Publications by authors named "Xiuying Zhang"

144 Publications

Schottky barrier heights in two-dimensional field-effect transistors: from theory to experiment.

Rep Prog Phys 2021 Apr 27;84(5). Epub 2021 Apr 27.

State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics and Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871, People's Republic of China.

Over the past decade, two-dimensional semiconductors (2DSCs) have aroused wide interest due to their extraordinary electronic, magnetic, optical, mechanical, and thermal properties, which hold potential in electronic, optoelectronic, thermoelectric applications, and so forth. The field-effect transistor (FET), a semiconductor gated with at least three terminals, is pervasively exploited as the device geometry for these applications. For lack of effective and stable substitutional doping techniques, direct metal contact is often used in 2DSC FETs to inject carriers. A Schottky barrier (SB) generally exists in the metal-2DSC junction, which significantly affects and even dominates the performance of most 2DSC FETs. Therefore, low SB or Ohmic contact is highly preferred for approaching the intrinsic characteristics of the 2DSC channel. In this review, we systematically introduce the recent progress made in theoretical prediction of the SB height (SBH) in the 2DSC FETs and the efforts made both in theory and experiments to achieve low SB contacts. From the comparison between the theoretical and experimentally observed SBHs, the emerging first-principles quantum transport simulation turns out to be the most powerful theoretical tool to calculate the SBH of a 2DSC FET. Finally, we conclude this review from the viewpoints of state-of-the-art electrode designs for 2DSC FETs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6633/abf1d4DOI Listing
April 2021

Soil Nitrous Oxide Emissions by Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition over Global Agricultural Systems.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 04 18;55(8):4420-4429. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000, People's Republic of China.

Agricultural soil is the main source of nitrous oxide (NO) emissions which contribute to global warming and stratospheric ozone depletion. In recent decades, atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition has increased dramatically as an important agricultural soil N input, while its effect on soil NO emissions in the current and future climate change remains unknown. Here, we conducted a thorough analysis of the effect of N deposition and climate change on soil NO emissions as well as their trends. Soil NO emissions induced by N deposition accounted for 25% of global cropland soil NO emissions. Global soil NO emissions over croplands increased by 2% yr during 1996-2013, of which N deposition could explain 15% of the increase. The emission factor of N deposition was ∼7 times that of N fertilizer plus manure (∼1%) through a more direct way, since N deposition including nitrate (NO) and ammonium (NH) could be directly used for nitrification and denitrification. By 2100, N deposition will increase by 80% and cropland soil NO emissions will increase by 241% under the RCP8.5 scenario in comparison with the 2010 baseline. These results suggest that, under the background of increasing global N deposition, it is essential to consider its effects on soil NO emissions in climatic change studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c08004DOI Listing
April 2021

Assessment of adherence to oral nutritional supplementation and exploration of barriers and facilitators in patients after gastric cancer surgery: a mixed methods study protocol.

BMJ Open 2021 Mar 11;11(3):e044308. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Fundamental Nursing, School of Nursing, Jilin University, Changchun, China

Introduction: Postoperative malnutrition is a major issue in patients with gastric cancer. The European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism recommends oral nutritional supplements (ONS) as a first-line nutritional therapy to prevent malnutrition in patients with cancer. However, adherence to ONS is unsatisfactory. The overall aim of this study was to evaluate the adherence of patients with gastric cancer to ONS and to explore the promoting and hindering factors.

Methods And Analysis: In this study, we will use mixed methods with an explanatory sequential approach for data collection and analysis. In the first phase, a 12-week longitudinal study will be performed to identify changes in trends of oral nutritional supplementation adherence in 135 patients with gastric cancer, the impact of adherence on nutritional indicators and clinical outcomes and ONS adherence-related factors. The primary endpoints include patient adherence to ONS, weight, body mass index and grip strength followed by 30-day readmission rate, complications and adverse reactions. In the second stage, qualitative research will be implemented to provide in-depth insight into the quantitative results. Finally, quantitative and qualitative results will be combined for analysis and discussion to put forward suggestions for improving patients' ONS adherence.

Ethics And Dissemination: This research protocol has been approved by the Ethics Committee of the School of Nursing, Jilin University, China (No. 2019101601). Results will be disseminated in peer-reviewed journals and conferences, and sent to participating practices.

Trial Registration Number: ChiTR2000032425.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-044308DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7957138PMC
March 2021

Identification of coding region SNPs from specific and sensitive mRNA biomarkers for the deconvolution of the semen donor in a body fluid mixture.

