Publications by authors named "Xu Zhang"

4,342 Publications

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Low concentration triphenyl phosphate fuels proliferation and migration of hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

Environ Toxicol 2022 Jul 1. Epub 2022 Jul 1.

General Surgery Center, Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery II, Guangdong Provincial Research Center for Artificial Organ and Tissue Engineering, Guangzhou Clinical Research and Transformation Center for Artificial Liver Institute of Regenerative Medicine, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) have been widely used due to their unique properties. The OPFRs are mainly metabolized in the liver. However, whether the plasma level of OPFRs was involved in the progression of liver cancer remains unclear. Triphenyl phosphate (TPP) is one of the OPFRs that are mostly detected in environment. In this study, we performed CCK8, ATP, and EdU analyses to evaluate the effect of TPP at the concentrations at 0.025-12.8 μM on the proliferation, invasion, and migration of Hep3B, a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell line. Tumor-bearing mouse model was used for in vivo validation. The results showed that low concentrations of TPP at (0.025-0.1 μM), which are obtained in the plasma of patients with cancers, remarkably promoted cell invasion and migration of Hep3B cells. Animal experiments confirmed that TPP treatment significantly enhanced tumor growth in the xenograft HCC model. To explore the possible molecular mechanisms that might mediate the actions of TPP on Hep3B cells, we profiled gene expression in groups treated with or without TPP at the concentrations of 0.05 and 0.1 μM using transcriptional sequencing. Gene ontology (GO), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment, and Protein-protein interaction (PPI) analyses demonstrated that pathways affected by differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were mainly in nuclear-transcribed mRNA catabolic processes, cytosolic ribosome, and ATPase activity. A 0.05 and 0.1 μM TPP led to up-regulation of a series of genes including EREG, DNPH1, SAMD9, DUSP5, PFN1, CKB, MICAL2, SCUBE3, and CXCL8, but suppressed the expression of MCC. These genes have been shown to be associated with proliferation and movement of cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that low concentration of TPP could fuel the proliferation, invasion, and migration of HCC cells. Thus, TPP is a risk factor in the progression of HCC in human beings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/tox.23609DOI Listing
July 2022

Exercise Counters the Age-Related Accumulation of Senescent Cells.

Exerc Sport Sci Rev 2022 Jul 1. Epub 2022 Jul 1.

Robert and Arlene Kogod Center on Aging, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Abstract: We propose the beneficial effects of exercise are in part mediated through the prevention and elimination of senescent cells. Exercise counters multiple forms of age-related molecular damage that initiate the senescence program and activates immune cells responsible for senescent cell clearance. Preclinical and clinical evidence for exercise as a senescence-targeting therapy and areas needing further investigation are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/JES.0000000000000302DOI Listing
July 2022

[Identification of a novel frameshift variant in the KMT2A gene of a child with Wiedemann-Steiner syndrome].

Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi 2022 Jun;39(6):630-633

Department of Paediatrics, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510120, China.

Objective: To analyze pathogenic variant s of KMT2A gene in a child with Wiedemann-Steiner syndrome (WDSTS) and provide reliable evidences for clinical diagnosis of WDSTS.

Methods: Whole-DNAs were extracted from an 9 years-old boy and his parents. Trio-whole exome sequencing (trio-WES) was performed to identify candidate pathogenic variants that can explain the boy's condition and sanger sequencing was conducted to prove it. The impact of detected variants were predicted and validated by bioinformatics tools.

Results: A de novo frameshift variant c.10488dupG (p.Leu3498Thrfs*41) in exon 27 of KMT2A gene was detected and this de novo variant (PS2) had not been reported in the world previously. This frameshift variant was absent in major allele frequency databases (PM2) and had been predicted to be pathogenic based on MutationTaster. Through HomoloGene and CD-search system, the 3498 locus (Leu) in KMT2A protein, which was an important histone modifying enzyme that regulated gene expression in early embryonic development and encoded by the KMT2A gene, was predicted as a high conserved locus (PP3), and that replacement of Lue3498 may result in frame-shifts with premature termination in 3539 locus by introducing stop codon, causing deletion of multiple functional domains which all played important roles on histone modifications and recognition (PVS1+PM1). According to the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics variant classification guideline, the variant c.10488dupG (p.Leu3498Thrfs*41) in KMT2A was classified as pathogenic variant (PVS1+PS2+PM1+PM2+PP3).

Conclusion: The patient's condition may be attributed to the de novo frameshift variant c.10488dupG (p.Leu3498Thrfs*41) in KMT2A gene. This study reported a pathogenic KMT2A variant that had not been reported previously in WDSTS, it expanded the genotypic spectrums of KMT2A variants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn511374-20210208-00122DOI Listing
June 2022

Long Noncoding RNA lncRHL Regulates Hepatic VLDL Secretion by Modulating hnRNPU/ BMAL1/MTTP Axis.

Diabetes 2022 Jun 30. Epub 2022 Jun 30.

The Key Laboratory of Rare Metabolic Disease, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; The Key Laboratory of Human Functional Genomics of Jiangsu Province, Key Laboratory of Targeted Intervention of Cardiovascular Disease, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cardiovascular Disease Translational Medicine, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 211166, China.

Dysregulation of hepatic very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) secretion contributes to the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases, such as Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and hyperlipidemia. Accumulating evidence have suggested that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) had malfunctioning roles in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. However, the function of lncRNAs in controlling hepatic VLDL secretion remains largely unillustrated. Here, we identified a novel long non-coding RNA, lncRHL, which was liver-enriched, downregulated upon high fat diet feeding, and inhibited by oleic acid treatment in primary hepatocytes. With genetic manipulation in mice and primary hepatocytes, depletion of lncRHL induces hepatic VLDL secretion accompanied with decreased hepatic lipid contents. Conversely, lncRHL restoration reduces VLDL secretion with an increased lipid deposition in hepatocytes. Mechanistic analyses indicate that lncRHL binds directly to heterogeneous nuclear ribonuclear protein U (hnRNPU), thereby enhances its stability, and that hnRNPU can transcriptional activate Bmal1, leading to inhibition of VLDL secretion in hepatocytes. lncRHL deficiency accelerates the protein degradation of hnRNPU and suppresses the transcription of Bmal1, which in turn activates VLDL secretion in hepatocytes. Taken together, lncRHL is a novel suppressor of hepatic VLDL secretion. Activating the lncRHL/hnRNPU/Bmal1/MTTP axis represent a potential strategy for the maintenance of intrahepatic and plasma lipid homeostasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db21-1145DOI Listing
June 2022

Strategies for anti-oxidative stress and anti-acid stress in bioleaching of LiCoO using an acidophilic microbial consortium.

