Publications by authors named "Xu Han"

1,226 Publications

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Rufinamide (RUF) suppresses inflammation and maintains the integrity of the blood-brain barrier during kainic acid-induced brain damage.

Open Life Sci 2021 25;16(1):845-855. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Department of Clinical Skills Training Center of ZhuJiang Hospital, ZhuJiang Hospital of Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510282, China.

Rufinamide (RUF) is a structurally unique anti-epileptic drug, but its protective mechanism against brain injury remains unclear. In the present study, we validated how the RUF protected mice with kainic acid (KA)-induced neuronal damage. To achieve that, a mouse epilepsy model was established by KA intraperitoneal injection. After Nissl staining, although there was a significant reduction in Nissl bodies in mice treated with KA, 40, 80, and 120 mg/kg, RUF significantly reduced KA-induced neuronal damage, in a dose-dependent manner. Among them, 120 mg/kg RUF was most pronounced. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and western blot analysis showed that RUF inhibited the IBA-1 overexpression caused by KA to block microglia cell overactivation. Further, RUF treatment partially reversed neuroinflammatory cytokine (IL-1β, TNFα, HMGB1, and NLRP3) overexpression in mRNA and protein levels in KA mice. Moreover, although KA stimulation inhibited the expression of tight junctions, RUF treatment significantly upregulated expression of tight junction proteins (occludin and claudin 5) in both mRNA and protein levels in the brain tissues of KA mice. RUF inhibited the overactivation of microglia, suppressed the neuroinflammatory response, and reduced the destruction of blood-brain barrier, thereby alleviating the excitatory nerve damage of the KA-mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/biol-2021-0090DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8389504PMC
August 2021

Identification and Characterization of Alcohol-related Hepatocellular Carcinoma Prognostic Subtypes based on an Integrative N6-methyladenosine methylation Model.

Int J Biol Sci 2021 14;17(13):3554-3572. Epub 2021 Aug 14.

Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery II, Guangdong Provincial Research Center for Artificial Organ and Tissue Engineering, Guangzhou Clinical Research and Transformation Center for Artificial Liver, Institute of Regenerative Medicine, ZhuJiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China.

Alcohol consumption increases the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and associated with a high mortality rate and poor prognosis. N6-methyladenosine (m6A) methylations play key roles in tumorigenesis and progression. However, our current knowledge about m6A in alcohol-related HCC (A-HCC) remains elucidated. Herein, the authors construct an integrative m6A model based on A-HCC subtyping and mechanism exploration workflow. Based on the m6A expressions of A-HCC and experiment, different prognosis risk A-HCC subtypes are identified. Meanwhile, multiple interdependent indicators of prognosis including patient survival rate, clinical pathological prognosis and immunotherapy sensitivity. The m6A model includes LRPPRC, YTHDF2, KIAA14219, and RBM15B, classified A-HCC patients into high/low-risk subtypes. The high-risk subtype compared to the low-risk subtype showed phenotypic malignancy, poor prognosis, immunosuppression, and activation of tumorigenesis and proliferation-related pathways, including the E2F target, DNA repair, and mTORC1 signalling pathways. The expression of Immunosuppressive cytokines DNMT1/EZH2 was up-regulated in A-HCC patients, and teniposide may be a potential therapeutic drug for A-HCC. Our model redefined A-HCC prognosis risk, identified potential m6As linking tumour progress and immune regulations and selected possible therapy target, thus promoting understanding and clinical applications about A-HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijbs.62168DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8416726PMC
August 2021

Biological detoxification and decolorization enhancement of azo dye by introducing natural electron mediators in MFCs.

J Hazard Mater 2021 08 20;416:125864. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189, China. Electronic address:

Reactive red 2 (RR2) is a highly recalcitrant and toxic azo dye that can cause the collapse of biological treatment system. Although MFC can decolorize RR2 effectively, its performance is still inevitably affected by toxicity. Anthraquinone can enhance MFCs' performance through mediating electron transfer. In this study, an anthraquinone-rich natural plants (B.rheum (Rheum offcinale Baill)) was extracted and then added to MFCs. The optimal dosage was selected and the enhanced effects were investigated. The results showed that adding 5%(V/V) extract resulted in the optimal performance elevation of MFC. When 5% extract was added together with RR2, 15.63% and 1.33-fold improvement in RR2 decolorization efficiency and rate were achieved compared with the control group. Meanwhile, higher power density (2.75 W/m), coulombic efficiency (6.45%), and lower internal resistance (233.69 Ω) were also observed when 5% B.rheum extract and RR2 were added. B.rheum extract in MFCs enhanced microbial activity and enriched the dye-degrading microorganisms, such as Enterobacter, Raoultella, Comamonas and Shinella. B.rheum extract acts as "antidote" in alleviating the biotoxicity of RR2 was firstly illustrated in this study. The results provided a new strategy for using plant-source electron mediators to simultaneously improve biological detoxification, bioelectricity generation and dye decolorization in bioelectrochemical system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.125864DOI Listing
August 2021

The Role of Gut Microbiota in Lung Cancer: From Carcinogenesis to Immunotherapy.

Front Oncol 2021 19;11:720842. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Department of Oncology, The Second Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian, China.