Forensic Sci Int Genet 2021 May 16;52:102483. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

School of Forensic Medicine, Shanxi Medical University, Jinzhong 030619, Shanxi, China. Electronic address:

mRNA markers provide a very promising method for the identification of human body fluids or tissues in the context of forensic investigations. Previous studies have shown that different body fluids can be distinguished from each other according to their specific mRNA biomarkers. In this study, we evaluated eight semen-specific mRNA markers (KLK3, NKX3-1, CKB, KLK2, PRAC1, SEMG1, TGM4, and SORD) that encompass 12 coding single nucleotide polymorphisms (cSNPs) to identify the semen contributor in a mixed stain. Five highly specific and sensitive mRNA markers for blood, menstrual blood, saliva, vaginal secretions, and skin were also incorporated into the PCR system as body fluid-positive controls. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), multiplex PCR and SNaPshot mini-sequencing assays were established for the identification of semen-specific mRNA. The amplicon size ranged from 133 to 337 bp. The semen-specific system was examined against blood, menstrual blood, saliva, vaginal secretions, and skin swabs. The eight mRNA biomarkers were semen-specific and could be successfully typed in laboratory-generated mixtures composed of different body fluids supplemented with 1 ng of semen cDNA. This system possessed a high sensitivity that ranged from 1:10-1:100 for detecting trace amounts of semen in semen-containing body fluid mixtures. Additionally, our results demonstrated that the cSNPs polymorphisms included in the mRNA markers were concordant with genomic DNA (gDNA). Despite the presence of other body fluids, the system exhibited high sensitivity and specificity to the semen in the mixture. In future studies, we will add other cSNPs from the semen-specific genes using massively parallel sequencing to further improve our system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsigen.2021.102483DOI Listing
May 2021

Fixed Cutaneous Sporotrichosis Due to .

Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol 2021 25;14:91-96. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Department of Dermatology, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100020, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: This report describes a case of a skin sporotrichosis infection and the steps taken to identify an effective antifungal treatment.

Patients And Methods: A 50-year-old woman from Jilin province, China, presented complaining of a small mass that had been on her right upper eyelid for two years. A skin biopsy was taken and submitted for bacterial and mycological assessment. Bacterial culture from the lesion was negative, but a fungal culture was positive. In vitro susceptibility test was performed to assess its susceptibility to antifungal drugs.

Results: The skin biopsy showed infectious granuloma. Fungal culture was identified as based on both the morphological features and confirmation by the molecular method; it was resistant to many kinds of antifungal drugs, including amphotericin B, voriconazole, fluconazole, and caspofungin. However, it was relatively sensitive to itraconazole. The patient was prescribed 0.2 g itraconazole to be taken twice per day. One month later, she had almost completely recovered from her symptoms. The treatment lasted for 3 months and her liver function and renal function were normal at the endpoint.

Conclusion: Itraconazole was an effective treatment in this case of a multidrug-resistant sporotrichosis caused by .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CCID.S288259DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7846868PMC
January 2021

Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics integration of danofloxacin against Eschrichia coli in piglet ileum ultrafiltration probe model.

Sci Rep 2021 Jan 12;11(1):681. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Heilongjiang Key Laboratory for Animal Disease Control and Pharmaceutical Development, Faculty of Basic Veterinary Science, College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, 600 Changjiang Road, Xiangfang District, Harbin, 150030, Heilongjiang, People's Republic of China.

Improper use of antibiotics results in poor treatment and severe bacterial resistance. In this study, ultrafiltration probes were successfully placed in the ileum of piglets with the aid of anesthetic. After the fluoroquinolone antimicrobial drug danofloxacin (DAN) was intramuscularly administered, blood and ileum ultrafiltrate were collected at different time points and then determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Pharmacokinetics (PK) parameters for plasma and ileum ultrafiltrate were calculated by WinNonlin software. The DAN concentration in ileum ultrafiltrate was much higher than that in plasma during the period 1.2-48 h. The DAN concentration in plasma reached its maximum at 1.10 ± 0.03 h, but reached at 6.00 ± 0.00 h in the ileum ultrafiltrate. The mean C of the ileum is 13.59 times that of plasma. The elimination half-life (T) in the ileum ultrafiltrate (6.84 ± 1.49 h) was shorter than those in plasma (7.58 ± 3.20 h). The MIC, MBC and MPC of DAN in MH broth against Escherichia coli (O) were 0.5 µg/mL, 0.5 µg/mL and 4 µg/mL, respectively. Both in vitro and ex vivo kill curves indicated that the killing mechanism of DAN against E. coli is concentration-dependent. The AUC/MPC ratio is 21.33 ± 2.14. Mean PK/PD index (AUC/MIC) for ileum ultrafiltrate that achieved bacteriostatic, bactericidal, and eradication were 99.85, 155.57, and 218.02 h, respectively. Three different dosages (1.49 mg/kg, 2.42 mg/kg, and 3.24 mg/kg) were calculated respectively based on AUC/MIC ratio above, which might provide a novel approach to the rational design of dosage schedules.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-80272-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7804201PMC
January 2021

Curcumin protects against Aflatoxin B1-induced liver injury in broilers via the modulation of long non-coding RNA expression.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Jan 5;208:111725. Epub 2020 Dec 5.