Extremophiles 2022 Jun 29;26(2):22. Epub 2022 Jun 29.

State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, 200237, China.

High metal ion concentrations and low pH cause severely inhibit the activity of an acidophilic microbial consortium (AMC) in bioleaching. This work investigated the effects of exogenous spermine on biofilm formation and the bioleaching efficiency of LiCoO by AMC in 9K medium. After the addition of 1 mM spermine, the activities of glutathione peroxidase and catalase increased, while the amount of HO, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde in AMC decreased. These results indicated that the ability of AMC biofilm to resist oxidative stress introduced by 3.5 g/L Li and 30.1 g/L Co was improved by spermine. The activity of glutamate decarboxylase was promoted to restore the intracellular pH buffering ability of AMC. Electrochemical measurements showed that the oxidation rate of pyrite was increased by exogenous spermine. As a result, high bioleaching efficiencies of 97.1% for Li and 96.1% for Co from a 5.0% (w v) lithium cobalt oxide powder slurry were achieved. This work demonstrated that Tafel polarization can be used to monitor the AMC biofilm's ability of uptaking electrons from pyrite during bioleaching. The corrosion current density increased with 1 mM spermine, indicating enhanced electron uptake by the biofilm from pyrite.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00792-022-01270-3DOI Listing
June 2022

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Mol Pharmacol 2022 Jun 28. Epub 2022 Jun 28.

Department of Chemical Biology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, South-Central University for Nationalities, China

Voltage-gated K1.3 channel has been reported to be a drug target for the treatment of autoimmune diseases, and specific inhibitors of Kv1.3 are potential therapeutic drugs for multiple diseases. The scorpions could produce various bioactive peptides which could inhibit K1.3 channel. Here we identified a new scorpion toxin polypeptide gene from the venom gland cDNA library of the Chinese scorpion Sequence alignment revealed high similarities between mature peptide and previously reported K1.3 channel blockers - LmKTX10 and ImKTX88, suggesting that ImKTX58 peptide might also be a K1.3 channel blocker. By using electrophysiological recordings, we showed that recombinant ImKTX58 prepared by genetic engineering technologies had a highly selective inhibiting effect on K1.3 channel. Further alanine scanning mutagenesis and computer simulation identified four amino acid residues in ImKTX58 peptide as key binding sites to K1.3 channel by forming hydrogen bonds, salt bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Among these four residues, 28th lysine of the ImKTX58 mature peptide was found to be the most critical amino acid residue for blocking K1.3 channel. In this study, we discovered a scorpion toxin gene which has not been reported before in Hainan and successfully used prokaryotic expression system to express and purify the polypeptides encoded by this gene. Electrophysiological experiments on ImKTX58 showed that ImKTX58 has a selectively blocking effects on K1.3 channel over Kv1.1, Kv1.2, Kv1.5, SK2, SK3 and BK channels. These findings provide a theoretical basis for designing highly effective K1.3 blockers to treat autoimmune and other diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/molpharm.121.000480DOI Listing
June 2022

Organophosphate flame retardant TDCPP: A risk factor for renal cancer?

Chemosphere 2022 Jun 25;305:135485. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

Department of Urology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, 210029, China; Department of Urology, The Affiliated Kizilsu Kirghiz Autonomous Prefecture People's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Artux, 845350, China. Electronic address:

Tris (1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP), a chlorinated organophosphate flame retardants(OPFRs), is widely used in a range of plastic foams, resins, and latexes. It can be detected in human tissues, including urine, and milk. Recent research has suggested that TDCPP has neurotoxic, reproductive, and potentially carcinogenic. In our study, we proposed a novel method for predicting the gene associated with tumor-compound interactions. We firstly used The Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD) and downloaded potentially interactive genes about TDCPP in renal carcinoma. Gene expression data and the corresponding clinical information of the Kidney renal clear cell cancer (KIRC) patients were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas database (TCGA). Data from normal people in The Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) databases was used to supplement the calculations. After being predicted by PharmMapper database, and validated by Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes, 25 genes were selected to construct protein-protein interaction network analysis. The prognostic value of these genes was evaluated with Kaplan-Meier analysis, and four interactive genes were selected. Gene set variation analysis and drug-target binding prediction proved the hub gene has a potential relationship with renal clear cell carcinoma. We then used the ChEA3 (Chip-X Enrichment Analysis, Version 3) database to predict the upstream of these interactive genes. Molecular docking was used to predict the binding of these transcription factors to TDCPP and interactive genes to TDCPP. Moreover, in cell lines and in vivo experiments demonstrated the cancer-promoting effect of TDCPP. The expression of the interactive genes was verified by qPCR and Western blot. Combining binding energy and qPCR results, we choose EPAS1 to verify its function in renal carcinoma cell lines. Our study provides a novel method to predict the potential interactive genes between TDCPP and renal cancer, which may reveal potential targets for the treatment and prevention of diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2022.135485DOI Listing
June 2022

Improvement of Hemolytic Anemia with GBT1118 is Reno-protective in Transgenic Sickle Mice.

Blood Adv 2022 Jun 27. Epub 2022 Jun 27.

University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States.

Hemolysis and hemoglobinuria are risk factors for kidney disease and its progression in sickle cell anemia (SCA). Voxelotor is a small molecule allosteric hemoglobin modulator that reduces hemolysis in SCA. We administered GBT1118, an analogue of voxelotor designed for investigation in transgenic sickle mice, or control chow to Townes model sickle mice from 12 to 24 weeks of age. Urine was collected using metabolic cages for 24 hours at 3-week intervals; blood was collected at baseline, 6 and 12-weeks of therapy. Treated sickle mice demonstrated increased hemoglobin concentrations and reduced absolute reticulocyte counts and hemoglobinuria compared to control sickle mice. There was a concomitant reduction in urine reactive oxygen species (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances), glomerular (nephrin) and tubular (kidney injury molecule-1) injury markers, and kidney dysfunction (albuminuria, proteinuria). In contrast, control mice had progressive increases in these biomarkers. The treated mice also had improvements in immunofluorescent, histopathologic and ultrastructural markers of kidney health versus control mice. Certain protective genes were upregulated in glomeruli (Capn11, Pou4f2) and kidney cortex (Cfi, Rgs2) of treated versus control mice. This study provides mechanistic insights into potential reno-protective effects of strategies which mitigate hemolysis in SCA. Studies in humans are needed to confirm our findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2022007809DOI Listing
June 2022

Relationship Between Post-traumatic Stress Symptoms and Anticipatory Grief in Family Caregivers of Patients With Advanced Lung Cancer: The Mediation Role of Illness Uncertainty.