The influence of microbiota on host health and disease has attracted adequate attention, and gut microbiota components and microbiota-derived metabolites affect host immune homeostasis locally and systematically. Some studies have found that gut dysbiosis, disturbance of the structure and function of the gut microbiome, disrupts pulmonary immune homeostasis, thus leading to increased disease susceptibility; the gut-lung axis is the primary cross-talk for this communication. Gut dysbiosis is involved in carcinogenesis and the progression of lung cancer through genotoxicity, systemic inflammation, and defective immunosurveillance. In addition, the gut microbiome harbors the potential to be a novel biomarker for predicting sensitivity and adverse reactions to immunotherapy in patients with lung cancer. Probiotics and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) can enhance the efficacy and depress the toxicity of immune checkpoint inhibitors by regulating the gut microbiota. Although current studies have found that gut microbiota closely participates in the development and immunotherapy of lung cancer, the mechanisms require further investigation. Therefore, this review aims to discuss the underlying mechanisms of gut microbiota influencing carcinogenesis and immunotherapy in lung cancer and to provide new strategies for governing gut microbiota to enhance the prevention and treatment of lung cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.720842DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8417127PMC
August 2021

Integrin β1 orchestrates the abnormal cell-matrix attachment and invasive behaviour of E-cadherin dysfunctional cells.

Gastric Cancer 2021 Sep 5. Epub 2021 Sep 5.

i3S-Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde, University of Porto, Rua Alfredo Allen 208, 4200-135, Porto, Portugal.

Background: Tumour progression relies on the ability of cancer cells to penetrate and invade neighbouring tissues. E-cadherin loss is associated with increased cell invasion in gastric carcinoma, and germline mutations of the E-cadherin gene are causative of hereditary diffuse gastric cancer. Although E-cadherin dysfunction impacts cell-cell adhesion, cell dissemination also requires an imbalance of adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM).

Methods: To identify ECM components and receptors relevant for adhesion of E-cadherin dysfunctional cells, we implemented a novel ECM microarray platform coupled with molecular interaction networks. The functional role of putative candidates was determined by combining micropattern traction microscopy, protein modulation and in vivo approaches, as well as transcriptomic data of 262 gastric carcinoma samples, retrieved from the cancer genome atlas (TCGA).

Results: Here, we show that E-cadherin mutations induce an abnormal interplay of cells with specific components of the ECM, which encompasses increased traction forces and Integrin β1 activation. Integrin β1 synergizes with E-cadherin dysfunction, promoting cell scattering and invasion. The significance of the E-cadherin-Integrin β1 crosstalk was validated in Drosophila models and found to be consistent with evidence from human gastric carcinomas, where increased tumour grade and poor survival are associated with low E-cadherin and high Integrin β1 levels.

Conclusions: Integrin β1 is a key mediator of invasion in carcinomas with E-cadherin impairment and should be regarded as a biomarker of poor prognosis in gastric cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10120-021-01239-9DOI Listing
September 2021

Rational Design and Development of Novel CDK9 Inhibitors for the Treatment of Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

J Med Chem 2021 Sep 3. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 555 Zu Chong Zhi Road, Shanghai 201203, China.

CDK9 is an essential drug target correlated to the development of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Starting from the hit compound , which was discovered through a screening of our in-house compound library, the structural modifications were carried out based on the bioisosterism and scaffold hopping strategies. Consequently, compound displayed the optimal CDK9 inhibitory activity with an IC value of 5.41 nM, which was nearly 1500-fold higher than compound . In addition, compound exhibited significant antiproliferative activity in broad cancer cell lines. Further investigation of properties demonstrated that compound could be orally administrated with an acceptable bioavailability ( = 33.7%). In MV-4-11 subcutaneous xenograft mouse model, compound (7.5 mg/kg) could significantly suppress the tumor progression with a T/C value of 27.80%. Compound represents a promising lead compound for the development of a novel class of CDK9 inhibitors for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.1c01148DOI Listing
September 2021

Electrical Control of Growth Measured with Simultaneous Modulation and Imaging.

Bioelectricity 2020 Sep 16;2(3):221-228. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, USA.

The use of electricity to mediate bacterial growth is unique in providing spatial control, but requires a more detailed understanding. We use two gold wires on a glass coverslip with an overlayer of agar to image cells with brightfield and fluorescence microscopy while simultaneously applying a voltage. Cells outside of the wires provide a control population to measure cell growth as a function of voltage, rather than any difference in culture conditions or growth phase. An applied voltage suppresses the fraction of undergoing elongation and division with recovery to control values when the voltage is removed. Depolarization is observed over the same voltage range suggesting a membrane potential-mediated response. Our experiments identify and use subcytotoxic voltages to measure differences in the fraction of cells elongating and dividing as a function of applied voltage. It is hoped that this research will inform the developing field of bacterial electrophysiology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/bioe.2020.0002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8370336PMC
September 2020

Ultrathin PdAuBiTe Nanosheets as High-Performance Oxygen Reduction Catalysts for a Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Device.

Adv Mater 2021 Aug 31:e2103383. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Key Lab of Organic Optoelectronics & Molecular Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, P. R. China.

Ultrathin 2D metal nanostructures have sparked a lot of research interest because of their improved electrocatalytic properties for fuel cells. So far, no effective technique for preparing ultrathin 2D Pd-based metal nanostructures with more than three compositions has been published. Herein, a new visible-light-induced template technique for producing PdAuBiTe alloyed 2D ultrathin nanosheets is developed. The mass activity of the PdAuBiTe nanosheets against the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is 2.48 A mg , which is 27.5/17.7 times that of industrial Pd/C/Pt/C, respectively. After 10 000 potential cyclings, there is no decrease in ORR activity. The PdAuBiTe nanosheets exhibit high methanol tolerance and in situ anti-CO poisoning properties. The PdAuBiTe nanosheets, as cathode electrocatalysts in direct methanol fuel cells, can thus give significant improvement in terms of power density and durability. In O /air, the power density can be increased to 235.7/173.5 mW cm , higher than that reported in previous work, and which is 2.32/3.59 times higher than Pt/C.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202103383DOI Listing
August 2021

Cardiometabolic Traits Mediated the Relationship from Early Life Famine Exposure to Adulthood Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Risk.