Heilongjiang Key Laboratory for Animal Disease Control and Pharmaceutical Development. Faculty of Basic Veterinary Science, College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, 600 Changjiang Road, Harbin, PR China. Electronic address:

Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a potent hepatotoxic and carcinogenic agent. Curcumin possesses potential anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and hepatoprotective effects. However, the role of LncRNAs in the protective mechanisms of curcumin against AFB1-induced liver damage is still elusive. Experimental broilers were randomly divided into 1) control group, 2) AFB1 group (1 mg/kg feed), 3) cur + AFB1 group (1 mg/kg AFB1 plus 300 mg/kg curcumin diet) and 4) curcumin group (300 mg/kg curcumin diet). Liver transcriptome analyses and qPCR were performed to identify shifts in genes expression. In addition, histopathological assessment and oxidant status were determined. Dietary AFB1 caused hepatic morphological injury, significantly increased the production of ROS, decreased liver antioxidant enzymes activities and induced inflammation and apoptosis. However, dietary curcumin partially attenuated the abnormal morphological changes, oxidative stress, and apoptosis in liver tissues. Transcriptional profiling results showed that 34 LncRNAs and 717 mRNAs were differentially expressed with AFB1 and curcumin co-treatment in livers of broilers. Analysis of the LncRNA-mRNA network, GO and KEGG enrichment data suggested that oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis pathway were crucial in curcumin's alleviating AFB1-induced liver damage. In conclusion, curcumin prevented AFB1-induced oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis through LncRNAs. These results provide new insights for unveiling the protective mechanisms of curcumin against AFB1-induced liver damage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2020.111725DOI Listing
January 2021

Low-Frequency Genetic Variant in the Hepatic Glucokinase Gene Is Associated With Type 2 Diabetes and Insulin Resistance in Chinese Population.

Diabetes 2021 Mar 9;70(3):809-816. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Departments of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Peking University People's Hospital, Peking University Diabetes Center, Beijing, China

Glucokinase (GCK) regulates insulin secretion and hepatic glucose metabolism, and its inactivating variants could cause diabetes. We aimed to evaluate the association of a low-frequency variant of GCK (rs13306393) with type 2 diabetes (T2D), prediabetes, or both (impaired glucose regulation [IGR]) in a Chinese population. An association study was first conducted in a random cluster sampling population (sample 1: 537 T2D, 768 prediabetes, and 1,912 control), and then another independent population (sample 2: 3,896 T2D, 2,301 prediabetes, and 868 control) was used to confirm the findings in sample 1. The A allele of rs13306393 was associated with T2D (odds ratio 3.08 [95% CI 1.77-5.36], = 0.00007) in sample 1; rs13306393 was also associated with prediabetes (1.67 [1.05-2.65], = 0.03) in sample 2. In a pooled analysis of the two samples, the A allele increased the risk of T2D (1.57 [1.15-2.15], = 0.005), prediabetes (1.83 [1.33-2.54], = 0.0003) or IGR (1.68 [1.26-2.25], = 0.0004), insulin resistance estimated by HOMA (β = 0.043, = 0.001), HbA (β = 0.029, = 0.029), and urinary albumin excretion (β = 0.033, = 0.025), irrespective of age, sex, and BMI. Thus, the Chinese-specific low-frequency variant increased the risk of T2D through reducing insulin sensitivity rather than islet β-cell function, which should be considered in the clinical use of GCK activators in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db20-0564DOI Listing
March 2021

The impact of ferritin on the disassociation of HbA1c and mean plasma glucose.

J Diabetes 2021 Jun 14;13(6):512-520. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Peking University People's Hospital, Beijing, China.

Objective: To explore the impact of ferritin level on the disassociation of glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and mean plasma glucose (MPG).

Reseach Design And Methods: We used a 2012-2013 cross-sectional survey conducted in Pinggu district, Beijing including 3095 Chinese participants aged 25-75 years. We categorized their glycemic status by interviewing for diagnosed diabetes and by measuring HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and 2-hours post-load plasma glucose (2-hours PPG). We fitted a multivariable regression model to explore the impact of ferritin on the association of HbA1c or glycated albumin (GA) and mean plasma glucose.

Results: A total of 5.65% of participants were diagnosed as diabetes using HbA1c criteria, and 9.79% using oral glucose tolerance test criteria. Compared with males, females had significantly lower hemoglobin levels (159.82 ± 11.56 vs 135.93 ± 12.62) and lower ferritin levels (113.00 [68.55, 185.50] vs 33.40 [12.40, 70.13]). Linear regression analysis performed in different groups classified by different diagnose criterion indicated that the correlation between MPG and HbA1c differs in different tertiles of ferritin (lowest vs middle vs highest: R = 0.507 vs 0.645 vs 0.687 in female; R = 0.415 vs 0.715 vs 0.615 in male), and the association between MPG and HbA1c diminished in the lowest tertile of ferritin.

Conclusions: Ferritin level might affect the association between glucose and HbA1c, which should be taken into account when using HbA1c as a diagnosis criterion for diabetes and prediabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1753-0407.13138DOI Listing
June 2021

Curcumin ameliorates duodenal toxicity of AFB1 in chicken through inducing P-glycoprotein and downregulating cytochrome P450 enzymes.

