Publications by authors named "Xu Yan"

3,746 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Modeling and dynamics of physiological and behavioral resistance of Asian citrus psyllid.

Math Biosci 2021 Jul 26:108674. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

LAMPS and CCDM, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:

The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) survival in the presence of contact insecticides may be through physiological adaptations or by behaviorally avoiding. Curiously, although the first alternative is the object of frequent attention, the second was often neglected, but both may lead to insecticide resistance. In this paper, we characterize the growth dynamics of ACP population using a novel impulsive differential equation model to account for the effect of physiological and behavioral resistance, and investigate the threshold conditions for the extinction of ACP population. Furthermore, we discuss the optimal switching methods for insecticides based on two different criteria. Our numerical result suggests that ignoring both resistances or behavioral resistance would underestimate the transmission risk of Huanglongbing, whereas only considering behavioral resistance leads to an overestimation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mbs.2021.108674DOI Listing
July 2021

Potential Hypolipidemic Effects of Banana Condensed Tannins Through the Interaction with Digestive Juice Components Related to Lipid Digestion.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, 17 Qinghuadonglu Road, Beijing 100083, P. R. China.

An intestinal model was used to evaluate the impact of banana condensed tannins (BCT) on the digestion of lipids (fat and cholesterol). BCT significantly suppressed the digestion of fat and cholesterol by interacting with digestive juice components. The interactions of BCT with a digestive juice mixture and its components (including bile acid, lipase, cholesterol esterase, CaCl, NaCl, and cholesterol) were analyzed using turbidity, isothermal titration calorimetry, particle size distribution, zeta potential, and molecular docking analyses. The results showed that BCT reduced the digestion of lipids mainly via interaction with lipase, cholesterol esterase, bile acid, and cholesterol. Electrostatic CT-calcium ion complexes might reduce the extent of lipid digestion by decreasing the surface area of the lipid droplets exposed to the enzymes. This research provides valuable insights into the molecular mechanisms of the interaction of BCT with digestive juice components related to lipid digestion that may affect the rate and extent of lipid digestion.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.1c02794DOI Listing
July 2021

GLYI-4 functions downstream of NAC72 to modulate downy mildew resistance in grapevine.

Plant J 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, College of Horticulture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, 712100, P.R. China.

Glyoxalase I (GLYI) is part of the glyoxalase system and its the major function is the detoxification of α-ketoaldehydes, including the potent and cytotoxic methylglyoxal (MG). MG disrupts mitochondrial respiration and increases production of reactive oxygen species, which increased during pathogen infection of plant tissues, but few studies relating the glyoxalase system on plant pathogen response. We used the promoter of the VvGLYI-4 to screen the upstream transcription factors and reported a NAC (NAM/ATAF/CUC) domain-containing transcription factor VvNAC72 in grapevine, which was localized to the nucleus. Our results showed that VvNAC72 expression was induced by downy mildew Plasmopara viticola, whereas the transcript level of VvGLYI-4 decreased. Following analysis revealed that VvNAC72 can directly bind to the promoter region of VvGLYI-4 via CACGTG element, leading to the inhibition of VvGLYI-4 transcription. Further stable overexpression of VvNAC72 in grapevine and tobacco showed decreased expression level of VvGLYI-4, increased contents of MG and ROS, as well as stronger resistance to pathogen stress. Taken together, these results demonstrate that grapevine VvNAC72 negatively modulates MG detoxification through repression of VvGLYI-4, and finally enhances resistance to downy mildew, at least in part, via the modulation of MG-associated ROS homeostasis through salicylic acid (SA)-mediated defense pathway.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tpj.15447DOI Listing
July 2021

Sporophytic control of anther development and male fertility by glucose-6-phosphate/phosphate translocator 1 (OsGPT1) in rice.

J Genet Genomics 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058, China. Electronic address:

Coordination between the sporophytic tissue and the gametic pollen within anthers is tightly controlled to achieve the optimal pollen fitness. Glucose-6-phosphate/phosphate translocator (GPT) transports glucose-6-phosphate, a key precursor of starch and/or fatty acid biosynthesis, into plastids. Here, we report the functional characterization of OsGPT1 in the rice anther development and pollen fertility. Pollen grains from homozygous osgpt1 mutant plants fail to accumulate starch granules, resulting in pollen sterility. Genetic analyses reveal a sporophytic effect for this mutation. OsGPT1 is highly expressed in the tapetal layer of rice anther. Degeneration of the tapetum, an important process to provide cellular contents to support pollen development, is impeded in osgpt1 plants. In addition, defective intine and exine are observed in the pollen from osgpt1 plants. Expression levels of multiple genes that are important to tapetum degeneration or pollen wall formation are significantly decreased in osgpt1 anthers. Previously, we reported that AtGPT1 plays a gametic function in the accumulation of lipid bodies in Arabidopsis pollen. This report highlights a sporophytic role of OsGPT1 in the tapetum degeneration and pollen development. The divergent functions of OsGPT1 and AtGPT1 in pollen development might be a result of their independent evolution after monocots and dicots diverged.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jgg.2021.04.013DOI Listing
June 2021

Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy Using Fluorouracil Implants Combined With Radical Resection and Postoperative Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Stage III Gastric Cancer: A Multi-Center, Randomized, Open-Label, Controlled Clinical Study.

Front Oncol 2021 8;11:670651. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of Surgical Oncology and General Surgery, The First Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Background: Reducing peritoneal recurrence after radical surgery is an important choice to improve the prognosis of patients with advanced gastric cancer. Intraoperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy has the potential to be a promising treatment strategy. In the present study, we conducted a multi-center, randomized, controlled clinical study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intraoperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy using sustained-release fluorouracil implants plus radical gastrectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy for cTNM stage III gastric cancer.

