Publications by authors named "Xu Lu"

853 Publications

Mechanical and mechanothermal effects of focused ultrasound elicited distinct electromyographic responses in mice.

Phys Med Biol 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Washington University in Saint Louis , 4511 Forest Park, St Lousi, Missouri, 63108, UNITED STATES.

The objective of this study was to compare FUS neuromodulation-induced motor responses under two physical mechanisms: mechanical and mechanothermal effects. Mice were divided into two groups. One group was subjected to short-duration FUS stimulation (0.3 s) that induced mechanical effects (mechanical group). The other group underwent long-duration FUS stimulation (15 s) that produced not only mechanical but also thermal effects (mechanothermal group). FUS was targeted at the deep cerebellar nucleus in the cerebellum to induce motor responses, which were evaluated by recording the evoked electromyographic (EMG) signals and tail movements. Brain tissue temperature rise associated with the FUS stimulation was quantified by noninvasive magnetic resonance (MR) thermometry in vivo. Temperature rise was negligible for the mechanical group (0.2 ± 0.1°C) but did rise within the range of 0.6 ± 0.2°C - 3.3 ± 0.9°C for the mechanothermal group. The elongated FUS beam also induced heating in the dorsal brain (below the top skull) and ventral brain (above the bottom skull) along the beam path for the mechanothermal group. Both mechanical and mechanothermal groups achieved successful FUS neuromodulation. EMG response latencies were within the range of 0.03-0.1 s at different intensity levels in the mechanical group. The mechanothermal effect of FUS could induce both short-latency EMG (0.2-1.4 s) and long-latency EMG (8.7-13.0 s) under the same intensity levels as the mechanical group. The different temporal dynamics of evoked EMG suggested that FUS-induced mechanical and mechanothermal effects could evoke different responses in the brain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6560/ac08b1DOI Listing
June 2021

A prophylactic effect of macrophage-colony stimulating factor on chronic stress-induced depression-like behaviors in mice.

Neuropharmacology 2021 May 29;193:108621. Epub 2021 May 29.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Nantong University, #19 Qixiu Road, Nantong, 226001, Jiangsu, China. Electronic address:

Innate immune activation has been shown to reduce the severity of nervous system disorders such as brain ischemia and traumatic brain damage. Macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF), a drug that is used to treat hematological system disease, is an enhancer of the innate immune response. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of M-CSF preconditioning on chronic social defeat stress (CSDS)-induced depression-like behaviors in mice. Results showed that a single M-CSF injection 1 day before stress exposure at the dose of 100 and 500 μg/kg, or a single M-CSF injection (100 μg/kg) 1 or 5 days but not 10 days before stress exposure prevented CSDS-induced depression-like behaviors in mice. Further analysis showed that a second M-CSF injection 10 days after the first M-CSF injection and a 2 × or 4 × M-CSF injections 10 days before stress exposure also prevented CSDS-induced depression-like behaviors. Molecular studies revealed that a single M-CSF injection prior to stress exposure skewed the neuroinflammatory responses in the brain in CSDS-exposed mice towards an anti-inflammatory phenotype. These behavioral and molecular actions of M-CSF were correlated with innate immune stimulation, as pre-inhibiting the innate immune activation by minocycline pretreatment (40 mg/kg) abrogated the preventive effect of M-CSF on CSDS-induced depression-like behaviors and neuroinflammatory responses. These results provide evidence to show that innate immune activation by M-CSF pretreatment may prevent chronic stress-induced depression-like behaviors via preventing the development of neuroinflammatory response in the brain, which may help to develop novel strategies for the prevention of depression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2021.108621DOI Listing
May 2021

A novel method for ginkgolide biosynthesis elucidation based on MeJA induction and differential metabolomics.

J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2021 Jun 18;1176:122758. Epub 2021 May 18.

State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, School of Traditional Chinese Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, No. 24 Tongjia Lane, Nanjing, China. Electronic address:

Ginkgolides from Ginkgo Biloba have significantly therapeutic effect to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. However, the biosynthetic pathway of ginkgolides has not been fully elucidated until now. As ginkgolides are synthesized in the ginkgo roots, the accumulation of ginkgolides intermediate metabolites varies greatly between roots and leaves. As Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) can effectively enhance the biosynthesis of ginkgolides, a novel method based on MeJA induction and differential metabolomics was used to screen the differentially intermediate metabolites among ginkgo leaves, roots and roots-MJ-3. Two differential intermediate metabolites (dehydroabietadienal and 1, 2, 3, 4, 4a, 9, 10, 10a-Octahydro-6-hydroxy-7-isopropyl-1, 4a-dimethyl-1-phenanthrenemethanol) were identified in ginkgo roots by UPLC-QTOF-MS. Then, a new ginkgolides biosynthetic pathway was proposed based on differential metabolomics. This study provides a novel method for the elucidation of nature product precursor and is helpful to promote the clarification of ginkgolides biosynthetic pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jchromb.2021.122758DOI Listing
June 2021

Trends in the clinical features of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: A 14-year Chinese cohort study.

Eur J Neurol 2021 May 28. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Neurology, Peking University Third Hospital, Haidian District, 49 North Garden Road, Beijing, 100191, China.

Objectives: To determine the transitional patterns in the clinical characteristics, treatments and comorbidities in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients over the past 14 years using data from a large clinical cohort in mainland China.

Methods: Sporadic ALS patients who visited the Peking University Third Hospital from January 2005 to December 2018 were included in this study. The 14 years were divided into three periods, and changes in the baseline characteristics of the participants were analyzed at 5-year intervals.

Results: In total, 3 410 patients with sporadic ALS were recruited: 2 181 were male, and 1 229 were female. The proportion of patients with bulbar-onset ALS increased from 13.0% in 2005-2009 to 19.5% in 2015-2018 (P <0.001). The mean [standard deviation (SD)] age at onset increased from 49.5 (11.4) years in 2005-2009 to 53.0 (11.0) years in 2015-2018 (P <0.001). ALS patients with diabetes or hypertension showed a delay in ALS onset, and the delay was even more apparent when the patients had both comorbidities. The proportion of riluzole users increased approximately 2.5-fold from 2005-2009 to 2015-2018 (P <0.001).