Front Psychiatry 2022 9;13:914862. Epub 2022 Jun 9.

School of Nursing, Liaoning University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shenyang, China.

Objective: To explore the interrelationship between post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), illness uncertainty (IU), and anticipatory grief (AG).

Methods: Structural equation modeling with bootstrapping estimation was conducted using data from a convenience sample of 254 family caregivers of patients with advanced lung cancer in China. Participants were recruited from a public cancer hospital in Shenyang, China. The family caregivers completed the Impact of Events Scale-Revised, Uncertainty in Illness Scale Family Caregiver Version, and Anticipatory Grief Scale.

Results: The measurement model has good reliability and validity, and the final model fit the data well. PTSS positively influenced AG (direct effect estimate = 0.391, = 0.002). Moreover, IU was found to mediate the relationship between PTSS and AG (Indirect effects estimate = 0.168, = 0.005). The mediating effect of IU accounted for up to 30.1% of the total effect.

Conclusion: IU mediated the relationship between PTSS and AG. Healthcare professionals should continuously assess PTSS, IU and AG levels in FCs and provide effective intervention options for mitigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2022.914862DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9218190PMC
June 2022

Single-cell RNA-sequencing of zebrafish hair cells reveals novel genes potentially involved in hearing loss.

Cell Mol Life Sci 2022 Jun 26;79(7):385. Epub 2022 Jun 26.

School of Life Sciences, Nantong Laboratory of Development and Diseases, Nantong University, Nantong, 226019, China.

Hair cells play key roles in hearing and balance, and hair cell loss would result in hearing loss or vestibular dysfunction. Cellular and molecular research in hair cell biology provides us a better understanding of hearing and deafness. Zebrafish, owing to their hair cell-enriched organs, have been widely applied in hair cell-related research worldwide. Similar to mammals, zebrafish have inner ear hair cells. In addition, they also have lateral line neuromast hair cells. These different types of hair cells vary in morphology and function. However, systematic analysis of their molecular characteristics remains lacking. In this study, we analyzed the GFP+ cells isolated from Tg(Brn3c:mGFP) larvae with GFP expression in all hair cells using single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq). Three subtypes of hair cells, namely macula hair cell (MHC), crista hair cell (CHC), and neuromast hair cell (NHC), were characterized and validated by whole-mount in situ hybridization analysis of marker genes. The hair cell scRNA-seq data revealed hair cell-specific genes, including hearing loss genes that have been identified in humans and novel genes potentially involved in hair cell formation and function. Two novel genes were discovered to specifically function in NHCs and MHCs, corresponding to their specific expression in NHCs and MHCs. This study allows us to understand the specific genes in hair cell subpopulations of zebrafish, which will shed light on the genetics of both human vestibular and cochlear hair cell function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00018-022-04410-2DOI Listing
June 2022

Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of N-(4-alkoxy-3-(1H-tetrazol-1-yl)phenyl) heterocyclic aromatic amide derivatives as xanthine oxidase inhibitors.

Bioorg Chem 2022 Jun 9;127:105938. Epub 2022 Jun 9.

School of Pharmacy, China Medical University, 77 Puhe Road, North New Area, Shenyang 110122, China. Electronic address:

Xanthine oxidase (XO) is a flavoprotein that exists in various organisms and can catalyze the uric acid formation in the human body. Based on the amide framework of N-(4-((3-cyanobenzyl)oxy)-3-(1H-tetrazol-1-yl)phenyl)isonicotinamide (compound 1) reported in our previous work, a series of N-(4-alkoxy-3-(1H-tetrazol-1-yl)phenyl) heterocyclic aromatic amide derivatives were designed, synthesized and evaluated as novel amide-based XO inhibitors. Structure-activity relationship campaign identified the most promising compound g25 (IC = 0.022 μM), which possesses a special 1H-imidazole-5-carboxamide scaffold and presented comparable XO inhibitory potency to topiroxostat (IC = 0.017 μM). Enzyme kinetic studies revealed that compound g25 acted as a mixed-type XO inhibitor. Molecular docking and molecular dynamics indicated that imidazole NH of g25 formed two stable hydrogen bonds with Glu1261 residue of XO that provided a vital contribution for the binding affinity. In addition, in vivo activity evaluation demonstrated that compound g25 exhibited obviously hypouricemic effect on a potassium oxonate induced hyperuricemic rat model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioorg.2022.105938DOI Listing
June 2022

Polystyrene nanoplastics induce profound metabolic shift in human cells as revealed by integrated proteomic and metabolomic analysis.

Environ Int 2022 Jun 15;166:107349. Epub 2022 Jun 15.

School of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China. Electronic address:

Nanoplastics (NPLs) are widespread in our environment. However, their impacts on human health and precise toxicity mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here we studied the internalization, release, and cytotoxicity of polystyrene nanoplastics (PSNPs) using the renal tubular epithelial cell line HKC and human derived liver cell line HL-7702. We also employed an integrated proteomic and metabolomic approach to investigate the potential biological effects of PSNPs on HKC cells. The abundances of 4770 proteins and 100 metabolites were quantified, with 785 proteins and 17 metabolites detected with altered levels in response to PSNPs. Most of the differential proteins and metabolites were enriched in a variety of metabolic pathways, for example, glycolysis, citrate cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, and amino acid metabolism, suggesting the potential effects of NPLs on global cellular metabolism shift in human cells. The altered energy metabolism induced by PSNPs was further confirmed by a Seahorse analysis. Moreover, lysosomal distribution study and western blotting showed that mTORC1 signaling, a central regulator of cellular metabolism, was inhibited upon nanoplastic exposure, likely serving as the link between lysosome dysfunction and metabolic defects. Taken together, our findings systematically mapped the key molecular changes induced by PSNPs in human cells and provide comprehensive biological insights for the risk estimation of NPLs contamination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2022.107349DOI Listing
June 2022

SWOLLEN TAPETUM AND STERILITY 1 Is Required for Tapetum Degeneration and Pollen Wall Formation in Rice.