Poult Sci 2020 Dec 7;99(12):7035-7045. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

Heilongjiang Key Laboratory for Animal Disease Control and Pharmaceutical Development, Faculty of Basic Veterinary Science, College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, 600 Changjiang Road, Xiangfang District, Harbin, P R China. Electronic address:

It has been reported that oral intake of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-contaminated feed could cause acute, sub-chronic, or chronic toxicity in livestock and poultry. However, the harmful effect of AFB1 on the small intestine is still controversial. Therefore, blocking the entry of AFB1 into the body through the digestive tract is one of the important methods to prevent its toxicity. In the present study, 1-day-old Arbor Acres broilers were randomly divided into 6 groups including control group, curcumin control group (450 mg curcumin/kg feed), curcumin low-, medium-, and high-dose group (150, 300, and 450 mg curcumin/kg feed + 5 mg AFB1/kg feed), and AFB1 group (5 mg AFB1/kg feed). After 28 d, the samples of chickens' duodenums were collected for further analyses. AFB1 caused abnormal functional and morphological changes in the duodenum, including histological lesions, increased the length of the duodenum and depth of crypt, decreased the unit weight of the duodenum, height of villus, and the value of villus height/crypt depth. Meanwhile, AFB1 administration enhanced malonaldehyde activity, 8-HOdG level, and the mRNA expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes, and reduced superoxide dismutase, catalase, adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity and the mRNA expression of Abcb1. Importantly, curcumin supplementation partially ameliorated AFB1-induced abnormal functional and morphological signs of the duodenum, alleviated AFB1-induced oxidative stress, and decreased the mRNA expression of CYP450 enzymes. Furthermore, curcumin ameliorated AFB1-induced decrease in the Abcb1 mRNA expression, P-glycoprotein (P-gp) level, and ATPase activities. It has been suggested from these results that curcumin supplementation in the feed could ameliorate AFB1-induced duodenal toxicity and damage through downregulating CYP450 enzymes, promoting ATPase activities, and inducing P-gp in chickens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2020.09.055DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7705060PMC
December 2020

The effects of elevated CO, elevated O, elevated temperature, and drought on plant leaf gas exchanges: a global meta-analysis of experimental studies.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Mar 24;28(12):15274-15289. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

International Institutes for Earth System Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210023, China.

Global change significantly influences plant leaf gas exchange, which affects the carbon-water cycle of terrestrial ecosystems. However, the magnitudes of the effects of multiple global change factors on leaf gas exchanges are currently lacking. Therefore, a global meta-analysis of 337 published articles was conducted to determine the effects of elevated CO (eCO), elevated O (eO), elevated temperature (eT), and drought on plant leaf gas exchanges. The results indicated that (1) the overall responses of photosynthesis rate (P) and instantaneous water use efficiency (WUE) to eCO increased by 28.6% and 58.6%. But transpiration rate (T) and stomatal conductance (g) responded negatively to eCO (- 17.5% and - 17.2%, respectively). Furthermore, all P, g, and WUE responded negatively to eO (- 32.7%, - 24.6%, and - 27.1%), eT (- 23.2%, - 10.8%, and - 28.9%), and drought (- 53.6%, - 59.3%, and - 4.6%, respectively), regardless of functional groups and various complex experimental conditions. (2) Elevated CO increased WUE combined with eO, eT, and drought (26.6%, 36.0%, and 58.6%, respectively, for eCO + eO, eCO + eT, and eCO + drought) and mitigated their negative impacts on P to some extent. (3) Plant form and foliage type play an important role in the responses of leaf gas exchanges. Trees responded mostly to eCO, but responded least to eT in P, T, g, and WUE compared with shrubs and herbs. Evergreen broad-leaved species were more responsive to eCO and drought. (4) The stress level of each factor can also significantly influence the responses of leaf gas exchanges to environment change. Hopefully, the quantitative results are helpful for the further assessments of the terrestrial carbon-water cycle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-11728-6DOI Listing
March 2021

Enhanced nitrous oxide emissions caused by atmospheric nitrogen deposition in agroecosystems over China.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Mar 24;28(12):15350-15360. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, 730000, China.

Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition in China has been the largest worldwide. Yet the impacts of atmospheric N deposition on soil NO emissions were often ignored by previous studies. Thus, we investigated how N deposition affected NO emissions over China using the process-based model (DNDC, DeNitrification-DeComposition). Total soil N inputs were 194 kg N ha in agricultural systems over China in 2010, including chemical N fertilizer (78%), atmospheric N deposition (12%), and crop residues N (10%). Annual NO emissions induced by N deposition were estimated at 97 Gg N, occupying 43% of total soil NO emissions (228 Gg N) in agricultural systems over China. In particular, the largest NO emissions caused by atmospheric N deposition were found in South China, followed by North China Plain and Southwest China. The efficiency of N deposition generating NO emissions (3.0%) over China was 4 times than that of N fertilizer (0.7%). NO emissions induced by N deposition increased from 81 Gg in 2000 to 93 Gg in 2014 (by 1% yr), which was consistent with the long-term trend of N deposition. This suggests N deposition accelerated soil NO emissions largely contributing to global warming. Our results also indicated that 62% and 10% of soil NO emissions were reduced by applying a nitrification inhibitor and N fertilizer with 20% decrease. We highlight the significance of considering N deposition in determining total soil NO emissions over China. The results provide an important scientific basis for the prediction of greenhouse effect caused by N deposition over China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-11591-5DOI Listing
March 2021

Prevalence of Thyroid Dysfunction in a Chinese Population with Different Glucose Intolerance Status: A Community-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes 2020 16;13:4361-4368. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Peking University People's Hospital, Peking University Diabetes Center, Beijing 100044, People's Republic of China.