Conclusions: In the context of the lack of clinical data on ALS in mainland China, this study evaluated a large cohort of patients diagnosed over a 14-year period. The age at onset and percentage of patients who used riluzole both increased over the study period. Additionally, we found that patients with comorbidities such as diabetes and hypertension had a delayed age at ALS onset.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ene.14943DOI Listing
May 2021

Sex differences in the association between serum lipids and depressive symptoms: A longitudinal population-based study.

J Affect Disord 2021 May 14;291:154-162. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Endocrinology, Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong First Medical University, 324 Jing 5 road, Huaiyin District, Jinan 250021, China; Shandong Institute of Endocrine & Metabolic Diseases, Shandong First Medical University, Jinan, China 250021, China. Electronic address:

Background: Depression is an important global public health problem. Whether sex differences exist in the association between serum lipids and depressive symptoms is controversial. This study aimed to investigate sex differences in the association between dyslipidemia and depressive symptoms in the middle-aged and elderly population in China.

Methods: Data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study, which included 2 630 males and 2 929 females, were used. Serum lipids were measured using a standard enzymatic colorimetric technique. Depressive symptoms were evaluated by the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to evaluate the association between serum lipids and depressive symptoms in men and women separately. To preclude the effects of hypertension and diabetes, the above analysis was also performed among those free of hypertension and diabetes.

Results: Total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were not associated with depressive symptoms. High-level triglycerides showed a marginally significant association with depressive symptoms in men (adjusted OR 1.35, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.99). In the population without hypertension and diabetes, high-levels TGs were only associated with the development of depressive symptoms in men (adjusted OR 2.04, 95% CI 1.20 to 3.47).

Limitations: Depression and chronic diseases were respectively identified by CESD-10 and self-report, which were subjective to some extent.

Conclusions: High-level triglycerides increased the risk of depressive symptoms in men, especially in the nonhypertensive and nondiabetic population. This study provided a basis for formulating sex-specific prevention strategies and treatment measures for depressive symptoms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2021.05.011DOI Listing
May 2021

[CDs-BOC Nanophotocatalyst Activating Persulfate Under Visible Light for the Efficient Degradation of Typical PPCPs].

Huan Jing Ke Xue 2021 Jun;42(6):2885-2895

School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Xi'an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi'an 710055, China.

A new type of CDs-BOC photocatalyst was synthesized in a convenient two-step method of hydrothermal and calcination processes. Carbon quantum dots (CDs) were used to modify BiOCl nanosheets. The as-prepared nanocomposite was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL), which showed that CDs were successfully introduced. The absorption edge of 7% CDs-BOC nanocomposite was broadened to the visible light region (424 nm), and the charge separation efficiency was remarkably improved. To improve the degradation efficiency of organic pollutants, persulfate (PS) was also introduced into the system. Due to the excellent photocatalytic ability of the nanocatalyst, the photogenerated electrons can effectively activate the PS to produce more reactive oxidizing species (ROS). Under visible light (>420 nm) irradiation, 5 mg·L acetaminophen (AAP) can be completely removed within 20 min. Via radical quenching experiments and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR), the major ROS are determined to be·OH,·SO,·O, and h, and the photo-degradation mechanism is proposed. The excellent photocatalytic performance of the CDs-BOC/PS system shows broad practical potential for wastewater treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13227/j.hjkx.202011047DOI Listing
June 2021

[Spatio-temporal Patterns and Potential Sources of Absorbing Aerosols in the Fenwei Plain].

Huan Jing Ke Xue 2021 Jun;42(6):2634-2647

College of Geography and Environmental Science, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070, China.

Air quality has gradually improved in many parts of China; however, air pollution is become more severe in the Fenwei Plain. Using OMI/Aura OMAERUV L2 and PM data, spatial autocorrelation analysis and back trajectory modeling were used to explore the spatio-temporal patterns of absorptive aerosols over the Fenwei Plain, and the dominant types, transmission paths, and potential source areas were identified. The main results can be summarized as follows:① Annual mean absorbing aerosol index (AAI) values increased between 2005 and 2019, with high period occurring in 2006, 2013, and 2017, with values exceeding 0.63. Xi'an and Linfen were identified as a 'high-high' cluster, with AAI showing poor spatial stability and a 15.3% increase in area over the past 15 years. In contrast, the area connecting Xi'an and Linfen, which occupies 24.2% of the total area of the region, was identified as a 'low-low' cluster, with a sharp drop of 6.2% in area; ② The Fenwei Plain has high AAI values across a large area in winter, exceeding 0.8 in Linfen and Xi'an, and 91.5% of the study area exceeding 0.6. Values were lower in spring (AAI>0.4) and autumn (AAI>0.3), with the lowest values occurring in summer. The atmospheric diffusion conditions in spring, autumn, and winter are poor, associated with anticyclonic high-pressure events. The observed high AAI values were significantly affected by atmospheric diffusion conditions, temperature, and precipitation; ③ Back trajectory and source contribution modeling showed that long-range transport of air masses from Xi'an and Linfen occurs from the northwest, and short-range transport air masses occurs from the east and south. Two long-range sand and dust source areas were determined (with northwestern and northern wind sources); two carbon source areas were identified (with eastern and southern wind sources); and one combined sand and carbon source area was identified (from the Loess Plateau). Of these sources, the northwestern wind source, the Loess Plateau, and the southern wind source have significant influence in Xi'an, and the eastern wind source and the Loess Plateau have a significant impact on Linfen. Linfen is little affected by the northwestern wind source and the dust from the northern wind source. Based on the spatial distribution of CO and its correlation with AAI, it is concluded that cardon in the dominant absorbent aerosol in Linfen dust and carbon are most important in Xi'an.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13227/j.hjkx.202010098DOI Listing
June 2021

Prognostic Value and Related Regulatory Networks of MRPL15 in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

Front Oncol 2021 7;11:656172. Epub 2021 May 7.

Hubei Key Laboratory of Tumor Biological Behaviors, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

Background: Mitochondrial ribosomal protein L15 (MRPL15), a member of mitochondrial ribosomal proteins whose abnormal expression is related to tumorigenesis. However, the prognostic value and regulatory mechanisms of MRPL15 in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remain unclear.