Br J Nutr 2021 Sep 1:1-27. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Department of Occupational and Environmental Health and Key Laboratory of Environmental and Health, Ministry of Education & Ministry of Environmental Protection, and State Key Laboratory of Environmental Health (Incubating), School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430030, People's Republic of China.

Early life exposure to famine was associated with adulthood metabolic syndrome and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and NAFLD was also affected by cardiometabolic traits. However, the role of cardiometabolic traits in the associations from famine exposure to NAFLD was largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate whether the relationship between early life famine exposure and adulthood NAFLD risk was mediated by cardiometabolic traits. Overall, 7,578 subjects aged 56.0 ± 3.7 years in the Dongfeng-Tongji cohort were included and classified into late-exposed (1952-1954), middle-exposed (1954-1956), early-childhood-exposed (1956-1958), fetal-exposed (1959-1961), and nonexposed (1962-1966, reference) group according to the birth year. NAFLD was diagnosed by experienced physicians via abdominal B-type ultrasound inspection. Mediation analysis was used to evaluate the mediating effects of cardiometabolic traits. Compared with those nonexposed, after multivariable adjustment, participants in fetal-exposed group (OR: 1.37; 95% CI: 1.08-1.73) had 37% higher risk to develop NAFLD, and the overall childhood-exposed group had marginally significant association with NAFLD (OR: 1.39; 95% CI: 0.99-1.94). Stratification analysis found the famine-NAFLD associations more evident in women and those born in areas severely affected by famine. Mediation analysis showed that cardiometabolic traits such as TC, TyG index, γ-GT, ALP, and ALT mediated 6.7%-22.2% of the relation from famine exposure to higher NAFLD risk. Early life exposure to famine was related to increased adulthood NAFLD risk, and this relationship was partly mediated by cardiometabolic traits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114521003342DOI Listing
September 2021

Meta-Analysis of the Diagnostic Value of Cell-free DNA for Renal Cancer.

Front Mol Biosci 2021 11;8:683844. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

Experimental Research Center, Zhejiang Cancer Hospital, Institute of Cancer Research and Basic Medicine, Cancer Hospital of the University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hangzhou, China.

Cell-free DNA (cf-DNA) has been reported to represent a suitable material for liquid biopsy in the diagnosis and prognosis of various cancers. We performed a meta-analysis of published data to investigate the diagnostic value of cf-DNA for renal cancer (RCa). Systematic searches were conducted using Pubmed, Embase databases, Web of Science, Medline and Cochrane Library to identify relevant publications until the 31st March 2021. For all patients, we evaluated the true diagnostic value of cf-DNA by calculating the number of true positive, false positive, true negative, and false negative, diagnoses by extracting specificity and sensitivity data from the selected literature. In total, 8 studies, featuring 754 RCa patients, and 355 healthy controls, met our inclusion criteria. The overall diagnostic sensitivity and specificity for cf-DNA was 0.71 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.55-0.83) and 0.79 (95% CI, 0.66-0.88), respectively. The pooled positive likelihood ratio and pooled negative likelihood ratio were 3.42 (95% CI, 2.04-5.72) and 0.36 (95% CI, 0.23-0.58), respectively. The area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.82 (95% CI, 0.79-0.85), and the diagnostic odds ratio was 7.80 (95% CI, 4.40-13.85). Collectively, our data demonstrate that cf-DNA has high specificity and sensitivity for diagnosing RCa. Therefore, cf-DNA is a useful biomarker for the diagnosis of RCa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmolb.2021.683844DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8385273PMC
August 2021

Potent, Selective CARs as Potential T-Cell Therapeutics for HPV-positive Cancers.

J Immunother 2021 Oct;44(8):292-306

A2 Biotherapeutics, Agoura Hills, CA.

Next-generation T-cell therapies will likely continue to utilize T-cell receptors (TCRs) and chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) because each receptor type has advantages. TCRs often possess exceptional properties even when tested unmodified from patients' T cells. CARs are generally less sensitive, possibly because their ligand-binding domains are grafted from antibodies selected for binding affinity or avidity and not broadly optimized for a functional response. Because of the disconnect between binding and function among these receptor types, the ultimate potential of CARs optimized for sensitivity and selectivity is not clear. Here, we focus on a thoroughly studied immuno-oncology target, the HLA-A*02/HPV-E629-38 complex, and show that CARs can be optimized by a combination of high-throughput binding screens and low-throughput functional assays to have comparable activity to clinical TCRs in acute assays in vitro. These results provide a case study for the challenges and opportunities of optimizing high-performing CARs, especially in the context of targets utilized naturally by TCRs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CJI.0000000000000386DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8415731PMC
October 2021

Assessing the potential to use CDOM as an indicator of water quality for the sediment-laden Yellow river, China.

Environ Pollut 2021 Aug 13;289:117970. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, 712100, China.

Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in rivers is mainly affected by natural conditions and human activities and can reflect the watershed pollution status to a certain extent. The Yellow River is one of the largest contributors to the global riverine sediment flux from the land to ocean, and there is a paucity of information on how the optical properties of CDOM have the potential to serve as an indicator of water quality for the sediment-laden Yellow River. In this study, a three-dimensional fluorescence parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis method was applied to investigate the seasonal and spatial variations in CDOM fluorescence components and spectral characteristics from the source region to the estuary in the mainstream of Yellow River. The relationships of CDOM with water quality indicators and trophic state were also analyzed. Six PARAFAC components (C1-C6) were identified and grouped into two categories: humic-like components (C1-C4), which accounted for 85.8 %, and protein-like components (C5 and C6), which accounted for only 14.2 %. The CDOM components, spectral parameters, and their clear correlations with the main ions (Na and Cl) all indicated that the humic-like components may be primarily derived from nonpoint source erosion, and the protein-like components were mainly derived from point source discharges in the watershed. The combination of the CDOM absorption coefficient at 254 nm (a(254)), spectral slope ratio (S), specific UV absorbance SUVA and fluorescence index (FI) had a good predictive ability for the key water quality indicators (total nitrogen (TN), dissolved total nitrogen (DTN), total phosphorus (TP), dissolved total phosphorus (DTP), and chlorophyll a (Chl a)) and trophic state index (TSI). Therefore, some fluorophores and UV spectral parameters of CDOM in the Yellow River can be used for rapid water quality monitoring and pollution source indication, especially pollutants related to nitrogen and phosphorus nutrients in the basin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.117970DOI Listing
August 2021

Systematic functional interrogation of human pseudogenes using CRISPRi.

