hospitalization was significantly reduced in the pathways group (yen 9 051.90 vs yen 11 978.40), showing statistical difference (P < 0.01). Moreover, the effect on the heart function was better in the pathways group than in the retrospective group (the markedly effective rate: 45.60% vs 21.90%; the total effective rate: 96.80% vs 86.10%), showing statistical difference (P < 0.01). Results of clinical study on concurrent control showed that the hospital stay was significantly shorter in the pathways group than in the control group (11.19 days vs 13.21 days), showing statistical difference (P < 0.05). The average total cost of hospitalization was significantly lower in the pathways group than in the control group (yen 8 656.80 vs yen 11 609.70), showing statistical difference (P < 0.01). As for clinical efficacy of Chinese medical syndrome, the total effective rate was higher in the pathways group than in the control group (97.10% vs 93.62%), showing statistical difference (P < 0.05). The markedly effective rate of heart function was better in the pathways group than in the control group, showing statistical difference (49.30% vs 38.30%, P < 0.05). The overall satisfaction was higher in the pathways group than in the conventional group (P < 0.01). There was no statistical difference in the mortality within 3 months after discharge from hospital, and the readmission rate due to heart failure between the two groups (P > 0.05). But there was statistical difference in the quality of life (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: The pathway could shorten the hospitalization time, decrease the cost of hospitalization, improve the clinical efficacy, improve patients' quality of life and satisfaction, therefore, it could be spread nationwide.
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June 2013

Current pulse based reference electrodes without liquid junctions.

Anal Chem 2013 Apr 27;85(8):3817-21. Epub 2013 Mar 27.

Reference electrodes with hydrophobic ion-doped polymeric membranes offer a promising alternative to reference electrodes with conventional salt bridges. This letter introduces the current pulse operation of liquid junction free reference electrodes. A brief current pulse is applied to a cation exchanger membrane, releasing a well-controlled amount of cations from the membrane into the sample and, thereby, determining the boundary potential of the sample/reference membrane interface. Measurements with ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) are performed relative to these reference electrodes immediately after the current pulse and exhibit the same Nernstian responses as typical for potentiometry, which is demonstrated with Cl(-) ISE measurements. The use of current pulse based reference electrodes avoids the sample sensitivity and clogging of conventional salt bridges and the often poorly controlled loss of bridge electrolyte into samples. Current mode measurements in serum over 2 days showed a much higher stability of the reference potential than conventional potentiometric measurements with the same ion-doped polymeric membranes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ac400507jDOI Listing
April 2013

Cyanide-selective electrode based on Zn(II) tetraphenylporphyrin as ionophore.

Anal Chem 2012 Nov 24;84(21):9192-8. Epub 2012 Oct 24.

Department of Chemistry, University of Minnesota, 207 Pleasant Street SE, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, United States.

Receptors that exhibit high selectivity are essential for potentiometric cyanide sensors. Therefore, CN– binding to metallotetraphenylporphyrins with different metal centers (i.e., Co(II), Co(III), Zn(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), and Fe(III)) was investigated. All these metalloporphyrins were found to function as neutral ionophores. Co(III) and Fe(III) tetraphenylporphyrins with their positive charges seemed likely to bind up to two axial CN– ligands, but only the Co(III) porphyrin was found to strongly bind a second CN– ligand. The electrode membranes doped with Zn(II) tetraphenylporphyrin provided the highest selectivity over chloride (logK(CN–,Cl–)(pot) = −3.71, as opposed to −0.36 for an ionophore-free ISE) and were optimized by adjusting the site-to-ionophore ratio to achieve the highest CN– selectivity, with special consideration of interfering ions present in gold mining applications. The Zn(II) tetraphenylporphyrin-based CN(–)-selective electrodes exhibited the best discrimination of OH–; no pH effect was observed even at pH 11 (logK(CN–,OH–)(pot) = −3.42). The response slopes and unbiased selectivities of the ionophore-free and the ionophore-based electrodes with 25 mol % and 71 mol % cationic sites relative to ionophore showed that the Zn(II) tetraphenylporphyrin forms a 1:1 complex with the target ion CN– and 2:1 and 1:1 complexes with the interfering ions OH– and S(2–), respectively. The CN– binding constant was 2.3 × 10(6) (mol/kg)(–1), which is slightly bigger but of the same order of magnitude as for binding of Zn(II) tetraphenylporphyrin to CN– in dichloroethane.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ac301910cDOI Listing
November 2012

[Clinical epidemiologic investigation on Chinese medicine syndrome laws in patients with chronic heart failure].

Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi 2011 Jul;31(7):903-8

Cardiovascular Department, Guangdong Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou 510120.

Objective: To study the distribution laws of Chinese medicine syndromes in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) by clinical epidemiologic investigation.

Methods: 512 CHF patients were studied, including 168 items of symptoms and 48 items of tongue and pulse pictures. A database of Chinese medicine syndromes was established, and 9 disease nature elements and 5 disease location elements were extracted. Frequency analysis was performed on all symptoms, tongue and pulse pictures. The variables with frequency constituent ratio less than 10.0% were deleted. Then the features of clinical epidemiology, syndrome patterns, syndrome elements, main symptoms, as well as tongue and pulse pictures were analyzed.