Methods: GEPIA, ONCOMINE, Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), UALCAN, Kaplan-Meier plotter, PrognoScan, LinkedOmics and GeneMANIA database were utilized to explore the expression and prognostic value of MRPL15 in NSCLC. Additionally, immune infiltration patterns were evaluated ESTIMATE algorithm and TISIDB database. Furthermore, the expression and prognostic value of MRPL15 in lung cancer were validated immunohistochemistry (IHC) assays.

Results: In NSCLC, multiple cohorts including GEPIA, ONCOMINE and 8 GEO series (GSE8569, GSE101929, GSE33532, GSE27262, GSE21933, GSE19804, GSE19188, GSE18842) described that MRPL15 was up-regulated. Moreover, MRPL15 was notably linked to gender, clinical stage, lymph node status and the TP53 mutation status. And patients with high MRPL15 expression showed poor overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), disease-free survival (DFS) and relapse-free survival (RFS) in NSCLC. Then, functional network analysis suggested that MRPL15 participated in metabolism-related pathways, DNA replication and cell cycle signaling pathways involving several kinases, miRNAs and transcription factors. Additionally, it was found that MRPL15 expression was negatively related to immune infiltration, including immune scores, stromal scores and several tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). Furthermore, IHC results further confirmed the high MRPL15 expression and its prognostic potential in lung cancer.

Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that high MRPL15 expression indicates poor prognosis in NSCLC and reveal potential regulatory networks as well as the negative relationship with immune infiltration. Thus, MRPL15 may be an attractive predictor and therapeutic strategy for NSCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.656172DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8138120PMC
May 2021

Mitochondrial Dysfunction Contributes to Aging-Related Atrial Fibrillation.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 28;2021:5530293. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Cardiology, The Sixth Medical Center, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China.

The incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF) increases with age, and telomere length gradually shortens with age. However, whether telomere length is related to AF is still inconclusive, and the exact mechanism by which aging causes the increased incidence of AF is still unclear. We hypothesize that telomere length is correlated with aging-related AF and that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a role in this. This research recruited 96 elderly male patients with AF who were admitted to the Second Medical Center of Chinese PLA General Hospital from April to October 2018. After matching by age and gender, 96 non-AF elderly male patients who were admitted to the hospital for physical examination during the same period were selected as controls. Anthropometric, clinical, and laboratory analyses were performed on all subjects. The mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) of peripheral blood leukocytes was detected as the indicator of mitochondrial function. Compared with the control group, the leukocyte telomere length (LTL) was significantly shorter ( < 0.001), and the level of PGC-1 in serum was significantly lower in AF patients. Additionally, in subjects without any other diseases, the AF patients had lower MMP when compared with the control. Multivariate logistic regression confirmed that LTL (OR 0.365; 95% CI 0.235-0.568; < 0.001) and serum PGC-1 (OR 0.993; 95% CI 0.988-0.997; = 0.002) were inversely associated with the presence of AF. In addition, ROC analysis indicated the potential diagnostic value of LTL and serum PGC-1 with AUC values of 0.734 and 0.633, respectively. This research concludes that LTL and serum PGC-1 are inversely correlated with the occurrence of aging-related AF and that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a role in this.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/5530293DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8102104PMC
April 2021

Regioselective C-H Trifluoromethylation of Aromatic Compounds by Inclusion in Cyclodextrins.

Org Lett 2021 Jun 14;23(11):4327-4331. Epub 2021 May 14.

Institute for Materials Chemistry and Engineering, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasugakoen, Kasuga-shi, Fukuoka 816-8580, Japan.

A regioselective radical C-H trifluoromethylation of aromatic compounds was developed using cyclodextrins (CDs) as additives. The C-H trifluoromethylation proceeded with high regioselectivity to afford the product in good yield, even on the gram scale. In the presence of CDs, some substrates underwent a single trifluoromethylation selectively, whereas mixtures of single- and double-trifluoromethylated products were formed in the absence of the CD. H NMR experiments indicated that the regioselectivity was controlled by the inclusion of a substrate inside the CD cavity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.orglett.1c01259DOI Listing
June 2021

Quantum phase transition in a non-Hermitianspin chain with global complex transverse field.

J Phys Condens Matter 2021 Jun 7;33(29). Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Quantum Engineering and Quantum Materials, SPTE, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006, People's Republic of China.

In this work, we investigate the quantum phase transition in a non-Hermitianspin chain. The phase diagram shows that the critical points of Ising phase transition expand into a critical transition zone after introducing a non-Hermitian effect. By analyzing the non-Hermitian gap and long-range correlation function, one can distinguish different phases by means of different gap features and decay properties of correlation function, a tricky problem in traditionalmodel. Furthermore, the results reveal the relationship among different regions of the phase diagram, non-Hermitian energy gap and long-range correlation function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-648X/ac00ddDOI Listing
June 2021

Sacral dural arteriovenous fistula supplied by bilateral lateral sacral arteries: case report and literature review.

Br J Neurosurg 2021 May 13:1-4. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Neurosurgery, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, PR China.

Sacral dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) with bilateral arterial supplies are extremely rare. To date, only two cases with arterial supply from bilateral lateral sacral arteries (LSAs) were reported. We report a rare case of sacral DAVF with arterial supply from bilateral LSAs. A 56-year-old man presented with a 2-month history of progressive weakness and numbness in his lower extremities, along with urinary incontinence. Spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed extensive edema of the spinal cord, vascular flow voids, and intraparenchymal enhancement. Spinal angiography revealed a spinal DAVF at the level of S1 supplied by bilateral LSAs and drained ascending into the perimedullary venous plexus. The fistula was successfully treated with endovascular embolization. Sacral DAVFs present various diagnostic and treatment difficulties because of the complex angioarchitecture. Successful management of these lesions requires a profound understanding of the variable patterns of arterial supply in this region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02688697.2021.1916434DOI Listing
May 2021

Metal enhanced chemiluminescence nanosensor for ultrasensitive bioassay based on silver nanoparticles modified functional DNA dendrimer.