Genome Biol 2021 08 23;22(1):240. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, 77030, USA.

Background: The human genome encodes over 14,000 pseudogenes that are evolutionary relics of protein-coding genes and commonly considered as nonfunctional. Emerging evidence suggests that some pseudogenes may exert important functions. However, to what extent human pseudogenes are functionally relevant remains unclear. There has been no large-scale characterization of pseudogene function because of technical challenges, including high sequence similarity between pseudogene and parent genes, and poor annotation of transcription start sites.

Results: To overcome these technical obstacles, we develop an integrated computational pipeline to design the first genome-wide library of CRISPR interference (CRISPRi) single-guide RNAs (sgRNAs) that target human pseudogene promoter-proximal regions. We perform the first pseudogene-focused CRISPRi screen in luminal A breast cancer cells and reveal approximately 70 pseudogenes that affect breast cancer cell fitness. Among the top hits, we identify a cancer-testis unitary pseudogene, MGAT4EP, that is predominantly localized in the nucleus and interacts with FOXA1, a key regulator in luminal A breast cancer. By enhancing the promoter binding of FOXA1, MGAT4EP upregulates the expression of oncogenic transcription factor FOXM1. Integrative analyses of multi-omic data from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) reveal many unitary pseudogenes whose expressions are significantly dysregulated and/or associated with overall/relapse-free survival of patients in diverse cancer types.

Conclusions: Our study represents the first large-scale study characterizing pseudogene function. Our findings suggest the importance of nuclear function of unitary pseudogenes and underscore their underappreciated roles in human diseases. The functional genomic resources developed here will greatly facilitate the study of human pseudogene function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13059-021-02464-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8381491PMC
August 2021

Effect of parental arterial stiffness in offspring: the Kailuan study.

J Hypertens 2021 Aug 20. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Department of Cardiology, Kailuan General Hospital Graduate School North China University of Science and Technology, Tangshan Beijing Hypertension League Institute, Beijing, China.

Objective: The aim of this study was to examine effect of parental arterial stiffness in offspring.

Methods: The individuals who participated in the second or subsequent follow-up and had parent-offspring relationship and completed measurements of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) from the Kailuan study were recruited. The individuals were divided into groups by the 10-year intervals and sex. Arterial stiffness was defined as the 75th percentiles in each age category. Multivariable generalized estimating equations was used to analyse the effect of parental baPWV and blood pressure in offspring. Multivariable logistic regression using generalized estimating equations was used to analyse the effect of parental arterial stiffness in offspring.

Results: A total of 4514 parents and offspring who met the inclusion criteria, including 1785 paternal offspring and 625 maternal offspring was recruited. Mean age of paternal offspring and maternal offspring were 36.26 (SD 7.86) and 36.42 (SD 7.57) years, while their mean baPWV were 1294.40 (SD 225.32) and 1270.74 (SD 241.42) cm/s, respectively. In multivariate linear regression analyses, after adjusted for the covariate risk factors, an increase of 1 cm/s in the paternal and maternal baPWV of resulted in an increase of 0.05 and 0.30 cm/s in offspring, respectively. In multivariate logistic regression analyses, the risk of arterial stiffness in the offspring of paternal and maternal arterial stiffness increased by 50 and 77%, respectively.

Conclusion: Paternal and maternal baPWV are linear positively correlated with baPWV in offspring. Parental arterial stiffness is a risk factor for arterial stiffness of offspring and is independent of traditional risk factors of offspring arterial stiffness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0000000000002984DOI Listing
August 2021

Extensive functional comparisons between chimeric antigen receptors and T cell receptors highlight fundamental similarities.

Mol Immunol 2021 Oct 19;138:137-149. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

A2 Biotherapeutics, 30301 Agoura Rd., Agoura Hills, CA, 91301, United States. Electronic address:

Though TCRs have been subject to limited engineering in the context of therapeutic design and optimization, they are used largely as found in nature. On the other hand, CARs are artificial, composed of different segments of proteins that function in the immune system. This characteristic raises the possibility of altered response to immune regulatory stimuli. Here we describe a large-scale, systematic comparison of CARs and TCRs across 5 different pMHC targets, with a total of 19 constructs examined in vitro. These functional measurements include CAR- and TCR-mediated activation, proliferation, and cytotoxicity in both acute and chronic settings. Surprisingly, we find no consistent difference between CARs and TCRs as receptor classes with respect to their relative sensitivity to major regulators of T cell activation: PD-L1, CD80/86 and IL-2. Though TCRs often emerge from human blood directly as potent, selective receptors, CARs must be heavily optimized to attain these properties for pMHC targets. Nonetheless, when iteratively improved and compared head to head in functional tests, CARs appear remarkably similar to TCRs with respect to immune modulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molimm.2021.07.018DOI Listing
October 2021

Electrochemical study of a novel high-efficiency PbO anode based on a cerium-graphene oxide co-doping strategy: Electrodeposition mechanism, parameter optimization, and degradation pathways.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Aug 12;422:126890. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

Department of Environmental Engineering, Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology, Beijing 102617, China.

