Publications by authors named "Xu Gao"

425 Publications

HS alleviates aortic aneurysm and dissection: Crosstalk between transforming growth factor 1 signaling and NLRP3 inflammasome.

Int J Cardiol 2021 Jun 19. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Department of Pharmacy, Xiangyang Central Hospital, Affiliated Hospital of Hubei University of Arts and Science, Xiangyang 441000, Hubei, China. Electronic address:

Background: Vascular remodeling and inflammation are involved in aortic aneurysm (AA) and aortic dissection (AD) . TGF-β1 signaling is involved in tissue fibrosis, extracellular matrix remodeling and inflammation, which are linked with AA and AD. The inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome suppresses AA and AD. Hydrogen sulfide (HS) exerts anti-vascular remodeling and anti-inflammatory properties, but little is known about its action on AA and AD progression.

Methods: The effect of HS on AA and AD formation was investigated in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat fed a normal diet supplemented with 0.25% β-aminopropionitrile (BAPN). HE staining, Masson's trichrome staining, Picrosirius red staining and EVG staining were to evaluate vascular remodeling in the aortic wall. Western blotting and IHC were to detect the expression of TGF-β1 and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and NLRP3 inflammasome-associated proteins. The interaction between TGF-β1 signaling and NLRP3 inflammasome was explored in Human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (HA-VSMCs).

Results: HS alleviated AA and AD progression. Specifically, it improved irregular tissue arrangement and vascular fibrosis, increased the expression of elastin fibers, decreased collagen deposition and the expression of TGF-β1 and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2/9). In addition, HS inhibited the expression of proteins involved in NLRP3 inflammasome. Furthermore, HS down-regulated TGF-β1 signaling and then ameliorated vascular fibrosis by preventing NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Finally, HS inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation and decreased the level of IL-1β by disrupting TGF-β1 signaling.

Conclusions: These data support a crosstalk between TGF-β1 signaling and NLRP3 inflammasome. HS inhibits AA and AD progression via blocking the crosstalk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2021.05.013DOI Listing
June 2021

Correction to: M2 macrophage-derived exosomal microRNAs inhibit cell migration and invasion in gliomas through PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway.

J Transl Med 2021 Jun 16;19(1):263. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Department of Neurosurgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, No 169 Donghu Road, Wuhan, 430071, Hubei, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12967-021-02920-4DOI Listing
June 2021

Nitrite-mediated photodegradation of sulfonamides and formation of nitrated products.

Chemosphere 2021 May 24;282:130968. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 210095, China.

In this study, we systematically investigated the indirect photolysis of five SAs, i.e., sulfamethazine (SMZ), sulfamethoxazole (SMX), sulfathiazole (STZ), sulfapyridine (SPD), and sulfamethizole (SMT), under UV-A irradiation (365 nm) and mediated by nitrite (NO) at environmentally relevant concentrations (0.005-0.1 mM). The SAs that are resistant to direct photolysis can be effectively removed in UV/NO system. SAs with a six-membered heterocyclic ring (i.e., SMZ and SPD) were degraded more quickly than those with a five-membered heterocyclic ring (i.e., SMX, STZ and SMT). The pseudo-first-order rate constants (k) at nitrite concentration of 0.1 mM followed the order of k (0.0265 min) > k (0.0245 min) > k (0.0184 min) > k (0.0176 min) > k (0.0154 min). A kinetic model was developed and the contributions of direct UV photolysis, OH, and RNS to SAs degradation in UV/NO system were calculated. At NO concentration of 0.1 mM, the contributions of OH and RNS for SAs removal were 29.17-46.53% and 52.33-63.28%, respectively. Main transformation pathways including hydroxylation and nitration were proposed, based on liquid chromatography mass spectrometry analysis of the degradation products and density functional theory calculation. However, Smile-type rearrangement which generated a SO-extrusion product was only observed in the degradation of SAs with a six-membered ring, which explains their higher degradation rate than those with a five-membered ring. The presence of natural organic matter (NOM) decreased the formation of nitrated products. Overall, these results will be helpful to understand the fate and the potential ecological risks of SAs in sunlit aquatic environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.130968DOI Listing
May 2021

Open total dislocation of ankle joint without fractures: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jun;100(22):e26247

Department of Orthopedics, Affiliated Hospital of Jining Medical University, Jining City, Shandong Province, China.

Rationale: Open total dislocation of ankle joint is rare and often caused by high-energy injury. The present study describes a patient with open total lateral dislocation of ankle joint without fractures and obtained a satisfactory clinical result following early debridement and irrigation, one-stage repairment of ligaments, and plaster external fixation.

Patient Concerns: The patient, a 45-year-old male, complained of right foot pain with bleeding and limited motion. Physical examination showed a 15-cm open wound at the medial ankle region, with soft tissues impaired and ankle bones exposed. The 3 dimensional reconstruction computed tomography (CT) examination showed an open total dislocation of ankle joint without concomitant fractures.

Diagnoses: open total lateral dislocation of ankle joint without fractures.

Interventions: Early modern wound care including thorough debridement and irrigation on the wound was performed to remove contaminated soft tissues. Subsequently, the dislocated ankle joint was reduced by hand and the medial and lateral collateral ligaments were repaired using wire anchors.

Outcomes: The medial wound healed at 2 weeks after surgery, and several common complications such as infection and skin necrosis did not occur. The last follow-up showed a good range of metatarsal flexion and extension of the injured foot, and obvious signs of traumatic arthritis were not observed. According to Kaikkonen ankle function score, the patient was assessed with 90 points.

Lessons: For open total dislocation of ankle joint, early treatment should focus on debridement and irrigation, reduction and fixation of the dislocated ankle, protection of the weak soft tissues, and stable external fixation to promote wound healing and reduce the incidence of related complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000026247DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8183828PMC
June 2021

Effects of medicine food Fructus Gardeniae on liver and kidney functions after oral administration to rats for 12 weeks.