Anal Chim Acta 2021 Jun 21;1165:338541. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, 210009, PR China. Electronic address:

A novel metal enhanced chemiluminescence (MEC) nanosensor was developed for ultrasensitive biosensing and imaging, based on functional DNA dendrimer (FDD), proximity-dependent DNAzyme and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The FDD containing two split G-quadruplex structures was prepared through an enzyme-free and step-by-step assembly strategy, and then reacted with AgNPs and hemin molecules to form the FDD/hemin/AgNPs facilely. Such a MEC nanosensor consisted of three modules: FDD (scaffold), the generated G-quadruplex/hemin DNAzyme (signal reporter) and AgNPs (chemiluminescence enhancer). The MEC effect was achieved by controlling the length of DNA sequences between AgNPs on the periphery of FDD and DNAzymes inside it. Such nanosensor exhibited 9-fold amplification and another 6.4-fold metal enhancement in chemiluminescence intensity, which can be easily applied into trace detection of multiple protein markers using a disposable protein immunoarray. The FDD/hemin/AgNPs-based multiplex MEC imaging assay showed wide linear ranges over 5 orders of magnitude and detection limits down to 5× 10 ng L and 1.8 × 10 U mL for cardiac troponin T and carcinoma antigen 125, demonstrating a promising potential in application to protein analysis and clinical diagnosis. Moreover, the MEC nanosensor can be effectively delivered into cells with excellent biocompatibility and outstanding stability, offering a new tool for detection of intracellular targets and suggesting wide applications in bioassay.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2021.338541DOI Listing
June 2021

Impact of second forward-view examination on adenoma detection rate during unsedated colonoscopy: a randomized controlled trial.

BMC Gastroenterol 2021 May 10;21(1):213. Epub 2021 May 10.

China Department of Gastroenterology, Ningbo First Hospital, 59 Liuting St, Ningbo, 315010, Zhejiang, China.

Objectives: Colorectal cancer on the right side of the colon has been suggested to be harder to detect by colonoscopy. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a second forward-view examination of the right side of the colon could increase the adenoma detection rate (ADR) and/or polyp detection rate (PDR).

Methods: This was a single-centre randomized controlled trial. Patients undergoing colonoscopy were recruited and randomly assigned to the second forward-view examination (SFE) group, in which the right side of the colon was examined twice or the traditional colonoscopy (TC) group in which the colonoscopy was performed in a standard manner. The primary outcome was the ADR of right colon. The overall PDR and ADR, PDR of the right colon, per-adenoma miss rate of the right colon, and advanced lesion detection rate were also recorded and compared.

Results: A total of 392 patients were included in the study (SFE group 197 vs. TC group 195). The ADR and PDR of the right colon in the SFE group were significantly higher than those in the TC group (ADR 10.7% vs. 5.1%; P = 0.042); PDR 17.8% vs. 9.7%, P = 0.021). No significant difference was found in overall PDR/ADR, or advanced lesion detection rate between the two groups.

Conclusions: This prospective controlled study revealed that a second forward-view examination could modestly increase the ADR and PDR of the right colon during unsedated colonoscopies. This simple, safe and time-effective technique might be recommended for routine unsedated colonoscopy.

Trial Registration: Clinical Trials.gov, NCT03619122. Registered on 7/8/2018.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12876-021-01783-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8111781PMC
May 2021

Magnetoencephalography for epileptic focus localization based on Tucker decomposition with ripple window.

CNS Neurosci Ther 2021 Jul 4;27(7):820-830. Epub 2021 May 4.

School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing, China.

Aims: To improve the Magnetoencephalography (MEG) spatial localization precision of focal epileptic.

Methods: 306-channel simulated or real clinical MEG is estimated as a lower-dimensional tensor by Tucker decomposition based on Higher-order orthogonal iteration (HOOI) before the inverse problem using linearly constraint minimum variance (LCMV). For simulated MEG data, the proposed method is compared with dynamic imaging of coherent sources (DICS), multiple signal classification (MUSIC), and LCMV. For clinical real MEG of 31 epileptic patients, the ripples (80-250 Hz) were detected to compare the source location precision with spikes using the proposed method or the dipole-fitting method.

Results: The experimental results showed that the positional accuracy of the proposed method was higher than that of LCMV, DICS, and MUSIC for simulation data. For clinical real MEG data, the positional accuracy of the proposed method was higher than that of dipole-fitting regardless of whether the time window was ripple window or spike window. Also, the positional accuracy of the ripple window was higher than that of the spike window regardless of whether the source location method was the proposed method or the dipole-fitting method. For both shallow and deep sources, the proposed method provided effective performance.

Conclusion: Tucker estimation of MEG for source imaging by ripple window is a promising approach toward the presurgical evaluation of epileptics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cns.13643DOI Listing
July 2021

Effect of media distraction (audio-visual and music) for pain and anxiety control in patients undergoing shock-wave lithotripsy: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Exp Ther Med 2021 Jun 14;21(6):623. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Laboratory Hunan Provincial People's Hospital, The First Affiliated Hospital of Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410000, P.R. China.

Audio-visual (AV) or music distraction may be used to reduce pain during several healthcare procedures. The present manuscript is a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the effectiveness of media distraction in reducing pain and anxiety in extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) patients. The PubMed, Embase, Scopus, BioMed Central, Ovoid and CENTRAL (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) databases were screened for studies assessing the role of media distraction (music/AV media) in reducing pain and anxiety of ESWL patients. Data were summarized using the mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). A total of 11 randomized controlled trials were included. Pooled analysis indicated a statistically significant difference in pain outcomes with media distraction [mean difference (MD): -1.18; 95% CI: -2.35, -0.01; I=96.8%)]. Subgroup analysis indicated that both AV media (MD: -2.94; 95% CI: -4.70, -1.17; I=79.2%) and music (MD: -0.86; 95% CI: -1.37, -0.35; I=62.5%), led to significant reduction in pain outcomes. Pooled analysis indicated a statistically significant reduction of anxiety scores with the use of media distraction (MD: -3.91; 95% CI: -6.44, -1.38; I=77.7%). To conclude, the present review suggests that media distraction in the form of AV media or music may be beneficial in reducing the pain and anxiety of patients undergoing ESWL. Evidence is, however, weak considering the small effect size, confidence intervals being close to zero, and instability of the results on sensitivity analysis. In clinical practice, media distraction may be used during ESWL as a nursing intervention, but a clinically important reduction of pain and anxiety may not be expected.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2021.10055DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8082642PMC
June 2021

Caveolae-Mediated Endocytosis Drives Robust siRNA Delivery of Polymeric Nanoparticles to Macrophages.