A novel and efficient Ti/SnO-Sb/PbO-GO-Ce electrode was successfully fabricated based on the co-deposition of Ce ions and graphene oxide (GO) into β-PbO crystals and used as an anode for electrocatalytic oxidation of phenol. The electrodeposition mechanism, parameter optimization, mechanism analysis, and potential degradation pathways were discussed in depth. The co-doping of GO and Ce resulted in the high directional specificity of β(301), orderly and dense grain arrangement of PbO crystals. At the same time, the oxygen evolution potential, •OH generation capacity and lifetime were also improved. The effects of experimental parameters on phenol removal efficiency were evaluated, including the applied current density, electrode gap, supporting electrolyte, initial NaCl concentration, initial pH, and initial phenol concentration. Under the optimal conditions, the removal efficiency of phenol can reach 375.6 g m h for 20 min electrolysis, which is about 1.2 times that of the pure PbO electrode. The active oxygen species (•OH, ClO and HClO) were important attributes to the degradation of phenol. Additionally, a potential degradation pathway for phenol was proposed. After 10 successive recycles, there was no significant difference of the electro-generated •OH, cell voltage and phenol removal rate, which confirms the stability and admirable reusability of Ti/SnO-Sb/PbO-GO-Ce electrode.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.126890DOI Listing
August 2021

Retraction Note: Dioscin induces prostate cancer cell apoptosis through activation of estrogen receptor-β.

Cell Death Dis 2021 Aug 20;12(9):800. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

College of Pharmacy, Dalian Medical University, Western 9 Lvshunnan Road, Dalian, 116044, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-021-04083-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8379252PMC
August 2021

[Effects of Microplastics Addition on Soil Organic Carbon Mineralization in Citrus Orchard].

Huan Jing Ke Xue 2021 Sep;42(9):4558-4565

Key Laboratory of Arable Land Conservation in Middle and Lower Reaches of Yangtze River, Ministry of Agriculture, College of Recourses and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China.

To investigate the effects of microplastics on soil organic carbon mineralization and the changes in soil enzyme activities, an incubation experiment was conducted whereby single applications of either microplastics or straw, and combined application of both, were added to Dangyang citrus orchard soil. The results showed that the combined application of straw and microplastics significantly affected organic carbon mineralization in the soil, but the single addition of microplastics had no significant effect. Compared with straw alone, the application of a small combined amount of microplastics and straw significantly increased soil organic carbon mineralization by 8.20%, while medium and high amounts of the combined application significantly inhibited soil organic carbon mineralization. The lowest amount of organic carbon mineralization occurred with the highest amount of combined microplastics and straw, 10.13% lower than with straw alone. The addition of microplastics significantly reduced the activity of -glucosidase. In particular, a high amount of microplastics significantly decreased the activity of -glucosidase, compared with the control, by 20.52%, 43.93%, and 17.79% on the day 1, 6, and 35, respectively. However, straw application alleviated the inhibition effect of microplastic application on soil -glucosidase activity. The soil organic carbon mineralization rate was significantly positively correlated with DOC, MBC and -glucosidase activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13227/j.hjkx.202102042DOI Listing
September 2021

The Predictive Value of Baseline Target Lesion SYNTAX Score for No-Reflow during Urgent Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Acute Myocardial Infarction.

J Interv Cardiol 2021 4;2021:9987265. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Department of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Institute, Fuwai Hospital and National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100037, China.

Objectives: To evaluate the predictive value of target lesion SYNTAX score (TL-SS) for no-reflow in the patients with acute myocardial infarction undergoing urgent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Background: Risk assessment, prevention, and prompt management of no-reflow in urgent PCI are crucial but remain challenging. SYNTAX score emerged as a tool for prediction, but may contain redundant information.

Methods: After screening of consecutive patients who underwent urgent PCI in Fuwai Hospital from January 2013 to December 2013, 487 patients with 528 lesions were involved. The endpoint was no-reflow during the PCI procedure.

Results: No-reflow occurred in 52 patients (10.7%) and 53 lesions (10.0%). High TL-SS levels were strongly associated with increased risks of no-reflow in the urgent PCI procedure (all adjusted < 0.05). TL-SS displayed good discrimination ability for no-reflow (C-statistics = 0.76, 95% CI 0.72-0.80), which was better than that of SYNTAX score (=0.016). Following categorizing the lesions into two groups according to the Youden Index, the high-risk group (TL-SS ≥8) showed significantly higher no-reflow rate compared with the low-risk group (TL-SS <8) (20.6% vs. 3.6%, odds ratio 6.86, 95% confidence interval 3.50-13.41, < 0.001). In the target lesions that underwent balloon predilation, maximum predilation pressure >10 atm was associated with higher rate of no-reflow in the high-risk group (odds ratio 3.81, 95% confidence interval 1.10-13.17).

Conclusions: TL-SS is a potential predictor for risk stratification of no-reflow in urgent PCI. In the high TL-SS lesions that underwent balloon predilation, maximum predilation pressure >10 atm was associated with higher risk of no-reflow.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/9987265DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8357514PMC
August 2021

Efficacy and safety of electrical stimulation for stress urinary incontinence in women: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Int Urogynecol J 2021 Aug 17. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, No. 12 Middle Urumqi Road, Xuhui District, Shanghai, 200040, China.

Introduction And Hypothesis: This systematic review and meta-analysis was aimed at investigating the safety and short- and long-term efficacy of electrical stimulation (ES) in women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI).