Aim: Impaired glucose metabolism and thyroid dysfunction (TD) are the two most common chronic metabolic disorders. This study aimed to investigate the epidemiological characteristics of TD in different status of glucose tolerance in a community-based Chinese population and to understand the association between TD and glucose metabolism.

Methods: A community-based population study of metabolic disease was conducted from June 2013 to September 2014 in Beijing, China. Residents aged 26-76 years were selected according to gender and age composition using multi-stage stratified random sampling process. All participants underwent serum thyroid function and thyroid-associated antibody tests. The status of glucose tolerance was determined using 75g-oral glucose tolerance test. Chi-square test was used to compare the differences in prevalence. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the impact of insulin resistance (IR) on thyroid function.

Results: By analyzing 3986 participants who were included in the survey, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and pre-diabetes (pre-DM) was 18.59% and 26.79%, respectively. The prevalence of TD was 8.81%, with overt hyperthyroidism accounting for 0.38%; subclinical hyperthyroidism, 1.86%; overt hypothyroidism, 0.70%; and subclinical hypothyroidism, 5.87%. The prevalence of TD increased with gradually deteriorated glucose tolerance (7.63% in those with normal glucose tolerance, 9.27% in pre-DM, and 11.61% in T2DM) in both men and women. Each unit of higher HOMA-IR was associated with 7% higher likelihood of having subclinical hypothyroidism.

Conclusion: The coexisting of TD with T2DM and pre-DM is high in this community-based Chinese population, suggesting a close relationship between TD and glucose metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DMSO.S271328DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7678694PMC
November 2020

A high-resolution map of reactive nitrogen inputs to China.

Sci Data 2020 11 11;7(1):379. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, P.R. China.

To feed an increasingly affluent population, reactive nitrogen (Nr) inputs to China's lands and waters have substantially increased over the past century. Today, China's Nr emissions account for over one third of global total emissions, leading to serious environmental pollution and health damages. Quantifying the spatial variability of Nr inputs is crucial for the identification of intervention points to mitigate Nr pollution, which, however, is not well known. Here, we present a database describing Nr inputs to China for the year 2017 with a 1 km × 1 km resolution, considering land use and Nr sources, compiled by using the CHANS model. Results show that the North China Plain, the Sichuan Basin and the Middle-Lower Yangtze River Plain are hotspots of Nr inputs, where per hectare Nr input is an order of magnitude higher than that in other regions. Cropland and surface water bodies receive much higher Nr inputs than other land use types. This unique database will provide basic data for research on environmental health and global change modelling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41597-020-00718-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7658216PMC
November 2020

Botanical Drug Puerarin Promotes Neuronal Survival and Neurite Outgrowth against MPTP/MPP-Induced Toxicity via Progesterone Receptor Signaling.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2020 17;2020:7635291. Epub 2020 Oct 17.

School of Chinese Medicine, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong.

Background: Progesterone receptor (PR) modulates neuroprotective and regenerative responses in Parkinson's disease and related neurological diseases.

Objectives: The present study was designed to determine whether botanical drug puerarin could exhibit neuroprotective and neurorestorative activities via PR signaling.

Methods: The neuroprotective and neurotrophic activities of puerarin were investigated in MPTP-lesioned mice and MPP-challenged primary rat midbrain neurons. Rotarod performance test and tail suspension test were used to assess motor functions. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and PR were determined by immunostaining, Western blotting, and luciferase reporter assays. Neurite outgrowth was assessed by fluorescence staining and immunostaining.

Results: Puerarin effectively ameliorated the MPTP-induced motor abnormalities in MPTP-lesioned mice and protected primary rat midbrain neurons against MPP-induced toxicity via PR signaling although progesterone exhibited the neuroprotection. PR antagonist mifepristone (RU486) diminished the neuroprotection of puerarin in MPTP-lesioned mice and MPP-induced primary rat midbrain neurons. Moreover, puerarin promoted the differentiation of primary rat midbrain neurons and potentiated NGF to induce neuritogenesis in PC12 cells. RU486 and PR-siRNA could inhibit the effect of puerarin. Puerarin and progesterone could enhance the PR promoter.

Conclusion: Puerarin attenuated MPTP- and MPP-induced toxicity and potentiated neurite outgrowth via PR. These results suggested that puerarin may become an alternative hormone for suppressing MPTP- and MPP-induced toxicity in neurodegenerative diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/7635291DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7586160PMC
October 2020

CEACAM5 stimulates the progression of non-small-cell lung cancer by promoting cell proliferation and migration.