ACS Nano 2021 05 29;15(5):8267-8282. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200438, P.R. China.

Cytosolic delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) remains challenging, and a profound understanding of the cellular uptake and intracellular processing of siRNA delivery systems could greatly improve the development of siRNA-based therapeutics. Here, we show that caveolae-mediated endocytosis (CvME) accounts for the robust siRNA delivery of mannose-modified trimethyl chitosan-cysteine/tripolyphosphate nanoparticles (MTC/TPP NPs) to macrophages by circumventing lysosomes. We show that the Golgi complex and ER are key organelles required for the efficient delivery of siRNA to macrophages in which the siRNA accumulation positively correlates with its silencing efficiency ( = 0.94). We also identify syntaxin6 and Niemann-Pick type C1 (NPC1) as indispensable regulators for MTC/TPP NPs-delivered siRNA into macrophages both and . Syntaxin6 and NPC1 knockout substantially decrease the cellular uptake and gene silencing of the siRNA delivered in MTC/TPP NPs in macrophages, which result in poor therapeutic outcomes for mice bearing acute hepatic injury. Our results suggest that highly efficient siRNA delivery can be achieved CvME, which would give ideas for designing optimal delivery vectors to facilitate the clinical translation of siRNA drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.0c08596DOI Listing
May 2021

Role of the Auxiliary Ligand in the Spontaneous Resolution of Enantiomers in Three-Dimensional Coordination Polymers.

Inorg Chem 2021 May 29;60(10):6981-6985. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces and Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, China.

Four pairs of chiral 3D coordination polymers (CPs), [Zn(BDC)(lac)(DMF)]·guest () (HBDC = benzene dicarboxylic acid; Hlac = lactic acid; guest = 1.5DMF + -PrOH), [Co(BDC)(lac)(DMF)]·guest () (guest = DMF + 2HO), [Fe(BDC)(lac)(DMF)](CO)·guest () (guest = DMF + 2HO), and {Zn(BPDC)(lac)[NH(CH)]}·guest (HBPDC = 3,3'-biphenyldicarboxylic acid; guest = 6DMF + 18HO) (), are prepared through the reactions of racemic lactic acid (-Hlac) with different metal ions and auxiliary ligands. Structural analyses and DFT calculations reveal that forming more and stronger coordination bonds between the auxiliary ligand and metal ions is more conducive to the spontaneous resolution of enantiomers in 3D CPs than simply increasing the entropy of the auxiliary ligand itself.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.inorgchem.1c00608DOI Listing
May 2021

Improvement of phosphorus release from sludge by combined electrochemical-EDTA treatment.

Water Sci Technol 2021 Apr;83(8):1824-1833

School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, No. 99, Shangda Rd, Shanghai 200444, China E-mail:

In this paper, combined with the addition of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), the electrochemical treatment of waste activated sludge (WAS) was investigated to explore its effect on the release of phosphorus (P) from WAS. The results showed that during the electrochemical treatment, the addition of EDTA could significantly promote the release of P from the WAS to the supernatant, the optimal amount of EDTA was 0.4 g/g total suspended solids (TSS), when the release of total dissolved phosphorus (TDP), organic phosphorus (OP) and molybdate reactive phosphorus (PO-P) were 187.30, 173.84 and 13.46 mg/L, respectively. OP was the most likely form of P to be released during this process. Moreover, combined electrochemical-EDTA treatment could promote the release of P and metal ions from extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) to the supernatant, and increase the solubility and disintegration of sludge. EDTA chelated the metal ions of sludge flocs and phosphate precipitates to cause sludge floc decomposition, thereby promoting the release of P from WAS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.2021.107DOI Listing
April 2021

Atomic-Scale Visualization and Quantification of Configurational Entropy in Relation to Thermal Conductivity: A Proof-of-Principle Study in -GeSbTe.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 Apr 8;8(8):2002051. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

College of Physics and Center for Quantum Materials and Devices Institute of Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies Chongqing University Chongqing 401331 P. R. China.

It remains a daunting task to quantify the configurational entropy of a material from atom-revolved electron microscopy images and correlate the results with the material's lattice thermal conductivity, which strides across statics, dynamics, and thermal transport of crystal lattice over orders of magnitudes in length and time. Here, a proof-of-principle study of atomic-scale visualization and quantification of configurational entropy in relation to thermal conductivity in single crystalline trigonal GeSbTe (aka -GeSbTe) with native atomic site disorder is reported. A concerted effort of large -GeSbTe single crystal growth, in-lab developed analysis procedure of atomic column intensity, the visualization and quantification of configurational entropy including corresponding modulation, and thermal transport measurements enable an entropic "bottom-up" perspective to the lattice thermal conductivity of -GeSbTe. It is uncovered that the configurational entropy increases phonon scattering and reduces phonon mean free path as well as promotes anharmonicity, thereby giving rise to low lattice thermal conductivity and promising thermoelectric performance. The current study sheds lights on an atomic scale bottom-up configurational entropy design in diverse regimes of structural and functional materials research and applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.202002051DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8061353PMC
April 2021

Decreased abundance of Akkermansia after adrenocorticotropic hormone therapy in patients with West syndrome.

BMC Microbiol 2021 Apr 23;21(1):126. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Neurology, The Children's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, National Clinical Research Center for Child Health, Hangzhou, 310003, Zhejiang, China.

Background: Infants suffer from a severe epileptic encephalopathy known as West syndrome (WS). Treatment with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) indicates the involvement of the gut-brain axis in WS. Several pieces of evidence show the communication of the gut microbiota (GM) with the brain via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis) and blood cytokines. This study aimed at (1) determining the GM diversity in infants having WS and (2) comparing the results of infants having WS with those of the healthy infants and also in the patients with WS before and after the ACTH therapy.