J Food Biochem 2021 Jun 4:e13752. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Jilin Ginseng Academy, Changchun University of Chinese Medicine, Changchun, China.

Fructus Gardeniae (FG) is medicine food widely used for the treatment and prevention of various diseases. However, in recent years, research has suggested that high doses of FG can cause hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. To assess this potential toxicity in more depth, this study investigated the effects of decocted FG and two of its bioactive constituents (geniposide and genipin) on liver and kidney function in rats. Rats were intragastrically administered FG (330 mg/kg body weight), geniposide (50 mg/kg body weight), or genipin (50 mg/kg body weight) for 12 weeks. Changes in body weight, liver and kidney indices, biochemical indices, and inflammatory factors were monitored. In addition, pathological sections were assessed and the expression of caspase-3, NF-κBp65, COX-2, and iNOS was detected by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. It was found that the levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine, and urea nitrogen increased following administration of FG, geniposide, and genipin. Furthermore, the activities of superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione decreased following treatment, while malondialdehyde levels increased. Pathological and immunohistochemical evaluations further confirmed that FG and its constituents may cause damage to the liver and kidneys. The mechanism study revealed that the protein level of inflammatory pathway increased and further promoted apoptosis, suggesting that it should not be taken orally for extended periods of time. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Chinese medicine and food safety have always been public health concerns. Fructus Gardeniae (FG) is a plant with a dual-purpose as it is used as both a medicine and food. Medicinally, it has the effects of heat-clearing and detoxification. However, its adverse effects and related mechanisms are not clear, and this has potential safety implications. In this study, rats were treated with FG for 12 weeks and found that the long-term administration of FG or high dosing can lead to damage to liver and kidney function. Therefore, close attention must be paid to the dosage of FG in order to achieve a therapeutic effect and avoid adverse reactions. Thus, this study lays a foundation for the safety evaluation and clinical application of FG.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfbc.13752DOI Listing
June 2021

DNAm-based signatures of accelerated aging and mortality in blood are associated with low renal function.

Clin Epigenetics 2021 Jun 2;13(1):121. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Human Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Background: The difference between an individual's chronological and DNA methylation predicted age (DNAmAge), termed DNAmAge acceleration (DNAmAA), can capture life-long environmental exposures and age-related physiological changes reflected in methylation status. Several studies have linked DNAmAA to morbidity and mortality, yet its relationship with kidney function has not been assessed. We evaluated the associations between seven DNAm aging and lifespan predictors (as well as GrimAge components) and five kidney traits (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR], urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio [uACR], serum urate, microalbuminuria and chronic kidney disease [CKD]) in up to 9688 European, African American and Hispanic/Latino individuals from seven population-based studies.

Results: We identified 23 significant associations in our large trans-ethnic meta-analysis (p < 1.43E-03 and consistent direction of effect across studies). Age acceleration measured by the Extrinsic and PhenoAge estimators, as well as Zhang's 10-CpG epigenetic mortality risk score (MRS), were associated with all parameters of poor kidney health (lower eGFR, prevalent CKD, higher uACR, microalbuminuria and higher serum urate). Six of these associations were independently observed in European and African American populations. MRS in particular was consistently associated with eGFR (β =  - 0.12, 95% CI = [- 0.16, - 0.08] change in log-transformed eGFR per unit increase in MRS, p = 4.39E-08), prevalent CKD (odds ratio (OR) = 1.78 [1.47, 2.16], p = 2.71E-09) and higher serum urate levels (β = 0.12 [0.07, 0.16], p = 2.08E-06). The "first-generation" clocks (Hannum, Horvath) and GrimAge showed different patterns of association with the kidney traits. Three of the DNAm-estimated components of GrimAge, namely adrenomedullin, plasminogen-activation inhibition 1 and pack years, were positively associated with higher uACR, serum urate and microalbuminuria.

Conclusion: DNAmAge acceleration and DNAm mortality predictors estimated in whole blood were associated with multiple kidney traits, including eGFR and CKD, in this multi-ethnic study. Epigenetic biomarkers which reflect the systemic effects of age-related mechanisms such as immunosenescence, inflammaging and oxidative stress may have important mechanistic or prognostic roles in kidney disease. Our study highlights new findings linking kidney disease to biological aging, and opportunities warranting future investigation into DNA methylation biomarkers for prognostic or risk stratification in kidney disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13148-021-01082-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8170969PMC
June 2021

The Effect of Oral Vitamin A Supplementation on Chalazion in Young Children with Vitamin A Deficiency: A Pilot Study.

J Ocul Pharmacol Ther 2021 May 27. Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Ophthalmology, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, National Clinical Research Center for Child Health and Disorders, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders, China International Science and Technology Cooperation Basis of Child Development and Critical Disorders, Chongqing Engineering Research Center of Stem Cell Therapy, Chongqing, China.

Many researchers have reported that vitamin A (VA) deficiency is related to chalazion. The purpose of this article is to clarify the effects of VA supplementation on chalazion in young children with VA deficiency. Forty-eight young children with VA deficiency suffering from chalazia were enrolled from our previous studies and were followed continuously for 1 year. Serum VA levels and recurrence of chalazion were observed. The mean serum VA levels increased after supplementation ( = 2.17E-15). The mean serum VA levels of subjects who experienced recurrence were lower than those without recurrence ( = 0.015). The recurrence rate and the mean recurrent frequency after supplementation were lower than before supplementation ( = 0.01,  = 6E-6); the mean time to the first recurrence of subjects without recurrence was longer after supplementation than before supplementation ( < 0.01). Oral VA supplementation could reduce the recurrence of chalazion in young children with preexisting VA deficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jop.2020.0115DOI Listing
May 2021

Colorectal cancer cell intrinsic fibroblast activation protein alpha binds to Enolase1 and activates NF-κB pathway to promote metastasis.