Methods: PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane database were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) conducted up to 2020. Studies comparing ES with sham ES or no intervention were included. Standardized mean differences (SMDs), weighted mean differences (WMDs), relative risks (RR), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated.

Results: This study included 9 RCTs, involving a total of 982 patients, of whom 520 received ES. Our results showed that in the short term (< 3 months), compared with sham ES or no intervention, ES significantly improved incontinence-specific quality of life (IQOL) (p = 0.003; SMD = 0.90 [95% CI, 0.30 to 1.50]; I = 88%) and reduced urine leakage (p < 0.00001; WMD = -6.15 [95% CI, -8.29 to -4.01]; I = 0%) but did not significantly reduce the frequency of incontinence episodes (p = 0.34; WMD = -0.98 [95% CI, -2.99 to 1.04]; I = 85%). In the long term (3-7.5 months), ES significantly improved IQOL (p = 0.0009; SMD = 1.14 [95% CI, 0.47 to 1.81]; I = 91%) and reduced the frequency of incontinence episodes (p = 0.0009; WMD = -2.45 [95% CI, -3.90 to -1.01]; I = 79%) but did not significantly reduce urine leakage (p = 0.27; WMD = -9.21 [95% CI, -25.57 to 7.14]; I = 71%). There was no significant difference in adverse events between ES and sham ES or no intervention (p = 0.36; RR = 1.34 [95% CI, 0.72 to 2.50]; I = 0%). A test for subgroup differences showed that electroacupuncture (EA) improved long-term IQOL to a greater extent than vaginal ES (VES), whereas there was no significant difference in efficacy between EA and VES in short- or long-term reduction of urine leakage, frequency of incontinence episodes, or short-term IQOL improvement.

Conclusions: ES may improve short- and long-term IQOL for women with SUI, but it appears to provide only short-term reduction in urine leakage and long-term reduction in frequency of incontinence episodes. However, we cannot draw any conclusion on the safety between ES and sham ES or no intervention because of the rarity of adverse events. It is still uncertain whether EA is comparable or superior to VES owing to an insufficient number of studies and patients. The conclusions should be considered carefully because of the limited quality and quantity of the RCTs included. Further rigorous RCTs with adequate sample sizes and long follow-up are necessary to fully validate our findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00192-021-04928-2DOI Listing
August 2021

The risk and prognosis of secondary primary malignancy in lung cancer: a population-based study.

Future Oncol 2021 Aug 17. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang Province, People's Republic of China.

To assess and predict risk and prognosis of lung cancer (LC) patients with second primary malignancy (SPM). LC patients diagnosed from 1992 to 2016 were obtained through the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. Standardized incidence ratios were calculated to evaluate SPM risk. Cox regression and competing risk models were applied to assess the factors associated with overall survival, SPM development and LC-specific survival. Nomograms were built to predict SPM probability and overall survival. LC patients remain at higher risk of SPM even though the incidence declines. Patients with SPM have a better prognosis than patients without SPM. The consistency indexes for nomograms of SPM probability and overall survival are 0.605 (95% CI: 0.598-0.611) and 0.644 (95% CI: 0.638-0.650), respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/fon-2021-0045DOI Listing
August 2021

Resveratrol attenuates TNBC lung metastasis by down-regulating PD-1 expression on pulmonary T cells and converting macrophages to M1 phenotype in a murine tumor model.

Cell Immunol 2021 Oct 11;368:104423. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

Department of Medical Oncology, The First Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China. Electronic address:

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an invasive breast cancer with the characteristics of easy to develop distant metastasis. Immune escape is one of the main reasons for TNBC growth and metastasis. Enhancement of T cell-mediated anti-tumor activity may benefit to inhibit tumor metastasis and improve the efficacy of cancer therapy. As a natural bioactive substance, resveratrol shows potential capability to prevent or suppress the development of a variety of cancers through direct or indirect effects, including immunoregulatory effect. However, whether resveratrol might affect lung metastasis of TNBC, and whether the effect of resveratrol might be associated with resveratrol-regulated immune responses in tumor microenvironment is still unknown. In this study, by using an experimental metastatic mouse 4 T1 tumor model, we identified that resveratrol may suppress TNBC lung metastasis by elevating local anti-tumor immunity. Indeed, an increase in the cytotoxic activity of CD8T cells as well as the levels of type 1 cytokine IFN-γ and IL-2 in the lungs of resveratrol-treated tumor bearing mice were observed. The enhanced CD8T cell activity and Th1 immune responses by resveratrol administration might be related to the down-regulated PD-1 expression on pulmonary CD8T cells and CD4T cells. Resveratrol may also convert macrophages to M1 phenotype in the lungs of tumor bearing mice. However, it seems likely resveratrol has no effect on pulmonary myeloid-derived suppressor cell activation. Our results provide an evidence that resveratrol might be a promising candidate agent for adjuvant therapy in the process of TNBC metastasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cellimm.2021.104423DOI Listing
October 2021

High-efficiency generation of narrowband soft x rays from carbon nanotube foams irradiated by relativistic femtosecond lasers.

Opt Lett 2021 Aug;46(16):3969-3972

A number of applications require x rays of both high flux and narrow bandwidth. In this work, we experimentally demonstrate the high-efficiency generation of narrowband soft x rays from carbon nanotube foams irradiated by a femtosecond laser pulse at an intensity of 10/. The building blocks of the foam, single-walled carbon nanotube bundles with diameters smaller than the laser skin length can be volumetrically heated and fully ionized on a femtosecond time scale. The three-dimensional network structure of the foam permits deep penetration and drastic absorption of the laser pulse, and results in bright line emissions without prominent Stark broadening. A single-shot yield of 3×10 in the carbon line at 3.37 nm was measured with a bandwidth of 0.013 nm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.432817DOI Listing
August 2021

Evaluation and comparison of multi-omics data integration methods for cancer subtyping.