Results: In this study, 29 infants with WS and 29 healthy infants aged 3-13 months were recruited. Fecal samples were collected, and DNA was extracted and sequenced on the Illumina MiSeq platform. Kruskal-Wallis rank-sum test was used to analyze the between-group differences in the Chao1 index, Shannon index, and the abundances of GM at different taxonomy levels. R software was used to plot the graphs. The top five dominant GM genera between patients with WS and healthy infants showed no significant differences. However, the relative abundance of genus Akkermansia was observed to be significantly (P = 0.011) higher in the BT group than in the HC group and AT group. After 2 weeks of ACTH therapy, the relative abundance of Akkermansia significantly (P = 0.003) decreased.

Conclusion: The relative abundance of Akkermansia was observed to be significantly higher in patients with WS than that in healthy infants. However, the relationship between Akkermansia and WS pathogenesis needs to be clarified in further studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12866-021-02189-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8063292PMC
April 2021

LncRNA-HEIH is a Novel Diagnostic and Predictive Biomarker in Gastric Cancer.

Genet Test Mol Biomarkers 2021 Apr;25(4):284-292

Department of Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, China.

Gastric cancer (GC) is associated with a high mortality rate. Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA)-high expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HEIH) has recently gained interest as a marker for the detection of several cancer types. This study was designed to uncover the function of lncRNA-HEIH in GC. Oncomine was used to analyze HEIH expression in cancerous and paired noncancerous tissues of GC patients. Subsequently, the expression levels of HEIH in GC cells was determined by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). In addition, the effects of HEIH expression level on clinicopathological parameters and prognosis were further studied by statistical analysis and Kaplan-Meier survival curves. GC cell proliferation and the influence of HEIH on the sensitivity of cells to oxaliplatin following HEIH knockdown were assessed using sulforhodamine blue (SRB) assays in the MKN45 and AGS cell lines. In addition, the expression levels of p53 were detected by RT-qPCR following knockdown of HEIH. The lncRNA-HEIH was highly expressed in both GC tissues and GC cell lines. Patients with high HEIH expression were associated with medium-high differentiation ( = 0.0058), distant metastasis (M,  = 0.0378), lymph node metastasis (N,  = 0.0083), and a deeper tumor invasion (T,  = 0.0204). The elevated expression levels of HEIH in GC patients were associated with a worse prognosis compared to GC patients with low HEIH expression. This finding was supported by the parameters overall survival ( = 3.3e-06), first progression ( = 0.00028), and postprogression ( = 1.5e-08). Downregulation of HEIH expression inhibited cell proliferation, enhanced oxaliplatin sensitivity, and induced the expression of p53 in MKN45 and AGC cells. These findings provide evidence that HEIH may be useful as a prognostic biomarker in GC. This lncRNA may also serve as a potential therapeutic target in GC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/gtmb.2020.0270DOI Listing
April 2021

Effects of Allicin on Late Sodium Current Caused by ΔKPQ-SCN5A Mutation in HEK293 Cells.

Front Physiol 2021 29;12:636485. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Cardiology, Fujian Provincial Hospital, Provincial Clinical Medicine College of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, China.

Aim: The aim was to study the effect of Allitridum (Allicin) on the heterologous expression of the late sodium current on the ΔKPQ-SCN5A mutations in HEK293 cells, with a view to screening new drugs for the treatment of long QT syndrome type 3 (LQT3).

Methods And Results: The ΔKPQ-SCN5A plasmid was transiently transferred into HEK293 cells by liposome technology and administered by extracellular perfusion, and the sodium current was recorded by whole-cell patch-clamp technology. Application of Allicin 30 μM reduced the late sodium current ( ) of the Nav1.5 channel current encoded by ΔKPQ-SCN5A from 1.92 ± 0.12 to 0.65 ± 0.03 pA/pF ( < 0.01, = 15), which resulted in the decrease of / (from 0.94% ± 0.04% to 0.32% ± 0.02%). Furthermore, treatment with Allicin could move the steady-state inactivation of the channel to a more negative direction, resulting in an increase in channel inactivation at the same voltage, which reduced the increase in the window current and further increased the inactivation of the channel intermediate state. However, it had no effect on channel steady-state activation (SSA), inactivation mechanics, and recovery dynamics after inactivation. What's more, the Nav1.5 channel protein levels of membrane in the ΔKPQ-SCN5A mutation were enhanced from 0.49% ± 0.04% to 0.76% ± 0.02% with the effect of 30 mM Allicin, close to 0.89% ± 0.02% of the WT.

Conclusion: Allicin reduced the late sodium current of ΔKPQ-SCN5A, whose mechanism may be related to the increase of channel steady-state inactivation (SSI) and intermediate-state inactivation (ISI) by the drug, thus reducing the window current.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2021.636485DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8039306PMC
March 2021

Effect of disseminated intravascular coagulation on donation after citizens' death donor kidneys.

Transl Androl Urol 2021 Mar;10(3):1273-1278

Organ Transplantation Center of the Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Background: To investigate the effect of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) on donor kidney in donation after citizens' death (DCD) donors.

Methods: The clinical and laboratory data of 159 DCD donors obtained by our center in 2018 were retrospectively analyzed. The DIC diagnosis was performed according to the Chinese DIC scoring system (CDSS). The donors were divided into two groups: DIC (+) and DIC (-). The difference between kidney rejection rate and zero puncture glomerular microthrombus formation rate were compared.

Results: Among the 159 DCD donors, 11 were discarded (accounting for 6.91%). The reasons for the discarded cases included 5 cases (3.14%) for moderate and severe glomerular microthrombus formation in the renal zero puncture pathology; 2 cases (1.26%) for glomerular sclerosis ratio over 50%; 2 cases (1.26%) for long-term low blood pressure before pregnancy and significantly increased serum creatinine level and no urine; 1 case (0.73%) for kidney stones and stagnant water; 1 case (0.63%) for malignant tumor. The donor rejection rate of the DIC (+) group was higher than that of the DIC (-) group, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Among all donors, 10 cases (6.29%) were found to have glomerular microthrombus at zero puncture, and the microthrombotic rate in the DIC (+) group was significantly higher than that in the DIC (-) group (P<0.05). Of the 10 microthrombotic donors, 5 donors with severe glomerular microthrombus were discarded.