Plant Physiol 2022 Jun 24. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Gene Exploration and Utilization in Southwest China, Rice Research Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China.

The pollen wall is important for protecting the male gametophyte and for fertilization. The lipid components of the pollen wall are mainly synthesized and transported from the sporophytic tapetum. Although several factors related to lipid biosynthesis have been characterized, the molecular mechanisms underlying lipid biosynthesis during pollen development in rice (Oryza sativa L.) remain elusive. Here, we showed that mutation in the SWOLLEN TAPETUM AND STERILITY 1 (STS1) gene causes delayed tapetum degradation and aborted pollen wall formation in rice. STS1 encodes an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized protein that contains domain of unknown function (DUF) 726 and exhibits lipase activity. Lipidomic and transcriptomic analyses showed that STS1 is involved in anther lipid homeostasis. Moreover, STS1 interacts with Polyketide Synthase 2 (OsPKS2) and Acyl-CoA Synthetase 12 (OsACOS12), two enzymes crucial in lipidic sporopollenin biosynthesis in pollen wall formation, suggesting a potentially lipidic metabolon for sporopollenin biosynthesis in rice. Collectively, our results indicate that STS1 is an important factor for lipid biosynthesis in reproduction, providing a target for the artificial control of male fertility in hybrid rice breeding and insight into the function of DUF726-containing protein in plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/plphys/kiac307DOI Listing
June 2022

Construction of Double-Shelled Hollow [email protected] Nanocomposites for Fluorescence-Guided, Dual Stimuli-Responsive Drug Delivery and Photothermal Therapy.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2022 Jun 15;12(12). Epub 2022 Jun 15.

Engineering Research Center for Nanomaterials, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004, China.

The design and preparation of multifunctional drug carriers for combined photothermal-chemotherapy of cancer have attracted extensive attention over the past few decades. However, the development of simple-structured stimuli-responsive theranostic agents as both photothermal agents and chemotherapeutic agents remains a big challenge. Herein, a novel double-shelled nanocarrier composed of hollow AgS (HAgS) nanospheres and a mesoporous polydopamine (MPDA) exterior shell was fabricated through a facile process. Notably, HAgS possesses both fluorescence and photothermal properties. MPDA acts as a drug carrier and photothermal agent. Meanwhile, the cavity structure between HAgS and MPDA provides more space for drug loading. The nanocarrier presents a high drug loading rate of 23.4%. It exhibits an apparent pH-responsive DOX release property due to the acidic sensitivity of PDA. In addition, the release of DOX is promoted under NIR irradiation, which is attributed to the heating action generated by the photothermal effect of HAgS and MPDA. The cytotoxicity test shows that the nanocarriers possess good biocompatibility. Compared with single photothermal therapy or chemotherapy, the combined treatment represents a synergistic effect with higher therapeutic efficacy. In addition, the nanocarriers exhibit excellent fluorescence imaging capability and can target HepG2 cells. These simple-structured smart nanocarriers have a great potential for fluorescence-mediated combination cancer therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano12122068DOI Listing
June 2022

High-Performance Flexible Piezoresistive Sensor Based on TiCT MXene with a Honeycomb-like Structure for Human Activity Monitoring.

Micromachines (Basel) 2022 May 25;13(6). Epub 2022 May 25.

Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100864, China.

Wearable and flexible pressure sensors have sparked great interest due to their unique capacity to conformally attach to the surface of the skin and quantify human activities into recordable electric signals. As a result, more and more research efforts are being devoted to developing high-sensitivity and cost-effective flexible sensors for monitoring an individual's state of activity. Herein, a high-performance flexible piezoresistive sensor was designed and fabricated by combing 2D transition metal carbides, nitrides, and carbonitrides (MXene) with a honeycomb-like structure formed by femtosecond filamentating pulses. The sensing mechanism is attributed to the change of the connecting conductive paths between the top interdigital electrodes and the bottom microstructured films coated with MXene. The obtained sensing device demonstrates high sensitivity of 0.61 kPa, relatively short response time, and excellent reliability and stability. Benefiting from the aforementioned extraordinary sensing performance, the sensor can be used with success to monitor tiny physiological signals, detect large deformations during human movement, and distinguish finger gestures, thus demonstrating its broad prospects in physiological analysis systems, health monitoring systems, and human-machine interaction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/mi13060821DOI Listing
May 2022

The Regulatory Roles of Mitochondrial Calcium and the Mitochondrial Calcium Uniporter in Tumor Cells.

Int J Mol Sci 2022 Jun 15;23(12). Epub 2022 Jun 15.

Key Laboratory of Precision Nutrition and Food Quality, Department of Nutrition and Health, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China.

Mitochondria, as the main site of cellular energy metabolism and the generation of oxygen free radicals, are the key switch for mitochondria-mediated endogenous apoptosis. Ca is not only an important messenger for cell proliferation, but it is also an indispensable signal for cell death. Ca participates in and plays a crucial role in the energy metabolism, physiology, and pathology of mitochondria. Mitochondria control the uptake and release of Ca through channels/transporters, such as the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU), and influence the concentration of Ca in both mitochondria and cytoplasm, thereby regulating cellular Ca homeostasis. Mitochondrial Ca transport-related processes are involved in important biological processes of tumor cells including proliferation, metabolism, and apoptosis. In particular, MCU and its regulatory proteins represent a new era in the study of MCU-mediated mitochondrial Ca homeostasis in tumors. Through an in-depth analysis of the close correlation between mitochondrial Ca and energy metabolism, autophagy, and apoptosis of tumor cells, we can provide a valuable reference for further understanding of how mitochondrial Ca regulation helps diagnosis and therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms23126667DOI Listing
June 2022

Solution-Processed Silicon Doped Tin Oxide Thin Films and Thin-Film Transistors Based on Tetraethyl Orthosilicate.

Membranes (Basel) 2022 Jun 1;12(6). Epub 2022 Jun 1.