Methods: The patients were randomized into intraperitoneal chemotherapy group (sustained-release fluorouracil implants administration after standard D2 radical gastrectomy, and followed by XELOX adjuvant chemotherapy) and control group (standard D2 radical gastrectomy, and followed by XELOX adjuvant chemotherapy). A total of 122 patients from three centers were enrolled from September 2015 to February 2017.

Results: One hundred and two eligible patients completed the treatment course. The median follow-up time was 41.7 months (36.1-52.9 months). The 3-year progression-free survival rate and overall survival of patients in the intraperitoneal chemotherapy group were 43.9% and 49.1%, respectively, which were significantly better than those of the control group, 31.0% and 38.4%. In the intraperitoneal chemotherapy group, the number of cases with peritoneal recurrence was significantly less than that of the control group, 9 cases (17.3%) 19 cases (44.2%). There were neither significant differences between the groups in the incidence of hematogenous metastasis, lymph node metastasis, nor local metastasis.

Conclusion: For cTNM stage III gastric cancer, intraoperative sustained-release fluorouracil implants after radical resection combined with postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy, could significantly reduce the risk of peritoneal recurrence and prolong PFS. https://clinicaltrials.gov/, identifier (NCT02269904).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.670651DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8298064PMC
July 2021

Examining the Effector Mechanisms of the Feishu Acupoint (BL13) in the Treatment of Pneumonia Based on Systematic Acupuncture and Moxibustion Research.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 5;2021:5578104. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Chongqing Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chongqing 400021, China.

Background: Pneumonia is a serious global health problem. In traditional Chinese medicine, acupuncture or moxibustion is used to directly stimulate select acupoints on the surface of the human body and produce physical stimulation to further stimulate regulatory functions in the body, strengthening bodily resistance, eliminating disease, and adjusting the viscera. However, this Chinese medicine knowledge does not include the specific mechanisms of action or targets of acupoints. Therefore, an in-depth research is needed.

Methods: An acupoint-element database was constructed, and the target elements of the Feishu point were screened. The UniProt-Swiss-Prot sublibrary was used to obtain correct gene name information. The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database and GEO2R were used to analyze differentially expressed genes in pneumonia. The STRING database was used to analyze interactions, construct a network of the Feishu point efficacy system in pneumonia, and elucidate the mechanisms of action.

Results: The Feishu point comprises 34 elements in total. The protein interaction analysis has 38 nodes and 115 edges. The Feishu point efficacy system-pneumonia system network shows that cytokine signaling in the immune system, signaling by interleukins (ILs), IL-4 and IL-13 signaling, and the immune system may be related to immunity and inflammation. The Feishu point efficacy system regulating pneumonia showed that FCER2, IL4R, FASLG, TGFB1, IL6R, STAT6, IL1B, CASP3, IL5RA, IL2RB, MYD88, SQSTM1, IL12RB1, IFNGR1, ADAM17, and CDH1 are the main targets.

Conclusion: From the perspective of systematic acupuncture and moxibustion, the Feishu point regulates cytokine signaling in the immune system, signaling by ILs, IL-4 and IL-13 signaling, and the immune system by targeting FCER2, IL4R, FASLG, TGFB1, IL6R, STAT6, IL1B, CASP3, IL5RA, IL2RB, MYD88, SQSTM1, IL12RB1, IFNGR1, ADAM17, and CDH1, thereby regulating pneumonia.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/5578104DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8285197PMC
July 2021

Associations Between Child Maltreatment and Depressive Symptoms Among Chinese College Students: An Analysis of Sex Differences.

Front Psychiatry 2021 9;12:656646. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Department of Medical Statistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Depressive symptoms and child maltreatment are both global public health problems among young adults. This study aimed to investigate the associations between five types of child maltreatment and depressive symptoms among Chinese college students, with a focus on potential sex differences. A cross-sectional study of a nationally representative sample of Chinese college students was conducted from March to June 2019 with a multistage, stratified cluster, random sampling method. In total, 30,179 college students from 60 colleges of 10 Chinese province-level regions completed standard questionnaires, including a history of child maltreatment and current depressive symptoms. The prevalence of depressive symptoms among college students in China was 7.3%. After adjusting for control variables, physical abuse (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.17-1.23), emotional abuse (aOR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.19-1.23), sexual abuse (aOR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.16-1.22), physical neglect (aOR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.12-1.16) and emotional neglect (aOR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.07-1.09) were all positively associated with depressive symptoms. Notably, a cumulative effect of child maltreatment on depressive symptoms among Chinese college students was observed. Moreover, sex differences in the associations of emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and the number of maltreatment types with depressive symptoms were statistically significant ( < 0.05). Further stratification analyses showed that female students who experienced emotional abuse and emotional neglect had a higher risk of depressive symptoms than male students, and the cumulative effect of maltreatment types was stronger for females than males. Five types of child maltreatment and their co-occurrence were associated with an increased risk of depressive symptoms among college students. Furthermore, the effects of emotional abuse, emotional neglect and the number of maltreatment types on depressive symptoms were stronger for females than for males. These findings can promote understanding of the effects of child maltreatment on depressive symptoms, and prevention and intervention strategies for depressive symptoms should consider the type of child maltreatment and sex differences.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2021.656646DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8298832PMC
July 2021

Enhanced removal of sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline in bioretention cells amended with activated carbon and zero-valent iron: System performance and microbial community.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 17;797:148992. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Department of Municipal Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210096, PR China. Electronic address:

Antibiotics, heavily used as medicine, enter the environment inevitably and raise concerns of the risk to the ecosystems. In this study, we explored the removal efficiency and mechanism of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and tetracycline (TC) in activated carbon (AC) and AC-zero-valent iron amended bioretention cells (AC-BRC and AC-Fe-BRC) compared with a conventional bioretention cell (BRC). Moreover, the system performance of BRCs, the shifts of the microbial community, as well as the fate of corresponding antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) were comprehensively investigated. The results showed that, exposed to antibiotics notwithstanding, AC-BRC and AC-Fe-BRC significantly outperformed BRC on total nitrogen (TN) removal (BRC: 70.36 ± 13.61%; AC-BRC: 91.43 ± 6.41%; AC-Fe-BRC: 83.44 ± 12.13%). Greater than 97% of the total phosphorous (TP) was removed in AC-Fe-BRC, remaining unimpacted despite of the selective pressure from SMX/TC. Excellent removals of antibiotics (above 99%) were achieved in AC-BRC and AC-Fe-BRC regardless of the types and initial concentrations (0.8 mg/L, 1.2 mg/L and 1.6 mg/L) of antibiotics, dwarfing the removal performance of BRC (12.2 ± 4.4%-64.2 ± 5.5%). The illumina high throughput sequencing analysis demonstrated the concomitant variations of microbial communities as SMX/TC was loaded. AC layers tended to alleviate the adverse effect of SMX/TC on microbial biodiversity. Proteobacteria (34.55-68.47%), Chloroflexi (7.13-33.54%), and Bacteroidetes (6.20-21.03%) were the top three dominant phyla in the anaerobic zone of the BRCs. The abundance of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) sulI, sulII and tetA genes were dramatically higher in AC-BRC and AC-Fe-BRC when exposed to 0.8 mg/L SMX/TC, which indicated that relatively low concentrations of SMX/TC induced the production of these three ARGs in the presence of AC. Although the amendment of AC led to highly efficient SMX/TC removals, further investigation is still required to improve the retention of ARGs in BRCs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.148992DOI Listing
July 2021

Cumulative effects of ambient particulate matter pollution on deaths: A multicity analysis of mortality displacement.

Chemosphere 2021 Jul 20;286(Pt 1):131615. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Jiangsu Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Jiangsu Road 172, 210009, Nanjing, PR China. Electronic address:

Background: Systematic evaluations of the cumulative effects and mortality displacement of ambient particulate matter (PM) pollution on deaths are lacking. We aimed to discern the cumulative effect profile of PM exposure, and investigate the presence of mortality displacement in a large-scale population.

Methods: We conducted a time-series analysis with different exposure-lag models on 13 cities in Jiangsu, China, to estimate the effects of PM pollution on non-accidental, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality (2015-2019). Over-dispersed Poisson generalized additive models were integrated with distributed lag models to estimate cumulative exposure effects, and assess mortality displacement.

Results: Pooled cumulative effect estimates with lags of 0-7 and 0-14 days were substantially larger than those with single-day and 2-day moving average lags. For each 10 μg/m increment in PM concentration with a cumulative lag of 0-7 days, we estimated an increase of 0.50 % (95 % CI: 0.29, 0.72), 0.63 % (95 % CI: 0.38, 0.88), and 0.50 % (95 % CI: 0.01, 1.01) in pooled estimates of non-accidental, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality, respectively. Both PM and PM were associated with significant increases in non-accidental and cardiovascular mortality with a cumulative lag of 0-14 days. We observed mortality displacement within 30 days for non-accidental, cardiovascular, and respiratory deaths.

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that risk assessment based on single-day or 2-day moving average lag structures may underestimate the adverse effects of PM pollution. The cumulative effects of PM exposure on non-accidental and cardiovascular mortality can last up to 14 days. Evidence of mortality displacement for non-accidental, cardiovascular, and respiratory deaths was found.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.131615DOI Listing
July 2021

Spatiotemporal variation in residential PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations in China: National on-site survey.

Environ Res 2021 Jul 20;202:111731. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

China CDC Key Laboratory of Environment and Population Health, National Institute of Environmental Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, 100021, China. Electronic address:

Background: Significant efforts have been directed toward addressing the adverse health effects of particulate matter, while few data exist to evaluate indoor exposure nationwide in China.

Objectives: This study aimed to investigate dwellings particulate matter levels in the twelve cities in China and provide large data support for policymakers to accelerate the legislative process.

Methods: The current study was based on the CIEHS 2018 study and conducted in 12 cities of China. A total of 2128 air samples were collected from 610 residential households during the summer and winter. Both PM and PM were detected with a light-scattering dust meter in both the living room and bedroom. The Wilcoxon rank-sum test was performed to evaluate the correlations between PM and PM concentrations and both sampling season and site. Ratios of the living room to bedroom were calculated to evaluate the particulate matter variation between rooms. Hierarchical clustering was used to probe the question of whether the concentration varies between cities throughout China.

Results: The geometric means of the PM in living rooms and bedrooms were 39.80 and 36.55 μg/m in the summer, and 70.97 and 67.99 μg/m in the winter, respectively. In the summer, approximately 70 % of indoor dwelling PM exceeded the limit of 25 μg/m, and for PM approximately 60 % of dwellings demonstrated levels higher than 50 μg/m; the corresponding values were over 90 % and 80 % in winter, respectively. In Shijiazhuang, Lanzhou, Luoyang and Qingdao, the geometric means of the PM concentrations were observed to be 1.5 to 4.3 times higher during winter than during summer; similar concentrations in summer and winter were observed in Harbin, Wuxi, and Shenzhen, while the PM concentrations in Panjin were approximately 1.5 times higher in summer than in winter. There was no significant difference in particulate matter concentrations between the living rooms and bedrooms. Scatter plots showed that cities with low GDP and a small population had higher concentrations, while Shenzhen, which has a higher GDP and a large permanent population, had a relatively low concentration of particulate matter.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that indoor air pollution is a severe problem in China. It is necessary to continue monitoring indoor air quality to observe the changing trend under the tremendous effort of the Chinese government.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.111731DOI Listing
July 2021

Feasibility and reliability of evaluate PD-L1 expression determination using small biopsy specimens in non-small cell lung cancer.