Cell Death Dis 2021 May 25;12(6):543. Epub 2021 May 25.

Colorectal Cancer Surgery Department, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang, China.

Fibroblast activation protein alpha (FAP) is a marker of cancer-associated fibroblast, which is also expressed in cancer epithelial cells. However, the role of FAP in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells remains to be elucidated. Here we investigate the expression pattern of FAP in CRC tissues and cells to prove that FAP is upregulated in CRC cells. Loss- of and gain-of-function assays identified FAP promotes migration and invasion instead of an effect on cell proliferation. Microarray assays are adopted to identify the different expressed genes after FAP knockdown and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) is used to exploit the involved signaling pathway. Our works reveal FAP exerts a function dependent on NF-κB signaling pathway and FAP expression is associated with NF-κB signaling pathway in clinical samples. Our work shows FAP is secreted by CRC cells and soluble FAP could promote metastasis. To investigate the mechanism of FAP influencing the NF-κB signaling pathway, LC/MS is performed to identify the proteins interacting with FAP. We find that FAP binds to ENO1 and activates NF-κB signaling pathway dependent on ENO1. Blocking ENO1 could partially reverse the pro-metastatic effect mediated by FAP. We also provide evidences that both FAP and ENO1 are associated with CRC stages, and high levels of FAP and ENO1 predict a poor survival in CRC patients. In summary, our work could provide a novel mechanism of FAP in CRC cells and a potential strategy for treatment of metastatic CRC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-021-03823-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8149633PMC
May 2021

Osthole Ameliorates Estrogen Deficiency-Induced Cognitive Impairment in Female Mice.

Front Pharmacol 2021 6;12:641909. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Neuroscience, University of Connecticut Health, Farmington, CT, United States.

Loss of endogenous estrogen and dysregulation of the estrogen receptor signaling pathways are associated with an increase in risk for cognitive deficit and depression in women after menopause. Estrogen therapy for menopause increases the risk of breast and ovarian cancers, and stroke. Therefore, it is critical to find an alternate treatment for menopausal women. Osthole (OST), a coumarin, has been reported to have neuroprotective effects. This study examined whether OST improves ovariectomy (OVX)-induced cognitive impairment, and alleviates anxiety- and depression-like behaviors induced by OVX in mice. Adult female C57BL/6J mice were ovariectomized and then treated with OST at a dose of 30 mg/kg for 14 days. At the end of the treatment period, behavioral tests were used to evaluate spatial learning and memory, recognition memory, anxiety- and depression-like behaviors. A cohort of the mice were sacrificed after 14 days of OST treatment and their hippocampi were collected for measurement of the proteins of interest using western blot. OVX-induced alteration in the levels of proteins was accompanied by cognitive deficit, anxiety- and depression-like behaviors. OST treatment improved cognitive deficit, alleviated anxiety- and depression-like behaviors induced by OVX, and reversed OVX-induced alterations in the levels of synaptic proteins and ERα, BDNF, TrKB, p-CREB, p-Akt and Rac1 in the hippocampus. Therefore, reversal of OVX-induced decrease in the levels of hippocampal proteins by OST might contribute to the effects of OST on improving cognitive deficit and alleviating anxiety- and depression-like behaviors induced by OVX.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.641909DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8134730PMC
May 2021

Comparison of smear cytology with liquid-based cytology in pancreatic lesions: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

World J Clin Cases 2021 May;9(14):3308-3319

Department of Gastroenterology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710004, Shaanxi Province, China.

Background: Endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is a safe and accurate technique to confirm the diagnosis of pancreatic cancers. Recently, numerous studies comparing the diagnostic efficacy of smear cytology (SC) and liquid-based cytology (LBC) for pancreatic lesions yielded mixed results.

Aim: To compare and identify the better cytology method for EUS-FNA in pancreatic lesions.

Methods: A comprehensive search of PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane was undertaken through July 18, 2020. The primary endpoint was diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity and specificity). Secondary outcomes included sample adequacy and post procedure complications. In addition, factors affecting diagnostic efficacy were discussed.

Results: Data on a total of 1121 comparisons from 10 studies met the inclusion criteria. Pooled rates of sensitivity for SC and LBC were 78% (67%-87%) 75% (67%-81%), respectively. In any case, both SC and LBC exhibited a high specificity close to 100%. Inadequate samples more often appeared in LBC compared with SC. However, the LBC samples exhibited a better visual field than SC. Very few post procedure complications were observed.

Conclusion: Our data suggested that for EUS-FNA in pancreatic lesions (particularly solid lesions), SC with Rapid On-Site Evaluation represents a superior diagnostic technique. If Rapid On-Site Evaluation is unavailable, LBC may replace smears. The diagnostic accuracy of LBC depends on different LBC techniques.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12998/wjcc.v9.i14.3308DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8107895PMC
May 2021

Effects of short-term personal exposure to air pollution on platelet mitochondrial DNA methylation levels and the potential mitigation by L-arginine supplementation.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Apr 29;417:125963. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Xi'an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi'an, China. Electronic address:

The potential effect of short-term exposure to air pollution on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) methylation remains to be explored. This study adopted an experimental exposure protocol nested with an intervention study on L-arginine (L-Arg) supplementation among 118 participants. Participants walked along a traffic road for 2 hours in the last day of a 14-day intervention to investigate the effects of short-term personal exposure to air pollution on platelet mtDNA methylation and the possible modifying effects of L-Arg supplementation. Results showed that short-term personal exposure to air pollutants was associated with hypomethylation in platelet mtDNA in 110 participants who completed the study protocol. Specifically, 2-h fine particulate matter (PM) exposure during the outdoor walk was significantly associated with hypomethylation in mt12sRNA; 24-h PM and black carbon (BC) exposures from the start of the walk till next morning were both significantly associated with hypomethylation in the D-loop region; 24-h BC exposure was also significantly associated with hypomethylation in ATP8_P1. Supplementation with L-Arg could mitigate the air pollution effects on platelet mtDNA methylation, especially the D-loop region. These findings suggest that platelet mtDNA methylation may be sensitive effect biomarker for short-term exposure to air pollution and may help deepen the understanding of the epigenetic mechanisms of adverse cardiovascular effects of air pollution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.125963DOI Listing
April 2021

Transperineal Parallel Biopsy of the Prostate: A New Approach of Tissue Sampling for Precision Medicine.