J Int Med Res 2020 Sep;48(9):300060520959478

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Linyi Central Hospital, Linyi, China.

Objective: To detect the expression of CEA-related cell adhesion molecule 5 (CEACAM5) in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and explore its function in the progression and development of NSCLC.

Methods: qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry were performed to detect CEACAM5 expression in human NSCLC tissues and cell lines. The correlation between CEACAM5 expression and the clinicopathological features of patients with NSCLC was also investigated. MTT, colony formation, wound healing, and immunoblot assays were performed to detect the functions of CEACAM5 in NSCLC cells , and immunoblotting was used to detect the effects of CEACAM5 on p38-Smad2/3 signaling.

Results: CEACAM5 expression was elevated in human NSCLC tissues and cells. We further found that CEACAM expression was correlated with clinicopathological features including T division, lymph invasion, and histological grade in patients with NSCLC. The assays confirmed that CEACAM5 depletion inhibited the proliferation and migration of NSCLC cells by activating p38-Smad2/3 signaling. We verified the involvement of CEACAM5 in the suppression of NSCLC tumor growth in mice.

Conclusion: CEACAM5 stimulated the progression of NSCLC by promoting cell proliferation and migration and . CEACAM5 may serve as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of NSCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0300060520959478DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7536504PMC
September 2020

Wild-type cutoff for Apramycin against Escherichia coli.

BMC Vet Res 2020 Aug 26;16(1):309. Epub 2020 Aug 26.

Heilongjiang Key Laboratory for Animal Disease Control and Pharmaceutical Development. Faculty of Basic Veterinary Science, College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, 600 Changjiang Road, Xiangfang District, Harbin, Heilongjiang, 150030, People's Republic of China.

Background: Apramycin is used exclusively for the treatment of Escherichia coli (E.coli) infections in swine around the world since the early 1980s. Recently, many research papers have demonstrated that apramycin has significant in vitro activity against multidrug-resistant E.coli isolated in hospitals. Therefore, ensuring the proper use of apramycin in veterinary clinics is of great significance of public health. The objectives of this study were to develop a wild-type cutoff for apramycin against E.coli using a statistical method recommended by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and to investigate the prevalence of resistance genes that confer resistance to apramycin in E. coli.

Results: Apramycin susceptibility testing of 1230 E.coli clinical isolates from swine were determinded by broth microdilution testing according to the CLSI document M07-A9. A total number of 310 E.coli strains from different minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) subsets (0.5-256 μg/mL) were selected for the detection of resistance genes (aac(3)-IV; npmA; apmA) in E. coli by PCR. The percentage of E. coli isolates at each MIC (0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, and 256 μg/mL) was 0.08, 0.08, 0.16, 2.93, 31.14, 38.86, 12.85, 2.03, 1.46, and 10.41%. The MIC and MIC were 16 and 64 μg/mL. All the 310 E.coli isolates were negative for npmA and apmA gene, and only the aac(3)-IV gene was detected in this study.

Conclusions: The wild-type cutoff for apramycin against E.coli was defined as 32 μg/mL. The prevelance of aac(3)-IV gene mainly concentrated in these MIC subsets 'MIC ≥ 64 μg/ mL', which indicates that the wild-type cutoff established in our study is reliable. The wild-type cutoff offers interpretion criteria of apramycin susceptibility testing of E.coli.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12917-020-02522-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7448428PMC
August 2020

Antimicrobial Resistance and Virulence Profiles of mcr-1-Positive Escherichia coli Isolated from Swine Farms in Heilongjiang Province of China.

J Food Prot 2020 Dec;83(12):2209-2215

Heilongjiang Key Laboratory for Animal Disease Control and Pharmaceutical Development, Faculty of Basic Veterinary Science, College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, 600 Changjiang Road, Xiangfang District, Harbin, People's Republic of China.

Abstract: The emergence and global distribution of the mcr-1 gene for colistin resistance have become a public concern because of threats to the role of colistin as the last line of defense against some bacteria. Because of the prevalence of mcr-1-positive Escherichia coli isolates in food animals, production of these animals has been regarded as one of the major sources of amplification and spread of mcr-1. In this study, 249 E. coli isolates were recovered from 300 fecal samples collected from swine farms in Heilongjiang Province, People's Republic of China. Susceptibility testing revealed that 186 (74.70%) of these isolates were colistin resistant, and 86 were positive for mcr-1. The mcr-1-positive isolates had extensive antimicrobial resistance profiles and additional resistance genes, including blaTEM, blaCTX-M, aac3-IV, tet(A), floR, sul1, sul2, sul3, and oqxAB. No mutations in genes pmrAB and mgrB were associated with colistin resistance. Phylogenetic group analysis revealed that the mcr-1-positive E. coli isolates belonged to groups A (52.33% of isolates), B1 (33.72%), B2 (5.81%), and D (8.14%). The prevalence of the virulence-associated genes iutA, iroN, fimH, vat, ompA, and traT was moderate. Seven mcr-1-positive isolates were identified as extraintestinal pathogenic. Among 20 mcr-1-positive E. coli isolates, multilocus sequence typing revealed that sequence type 10 was the most common (five isolates). The conjugation assays revealed that the majority of mcr-1 genes were transferable at frequencies of 7.05 × 10-7 to 7.57 × 10-4. The results of this study indicate the need for monitoring and minimizing the further dissemination of mcr-1 among E. coli isolates in food animals, particularly swine.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4315/JFP-20-190DOI Listing
December 2020

The prevalence and mechanism of fluoroquinolone resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from swine farms in China.