Thorac Cancer 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing, China.

Background: Programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) is a useful biomarker in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients who would probably benefit from immunotherapy. In most patients with advanced stage NSCLC, only small biopsy specimens were available for the evaluation of PD-L1 expression. In this study, we evaluated the feasibility and reliability of PD-L1 testing on small biopsy samples.

Methods: Small specimens of advanced NSCLC patients obtained via endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA), endobronchial biopsy (EBB), or computed tomography (CT)-guided core-needle biopsy were collected. Tumor cell count and tissue sufficiency for PD-L1 immunohistochemistry (IHC) were evaluated and compared. The clinical course of patients who received immunotherapy in the study population was also examined.

Results: Tissue acquisitions for PD-L1 testing in three groups were all above 90%, with no statistically significant differences. The PD-L1 expressions levels were concordant in most patients with more than one sample (8/11). In the EBB group, PD-L1-positive patients had higher objective response rate (ORR) (53.2% vs. 26.9%, p = 0.048) and longer progression-free survival (PFS) (312 vs. 179 days, p = 0.035) than PD-L1 negative patients. In the core needle biopsy group, patients with positive PD-L1 expression also trended to have higher ORR and longer PFS. However, in the EBUS-TBNA group, both ORR and PFS were similar between patients with positive or negative PD-L1 expression.

Conclusions: This study showed that EBUS-TBNA, EBB, and core needle biopsy provides adequate samples for PD-L1 testing. The predictive value of PD-L1 expression on different small samples still warrants further studies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1759-7714.14075DOI Listing
July 2021

A Purely Inorganic Quasi-Keggin Polyoxometalate for Photocatalytic Conversion of Carbon Dioxide to Carbon Monoxide.

Chempluschem 2021 Jul;86(7):1014-1020

College of Chemical Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing, 210009, P. R. China.

A pure inorganic cluster, H Na Co Mo (PO ) O  ⋅ 15H O (denoted as {Co Mo }), has been successfully synthesized by hydrothermal method. Notably, the assembly of a central {Co PO } tetrahedron and four peripheral {Co[P Mo ]} fragments gives rise to a rare "quasi-Keggin" structure of {Co Mo }, in which Co linkers continue to bridge adjacent substructures, resulting in the generation of 3D framework with large cavities. Benefitting from the combination of strong reductive {P Mo } units and Co active centers, the photocatalytic system with {Co Mo } as heterogeneous catalyst exhibits excellent activity for CO conversion to CO, offering the CO formation rate of 1848.3 μmol g h with high selectivity of 97.0 %. Besides, thermogravimetric and X-ray diffraction analysis confirm that {Co Mo } can maintain stable during the photocatalytic reaction process.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cplu.202100260DOI Listing
July 2021

Oxidative stress tolerance contributes to heterologous protein production in Pichia pastoris.

Biotechnol Biofuels 2021 Jul 20;14(1):160. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Key Laboratory of Industrial Biotechnology, Ministry of Education, School of Biotechnology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, 214122, People's Republic of China.

Background: Pichia pastoris (syn. Komagataella phaffii) is an important yeast system for heterologous protein expression. A robust P. pastoris mutant with oxidative and thermal stress cross-tolerance was acquired in our previous study. The robust mutant can express a 2.5-fold higher level of lipase than its wild type (WT) under methanol induction conditions.

Results: In this study, we found that the robust mutant not only can express a high level of lipase, but also can express a high level of other heterogeneous proteins (e.g., green fluorescence protein) under methanol induction conditions. Additionally, the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in the robust mutant were lower than that in the WT under methanol induction conditions. To figure out the difference of cellular response to methanol between the WT and the robust mutant, RNA-seq was detected and compared. The results of RNA-seq showed that the expression levels of genes related to antioxidant, MAPK pathway, ergosterol synthesis pathway, transcription factors, and the peroxisome pathway were upregulated in the robust mutant compared to the WT. The upregulation of these key pathways can improve the oxidative stress tolerance of strains and efficiently eliminate cellular ROS. Hence, we inferred that the high heterologous protein expression efficiency in the robust mutant may be due to its enhanced oxidative stress tolerance. Promisingly, we have indeed increased the expression level of lipase up to 1.6-fold by overexpressing antioxidant genes in P. pastoris.

Conclusions: This study demonstrated the impact of methanol on the expression levels of genes in P. pastoris and emphasized the contribution of oxidative stress tolerance on heterologous protein expression in P. pastoris. Our results shed light on the understanding of protein expression mechanism in P. pastoris and provided an idea for the rational construction of robust yeast with high expression ability.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13068-021-02013-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8290557PMC
July 2021

Synergistic adsorption and photocatalytic degradation of persist synthetic dyes by capsule-like porphyrin-based MOFs.

Nanotechnology 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Chemistry, Northeastern University, Box 332, Shenyang 110819, P R CHINA, Shenyang, Liaoning, 110819, CHINA.