Int J Gen Med 2021 3;14:1631-1640. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Urology, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Through an observational study to present a new approach for obtaining high-quality samples for the targeted therapy of prostate cancer.

Patients And Methods: Parallel biopsy, which was defined as collecting the tissue from the same site by two biopsies, was performed on patients with elevated PSA. Each tissue was stained by ink to identify the pathological characteristics, including Gleason score and tumor tissue ratio. Kendall tau-b test and intraclass correlation coefficient test were used to compare the consistency between each paired sample. Then, based on the pathology of the biopsies, high-quality tissues would be selected for sequencing, and PyClone model was used to track the clonal evolution.

Results: In total, 252 pairs of biopsies were collected. The consistency of Gleason score between each paired biopsy is 0.777 (<0.01), and the consistency of tumor tissue ratio is 0.853 (<0.01). With the application of parallel biopsy, on average five nonsynonymous mutations could be identified in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer. Six out of eight had at least one biology-relevant alteration in patients, guiding further treatment. Meanwhile, clonal evolution was constructed to investigate the progress of tumor.

Conclusion: Parallel biopsy is a reliable approach to collect high-quality tissue and shows potential application in precision medicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S302105DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8104976PMC
May 2021

Gambogic acid protects LPS-induced apoptosis and inflammation in a cell model of neonatal pneumonia through the regulation of TrkA/Akt signaling pathway.

BMC Pharmacol Toxicol 2021 May 11;22(1):28. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Pharmacy, Cangzhou People's Hospital, Cangzhou, Hebei Province, 061000, China.

Objective: In this work, we investigated the effects of gambogic acid (GA) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced apoptosis and inflammation in a cell model of neonatal pneumonia.

Method: Human WI-38 cells were maintained in vitro and incubated with various concentrations of GA to examine WI-38 survival. GA-preincubated WI-38 cells were then treated with LPS to investigate the protective effects of GA on LPS-induced death, apoptosis and inflammation. Western blot assay was utilized to analyze the effect of GA on tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TrkA) signaling pathway in LPS-treated WI-38 cells. In addition, human AKT serine/threonine kinase 1 (Akt) gene was knocked down in WI-38 cells to further investigate the associated genetic mechanisms of GA in protecting LPS-induced inflammation and apoptosis.

Results: Pre-incubating WI-38 cells with low and medium concentrations GA protected LPS-induced cell death, apoptosis and inflammatory protein productions of IL-6 and MCP-1. Using western blot assay, it was demonstrated that GA promoted TrkA phosphorylation and Akt activation in LPS-treated WI-38 cells. Knocking down Akt gene in WI-38 cells showed that GA-associated protections against LPS-induced apoptosis and inflammation were significantly reduced.

Conclusions: GA protected LPS-induced apoptosis and inflammation, possibly through the activations of TrkA and Akt signaling pathway. This work may broaden our understanding on the molecular mechanisms of human neonatal pneumonia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40360-021-00496-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8112032PMC
May 2021

Utilizing Iron Ore Tailing as Cementitious Material for Eco-Friendly Design of Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC).

Materials (Basel) 2021 Apr 7;14(8). Epub 2021 Apr 7.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070, China.

In this research, iron ore tailing (IOT) is utilized as the cementitious material to develop an eco-friendly ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC). The UHPC mix is obtained according to the modified Andreasen and Andersen (MAA) packing model, and the applied dosage of IOT is 10%, 20%, and 30% (by weight), respectively. The calculated packing density of different mixtures is consistent with each other. Afterwards, the fresh and hardened performance of UHPC mixtures with IOT are evaluated. The results demonstrate that the workability of designed UHPC mixtures is increased with the incorporation of IOT. The heat flow at an early age of designed UHPC with IOT is attenuated, the compressive strength and auto shrinkage at an early age are consequently reduced. The addition of IOT promotes the development of long-term compressive strength and optimization of the pore structure, thus the durability of designed UHPC is still guaranteed. In addition, the ecological estimate results show that the utilization of IOT for the UHPC design can reduce the carbon emission significantly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14081829DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8067869PMC
April 2021

The Protective A673T Mutation of Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) in Alzheimer's Disease.

Mol Neurobiol 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China.

Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by extracellular amyloid beta peptides and neurofibrillary tangles consisted of intracellular hyperphosphorylated Tau in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. Most of the mutations in key genes that code for amyloid precursor protein can lead to significant accumulation of these peptides in the brain and cause Alzheimer's disease. Moreover, some point mutations in amyloid precursor protein can cause familial Alzheimer's disease, such as Swedish mutation (KM670/671NL) and A673V mutation. However, recent studies have found that the A673T mutation in amyloid precursor protein gene can protect against Alzheimer's disease, even if it is located next to the Swedish mutation (KM670/671NL) and at the same site as A673V mutation, which are pathogenic. It makes us curious about the protective A673T mutation. Here, we summarize the most recent insights of A673T mutation, focus on their roles in protective mechanisms against Alzheimer's disease, and discuss their involvement in future treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-021-02385-yDOI Listing
April 2021

The effects of cages implantation on surgical and adjacent segmental intervertebral foramina.

J Orthop Surg Res 2021 Apr 27;16(1):280. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Spine Surgery, China-Japan Union Hospital of Jilin University, 126 Xiantai St., Erdao District, Changchun City, People's Republic of China.

Objection: The overarching goal of our research was to compare the clinical and radiological outcomes with different sizes of cages implantation in anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF), and to evaluate the effects on surgical and adjacent segmental intervertebral foramina.