BMC Vet Res 2020 Jul 28;16(1):258. Epub 2020 Jul 28.

Heilongjiang Key Laboratory for Animal Disease Control and Pharmaceutical Development. Faculty of Basic Veterinary Science, College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, 600 Changjiang Road, Xiangfang District, Harbin, Heilongjiang, 150030, P.R. China.

Background: It has been demonstrated that swine waste is an important reservoir for resistant genes. Moreover, the bacteria carrying resistant genes and originating from swine feces and wastewater could spread to the external environment. Fluoroquinolones (FQs) are widely used in livestock and poultry for the treatment of bacterial infection. However, resistance to FQs has increased markedly.

Results: In this study, swine feces and wastewater were sampled from 21 swine farms of seven provinces in China to investigate the prevalence of FQ resistance, including plasmid-mediated fluoroquinolone resistance (PMQR) genes and the occurrence of target mutations. All isolates showed moderate rate of resistance to norfloxacin (43.0%), ciprofloxacin (47.6%), ofloxacin (47.0%) and levofloxacin (38.8%). The percentage of strains resistant to the four FQs antimicrobials was positively correlated with the danofloxacin (DANO) MIC. Among the 74 FQ-resistant isolates, 39 (52.70%) had mutations in gyrA (S83L and D87 to N, Y, G, or H), 21 (28.38%) had mutations in parC (S80I and E84K), 2 (2.70%) had mutations in parE (I355T and L416F), 26 (35.14%) had mutations in marR (D67N and G103S), 1 (1.35%) had mutations in acrR (V29G). While, no mutation was found in gyrB. There were 7 (9.46%) strains carried the qnrS gene, 29 (39.19%) strains carried the oqxAB gene, and 9 (12.16%) strains carried the aac (6')-Ib-cr gene. In addition, the conjugation assays showed that qnrS, oqxAB and aac (6')-Ib-cr could be successfully transferred to E. coli J53 from 4 (57.1%), 20 (69.0%) and 5 (55.6%) donor strains, respectively. There were no qnrA, qnrB, qnrC, qnrD and qepA genes detected.

Conclusion: The present study showed that DANO-resistant E. coli strains isolated from swine farms had significant cross-resistance to other four FQs antimicrobials. Further study revealed that the resistance mechanisms of swine-derived E. coli to FQs may be attributable to the occurrence of chromosomal mutations (gyrA, parC, parE, marR and acrR genes double-site or single-site mutation) and the presence of PMQR genes (qnrS, oqxAB and aac (6')-Ib-cr). To the best of our knowledge, one novel mutation marR-D67N was found to be associated with FQ resistance, two mutations parE-L416F and acrR-V29G have never been reported in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12917-020-02483-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7388466PMC
July 2020

The Association Between Serum Thyrotropin Within the Reference Range and Metabolic Syndrome in a Community-Based Chinese Population.

Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes 2020 16;13:2001-2011. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Peking University People's Hospital, Peking University Diabetes Center, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: We aimed to ascertain the association between thyrotropin (TSH) levels in euthyroid state and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a community-based Chinese population.

Participants And Methods: Based on a large and well-characterized community cohort in Beijing, China, 1831 men and 1742 women with serum TSH levels within the reference range (0.50-4.78 µIU/mL) were stratified by quartiles of TSH (Q1-4). MetS was identified according to the criteria of International Diabetes Federation guidelines. Poisson regression models were used to estimate the association between serum TSH and the prevalence of MetS and its components before and after adjustment for potential confounding factors. The reported association was measured using the prevalence ratio (PR) with its respective 95% confidence interval (95% CI).

Results: The prevalence of MetS in euthyroid population across TSH quartiles (Q1-4) was 38.9%, 44.6%, 41.0%, and 47.7%, respectively, in men ( = 0.045), and 47.7%, 46.6%, 46.9%, and 54.6%, respectively, in women ( = 0.032). Compared with the reference group TSH-Q1, the prevalence of MetS was higher among TSH-Q4 group both in men (PR = 1.27; 95% CI: 1.09, 1.48, = 0.002) and women (PR = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.37, = 0.003) even after adjustment for age, lifestyle factors, serum levels of free triiodothyronine (FT3), and free thyroxine (FT4). Most of the components of MetS were common in higher serum TSH levels within the normal range.