The synergistic effects involving surface adsorption and photocatalytic degradation commonly play significant roles in the removal of persistent synthetic organics from wastewater in the case of porous semiconductors. Inspired by the visible-light harvesting advantages of porphyrin-based MOFs, a capsule-like bimetallic porphyrin-based MOF (PCN-222(Ni/Hf)) has been successfully constructed through a facile hydrothermal method. In which, the Hf (IV) ions were exactly bonded to the carboxyl groups substituted on the porphyrin rings, meanwhile the Ni (II) ions were finely bonded to the -N inside the porphyrin rings. The adsorption/photocatalytic performances were assessed by using four persistent dyes including rhodamine B (RhB), basic violet 14 (BV14), crystal violet (CV), and acid black 210 (AB210) as the target substances, and enhanced total removal efficiency was obtained by the bimetallic PCN-222(Ni/Hf) in comparison with that of single PCN-222(Hf). The electrochemical analyses and the sacrificial agent capture experiments were carried out to elucidate the photocatalytic mechanism, and the adsorption/photocatalytic stability of PCN-222(Ni/Hf) is also investigated. The work has broadened the applications of porphyrin-based MOFs in the removal of organics by combining their excellent surface adsorption capacity and photocatalytic activities.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/ac162eDOI Listing
July 2021

Iguratimod decreases bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in association with inhibition of TNF-α in mice.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Jul 17;99:107936. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Department of Rheumatology, The Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou 221002, China; The First Clinical Medicine School, Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou 221002, China. Electronic address:

Severe interstitial lung disease secondary to connective tissue diseases, characterized by pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis, often have very poor prognosis due to lack of effective treatments. Iguratimod (IGU) shows encouraging efficacy in treating connective tissue diseases, however, the underlying mechanism is still to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the impact of IGU on bleomycin-induced interstitial lung disease and the related tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) signaling pathway in mice and in the alveolar epithelial cell A549. We found IGU decreased pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis and expression of fibrosis-related genes such as Collagen I, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) induced by bleomycin. IGU inhibited epithelial-mesenchymal transition as evidenced by decreased E-cadherin expression but increased vimentin expression. IGU reduced TNF-α production in the pulmonary fibrosis murine model and in the in vitro cultured A549 cells. Furthermore, IGU ameliorated TNF-α-induced severe pulmonary fibrosis and inhibited TNF-α-induced activation of NF-κB. In addition, IGU decreased IL-6 production and phosphorylation of STAT3. In conclusion, the IGU-mediated anti-fibrogenesis effect was associated with the inhibition of TNF-α and NF-κB.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2021.107936DOI Listing
July 2021

Evidence-Based Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training on Exercise Capacity and Health: A Review with Historical Perspective.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Jul 5;18(13). Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Institute for Health and Sport (iHeS), Victoria University, Melbourne 8001, Australia.

Engaging in regular exercise results in a range of physiological adaptations offering benefits for exercise capacity and health, independent of age, gender or the presence of chronic diseases. Accumulating evidence shows that lack of time is a major impediment to exercise, causing physical inactivity worldwide. This issue has resulted in momentum for interval training models known to elicit higher enjoyment and induce adaptations similar to or greater than moderate-intensity continuous training, despite a lower total exercise volume. Although there is no universal definition, high-intensity interval exercise is characterized by repeated short bursts of intense activity, performed with a "near maximal" or "all-out" effort corresponding to ≥90% of maximal oxygen uptake or >75% of maximal power, with periods of rest or low-intensity exercise. Research has indicated that high-intensity interval training induces numerous physiological adaptations that improve exercise capacity (maximal oxygen uptake, aerobic endurance, anaerobic capacity etc.) and metabolic health in both clinical and healthy (athletes, active and inactive individuals without any apparent disease or disorder) populations. In this paper, a brief history of high-intensity interval training is presented, based on the novel findings of some selected studies on exercise capacity and health, starting from the early 1920s to date. Further, an overview of the mechanisms underlying the physiological adaptations in response to high-intensity interval training is provided.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18137201DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8294064PMC
July 2021

Transcriptome Co-expression Network Analysis Identifies Key Genes Regulating Conchosporangia Maturation of .

Front Genet 2021 30;12:680120. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Fisheries College, Jimei University, Xiamen, China.

Conchosporangia maturation is crucial for the yield of . However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this process are poorly understood. In this study, we selected two strains of that show significant differences in conchosporangia maturation as materials to produce RNA-Seq libraries. Then, we identified key molecular pathways and genes involved in conchosporangia maturation by conducting a weighted gene co-expression network analysis. Two specific modules were identified, and included functions such as phosphorus metabolism, lipid metabolism, and the phosphatidylinositol signaling system. The hub genes that responded positively during conchosporangia maturation encoded diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) and phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate-5-kinase, which are involved in the synthesis of phosphatidic acid, a key component of lipid metabolism. A full-length sequence of , designated as , was obtained by rapid-amplification of cDNA ends. Conserved motif and phylogenetic tree analyses showed that belongs to DGK Cluster II. The transcript level of increased during conchosporangia maturation in both strains, but increased earlier, and to higher levels, in the early-maturing strain than in the late-maturing strain. This pattern of gene expression was consistent with the patterns of maturity and changes in pigment contents. These results indicate that lipid metabolism plays a key role in regulating conchosporangia maturation in spp., and that might be a useful molecular marker for breeding new early-maturing strains.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2021.680120DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8278576PMC
June 2021

Health risk assessment and countermeasure analysis of the elderly population exposed to PM2.5 microenvironment.

Authors:
Yan Xu Wantian Cui

Work 2021 Jul 15. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Economics, Liaoning University, Liaoning, China.

Background: China's atmospheric PM2.5 pollution is serious, and PM2.5 exerts a negative impact on the human respiratory system, cardiovascular, and mental health, and even more serious health risk for the elderly with weak immunity.

Objective: This work aims to analyse the impacts of PM2.5 microenvironment exposure on the health of the elderly and provide corresponding countermeasures.

Methods: The survey subjects are 118 retired elderly people in the community. PM2.5 exposure concentrations are monitored in summer (June 10 ∼ July 10, 2019) and winter (November 25 ∼ December 25, 2019).