Methods: The clinical data of 61 patients were analyzed retrospectively. The radiological data included the surgical intervertebral disk space height before (H) and after surgery (H), the preoperative mean height of adjacent segments (H), the area and height of the surgical and adjacent segment foramen, the surgical segmental Cobb angle (α), and C2-7Cobb angle (α). The calculation of clinical data was conducted by Japanese Orthopaedic Association Scores (JOA), the recovery rate of JOA scores and visual analog scales (VAS). In accordance with the different ranges of distraction (H/H), patients were classified into three groups: group A (H/H<1.20, n=13), group B (1.20≤H/H≤1.80, n=37), and group C (H/H>1.80, n=11).

Results: After the operation and at the final follow-up, our data has demonstrated that the area and height of surgical segmental foramen all increased by comparing those of preoperation in three groups (all P<0.05). However, except for a decrease in group C (all P<0.05), the adjacent segmental foramina showed no significant changes (all P>0.05). The area and height of the surgical segment foramen and the distraction degree were positively correlated (0
Conclusion: The oversize cage might give a rise to a negative impact on the adjacent intervertebral foramen in ACDF. The mean value of the adjacent intervertebral disk space height (H) could be used as a reference standard. Moreover, the 1.20~1.80 fold of distraction (H/H) with optimal cages would achieve a better long-term prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13018-021-02421-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8077914PMC
April 2021

Molecularly Compensated Pre-Metallation Strategy for Metal-Ion Batteries and Capacitors.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083, China.

The use of a sacrificial cathode additive as a pre-metallation method could ensure adequate metal sources for advanced energy storage devices. However, this pre-metallation technique suffers from the precise regulation of decomposition potential of additive. Herein, a molecularly compensated pre-metallation (Li/Na/K) strategy has been achieved through Kolbe electrolysis, in which the electrochemical oxidation potential of a metal carboxylate is manipulated by the bonding energy of the oxygen-metal (O-M) moiety. The electron-donating effect of the substituent and the low charge density of the cation can dramatically weaken the O-M bond strength, further bringing out the reduced potential. Thus, sodium acetate exhibits a superior pre-sodiation feature for sodium-ion battery accompanied with a large irreversible specific capacity of 301.8 mAh g , remarkably delivering 70.6 % enhanced capacity retention in comparison to the additive-free system after 100 cycles. This methodology has been extended to construct a high-performance lithium-ion battery and a lithium/sodium/potassium-ion capacitor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202103569DOI Listing
April 2021

Demystifying the Lattice Oxygen Redox in Layered Oxide Cathode Materials of Lithium-Ion Batteries.

ACS Nano 2021 Apr 1;15(4):6061-6104. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083, China.

The practical application of lithium-ion batteries suffers from low energy density and the struggle to satisfy the ever-growing requirements of the energy-storage Internet. Therefore, developing next-generation electrode materials with high energy density is of the utmost significance. There are high expectations with respect to the development of lattice oxygen redox (LOR)-a promising strategy for developing cathode materials as it renders nearly a doubling of the specific capacity. However, challenges have been put forward toward the deep-seated origins of the LOR reaction and if its whole potential could be effectively realized in practical application. In the following Review, the intrinsic science that induces the LOR activity and crystal structure evolution are extensively discussed. Moreover, a variety of characterization techniques for investigating these behaviors are presented. Furthermore, we have highlighted the practical restrictions and outlined the probable approaches of Li-based layered oxide cathodes for improving such materials to meet the practical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.1c00304DOI Listing
April 2021

Muscle atrophy induced by overexpression of ALAS2 is related to muscle mitochondrial dysfunction.

Skelet Muscle 2021 Mar 30;11(1). Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Institute of Translational Medicine, National and Local Joint Engineering Laboratory of High-through Molecular Diagnostic Technology, the First People's Hospital of Chenzhou, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xiangnan University, Chenzhou, 423000, China.

Background: ALAS2 (delta-aminolevulinate synthase 2) is one of the two isoenzymes catalyzing the synthesis of delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), which is the first precursor of heme synthesis. ALAS2-overexpressing transgenic mice (Tg mice) showed syndrome of porphyria, a series of diseases related to the heme anabolism deficiency. Tg mice showed an obvious decrease in muscle size. Muscle atrophy results from a decrease in protein synthesis and an increase in protein degradation, which ultimately leads to a decrease in myofiber size due to loss of contractile proteins, organelles, nuclei, and cytoplasm.

Methods: The forelimb muscle grip strength of age-matched ALAS-2 transgenic mice (Tg mice) and wild-type mice (WT mice) were measured with an automated grip strength meter. The activities of serum LDH and CK-MB were measured by Modular DPP. The histology of skeletal muscle (quadriceps femoris and gastrocnemius) was observed by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, immunohistochemistry, and transmission electron microscope. Real-time PCR was used to detect mtDNA content and UCP3 mRNA expression. Evans blue dye staining was used to detect the membrane damage of the muscle fiber. Single skeletal muscle fiber diameter was measured by single-fiber analyses. Muscle adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels were detected by a luminometric assay with an ATP assay kit.

Results: Compared with WT mice, the strength of forelimb muscle and mass of gastrocnemius were decreased in Tg mice. The activities of serum CK-MB and LDH, the number of central nuclei fibers, and Evans blue positive fibers were more than those in WT mice, while the diameter of single fibers was smaller, which were associated with suppressed expression levels of MHC, myoD1, dystrophin, atrogin1, and MuRF1. Re-expression of eMyHC was only showed in the quadriceps of Tg mice, but not in WT mice. Muscle mitochondria in Tg mice showed dysfunction with descented ATP production and mtDNA content, downregulated UCP3 mRNA expression, and swelling of mitochondria.