State Key Laboratory of Luminescent Materials and Devices, Institute of Polymer Optoelectronic Materials and Devices, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, China.

Recently, tin oxide (SnO) has been the preferred thin film material for semiconductor devices such as thin-film transistors (TFTs) due to its low cost, non-toxicity, and superior electrical performance. However, the high oxygen vacancy (V) concentration leads to poor performance of SnO thin films and devices. In this paper, with tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as the Si source, which can decompose to release heat and supply energy when annealing, Si doped SnO (STO) films and inverted staggered STO TFTs were successfully fabricated by a solution method. An XPS analysis showed that Si doping can effectively inhibit the formation of V, thus reducing the carrier concentration and improving the quality of SnO films. In addition, the heat released from TEOS can modestly lower the preparation temperature of STO films. By optimizing the annealing temperature and Si doping content, 350 °C annealed STO TFTs with 5 at.% Si exhibited the best device performance: I was as low as 10 A, I/I reached a magnitude of 10, and V was 1.51 V. Utilizing TEOS as an Si source has a certain reference significance for solution-processed metal oxide thin films in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/membranes12060590DOI Listing
June 2022

Association of Changes in Antithrombin Activity Over Time With Responsiveness to Enoxaparin Prophylaxis and Risk of Trauma-Related Venous Thromboembolism.

JAMA Surg 2022 Jun 22. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Center for Translational Injury Research, Department of Surgery, McGovern Medical School at The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston.

Importance: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) affects 2% to 20% of recovering trauma patients, despite aggressive prophylaxis with enoxaparin. Antithrombin is a primary circulating anticoagulant and crucial component of enoxaparin thromboprophylaxis. Approximately 20% of trauma patients present with antithrombin deficiency (antithrombin activity <80%).

Objective: To examine time-dependent changes in antithrombin activity, responsiveness to enoxaparin, as measured by anti-factor Xa (anti-FXa) levels, and incidence of VTE after severe trauma and to assess the association of ex vivo antithrombin supplementation with patients' sensitivity to enoxaparin prophylaxis.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This single-center, prospective cohort study was performed at a level 1 trauma center between January 7, 2019, and February 28, 2020. Adult trauma patients admitted to the trauma service at high risk for VTE, based on injury pattern and severity, were screened and enrolled. Patients who were older than 70 years, were pregnant, had a known immunologic or coagulation disorder, or were receiving prehospital anticoagulants were excluded.

Exposures: Blood samples were collected on emergency department arrival and daily for the first 8 days of hospitalization.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Patients' antithrombin activity and anti-FXa levels were measured by a coagulation analyzer, and thrombin generation was measured by calibrated automated thrombography. Responsiveness to enoxaparin was assessed by measuring anti-FXa levels 4 to 6 hours after the first daily enoxaparin dose and compared between patients who developed VTE and who did not. In addition, the associations of ex vivo supplementation of antithrombin with plasma anti-FXa levels were assessed.

Results: Among 150 patients enrolled (median [IQR] age, 35 [27-53] years; 37 [24.7%] female and 113 [75.3%] male; 5 [3.3%] Asian, 32 [21.3%] Black, and 113 [75.3%] White; and 51 [34.0%] of Hispanic ethnicity), 28 (18.7%) developed VTE. Patients with VTE had significantly lower antithrombin activity on admission compared with patients without VTE (median [IQR], 91% [79%-104%] vs 100% [88%-112%]; P = .04), as well as lower antithrombin activity on hospital days 5 (median (IQR), 90% [83%-99%] vs 114% [99%-130%]; P = .011), 6 (median [IQR], 97% [81%-109%] vs 123% [104%-134%]; P = .003), 7 (median [IQR], 82% [74%-89%] vs 123% [110%-140%]; P < .001), and 8 (median [IQR], 99% [85%-100%] vs 123% [109%-146%]; P = .011). Anti-FXa levels were significantly lower in patients with VTE vs those without VTE at hospital day 4 (median [IQR], 0.10 [0.05-0.14] IU/mL vs 0.18 [0.13-0.23] IU/mL; P = .006), day 6 (median [IQR], 0.12 [0.08-0.14] IU/mL vs 0.22 [0.13-0.28] IU/mL; P = .02), and day 7 (median [IQR], 0.11 [0.08-0.12] IU/mL vs 0.21 [0.13, 0.28] IU/mL; P = .002). Multivariable analyses found that for every 10% decrease in antithrombin activity during the first 3 days, the risk of VTE increased 1.5-fold.

Conclusions And Relevance: The results of this cohort study suggest that after severe trauma, antithrombin deficiency is common and contributes to enoxaparin resistance and VTE. Interventional studies are necessary to determine the efficacy of antithrombin supplementation in the reduction of VTE incidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamasurg.2022.2214DOI Listing
June 2022

Gene amplification-driven RNA methyltransferase KIAA1429 promotes tumorigenesis by regulating BTG2 via m6A-YTHDF2-dependent in lung adenocarcinoma.

Cancer Commun (Lond) 2022 Jun 21. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210009, P. R. China.

Background: Epigenetic alterations have been shown to contribute immensely to human carcinogenesis. Dynamic and reversible N6-methyladenosine (m6A) RNA modification regulates gene expression and cell fate. However, the reasons for activation of KIAA1429 (also known as VIRMA, an RNA methyltransferase) and its underlying mechanism in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) remain largely unexplored. In this study, we aimed to clarify the oncogenic role of KIAA1429 in the tumorigenesis of LUAD.

Methods: Whole-genome sequencing and transcriptome sequencing of LUAD data were used to analyze the gene amplification of RNA methyltransferase. The in vitro and in vivo functions of KIAA1429 were investigated. Transcriptome sequencing, methylated RNA immunoprecipitation sequencing (MeRIP-seq), m6A dot blot assays and RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) were performed to confirm the modified gene mediated by KIAA1429. RNA stability assays were used to detect the half-life of the target gene.

Results: Copy number amplification drove higher expression of KIAA1429 in LUAD, which was correlated with poor overall survival. Manipulating the expression of KIAA1429 could regulate the proliferation and metastasis of LUAD. Mechanistically, the target genes of KIAA1429-mediated m6A modification were confirmed by transcriptome sequencing and MeRIP-seq assays. We also revealed that KIAA1429 could regulate BTG2 expression in an m6A-dependent manner. Knockdown of KIAA1429 significantly decreased the m6A levels of BTG2 mRNA, leading to enhanced YTH m6A RNA binding protein 2 (YTHDF2, the m6A "reader")-dependent BTG2 mRNA stability and promoted the expression of BTG2; thus, participating in the tumorigenesis of LUAD.