Results: The exposure concentration in winter is higher than that in summer, with statistical difference (P <  0.05). Under the impact of PM2.5 microenvironment exposure, smoking in the elderly can increase the concentration of PM2.5, and long-term exposure to PM2.5 in the elderly can cause mental health problems.

Conclusion: Long-term exposure of the elderly to the PM2.5 microenvironment leads to physical diseases and even psychological problems, which requires attention.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/WOR-205361DOI Listing
July 2021

Anticoagulant-associated gastrointestinal bleeding: framework for decisions about whether, when and how to resume anticoagulants.

J Thromb Haemost 2021 Jul 17. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Department of Medicine, University of Ottawa.

Gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is the most frequent single site of OAC-associated major bleeding. Patients with major GI bleeding experience morbidity and a substantial risk of short-term all-cause mortality up to 10%. While OACs are frequently discontinued during acute bleeding, there is substantial uncertainty about whether, when and how OACs should be resumed after bleeding has resolved. Limited evidence suggest a lower risk of thromboembolism and death, and a higher risk of recurrent bleeding with OAC resumption. However, the absolute risks and optimal timing of anticoagulation remain uncertain based on these observational studies at risk of bias, particularly due to baseline confounding. In addition to an individualized approach to determining the benefits and harms of treatment decisions informed by the best available evidence about thrombosis and recurrent bleeding, discussions should meaningfully incorporate patient values and preferences. The objective of this review is to provide a framework for decision-making by summarizing the epidemiology and clinical outcomes of OAC-associated GI bleeding, providing an approach for assessment and risk stratification for OAC resumption and its timing, and outlining strategies for the prevention of recurrent GI bleeding.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jth.15466DOI Listing
July 2021

Comparative analysis of bile culture and blood culture in patients with malignant biliary obstruction complicated with biliary infection.

J Cancer Res Ther 2021 Jul;17(3):726-732

Department of Intervention, National Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Tianjin's Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin, Hebei Province, China.

Objective: This study is aimed to provide a clinical basis for the identification and treatment of patients with malignant biliary obstruction (MBO) complicated with biliary infection by comparing pathogenic bacteria detected in bile and blood cultures from these patients.

Materials And Methods: A total of 380 patients with MBO who received percutaneous transhepatic cholangic drainage from January 2004 to January 2019 were included in the study. A total of 90 patients were diagnosed with having MBO complicated with biliary infection, and bile and blood culture were simultaneously performed on these patients. The patients included 58 men and 32 women, ranging in age from 33 to 86 years old, with a mean age of 60.69 years.

Results: The detection rate using bile bacterial culture in patients with MBO complicated with biliary infection was significantly higher than that using blood culture, and there were significant differences in the two kinds of bacterial culture found positive bile and blood cultures from the same patients. Gram-positive cocci were dominant in the bile cultures and Gram-negative bacilli were dominant in the blood cultures. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct simultaneous bile bacterial culture and blood culture for patients with MBO complicated with biliary infection, especially those with severe or critical diseases.

Conclusions: It is vital to enable simultaneous bile bacterial culture and blood culture in patients with MBO complicated with biliary infection. Existing guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of benign biliary infection are not applicable to patients with MBO complicated with biliary infection.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jcrt.JCRT_1705_20DOI Listing
July 2021

Evaluation of life expectancy loss associated with submicron and fine particulate matter (PM and PM) air pollution in Nanjing, China.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jul 15. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, China.

Particulate matters with an aerodynamic diameter ≤1 μm (PM) significantly increased mortality risk, and the effect of PM was even greater than that of PM (aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm). But the quantitative impact of PM on life expectancy was unknown. We aim to examine the extent to which that people's life expectancy was shortened by PM and PM. We obtained daily data on deaths, PM and PM records, and weather variables during 2016-2017 in Nanjing, China. Years of life lost (YLLs) were calculated by matching each decedent's age and sex to the Chinese life table. The fitted nonlinear dose-response associations of YLLs with PM and PM were estimated by utilizing a generalized additive model with a Gaussian link that controlled for confounding factors including meteorological variables, day of week, and long-term trend and seasonality. The effect estimates were presented as the YLLs when PM and PM concentrations fell in different ranges. Life expectancy losses attributable to PM and PM were calculated. Stratified analyses were also performed by age, sex, and death causes. Significant PM-YLL associations were observed, with greater increases in YLLs associated with PM (68.9 thousand). PM was estimated to reduce life expectancy, which was greater than PM (PM: 1.67 years; PM: 1.55 years). For PM, greater years of loss in PM-related life expectancy were found in the female group, ≥65 years group, and cardiovascular disease group. Exposure to PM had a greater impact on life expectancy loss than did PM. Constant efforts are urgently needed to control PM air pollution to improve people's longevity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-15244-zDOI Listing
July 2021

Regulation and drug modulation of a voltage-gated sodium channel: Pivotal role of the S4-S5 linker in activation and slow inactivation.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Jul;118(28)

Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261;

Voltage-gated sodium (Na) channels control excitable cell functions. While structural investigations have revealed conformation details of different functional states, the mechanisms of both activation and slow inactivation remain unclear. Here, we identify residue T140 in the S4-S5 linker of the bacterial voltage-gated sodium channel NaChBac as critical for channel activation and drug effects on inactivation. Mutations at T140 either attenuate activation or render the channel nonfunctional. Propofol, a clinical anesthetic known to inhibit NaChBac by promoting slow inactivation, binds to a pocket between the S4-S5 linker and S6 helix in a conformation-dependent manner. Using F-NMR to quantify site-specific binding by saturation transfer differences (STDs), we found strong STDs in inactivated, but not activated, NaChBac. Molecular dynamics simulations show a highly dynamic pocket in the activated conformation, limiting STD buildup. In contrast, drug binding to this pocket promotes and stabilizes the inactivated states. Our results provide direct experimental evidence showing distinctly different associations between the S4-S5 linker and S6 helix in activated and inactivated states. Specifically, an exchange occurs between interaction partners T140 and N234 of the same subunit in activation, and T140 and N225 of the domain-swapped subunit in slow inactivation. The drug action on slow inactivation of prokaryotic Na channels seems to have a mechanism similar to the recently proposed "door-wedge" action of the isoleucine-phenylalanine-methionine (IFM) motif on the fast inactivation of eukaryotic Na channels. Elucidating this gating mechanism points to a possible direction for conformation-dependent drug development.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2102285118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8285963PMC
July 2021