Conclusions: Donor-induced DIC can easily cause renal glomerular microthrombus formation, and the donor kidney rejection rate has increased.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/tau-20-785DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8039612PMC
March 2021

Stimulated biodegradation of all alkanes in soil.

Chemosphere 2021 Sep 5;278:130444. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Xi'an University of Architecture and Technology, 710055, Shaanxi, Xi'an, China; Key Laboratory of Northwest Water Resources, Environment and Ecology, MOE, China; Key Laboratory of Environmental Engineering, Shaanxi Province, China.

This study aim to investigate the biodegradation of all alkanes in soil by adding stimulater and indigenous bacteria. The experiments were carried out by adding native bacteria and the stimulater to the soil S1 (total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) = 22,745 mg/kg) and soil S2 (TPH = 13,833 mg/kg) to explored the effect and mechanism of the stimulated biodegradation of all alkanes in soil. The results showed that most alkanes were used as the main carbon source of TPH in the late stimulation stage, so that all alkanes could be biodegraded by stimulating. The biodegradation of C - C (4527 mg/kg) and C - C (8530 mg/kg) were much higher than the stimulated biodegradation of partial alkanes, which indicated that the biodegradation effect of TPH was greatly improved. In addition, for the stimulated biodegradation of all alkanes group, the relative activity of TPH (TPH biodegradation/DOC consumption) was nearly 5 times that of the stimulated biodegradation of partial alkanes group in the late stimulation stage. The amount of ammonia allocated to TPH in the late stimulation stage was nearly 10 times that of DOC, and the organic matter components changed greatly in the early stimulation stage, but there was basically no change in the later stage. It showed that the hydrocarbon degraders in the stimulated biodegradation of all alkanes group used DOC as the main carbon source in the early stimulation stage and mainly degrade TPH in the later stage, which improved the biodegradation efficiency of petroleum hydrocarbons.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.130444DOI Listing
September 2021

Risk factors for brain metastases in patients with non-small cell lung cancer: a meta-analysis of 43 studies.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 Apr 1;10(4):3657-3672. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

School of Medicine, Southeast University, Nanjing, China; Department of Respiratory Medicine, Zhongda Hospital of Southeast University, Nanjing, China.

Background: Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. The purpose of our meta-analysis was to assess the risk factors for brain metastases (BM) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

Methods: Multiple databases, including PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Wanfang, were systematically searched to recruit relevant studies investigating the risk factors for BM in NSCLC patients. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used to evaluate literature quality, and the meta-analysis was performed using the Review Manager 5.3. Evidence quality evaluation was carried out according to the Grading of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) standard. The estimated odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were set as effect measures. Funnel plots and sensitivity analyses were used to assess publication bias and the robustness and reliability of the combined results, respectively.

Results: A total of 43 studies with 11,415 participants were included in this meta-analysis. The results indicated that the following factors were significantly associated with an increased risk of BM in NSCLC patients (P<0.05): (I) gender (female) (OR =1.32, 95% CI: 1.17-1.49, P<0.00001); (II) adenocarcinoma (OR =2.34, 95% CI: 1.76-3.11, P<0.00001) or non-squamous cell carcinoma (OR =0.63, 95% CI: 0.42-0.94, P=0.02); (III) advanced tumor stage (OR =1.48, 95% CI: 1.01-2.17, P=0.04); (IV) node stage (OR =2.19, 95% CI: 1.39-3.45, P=0.0007); (V) lymphatic metastasis (OR =2.43, 95% CI: 1.76-3.36, P<0.00001); (VI) epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene mutation (OR =1.88, 95% CI: 1.26-2.80, P=0.002); (VII) kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene (KRAS) gene mutation (OR =2.99, 95% CI: 1.82-4.91, P<0.00001); (VIII) higher levels of carcinoembryonic antigen (P<0.00001), carbohydrate antigen 199 (P<0.0001), cytokeratin-19 fragment (P=0.04), neuron-specific enolase (P<0.00001), and carbohydrate antigen 125 (P=0.0005).

Conclusions: This meta-analysis demonstrated that NSCLC patients with BM have more aggressive clinical features.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/apm-20-1722DOI Listing
April 2021

Molecular-networking-guided discovery of species-specific markers for discriminating five medicinal Paris herbs.

Phytomedicine 2021 May 10;85:153542. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, China Pharmaceutical University, No. 24 Tongjia Lane, Nanjing 210009, China. Electronic address:

Background: Paridis Rhizoma (PR) is a famous traditional herbal medicine. Apart from two officially recorded species, viz. Paris polyphylla Smith var. yunnanensis (Franch.) Hand. - Mazz. (PPY) and P. polyphylla Smith var. chinensis (Franch.) Hara (PPC), there are still many other species used as folk medicine. It is necessary to understand the metabolic differences among Paris species.

Purpose: To establish a strategy that can discover species-specific steroidal saponin markers to distinguish closely-related Paris herbs for quality and safety control.

Methods: A new strategy of molecular-networking-guided discovery of species-specific markers was proposed. Firstly, the ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF/MS) was applied to obtain the MS and MS/MS data of all samples. Then, molecular networking (MN) was created using MS/MS data to prescreen the steroidal saponins for subsequent analysis. Next, the principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least square discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) models were established to discover potential markers. Finally, the verification, identification and distribution of chemical markers were performed.

Results: A total of 126 steroidal saponins were screened out from five species using MN. Five species were classified successfully by OPLS-DA model, and 18 species-specific markers were discovered combining the variable importance in the projection (VIP) value, P value (one-way ANOVA) and their relative abundance. These markers could predict the species of Paris herbs correctly.

Conclusion: These results revealed that this new strategy could be an efficient way for chemical discrimination of medicinal herbs with close genetic relationship.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2021.153542DOI Listing
May 2021

Chronic lung inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis after multiple intranasal instillation of PM in mice.