Results: (1) The disease nature elements of CHF covered qi deficiency, yin deficiency, and yang deficiency (categorized as the essential deficiency), as well as blood stasis, turbid phlegm, and the retained fluid (categorized to the superficiality excess). Among them, frequencies of qi deficiency and blood stasis (both more than 85.0%) were the highest. The disease location elements of CHF were ordered in frequency as Xin (97.9%), Pi (88.1%), followed by Shen (43.0%), Fei (30. 1%), and Gan (7.0%). (2) In the distribution of syndrome patterns in CHF patients, qi deficiency phlegm-stasis syndrome was the most (59.2%), followed by qi-yin deficiency with phlegm-stasis intermingle syndrome (20.3%), Xin-yang decline with phlegm-stasis obstruction syndrome (7.0%), and yang-deficiency with water overflowing syndrome (5.5%). (3) Patients with heart function grade II, III, and IV mainly manifested as qi-deficiency with phlegm-stasis syndrome. Besides, qi-yin deficiency with phlegm-stasis intermingle syndrome could be often seen in those with grade III. And Xin-yang decline with phlegm-stasis obstruction syndrome and yang-deficiency with water overflowing syndrome could often be seen in those with grade IV.

Conclusions: The pathogenesis of CHF is essential deficiency and superficiality excess. The essentiality consists of qi deficiency, yin deficiency, and yang deficiency, and the superficiality consists of blood stasis, turbid phlegm, and retained fluid. The disease was located at the five zang-organs, mainly dominated at Xin and Pi, and associated with Fei, Shen, and Gan. Qi deficiency phlegm-stasis syndrome was dominated in Chinese medicine syndrome patterns. Along with the aggravation of CHF, Chinese medicine syndrome pattern shows certain development laws.
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July 2011

[Double blinded randomized and controlled study on treatment of chronic heart failure by nuanxin capsule].

Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi 2011 Jan;31(1):19-22

Department of Cardiovascular Disease, Guangdong Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine.

Objective: To evaluate the effect and safety of Nuanxin Capsule (NXC) in treating patients with chronic heart failure (CHF).

Methods: Adopting the randomized, positive controlled, double-blinded design, 150 CHF patients were assigned to the treatment group and the control group equally, they were treated with optimal western medical therapeutic scheme in combining respectively with NXC and placebo for 24 weeks. The indices for effectiveness and safety evaluation, such as Chinese medicine syndrome, grade of heart function, myocardial contraction, as well as the re-hospitalization rate and mortality, were observed.

Results: The total effective rate on heart function in the treatment group and the control group was 78.87% and 64.38% respectively, that on Chinese medicine syndrome was 85.9% and 63.0% respectively, comparisons of the two indices between the two groups all showed significant difference (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). And a better efficacy for improving patients' cardiac contraction function and quality of life was shown in the treatment group (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). The re-hospitalization rates in them were 23.9% and 53.4% respectively (P < 0.05), and 22.54% and 42.5% of the re-hospitalized patients had attack of acute heart failure, a significant difference was found between the two groups (P < 0.05). The mortality in them was 2.90% and 8.95% respectively, showing no significant difference between groups (P > 0.05). No obvious adverse effect was found in both groups.

Conclusions: NXC could improve the heart function of patients, it has obvious curative effect and good safety in treating chronic heart failure.
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January 2011

Preparation, characterization, and photoelectric properties of an electrostatically self-assembled film based on colloidal tungsten trioxide and a dinuclear Ru(II) complex.

J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2010 Mar;10(3):2203-7

College of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China.

An electrostatic self-assembled film based on a tungstic acid colloidal solution and a dinuclear Ru(II) complex [(bpy)2Ru(bpbh)Ru(bpy)2](CIO4)4 [where bpy = 2,2'-bipyrizine and bpbh = 1,6-bis-(2-(2-pyridyl)benzimidazoyl)hexane] has been prepared and characterized by means of ultraviolet-visible absorption and emission spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The photoelectrochemical properties of the films have also been studied. A large anodic photocurrent of 0.8 microA/cm2 was observed when a monolayer film of ITO/WO3/the Ru complex was irradiated with polychromatic light (730 nm > lambda > 325 nm) at a positive applied potential of 0.6 V versus a saturated calomel electrode, four-fold that observed under the same experimental condition for the ITO electrode covered with only a monolayer of WO3 without the Ru(II) complex, indicating that the the anodic photocurrent mainly arose from the electron injection from the photoexcited Ru(II) complex to the conduction band of WO3.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jnn.2010.2136DOI Listing
March 2010

Phenyl and phenylethyl glycosides from Picrorhiza scrophulariiflora.

J Asian Nat Prod Res 2007 Apr-Aug;9(3-5):443-8

Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041, China.

A new phenyl glycoside, scrophenoside D (1) and a new phenylethyl glycoside, scroside F (2), together with three known phenylethyl glycosides, scroside A (3), plantainoside D (4), and plantamajoside (5), were isolated from the stems of Picrorhiza scrophulariiflora. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10286020500479946DOI Listing
January 2008

Multistage electrospray ionization mass spectrometric analyses of sulfur-containing iridoid glucosides in Paederia scandens.

Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 2007 ;21(8):1375-85

Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan Province, People's Republic of China.

Paederia scandens is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine that possesses important bioactive sulfur-containing iridoid glucosides. This study reports the investigation of the fragmentation behavior of four sulfur-containing iridoid glucosides isolated from P. scandens by ion trap electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MSn). Both multistage electrospray ionization (ESI-MSn) experiments in an ion trap instrument and high-resolution and accurate mass measurement in an ESI-Q-TOF mass spectrometer in positive mode were used to elucidate the main fragmentation pathways of these compounds. These experiments yielded essentially the same product ions in both ion trap and Q-TOF instruments, and their fragmentation patterns were found useful for their characterization, which were applied to elucidate a trace compound in the extracts of P. scandens by on-line LC/ESI-MSn. Major and diagnostic product ions have been identified and their origins are proposed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rcm.2965DOI Listing
May 2007
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