Conclusions: Our data revealed the activation mechanism and important role of KIAA1429 in LUAD tumorigenesis, which may provide a novel view on the targeted molecular therapy of LUAD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cac2.12325DOI Listing
June 2022

The gut metagenomics and metabolomics signature in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

Gut Pathog 2022 Jun 21;14(1):26. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

Key Laboratory of Medical Science and Laboratory Medicine of Jiangsu Province, School of Medicine, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, 212013, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China.

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), a chronic gut immune dysregulation and dysbiosis condition is rapidly increasing in global incidence. Regardless, there is a lack of ideal diagnostic markers, while conventional treatment provides scarce desired results, thus, the exploration for better options. Changes in the gut microbial composition and metabolites either lead to or are caused by the immune dysregulation that characterizes IBD. This study examined the fecal metagenomics and metabolomic changes in IBD patients. A total of 30 fecal samples were collected from 15 IBD patients and 15 healthy controls for 16S rDNA gene sequencing and UHPLC/Q-TOF-MS detection of metabolomics. Results showed that there was a severe perturbation of gut bacteria community composition, diversity, metabolites, and associated functions and metabolic pathways in IBD. This included a significantly decreased abundance of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, increased disease-associated phyla such as Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, and increased Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in IBD. A total of 3146 metabolites were detected out of which 135 were differentially expressed between IBD and controls. Metabolites with high sensitivity and specificity in differentiating IBD from healthy individuals included 6,7,4'-trihydroxyisoflavone and thyroxine 4'-o-.beta.-d-glucuronide (AUC = 0.92), normorphine and salvinorin a (AUC = 0.90), and trichostachine (AUC = 0.91). Moreover, the IBD group had significantly affected pathways including primary bile acid biosynthesis, vitamin digestion and absorption, and carbohydrate metabolism. This study reveals that the combined evaluation of metabolites and fecal microbiome can be useful to discriminate between healthy subjects and IBD patients and consequently serve as therapeutic and diagnostic targets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13099-022-00499-9DOI Listing
June 2022

Mechanism of reduced muscle atrophy via ketone body (D)-3-hydroxybutyrate.

Cell Biosci 2022 Jun 20;12(1):94. Epub 2022 Jun 20.

School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China.

Background: Muscle atrophy is an increasingly global health problem affecting millions, there is a lack of clinical drugs or effective therapy. Excessive loss of muscle mass is the typical characteristic of muscle atrophy, manifesting as muscle weakness accompanied by impaired metabolism of protein and nucleotide. (D)-3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB), one of the main components of the ketone body, has been reported to be effective for the obvious hemodynamic effects in atrophic cardiomyocytes and exerts beneficial metabolic reprogramming effects in healthy muscle. This study aims to exploit how the 3HB exerts therapeutic effects for treating muscle atrophy induced by hindlimb unloaded mice.

Results: Anabolism/catabolism balance of muscle protein was maintained with 3HB via the Akt/FoxO3a and the mTOR/4E-BP1 pathways; protein homeostasis of 3HB regulation includes pathways of ubiquitin-proteasomal, autophagic-lysosomal, responses of unfolded-proteins, heat shock and anti-oxidation. Metabolomic analysis revealed the effect of 3HB decreased purine degradation and reduced the uric acid in atrophied muscles; enhanced utilization from glutamine to glutamate also provides evidence for the promotion of 3HB during the synthesis of proteins and nucleotides.

Conclusions: 3HB significantly inhibits the loss of muscle weights, myofiber sizes and myofiber diameters in hindlimb unloaded mouse model; it facilitates positive balance of proteins and nucleotides with enhanced accumulation of glutamate and decreased uric acid in wasting muscles, revealing effectiveness for treating muscle atrophy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13578-022-00826-2DOI Listing
June 2022

Formation potential and analysis of 32 regulated and unregulated disinfection by-products: Two new simplified methods.

J Environ Sci (China) 2022 Jul 6;117:209-221. Epub 2022 May 6.

Department of Chemistry, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 1N4, Canada. Electronic address:

Water disinfection is an essential process that provides safe water by inactivating pathogens that cause waterborne diseases. However, disinfectants react with organic matter naturally present in water, leading to the formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs). Multi-analyte methods based on mass spectrometry (MS) are preferred to quantify multiple DBP classes at once however, most require extensive sample pre-treatment and significant resources. In this study, two analytical methods were developed for the quantification of 32 regulated and unregulated DBPs. A purge and trap (P&T) coupled with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was optimized that automated sample pre-treatment and analyzed volatile and semi-volatile compounds, including trihalomethanes (THMs), iodinated trihalomethanes (I-THMs), haloacetonitriles (HANs), haloketones (HKTs) and halonitromethanes (HNMs). LOQs were between 0.02-0.4 µg/L for most DBPs except for 8 analytes that were in the low µg/L range. A second method with liquid chromatography (LC) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) was developed for the quantification of 10 haloacetic acids (HAAs) with a simple clean-up and direct injection. The LC-MS/MS direct injection method has the lowest detection limits reported (0.2-0.5 µg/L). Both methods have a simple sample pre-treatment, which make it possible for routine analysis. Hyperchlorination and uniform formation conditions (UFC) formation potential tests with chlorine were evaluated with water samples containing high and low TOC. Hyperchlorination formation potential test maximized THMs and HAAs while UFC maximized HANs. Ascorbic acid was found to be an appropriate quencher for both analytical methods. Disinfected drinking water from four water utilities in Alberta, Canada were also evaluated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jes.2022.04.037DOI Listing
July 2022

HucMSC-Ex carrying miR-203a-3p.2 ameliorates colitis through the suppression of caspase11/4-induced macrophage pyroptosis.

Int Immunopharmacol 2022 Jun 17;110:108925. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Key Laboratory of Medical Science and Laboratory Medicine of Jiangsu Province, School of Medicine, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212013, PR China. Electronic address:

Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a kind of chronic, idiopathic, and recurrent inflammation, associated with dysregulated intestinal mucosal immunity. Caspase (casp) 11/4-induced macrophage pyroptosis contributes to the development of inflammation, while human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell-secreted exosomes (hucMSC-Ex) play a reparative role in IBD.