Real-World Outcomes of Revascularization Strategies in Patients With Left Ventricular Dysfunction and Three-Vessel Coronary Disease Stratified by Mitral Regurgitation.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 24;8:675722. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Vascular and Cardiology, Rui Jin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Limited information exists regarding optimal revascularization options for patients with triple-vessel coronary artery disease (TVD), heart failure (HF), and different degrees of mitral regurgitation (MR). Thus, we aimed to compare the effect of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery in the indicated patients. In the real-world prospective study, 1190 patients with multi-vessel disease and decreased left ventricular systolic function but without severe MR, who underwent PCI or CABG, were enrolled and followed-up for 4.7 ± 1.8 years. The primary endpoint was a composite of cardiovascular death and HF hospitalization. Secondary endpoints were the individual components of the primary outcome. Risk of the primary endpoint was higher in the PCI than in the CABG group (HR = 1.38, 95%CI: 1.14-1.67, and < 0.01), particularly in patients with moderate MR (HR = 1.85, 95%CI: 1.35-2.55, and < 0.01). In patients with no-mild MR, the risk of the primary endpoint did not differ significantly between PCI and CABG ( = 0.09). Treatment with PCI was associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular death and HF hospitalization in the moderate MR cohort, while PCI was comparable to CABG in the no-mild MR cohort. In this real-world study, for patients with HF and TVD, CABG was related to lower adverse outcome rates compared to PCI. Assessment of MR can aid in selecting optimal revascularization therapies and in risk stratification.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2021.675722DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8265779PMC
June 2021

Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Macrophage Crosstalk and Maintenance of Inflammatory Microenvironment Homeostasis.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 25;9:681171. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

The Biotherapy Center, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Macrophages are involved in almost every aspect of biological systems and include development, homeostasis and repair. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have good clinical application prospects due to their ability to regulate adaptive and innate immune cells, particularly macrophages, and they have been used successfully for many immune disorders, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), acute lung injury, and wound healing, which have been reported as macrophage-mediated disorders. In the present review, we focus on the interaction between MSCs and macrophages and summarize their methods of interaction and communication, such as cell-to-cell contact, soluble factor secretion, and organelle transfer. In addition, we discuss the roles of MSC-macrophage crosstalk in the development of disease and maintenance of homeostasis of inflammatory microenvironments. Finally, we provide optimal strategies for applications in immune-related disease treatments.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.681171DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8267370PMC
June 2021

An Early Diagnostic Clue for and Associated Diseases: High Myopia With Alopecia Areata in the Cranial Midline.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 25;9:644947. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Background: High myopia with alopecia areata in the occipital region has been observed in patients with Knobloch syndrome caused by mutations. This study investigated other possible genetic causes of high myopia in patients with alopecia areata in the cranial midline.

Methods: Six patients with early onset high myopia and alopecia areata in the cranial midline were recruited. Targeted high-throughput sequencing was performed on the proband's DNA to detect potential pathogenic variants. Cosegregation analysis was performed for available family members. Minigene assay and RNA Sequencing were used to validate the abnormality of possible splicing change and gross deletion. Ophthalmological and neuroimaging examinations were performed.

Results: Eight novel and one known loss-of-function mutants were detected in all six patients, including a gross deletion detected by RNA sequencing. Four mutants in three patients with scalp leisure in the occipital region; and five mutations in three patients with scalp leisure in the parietal region. Further assessments indicated that patients with mutations had Knobloch syndrome, and the patients with mutations had Poretti-Boltshauser syndrome.

Conclusion: Our study found that early onset high myopia with midline alopecia areata could be caused not only by mutations of the gene but also by mutations in the gene. To our knowledge, we are the first to observe scalp defects in patients with mutations. High myopia with alopecia areata in the cranial midline could be treated as an early diagnostic clue for ophthalmologists to consider the two kinds of rare diseases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.644947DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8267009PMC
June 2021

A combined quality evaluation method that integrates chemical constituents, appearance traits and origins of raw Rehmanniae Radix pieces.

Chin J Nat Med 2021 Jul;19(7):551-560

National Pharmacopoeia Commission, Beijing 100061, China. Electronic address:

The quality control of Chinese herbal medicine is a current challenge for the internationalization of traditional Chinese medicine. Traditional quality evaluation methods lack quantitative analysis, while modern quality evaluation methods ignore the origins and appearance traits. Therefore, an integrated quality evaluation method is urgent in need. Raw Rehmanniae Radix (RRR) is commonly used in Chinese herbal medicine. At present, much attention has been drwan towards its quality control, which however is limited by the existing quality evaluation methods. The present study was designed to establish a comprehensive and practical method for the quality evaluation and control of RRR pieces based on its chemical constituents, appearance traits and origins. Thirty-three batches of RRR pieces were collected from six provinces, while high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was applied to determine the following five constituents, including catalpol, rehmannioside A, rehmannioside D, leonuride and verbascoside in RRR pieces. Their appearance traits were quantitatively observed. Furthermore, correlation analysis, principal components analysis (PCA), cluster analysis and t-test were performed to evaluate the qualities of RRR pieces. These batches of RRR pieces were divided into three categories: samples from Henan province, samples from Shandong and Shanxi provinces, and those from other provinces. Furthermore, the chemical constituents and appearance traits of RRR pieces were significantly different from diverse origins. The combined method of chemical contituents, appearance traits and origins can distinguish RRR pieces with different qualities, which provides basic reference for the quality control of Chinese herbal medicine.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1875-5364(21)60056-0DOI Listing
July 2021

Augmented peroxisomal ROS buffering capacity renders oxidative and thermal stress cross-tolerance in yeast.