PLoS Comput Biol 2021 Aug 12;17(8):e1009224. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

School of Computer Science and Technology, Xidian University, Xi'an, China.

Computational integrative analysis has become a significant approach in the data-driven exploration of biological problems. Many integration methods for cancer subtyping have been proposed, but evaluating these methods has become a complicated problem due to the lack of gold standards. Moreover, questions of practical importance remain to be addressed regarding the impact of selecting appropriate data types and combinations on the performance of integrative studies. Here, we constructed three classes of benchmarking datasets of nine cancers in TCGA by considering all the eleven combinations of four multi-omics data types. Using these datasets, we conducted a comprehensive evaluation of ten representative integration methods for cancer subtyping in terms of accuracy measured by combining both clustering accuracy and clinical significance, robustness, and computational efficiency. We subsequently investigated the influence of different omics data on cancer subtyping and the effectiveness of their combinations. Refuting the widely held intuition that incorporating more types of omics data always produces better results, our analyses showed that there are situations where integrating more omics data negatively impacts the performance of integration methods. Our analyses also suggested several effective combinations for most cancers under our studies, which may be of particular interest to researchers in omics data analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1009224DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8384175PMC
August 2021

A Deep Network for Joint Registration and Reconstruction of Images with Pathologies.

Mach Learn Med Imaging 2020 Oct 29;12436:342-352. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

Department of Computer Science, UNC Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

Registration of images with pathologies is challenging due to tissue appearance changes and missing correspondences caused by the pathologies. Moreover, mass effects as observed for brain tumors may displace tissue, creating larger deformations over time than what is observed in a healthy brain. Deep learning models have successfully been applied to image registration to offer dramatic speed up and to use surrogate information (e.g., segmentations) during training. However, existing approaches focus on learning registration models using images from healthy patients. They are therefore not designed for the registration of images with strong pathologies for example in the context of brain tumors, and traumatic brain injuries. In this work, we explore a deep learning approach to register images with brain tumors to an atlas. Our model learns an appearance mapping from images with tumors to the atlas, while simultaneously predicting the transformation to atlas space. Using separate decoders, the network disentangles the tumor mass effect from the reconstruction of quasi-normal images. Results on both synthetic and real brain tumor scans show that our approach outperforms cost function masking for registration to the atlas and that reconstructed quasi-normal images can be used for better longitudinal registrations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-59861-7_35DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8354331PMC
October 2020

Topics, Sentiments, and Emotions Triggered by COVID-19-Related Tweets from IRAN and Turkey Official News Agencies.

SN Comput Sci 2021 29;2(5):394. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Institute for Infocomm Research, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (ASTAR), Singapore, Singapore.

There is no doubt that the COVID-19 epidemic posed the most significant challenge to all governments globally since January 2020. People have to readapt after the epidemic to daily life with the absence of an effective vaccine for a long time. The epidemic has led to society division and uncertainty. With such issues, governments have to take efficient procedures to fight the epidemic. In this paper, we analyze and discuss two official news agencies' tweets of Iran and Turkey by using sentiment- and semantic analysis-based unsupervised learning approaches. The main topics, sentiments, and emotions that accompanied the agencies' tweets are identified and compared. The results are analyzed from the perspective of psychology, sociology, and communication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s42979-021-00789-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8319903PMC
July 2021

Enantioselective Recognition and Separation of Symmetric Substances via Chiral Metal-Organic Frameworks.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Aug 2;13(31):37412-37421. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemistry for Energy Materials, State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surface and Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, China.

A promising route toward the enantioselective recognition and separation of racemic molecules is the design of chiral metal-organic frameworks (CMOFs) with high enantioselectivity and stability. Herein, we report porous CMOFs Δ- and Λ-RuEu-MOFs constructed from the -symmetry helical chiral Ru(phen)-derived tricarboxylate ligand and Eu units, which can be utilized as adsorbents for the enantioselective recognition and separation of 1,1'-bi-2-naphthol (BINOL) derivatives. Investigation of the circular dichroism enantiodifferentiation between the host and guest suggested that Δ- and Λ-RuEu-MOFs can be employed as chiral sensors to discriminate axial enantiomers due to their diastereomeric host-guest relationship. Density functional theory calculations reveal that chiral recognition is attributed to the distinguishing binding affinities stemming from N···H-O hydrogen bonds and π-π stacking between the host and guest. Moreover, the reticulate structure of Δ- and Λ-RuEu-MOFs can be readily recycled and reused for the successive enantioselective separation of BINOL up to 80% ee.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c10626DOI Listing
August 2021

Fiber scaffold bioartificial liver therapy relieves acute liver failure and extrahepatic organ injury in pigs.

Theranostics 2021 11;11(16):7620-7639. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery II, Guangdong Provincial Research Center for Artificial Organ and Tissue Engineering, Guangzhou Clinical Research and Transformation Center for Artificial Liver, Institute of Regenerative Medicine, Zhujiang Hospital of Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China.