Objective: The present study focused on the treatment of IBD with hucMSC-Ex and its regulatory mechanism via the casp11/4 pathway.

Methods: BALB/c mice were used to establish a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis model, and hucMSC-Ex was administered intravenously to estimate its therapeutic effect. In vitro, RAW264.7 cells line, THP-1 cells line, and mouse peritoneal macrophages (MPMs) were stimulated with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) to activate an inflammatory environment of pyroptosis, followed by repairing with hucMSC-Ex. MicroRNA mimics and inhibitors were provided to verify the role of miR-203a-3p.2 from hucMSC-Ex in inflammation. The results were analyzed by Western blot, RT-qPCR、ELISA, and LDH secretion.

Results: HucMSC-Ex inhibited the activation of casp11 and reduced the secretion of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and casp11, which relieved macrophage pyroptosis to alleviate murine colitis. A consistent outcome was revealed in the cell experiments, where hucMSC-Ex contributed to a decreased casp11/4 expression, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, as a marker of cell damage. Moreover, miR-203a-3p.2 from hucMSC-Ex functioned as an effective mediator in the interaction with casp4 in THP-1 macrophage pyroptosis.

Conclusion: HucMSC-Ex ameliorates colitis through the suppression of casp11/4-induced macrophage pyroptosis, and hucMSC-Ex carrying miR-203a-3p.2 inhibits casp4-induced macrophage pyroptosis in an inflammatory environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2022.108925DOI Listing
June 2022

Hyperkalemia and Metabolic Acidosis Occur at a Higher eGFR in Sickle Cell Disease.

Kidney360 2022 Apr 3;3(4):608-614. Epub 2022 Feb 3.

Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology & Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.

Background: People with sickle cell disease (SCD) have an elevated estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) compared with the general population, and this may alter the usual creatinine-based eGFR cutoffs for which physiologic evidence of kidney dysfunction is apparent. This study aimed to identify eGFR thresholds for hyperkalemia and metabolic acidosis in patients with SCD.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional analysis of 733 patients with severe (hemoglobin SS or S -thalassemia) SCD genotype, 238 patients with moderate (hemoglobin SC or S -thalassemia) SCD genotype, and 1333 age- and sex-matched African Americans from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The prevalence rates of hyperkalemia and metabolic acidosis were compared by eGFR category. Cutoffs for hyperkalemia and metabolic acidosis were determined using generalized additive models.

Results: Hyperkalemia and metabolic acidosis were more common in those with severe SCD genotype (13% and 21%, respectively) compared with the NHANES (0.3% and 5%, respectively); the prevalence rates in the moderate SCD genotype were intermediate for hyperkalemia (3%) and metabolic acidosis (11%). The proportion of patients with hyperkalemia and metabolic acidosis progressively increased with lower eGFR category in both SCD genotype groups. The eGFR thresholds for hyperkalemia and metabolic acidosis were higher in the severe (85 and 91 ml/min per 1.73 m, respectively) and moderate (52 and 102 ml/min per 1.73 m, respectively) SCD genotypes compared with the NHANES (34 and 46 ml/min per 1.73 m).

Conclusions: We demonstrate that hyperkalemia and metabolic acidosis are more common and occur at higher eGFR values in patients with SCD compared with age- and sex-matched African Americans, including in eGFR ranges considered to be normal. Future studies using redefined creatinine-based eGFR thresholds for abnormal kidney function may identify high-risk patients for earlier intervention strategies and referral for specialized renal care in SCD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.34067/KID.0006802021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9136900PMC
April 2022

Radial Growth of Trees Rather Than Shrubs in Boreal Forests Is Inhibited by Drought.

Front Plant Sci 2022 2;13:912916. Epub 2022 Jun 2.

School of Life, Qufu Normal University, Qufu, China.

Of all forest biomes, boreal forests are experiencing the most significant warming. Drought caused by warming has a dramatic impact on species in boreal forests. However, little is known about whether the growth of trees and shrubs in boreal forests responds consistently to warming and drought. We obtained the tree-ring width data of 308 trees ( and var. ) and 133 shrubs () from 26 sites in northeastern China. According to the climate data from 1950 to 2014, we determined three extreme drought years (1954, 1967, and 2008). The response difference of radial growth of trees and shrubs in boreal forests to drought was compared using resilience index, moving correlation and response analysis. The results showed that high temperature (mean and maximum temperature) in previous and current growing seasons promoted the growth of , but inhibited the growth of trees. On the contrary, wetter conditions (higher PDSI) promoted tree growth but were not conducive to growth in high latitudes. Moving correlation analysis showed similar results. In addition, water deficit was more likely to inhibit growth in low latitudes. The drought resistance of was stronger than that of and var. . Therefore, the growth loss and recovery time of during drought was less than those of trees. We concluded that and var. are more prone to growth decline than after the drought caused by climate warming. In the future climate warming, shrub growth may benefit more than trees. Our findings are of great significance in predicting the future changes in ecosystem composition and species distribution dynamics in extreme climate susceptible areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2022.912916DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9201406PMC
June 2022

Circulating Abnormal Extracellular Vesicles: Their Mechanism for Crossing Blood-Brain Barrier, Effects on Central Nervous System and Detection Methods.

J Biomed Nanotechnol 2022 Mar;18(3):640-659

Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital Clinical College of Jiangsu University, Nanjing, 210008, China.

Central nervous system (CNS) diseases are difficult to treat and harmful. Many CNS diseases are secondary to peripheral diseases, such as tumor brain metastases (BMS), viral infections and inflammation of the brain, and their pathogenic factors travel through the circulatory system to the brain, eventually leading to lesions. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) play an important role in this process. Recent studies have shown that, extracellular EVs can effectively cross the blood- brain barrier (BBB) through endocytosis and they transmit molecular signals in cell-to-cell communication. Abnormal EVs produced in the lesion portion transport pathogenic factors, including miRNAs, proteins, and virions into the CNS. These pathogenic factors participate in cellular pathways to interfere with homeostasis or are themselves pathogens that directly damage CNS. In addition, different or specific pathological molecules in EVs are potential disease markers. We herein reviewed pathways through which the abnormal EVs cross BBB and adverse effects of abnormal exosomes. We also and summarized their existing detection techniques, so as to provide basis for prevention and early diagnosis of secondary diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jbn.2022.3293DOI Listing
March 2022

A Study on the Use of Phase Transition Lysozyme-Loaded Minocycline Hydrochloride in the Local Treatment of Chronic Periodontitis.