Conclusion: ALAS2 overexpressing-transgenic mice (Tg mice) showed muscle dystrophy, which was associated with decreased atrogin-1 and MuRF-1, and closely related to mitochondrial dysfunction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13395-021-00263-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8008657PMC
March 2021

Left atrial thickness and acute thermal injury in patients undergoing ablation for atrial fibrillation: Laser versus radiofrequency energies.

J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2021 May 6;32(5):1259-1267. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA.

Introduction: Thermally induced cardiac lesions result in necrosis, edema, and inflammation. This tissue change may be seen with ultrasound. In this study, we sought to use intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) to evaluate pulmonary vein tissue morphology and assess the acute tissue changes that occur following radiofrequency (RF) or laser ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF).

Methods And Results: Patients with AF underwent pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) using irrigated RF or laser balloon. Pre- and post-ablation ICE imaging was performed from within each pulmonary vein (PV). At least 10 transverse imaging planes per PV were evaluated and each plane was divided into eight segments. The PV/atrial wall thickness and the luminal area were measured at each segment. Twenty-seven patients underwent PVI (15 with laser, 12 with RF). Ninety-eight pulmonary veins were analyzed (58 PVs laser; 40 PVs RF). At baseline, there were no regional differences in PV wall thickness in the right-sided veins. The anterior regions of left superior pulmonary vein (LSPV) and left inferior pulmonary vein (LIPV) were significantly thicker compared with the posterior and inferior regions (p < .01). Post-ablation, PV wall thickness in RF group increased 24.1% interquartile range (IQR) (17.2%-36.7%) compared with 1.2% IQR (0.4%-8.9%) in laser group, p = .004. In all PVs, RF ablation resulted in significantly greater percent increase in wall thickness compared with laser. Additionally, RF resulted in more variable changes in regional PV wall thickness; with more increases in wall thickness in anterior versus posterior LSPV (75.4 ± 58.5% vs. 46.8 ± 55.6%, p < .01), anterior versus posterior right superior pulmonary vein (RSPV) (62.9 ± 63.9% vs. 44.6 ± 51.7%, p < .05), and superior versus inferior RSPV (69.1 ± 45.4% vs. 35.9 ± 45%, p < .05). There were no significant regional differences in PV wall thickness changes for the laser group.

Conclusions: Rotational ICE can be used to measure acute tissue changes with ablation. Regional variability in baseline wall thickness was nonuniformly present in PVs. Acute tissue changes occurred immediately post-ablation. Compared with laser balloon, RF shows markedly more thickening post-ablation with significant regional variations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jce.15011DOI Listing
May 2021

Centromeric chromatin integrity is compromised by loss of Cdk5rap2, a transcriptional activator of CENP-A.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Jun 13;138:111463. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Department of Cell Biology & Anatomy, Arnie Charbonneau Cancer and Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institutes, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada. Electronic address:

Centromeres are chromosomal loci where kinetochores assemble to ensure faithful chromosome segregation during mitosis. CENP-A defines the loci by serving as an epigenetic marker that recruits other centromere components for a functional structure. However, the mechanism that controls CENP-A regulation of centromeric chromatin integrity remains to be explored. Separate studies have shown that loss of CENP-A or the Cdk5 regulatory subunit associated protein 2 (Cdk5rap2), a key player in mitotic progression, triggers the occurrence of lagging chromosomes. This prompted us to investigate a potential link between CENP-A and Cdk5rap2 in the maintenance of centromeric chromatin integrity. Here, we demonstrate that loss of Cdk5rap2 causes reduced CENP-A expression while exogenous Cdk5rap2 expression in cells depleted of endogenous Cdk5rap2 restores CENP-A expression. Indeed, we show that Cdk5rap2 is a nuclear protein that acts as a positive transcriptional regulator of CENP-A. Cdk5rap2 interacts with the CENP-A promoter and upregulates CENP-A transcription. Accordingly, loss of Cdk5rap2 causes reduced level of centromeric CENP-A. Exogenous CENP-A expression partially inhibits the occurrence of lagging chromosomes in Cdk5rap2 knockdown cells, indicating that lagging chromosomes induced by loss of Cdk5rap2 is due, in part, to loss of CENP-A. Aside from manifesting lagging chromosomes, cells depleted of Cdk5rap2, and thus CENP-A, show increased micronuclei and chromatin bridge formation. Altogether, our findings indicate that Cdk5rap2 serves to maintain centromeric chromatin integrity partly through CENP-A.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2021.111463DOI Listing
June 2021

Enhancement of Memory Properties of Pentacene Field-Effect Transistor by the Reconstruction of an Inner Vertical Electric Field with an n-Type Semiconductor Interlayer.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Mar 15;13(11):13452-13458. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Artificial Functional Materials, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, People's Republic of China.

Organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) as nonvolatile memory units are essential for lightweight and flexible electronics, yet the practical application remains a great challenge. The positively charged defects in pentacene film at the interface between pentacene and polymer caused by environmental conditions, as revealed by theoretical and experimental research works, result in unacceptable high programming/erasing (P/E) gate voltages in pentacene OFETs with polymer charge-trapping dielectric. Here, we report a pentacene OFET in which an n-type semiconductor layer was intercalated between a polymer and a blocking insulator. In this structure, the hole barrier caused by the defect layer can be adjusted by the thickness and charge-carrier density of the n-type semiconductor interlayer based on the electrostatic induction theory. This idea was implemented in an OFET structure Cu/pentacene/poly(2-vinyl naphthalene) (PVN)/ZnO/SiO/Si(p), which shows low P/E gate voltages, large field-effect mobility (0.73 cm V s), fast P/E speeds (responding to a pulse width of 5 × 10 s), and long retention time in air.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c19603DOI Listing
March 2021

Deacetylation of HSC70-4 Promotes Nucleopolyhedrovirus Proliferation via Proteasome-Mediated Nuclear Import.

Front Physiol 2021 19;12:609674. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Institute of Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences and Medicine, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou, China.