Acute liver failure (ALF) causes severe liver injury and a systemic inflammatory response, leading to multiorgan failure with a high short-term mortality. Bioartificial liver (BAL) therapy is a promising approach that is hampered by the lack of appropriate bioreactors and carriers to retain hepatic cell function and poor understanding of BAL treatment mechanisms in ALF and extrahepatic organ injury. Recently, we used a fiber scaffold bioreactor (FSB) for the high-density, three-dimensional (3D) culture of primary porcine hepatocytes (PPHs) combined with an absorption component to construct a BAL and verified its function in a D-galactosamine (D-gal)-induced ALF porcine model to evaluate its protective effects on the liver and extrahepatic organs. Male pigs were randomized into standard/supportive therapy (ST), ST+no-cell BAL (ST+Sham BAL) and ST+BAL groups and received treatment 48 h after receiving a D-gal injection. Changes in blood chemistry and clinical symptoms were monitored for 120 h. Tissues and plasma were collected for analysis by pathological examination, immunoblotting, quantitative PCR and immunoassays. PPHs cultured in the FSB obtained sufficient aeration and nutrition for high-density, 3D culture and maintained superior viability and functionality (biosynthesis and detoxification) compared with those cultured in flasks. All the animals developed ALF, acute kidney injury (AKI) and hepatic encephalopathy (HE) 48 h after D-gal infusion and received corresponding therapies. Animals in the BAL group showed markedly improved survival (4/5; 80%) compared with those in the ST+Sham BAL (0/5; p < 0.001) and ST (0/5; p < 0.001) groups. The levels of blood ammonia and biochemical and inflammatory indices were alleviated after BAL treatment. Increased liver regeneration and attenuations in the occurrence and severity of ALF, AKI and HE were observed in the ST+BAL group compared with the ST (p = 0.0009; p = 0.038) and ST+Sham BAL (p = 0.011; p = 0.031) groups. Gut leakage, the plasma endotoxin level, bacterial translocation, and peripheral and neuroinflammation were alleviated in the ST+BAL group compared with those in the other groups. BAL treatment enhanced liver regeneration and alleviated the systemic inflammatory response and extrahepatic organ injury to prolong survival in the ALF model and has potential as a therapeutic approach for ALF patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/thno.58515DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8315066PMC
August 2021

Overexpression of TOLLIP Protects against Acute Kidney Injury after Paraquat Intoxication through Inhibiting NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation Modulated by Toll-Like Receptor 2/4 Signaling.

Mediators Inflamm 2021 14;2021:5571272. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, 110004 Liaoning Province, China.

Paraquat (PQ) can cause multiorgan failure including acute kidney injury (AKI). Our prior study showed that Toll-interacting protein (TOLLIP) protected against PQ-induced acute lung injury. However, the role of TOLLIP in PQ-induced AKI remains undefined. This study was aimed at understanding the role and mechanism of TOLLIP in AKI. Six-eight-week-old male Wistar rats were intraperitoneally injected with 25 mg/kg PQ to induce AKI for 24 h . HK-2 cells were treated with 300 M PQ for 24 h to induce cellular injury or 300 M PQ and 5 M nuclear factor-B (NF-B) inhibitor BAY11-7082 for 24 h. Rats were infected with adenovirus carrying TOLLIP shRNA via tail vein injection and HK-2 cells with adenovirus carrying TOLLIP shRNA or TOLLIP 48 h before PQ exposure. Results showed that TOLLIP and Toll-like receptor 2/4 (TLR2/4) expressions were boosted in the kidney after PQ intoxication. The toxic effect of PQ on the kidney and HK-2 cells was exacerbated by TOLLIP knockdown, as evidenced by aggravated glomerulus and tubule injury, inflammatory infiltration, and cell apoptosis in the kidney and increased loss of cell viability and apoptotic cells in HK-2 cells. TOLLIP knockdown also enhanced PQ-induced NLR family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation and and TLR2/4-NF-B signaling , reflected by increased contents of proinflammatory cytokines and expressions of NLRP3 inflammasome-related proteins in the kidney and HK-2 cells and expressions of TLR2, TLR4, and nuclear NF-B p65 in HK-2 cells. However, TOLLIP overexpression inhibited PQ-induced loss of cell viability, cell apoptosis, NLRP3 inflammasome activation, and TLR2/4-NF-B signaling . Additionally, BAY11-7082 abolished TOLLIP knockdown-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation , indicating that TOLLIP protected against NLRP3 inflammasome activation in PQ-induced AKI through inhibiting TLR2/4-NF-B signaling. This study highlights the importance of TOLLIP in AKI after PQ intoxication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/5571272DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8298172PMC
July 2021

Quality Assurance for Small-Field VMAT SRS and Conventional-Field IMRT Using the Exradin W1 Scintillator.

Technol Cancer Res Treat 2021 Jan-Dec;20:15330338211036542

Department of Radiation Oncology, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai, China.

Background: Plastic scintillator detector (PSD) Exradin W1 has shown promising performance in small field dosimetry due to its water equivalence and small sensitive volume. However, few studies reported its capability in measuring fields of conventional sizes. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to assess the performance of W1 in measuring point dose of both conventional IMRT plans and VMAT SRS plans.

Methods: Forty-seven clinical plans (including 29 IMRT plans and 18 VMAT SRS plans with PTV volume less than 8 cm) from our hospital were included in this study. W1 and Farmer-Type ionization chamber Exradin A19 were used in measuring IMRT plans, and W1 and microchamber Exradin A16 were used in measuring SRS plans. The agreement between the results of different types of detectors and TPS was evaluated.

Results: For IMRT plans, the average differences between measurements and TPS in high-dose regions were 0.27% ± 1.66% and 0.90% ± 1.78% ( = 0.056), and were -0.76% ± 1.47% and 0.37% ± 1.34% in low-dose regions ( = 0.000), for W1 and A19, respectively. For VMAT SRS plans, the average differences between measurements and TPS were -0.19% ± 0.96% and -0.59% ± 1.49% for W1 and A16 with no statistical difference ( = 0.231).

Conclusion: W1 showed comparable performance with application-dedicated detectors in point dose measurements for both conventional IMRT and VMAT SRS techniques. It is a potential one-stop solution for general radiotherapy platforms that deliver both IMRT and SRS plans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/15330338211036542DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8327019PMC
July 2021
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