ACS Appl Bio Mater 2022 Jun 17. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

School of Dentistry, Hospital of Stomatology, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070, China.

Periodontitis is the most important oral disease causing human tooth loss. Although supragingival and subgingival scaling is the main strategy of periodontitis clinical treatments, drug treatment has an indispensable auxiliary role to some degree. Periodontitis medical treatment is divided into systemically administered treatments and local periodontally administered treatments. Compared with systemic administration, local administration can increase local drug concentrations, reduce dosages, and prolong action times while also improving patient compliance and avoiding possible adverse effects due to systemic administration responses. However, some studies show that minocycline ointment, a clinical local drug commonly used in periodontal pockets, has an unstable release rate; 80% of the drug is usually released within 2-3 days after pocket placement. This release is not conducive to controlling periodontal infection and may hinder the periodontal tissue repair and regeneration. Therefore, choosing a suitable carrier for minocycline hydrochloride is necessary to control its local release in periodontal tissue. Phase transition lysozyme (PTL) has been widely used in many studies and the development of macromolecular carrier material, and we selected PTL as the carrier for minocycline hydrochloride drugs because of its good biocompatibility, good drug-carrying capacity, and stable release. Due to its release characteristics and simple preparation, PTL is a promising carrier material.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsabm.2c00079DOI Listing
June 2022

Self-Assembled Oligopeptide (FK) as a Chiral Alignment Medium for the Anisotropic NMR Analysis of Organic Compounds.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2022 Jun 16;14(25):29223-29229. Epub 2022 Jun 16.

State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic Molecular Physics, Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance in Biological Systems, National Center for Magnetic Resonance in Wuhan, Innovation Academy for Precision Measurement Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071, China.

Anisotropic NMR parameters have been proven to be powerful for the structural elucidation of organic molecules. Herein, we present an alignment medium based on the self-assembled (FK) oligopeptide, showing excellent properties in measurements of anisotropic NMR parameters in both DO and CDOD. The preparation of the (FK)-based alignment medium is simple and rapid. The low viscosity of the anisotropic phase makes it easy to be transferred to the NMR tube. The alignment of the oligopeptide is fast, stable, and homogeneous, with weak background signals, permitting the acquirement of high-quality NMR spectra. The performance of this alignment medium in residual dipolar coupling measurements and diastereomer discriminations is demonstrated by analyzing several different analytes. The enantiodiscrimination property of the (FK) oligopeptide is revealed by the difference of residual chemical shift anisotropy of the two enantiomers in the 1D C spectrum, granting its potential use for the quantification and identification of enantiomers of small molecules.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.2c05506DOI Listing
June 2022

In situ probing and stabilizing the power ratio of electro-optic-modulated laser pairs based on VIPA etalon for quantum sensing.

Opt Lett 2022 Jun;47(12):2983-2986

Monitoring and stabilizing the power ratio of laser pairs is significant for high-precision atom interferometers, especially as the compact electro-optic-modulated all-fiber laser system prevails. In this Letter, we demonstrate a novel, to the best of our knowledge, method to in situ probe the relative power of laser pairs and to stabilize the power ratio of two Raman lasers using a high-dispersion virtually imaged phased array (VIPA) etalon. Sub-microsecond resolution on probing laser power transformation during the atom interferometer sequence is achieved and the power ratio of two Raman lasers (PRTR) is tightly locked with high bandwidth despite environmental disturbances, showing an Allan deviation of 4.39 × 10 at 1000 s averaging time. This method provides a novel way to stabilize the PRTR and diagnose multi-frequency laser systems for atom interferometers, and it could find potential applications in broad quantum sensing scenarios.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.458844DOI Listing
June 2022

The therapeutic effect of balloon dilatation with different duration for biliary duct calculi: A network meta-analysis.

J Minim Access Surg 2022 Jul-Sep;18(3):327-337

Department of General Surgery, Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang Province, China.

Objective: To systematically evaluate the application effect of endoscopic papillary balloon dilatation (EPBD) with different balloon dilatation duration for biliary duct calculi, and find the most appropriate dilatation duration for EPBD using a network meta-analysis.

Materials And Methods: PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library databases were searched for relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs) published up to August 2020. Node split, consistency and inconsistency models analysis were all conducted in network meta-analysis.

Results: Eighteen RCTs with 2256 participants were finally analysed. EPBD was divided into four categories based on balloon dilatation duration, including EPBD (P0.5), EPBD (>0.5, ≤1), EPBD (1, ≤2) and EPBD (>2, ≤5). Compared with EPBD (>0.5, ≤1), EPBD (>2, ≤5) had a lower risk of early complications (odds ratio [OR] = 0.23, 95% credible interval [CI] = 0.05-0.96) and post-endoscopic procedure pancreatitis (PEP) (OR = 0.17, 95% CI = 0.03-0.72). Endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) tended to have less need for mechanical lithotripsy (OR = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.16-0.88) and PEP (OR = 0.26, 95% CI = 0.08-0.71) than EPBD (>0.5, ≤1). EPBD (>2, ≤5) was the safest endoscopic procedure with respect to early complications (surface area under cumulative ranking curves [SUCRA] = 79.0) and PEP (SUCRA = 85.3). In addition, EPBD (>2, ≤5) and EST had the highest probability of being the best (SUCRA = 82.6) and the worst (SUCRA = 10.8), respectively, regarding late complications.

Conclusion: EPBD and EST are two methods used to treat uncomplicated choledocholithiasis (stone diameter <10 mm and stone number <3). The extension of balloon dilatation duration has no significant influence on successful stone removal in the first endoscopic session or preventing the need for mechanical lithotripsy. However, it can reduce the risk of early complications, especially PEP. What's more, EPBD seems to have less late complications compared with EST, and the effect of prolonged balloon dilatation duration on late complications still needs to be further explored. Therefore, 2-5 min is the recommended dilatation duration range for EPBD using balloon with ≤10 mm diameter. Further research based on a specific population and with a longer follow-up time are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jmas.JMAS_304_20DOI Listing
June 2022
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