Silkworm () is a model organism with great agricultural economic value that plays a crucial role in biological studies. nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) is a major viral pathogen found in silkworms, which leads to huge silk loss annually. In a recent lysine acetylome of silkworm infected with BmNPV, we focused on the heat shock cognate protein 70-4 (HSC70-4) lysine acetylation change due to the consequent nuclear accumulation and viral structure assembly. In this study, the genome replication, proliferation, and production of budded viruses (BVs) were arrested by HSP/HSC70 inhibitor treatment. However, HSC70-4 overexpression enhanced BmNPV reproduction. Furthermore, site-direct mutagenesis for acetylated mimic (K/Q) or deacetylated mimic (K/R) mutants of HSC70-4 demonstrated that lysine 77 (K77) deacetylation promotes HSC70-4 stability, viral DNA duplication, and HSC70-4 nuclear entry upon BmNPV challenge, and the nuclear propulsion of HSC70-4 after viral stimulus might be dependent on the interaction with the carboxyl terminus of HSC70-interacting protein (CHIP, an E3 ubiquitin ligase), followed by ubiquitin-proteasome system assistance. In this study, single lysine 77 deacetylation of HSC70-4 was deemed a part of the locomotive pathway for facilitating BmNPV proliferation and provided novel insights into the antiviral strategic development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2021.609674DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7935516PMC
February 2021

M2 macrophage-derived exosomal microRNAs inhibit cell migration and invasion in gliomas through PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway.

J Transl Med 2021 03 6;19(1):99. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Department of Neurosurgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, No 169 Donghu Road, Wuhan, 430071, Hubei, China.

Background: Glioma, the most common primary brain tumor, account Preparing figures for 30 to 40% of all intracranial tumors. Herein, we aimed to study the effects of M2 macrophage-derived exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) on glioma cells.

Methods: First, we identified seven differentially expressed miRNAs in infiltrating macrophages and detected the expression of these seven miRNAs in M2 macrophages. We then selected hsa-miR-15a-5p (miR-15a) and hsa-miR-92a-3p (miR-92a) for follow-up studies, and confirmed that miR-15a and miR-92a were under-expressed in M2 macrophage exosomes. Subsequently, we demonstrated that M2 macrophage-derived exosomes promoted migration and invasion of glioma cells, while exosomal miR-15a and miR-92a had the opposite effects on glioma cells. Next, we performed the target gene prediction in four databases and conducted target gene validation by qRT-PCR, western blot and dual luciferase reporter gene assays.

Results: The results revealed that miR-15a and miR-92a were bound to CCND1 and RAP1B, respectively. Western blot assays demonstrated that interference with the expression of CCND1 or RAP1B reduced the phosphorylation level of AKT and mTOR, indicating that both CCND1 and RAP1B can activate the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway.

Conclusion: Collectively, these findings indicate that M2 macrophage-derived exosomal miR-15a and miR-92a inhibit cell migration and invasion of glioma cells through PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12967-021-02766-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7937290PMC
March 2021

Differential structures and enterotype-like clusters of Bifidobacterium responses to probiotic fermented milk consumption across subjects using a Bifidobacterium-target procedure.

Food Res Int 2021 02 26;140:109839. Epub 2020 Oct 26.

Key Laboratory of Dairy Biotechnology and Engineering, Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Dairy Products Processing, Ministry of Agriculture, Inner Mongolia Key Laboratory of Dairy Biotechnology and Engineering, Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, Huhhot 010018, China. Electronic address:

The health-promoting attributes of bifidobacteria have piqued interest of researchers worldwide. However, scant published studies are available pertinent to bifidobacteria in microbiota/metagenomics datasets due to its intrinsic low abundance and limitations of detection methods. In this work, we designed a procedure to optimize the detection of the bifidobacterial population in complex biological samples with single-molecule real-time sequencing (SMRT) technology, including one primer pair designated as Bif-6 and a Bifidobacterium-specific database. The optimized procedure detected 14 bifidobacterial species/subspecies in ten human stool samples (2024 sequences per sample) and eight breast milk samples (3473 sequences per sample), respectively. Furthermore, by using the optimized procedure of SMRT, we investigated the effect of a 4-week-intervention of probiotic fermented milk (PFM; 200 g/day) on the gut bifidobacteria population of adults. The results showed that consuming PFM changed the structure and enterotype-like clusters of Bifidobacterium. After the consumption of PFM, the level of gut Bifidobacterium animalis increased significantly, replacing several originally dominating taxa in some subjects, including B. catenulatum, B. breve, and B. bifidum. On the other hand, B. adolescentis was, unaffectedly, the representative species in subjects having an original enterotype-like cluster of B. adolescentis. In conclusion, our work designed a procedure for detecting the bifidobacterial population in complex samples. By applying the currently designed procedure, we found that the PFM intervention changed the bifidobacterial enterotype-like cluster of some subjects, and such change was dependent on the basal bifidobacterial population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2020.109839DOI Listing
February 2021

Mitochondrial respiration in C57BL/6 substrains varies in response to myocardial infarction.

J Bioenerg Biomembr 2021 Apr 25;53(2):119-127. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1095 Jiefang Ave, Wuhan, 430030, China.

The C57BL/6 mouse strain have been commonly used for the genetic background animal models and experimental research. There are several major sources of C57BL/6 substrains for the biomedical research community which display genetic and phenotypic differences. Previous studies have suggested that the varies in baseline of cardiovascular phenotypes as well as in response to pressure overload by transverse aortic constriction (TAC). To investigate whether there exist substrain specific differences in response to heart failure post myocardial infarction (MI), consequently the impaired mitochondrial respiration, we performed MI surgery on two commonly used C57BL/6 substrains: C57BL/6J (BL/6J) and C57BL/6NCrl (BL/6N) mice. Subsequently, measurements about cardiac function, histology and mitochondrial respiration capacities were conducted to evaluate the differences. The data showed that C57BL/6J(BL/6J) mice is more resistant to the attack of MI, evidenced by lower mortality, less infarct size and better preserved cardiac function after MI, especially exhibited better mitochondrial respiration capacities, compared with the C57BL/6NCrl(BL/6N) mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10863-021-09884-6DOI Listing
April 2021

Sustainable functional urethral reconstruction: Maximizing early continence recovery in robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy.