Environ Toxicol 2021 Jul 29;36(7):1434-1446. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Fine particulate matter (PM ) is an important component of air pollution and can induce lung inflammation and oxidative stress. We hypothesized that PM could play a role in the induction of pulmonary fibrosis. We examined whether multiple intranasal instillation of PM can induce pulmonary fibrosis in the mouse, and also investigated the underlying pro-fibrotic signaling pathways. C57/BL6 mice were intranasally instilled with 50 μl of PM suspension (7.8 μg/g body weight) or PBS three times a week over 3 weeks, 6 weeks or 9 weeks. To observe the recovery of pulmonary fibrosis after the termination of PM exposure, 9 week-PM instilled mice were also studied at 3 weeks after termination of instillation. There were significant decreases in total lung capacity (TLC) and compliance (Cchord) in the 9-week PM -instilled mice, while there were increased histological fibrosis scores with enhanced type I collagen and hydroxyproline deposition, increased mitochondrial ROS levels and NOX activity, decreased total SOD and GSH levels, accompanied by decreased mitochondrial number and aberrant mitochondrial morphology (swelling, vacuolization, cristal disruption, reduced matrix density) in PM -instilled mice. Multiple PM instillation resulted in increased expression of TGFβ1, increases of N-Cadherin and Vimentin and a decrease of E-Cadherin. It also led to decreases in OPA1 and MFN2, and increases in Parkin, SQSTM1/p62, the ratio of light china (LC) 3B II to LC3B I, PI3k/Akt phosphorylation, and NLRP3 expression. Intranasal instillation of PM for 9 weeks induced lung inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis, which was linked with aberrant epithelial-mesenchymal transition, oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage and mitophagy, as well as activation of TGFβ1-PI3K/Akt, TGFβ1- NOX and TGFβ1-NLRP3 pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/tox.23140DOI Listing
July 2021

Case Report: Whole-Exome Sequencing With MLPA Revealed Variants in Two Genes in a Patient With Combined Manifestations of Spinal Muscular Atrophy and Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

Front Genet 2021 10;12:605611. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

National Clinical Research Center for Child Health, Department of Neurology, The Children's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.

Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) and Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) are two common kinds of neuromuscular disorders sharing various similarities in clinical manifestations. SMA is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder that results from biallelic mutations of the survival motor neuron 1 gene (; OMIM 600354) on the 5q13 chromosome. DMD is an X-linked disorder caused by defects in the gene (OMIM 300377) on the X chromosome. Here, for the first time, we report a case from a Chinese family who present with clinical manifestations of both two diseases, including poor motor development and progressive muscle weakness. We identified a homozygous deletion in exons 7 and 8 of the gene and a deletion in exon 50 of the gene by whole-exome sequencing (WES) and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). This case expands our understanding of diagnosis for synchronous SMA and DMD and highlights the importance of various genetic testing methods, including WES, in differential diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2021.605611DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7987946PMC
March 2021

Effect of unplanned spontaneous follicular growth and ovulation on pregnancy outcomes in planned artificial frozen embryo transfer cycles: a propensity score matching study.

Hum Reprod 2021 05;36(6):1542-1551

Department of Reproductive Medicine, Women's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing Maternity and Child Health Care Hospital, Nanjing, China.

Study Question: Does unplanned spontaneous follicular growth and ovulation affect clinical outcomes after planned artificial frozen-thawed embryo transfer (AC-FET) cycles?

Summary Answer: AC-FET and spontaneous follicular growth and ovulation events resulted in notably better pregnancy outcomes with a significantly higher implantation rate (IR), clinical pregnancy rate (CPR), ongoing pregnancy rate (OPR) and live birth rate (LBR) and a significantly lower miscarriage rate.

What Is Known Already: The AC-FET protocol without GnRH agonist administration is associated with a low incidence of follicular growth and ovulation. In the literature, authors often refer to these types of cycles with concern due to possibly impaired FET outcomes. However, the real impact of such cycles has yet to be elucidated due to the lack of existing data.

Study Design, Size, Duration: This was a retrospective clinical study involving 2256 AC-FET cycles conducted between January 2017 and August 2019. Propensity score (PS) matching was used to control for confounding variables.

Participants/materials, Setting, Methods: Subjects were divided into two groups: a study group: cycles with spontaneous follicular growth and ovulation (the maximum diameter of follicles in any ovary was ≥14 mm and ovulation was confirmed by consecutive ultrasound examinations) and a control group featuring cycles without growing follicles (the maximum diameter of follicles in both ovaries were <10 mm). The study group was matched by PS with the control group at a ratio of 1:2. The study group consisted of 195 patients before PS matching and 176 patients after matching. The numbers of participants in the control group before and after PS matching were 2061 and 329, respectively.

Main Results And The Role Of Chance: This analysis showed that patient age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.05; 95% CI 1.01-1.09; P=0.010) and basal FSH level (aOR 1.06; 95% CI 1.01-1.11; P=0.012) were significantly and positively related with the spontaneous follicular growth and ovulation event. In addition, this event was negatively correlated with BMI (aOR 0.92; 95% CI 0.87-0.97; P=0.002), AMH level (aOR 0.66; 95% CI 0.59-0.74; P<0.001) and a high starting oestrogen dose (aOR 0.53; 95% CI 0.38-0.76 for 6 mg vs. 4 mg; P<0.001). Baseline characteristics were similar between groups after PS matching. Patients in the study group had a significantly higher IR (28.8% vs. 21.8%, P=0.016), CPR (44.9% vs. 33.4%, P=0.011), OPR (39.2% vs. 26.1%, P=0.002) and LBR (39.2% vs. 24.9%, P=0.001) and a lower miscarriage rate (12.7% vs. 25.5%, P=0.030), compared with those in the control group.

Limitations, Reasons For Caution: This was a retrospective study carried out in a single centre and was therefore susceptible to bias. In addition, we only analysed patients with normal ovulation patterns and excluded those with follicular growth but without ovulation. Further studies remain necessary to confirm our results.

Wider Implications Of The Findings: It is not necessary to cancel cycles that experience spontaneous follicular growth and ovulation. Our data support promising clinical outcomes after this event. Our findings are important as they can better inform clinicians and patients.

Study Funding/competing Interest(s): This research was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant no. 81701507, 81801404, 81871210, 82071648), Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (grant no. BK20171126, BK20201123) and Jiangsu Province '333' project. The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Trial Registration Number: N/A.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/humrep/deab059DOI Listing
May 2021