Microb Cell Fact 2021 Jul 12;20(1):131. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Key Laboratory of Industrial Biotechnology, School of Biotechnology, Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, 214122, Wuxi, People's Republic of China.

Background: Thermotolerant yeast has outstanding potential in industrial applications. Komagataella phaffii (Pichia pastoris) is a common cell factory for industrial production of heterologous proteins.

Results: Herein, we obtained a thermotolerant K. phaffii mutant G14 by mutagenesis and adaptive evolution. G14 exhibited oxidative and thermal stress cross-tolerance and high heterologous protein production efficiency. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and lipid peroxidation in G14 were reduced compared to the parent. Oxidative stress response (OSR) and heat shock response (HSR) are two major responses to thermal stress, but the activation of them was different in G14 and its parent. Compared with the parent, G14 acquired the better performance owing to its stronger OSR. Peroxisomes, as the main cellular site for cellular ROS generation and detoxification, had larger volume in G14 than the parent. And, the peroxisomal catalase activity and expression level in G14 was also higher than that of the parent. Excitingly, the gene knockdown of CAT encoding peroxisomal catalase by dCas9 severely reduced the oxidative and thermal stress cross-tolerance of G14. These results suggested that the augmented OSR was responsible for the oxidative and thermal stress cross-tolerance of G14. Nevertheless, OSR was not strong enough to protect the parent from thermal stress, even when HSR was initiated. Therefore, the parent cannot recover, thereby inducing the autophagy pathway and resulting in severe cell death.

Conclusions: Our findings indicate the importance of peroxisome and the significance of redox balance in thermotolerance of yeasts.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12934-021-01623-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8273976PMC
July 2021

Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (VdSOD1) mediates reactive oxygen species detoxification and modulates virulence in Verticillium dahliae.

Mol Plant Pathol 2021 Jul 9. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China.

The accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a widespread defence mechanism in higher plants against pathogen attack and sometimes is the cause of cell death that facilitates attack by necrotrophic pathogens. Plant pathogens use superoxide dismutase (SOD) to scavenge ROS derived from their own metabolism or generated from host defence. The significance and roles of SODs in the vascular plant pathogen Verticillium dahliae are unclear. Our previous study showed a significant upregulation of Cu/Zn-SOD1 (VdSOD1) in cotton tissues following V. dahliae infection, suggesting that it may play a role in pathogen virulence. Here, we constructed VdSOD1 deletion mutants (ΔSOD1) and investigated its function in scavenging ROS and promoting pathogen virulence. ΔSOD1 had normal growth and conidiation but exhibited significantly higher sensitivity to the intracellular ROS generator menadione. Despite lacking a signal peptide, assays in vitro by western blot and in vivo by confocal microscopy revealed that secretion of VdSOD1 is dependent on the Golgi reassembly stacking protein (VdGRASP). Both menadione-treated ΔSOD1 and cotton roots infected with ΔSOD1 accumulated more and less H O than with the wildtype strain. The absence of a functioning VdSOD1 significantly reduced symptom severity and pathogen colonization in both cotton and Nicotiana benthamiana. VdSOD1 is nonessential for growth or viability of V. dahliae, but is involved in the detoxification of both intracellular ROS and host-generated extracellular ROS, and contributes significantly to virulence in V. dahliae.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mpp.13099DOI Listing
July 2021

Cross-Talk between Clathrin-Dependent Post-Golgi Trafficking and Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis in Arabidopsis Root Cells.

Plant Cell 2021 Jul 7. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Cell Activities and Stress Adaptations, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China.

Coupling of post-Golgi and endocytic membrane transport ensures that the flow of materials to/from the plasma membrane (PM) is properly balanced. The mechanisms underlying the coordinated trafficking of PM proteins in plants, however, are not well understood. In plant cells, clathrin and its adaptor protein complexes, AP-2 and the TPLATE complex (TPC) at the PM, and AP-1 at the trans-Golgi network/early endosome (TGN/EE), function in clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) and post-Golgi trafficking. Here we utilized mutants with defects in clathrin-dependent post-Golgi trafficking and CME, in combination with other cytological and pharmacological approaches, to further investigate the machinery behind the coordination of protein delivery and recycling to/from the TGN/EE and PM in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) root cells. In mutants with defective AP-2-/TPC-dependent CME, we determined that clathrin and AP-1 recruitment to the TGN/EE as well as exocytosis are significantly impaired. Likewise, defects in AP-1-dependent post-Golgi trafficking and pharmacological inhibition of exocytosis resulted in the reduced association of clathrin and AP-2/TPC subunits with the PM and a reduction in the internalization of cargoes via CME. Together, these results suggest that post-Golgi trafficking and CME are coupled via modulation of clathrin and adaptor protein complex recruitment to the TGN/EE and PM.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/plcell/koab180DOI Listing
July 2021

Acalabrutinib for treatment of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: results from a phase 1b study.

Haematologica 2021 Jul 8. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Ernest and Helen Scott Haematological Research Institute, University of Leicester, Leicester.

Not available.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2021.278654DOI Listing
July 2021
-->