Asian J Urol 2021 Jan 27;8(1):126-133. Epub 2020 Jan 27.

Department of Urology, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China.

Objective: To evaluate the safety profile and short-term functional outcome of sustainable functional urethral reconstruction (SFUR) in robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP).

Methods: One hundred and sixty-two consecutive prostate cancer patients who underwent RARP were retrospectively analyzed, in which 53 had undergone SFUR while the other 109 had undergone conventional RARP procedures. Immediate, 2-week, 1-month and 3-month continence recovery and other perioperative data were compared to evaluate short-term surgical and functional outcome.

Results: The median age was 68 and 67 years in the experimental group and control group, respectively (=0.206), with a median prostate-specific antigen (PSA) of 13.6 ng/mL (interquartile range [IQR], 8.46-27.32 ng/mL) in the experimental group and 13.84 ng/mL (IQR, 9.12-26.80 ng/mL) in control group (=0.846). Immediate, 2-week, 1-month and 3-month continence recovery rates between the groups were 34.0% 3.7%, 50.9% 14.7%, 62.3% 27.5%, and 79.2% 63.3% (all <0.05). The morphological changes made by the new reconstruction technique were maintained on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) 3 months postoperatively. Nerve-sparing procedures and adoption of the new reconstruction technique were significantly relevant to continence recovery on logistics regression model (<0.001).

Conclusions: SFUR is a safe and easy-to-handle modification that may contribute to early continence return for RARP. Long-term follow-up and prospective studies are required to further evaluate its value in postoperative quality-of-life improvement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajur.2020.01.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7859366PMC
January 2021

Linkage analysis, GWAS, transcriptome analysis to identify candidate genes for rice seedlings in response to high temperature stress.

BMC Plant Biol 2021 Feb 9;21(1):85. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Shenzhen Branch, Guangdong Laboratory for Lingnan Modern Agriculture, Genome Analysis Laboratory of the Ministry of Agriculture, Agricultural Genomics Institute at Shenzhen, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Shenzhen, China.

Background: Rice plants suffer from the rising temperature which is becoming more and more prominent. Mining heat-resistant genes and applying them to rice breeding is a feasible and effective way to solve the problem.

Result: Three main biomass traits, including shoot length, dry weight, and fresh weight, changed after abnormally high-temperature treatment in the rice seedling stage of a recombinant inbred lines and the natural indica germplasm population. Based on a comparison of the results of linkage analysis and genome-wide association analysis, two loci with lengths of 57 kb and 69 kb in qDW7 and qFW6, respectively, were associated with the rice response to abnormally high temperatures at the seedling stage. Meanwhile, based on integrated transcriptome analysis, some genes are considered as important candidate genes. Combining with known genes and analysis of homologous genes, it was found that there are eight genes in candidate intervals that need to be focused on in subsequent research.

Conclusions: The results indicated several relevant loci, which would help researchers to further discover beneficial heat-resistant genes that can be applied to rice heat-resistant breeding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12870-021-02857-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7874481PMC
February 2021

The effects of m A modification in central nervous system function and disease.

Yi Chuan 2020 Dec;42(12):1156-1167

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150081, China.

N -methyladenosine (m A) is an important RNA modification, which is highly active in brain tissues, participates in global intracellular mRNA metabolism, and regulates gene expression and a variety of biological processes. Stable m A modification contributes to the normal embryonic brain development and memory formation and plays an important role in maintaining the functions of the central nervous system. However, changes in the level of m A modification and the expression of its related proteins cause abnormal nervous system functions, including brain tissue development retardation, axon regeneration disorders, memory changes, and stem cell renewal and differentiation disorders. Recent studies have also found that m A modification and its related proteins play key roles in the development of various nervous system diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, fragile X-chromosome syndrome, depression and glioblastoma. In this review, we summarize the research progresses of m A modification regulation mechanism in the central nervous system in recent years, and discusses the effects of gene expression regulation mediated by m A modification on the biological functions of the central nervous system and related diseases, thereby providing some insights on the new research targets and treatment directions for the central nervous system diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.16288/j.yczz.20-233DOI Listing
December 2020

Effects of toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella on sexual maturation and reproductive output in the pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas.

Aquat Toxicol 2021 Jan 18;232:105745. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Key Laboratory of Mariculture, Ministry of Education, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, 266003, China; Laboratory for Marine Fisheries Science and Food Production Processes, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao, 266237, China. Electronic address:

Marine bivalves which feed mainly on microalgae could accumulate toxins during harmful algal blooms, posing a health hazard to humans and other animals through food chains. The Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) is the globally dominant farmed bivalves in the world. In order to benefit sustainable development of the oyster aquaculture, we assessed the effects of an artificial bloom of the toxin-producing dinoflagellate, Alexandrium catenella, upon sexual maturation in C. gigas. Oysters were exposed to A. catenella from April to June in 2012, and compared to a control batch of oysters fed with Isochrysis galbana. During the exposure, clearance, histological observations, biochemical composition as well as embryonic development were measured. The results indicated that A. catenella could be a food source, and inhibited the clearance rate of C. gigas for I. galbana. Significant pathological changes in the form of degeneration in adductor muscles, mantle, ovary and tubules and several inflammatory responses were observed in C. gigas when exposed to harmful microalga. The exposure of A. catenella had negative effects on assimilation, biochemical composition and so as the reproduction. The results of this study demonstrated that toxic microalga can affect "quality'' of eggs and the consequences, in terms of fertility, embryo and larval output.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2021.105745DOI Listing
January 2021