Conclusion: The prevalence of MetS and most of its components increased in the higher TSH group in euthyroid Chinese population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DMSO.S252154DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7305823PMC
June 2020

Crepe Cake Structured Layered Double Hydroxide/Sulfur/Graphene as a Positive Electrode Material for Li-S Batteries.

ACS Nano 2020 Jul 15;14(7):8220-8231. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

School of Chemistry, University of St Andrews St Andrews, Fife KY16 9ST, U.K.

Solving the polysulfide shuttle problem is one of the core challenges for the industrialization of lithium-sulfur batteries. In this work, a triphasic composite of LDH/sulfur/rGO (LDH: layered double hydroxide, rGO: reduced graphene oxide) with a crepe cake like structure is designed and fabricated as a positive electrode material for lithium-sulfur batteries. Sulfur nanoparticles are embedded in the interlayer space of the composite and thus are well protected physically three-dimensional wrapping and chemically strong interaction of LDH nanoflakes with lithium polysulfides, such as ionic bonds and S···H hydrogen bonds. In addition, the flexible lamellar structure of the composite with soft graphene layers can tolerate the volume expansion of sulfur during lithiation as well as facilitate ionic permeability and electron transport, which is favorable for the redox reactions of polysulfide. The present work sheds light on the future development and industrialization of lithium-sulfur batteries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.0c01694DOI Listing
July 2020

Ammonia volatilization as the major nitrogen loss pathway in dryland agro-ecosystems.

Environ Pollut 2020 Oct 27;265(Pt A):114862. Epub 2020 May 27.

International Institute for Earth System Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210023, China.

The losses of excessive reactive nitrogen (N) from agricultural production pose detrimental impacts on water, air and land. However, N budgets of agroecosystems are still poorly quantified, presenting a barrier to understand the N turnover in agriculture. Agricultural ammonia (NH) volatilization has been recognized as a crucial contribution to the pollution of fine particulate matters over China through reacting with acid gases. Building on these challenges, the first national-scale model analysis was constructed on the N budgets to gain an overall insight into the current status of N flows in Chinese dryland systems towards sustainable N management. Total inputs of soil N in Chinese dryland soils were estimated at 121 kg N ha in 2010, considering all pathways including N manure, fertilizer, atmospheric deposition and litter from crop residues. Atmospheric N deposition accounted for 25% of N fertilizer plus N manure in Chinese dryland soils, suggesting that N deposition could not be ignored when estimating total N inputs to Chinese dryland soils. The highest ratio of NH volatilization to total N outputs was found at 43 kg N ha (∼21%) in Northern China, followed by 41 kg N ha (∼20%) in Sichuan Basin and 25 kg N ha (∼26%) in Northeastern China. The modeling results indicated that, if a 20% decrease in N fertilizer plus N manure was achieved, it would lead to a 24% (7-49%) reduction in NH volatilization. Substantial reductions of NH volatilization would also be achieved by making an improvement in changing management practices (controlled release fertilizer and full irrigation). The results would give an overall insight into N budgets in Chinese dryland soils. The constructed N budgets assisted with understanding agricultural N flows and NH pollution, and evaluated the impacts of human activities on N cycle towards a precise way to regulate agricultural management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.114862DOI Listing
October 2020

The Morbidity and Comorbidity of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Different Glucose Intolerance Strata in a Community-Based Chinese Population.

Metab Syndr Relat Disord 2020 08 27;18(6):284-290. Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Peking University People's Hospital, Peking University Diabetes Centre, Beijing, China.

To investigate the morbidity and comorbidity of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and different glucose intolerance strata in a community-based population and to explore the association between glucose tolerance levels and NAFLD. A community-based cohort established for Pinggu Metabolic Disease Study in a suburb of Beijing, China, was established from September 2013 to July 2014 using a random sampling method. Participants were eligible if they were born in Pinggu and had been living there for at least 5 years within the age range of 26-76 years. A 75 grams oral glucose tolerance test was used to determine the strata of glucose tolerance. Unenhanced abdominal computed tomography scan was performed to identify NAFLD. A total of 3122 subjects were included in this analysis. The prevalence of NAFLD was 22.68% (27.58% vs. 19.97% among men and women). The prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) was 18.03% (20.83% vs. 16.22% among men and women). Up to 7.21% of residents had both T2D and NAFLD. 39.96% of diabetic patients and 28.77% of prediabetic patients combined with NAFLD. Compared with adults with normal glucose tolerance, the incidence of NAFLD in T2D patients was more than three times higher after adjusting for sex, age, body mass index (BMI), sedentary time, and dietary habit [odds ratio (OR) = 3.58, confidence interval (95% CI) 2.80-4.58,  < 0.001]. NAFLD was also more common in individuals with prediabetes, especially patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) (OR = 2.27, 1.75-2.95) or impaired fasting glucose+IGT (OR = 2.78, 1.92-4.03). The morbidity and comorbidity of NAFLD and glucose intolerance are high in the Pinggu population in northern China, highlighting the importance of early prevention and treatment of these two diseases at the same time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/met.2019.0107DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7407000PMC
August 2020

Imprinting Ferromagnetism and Superconductivity in Single Atomic Layers of Molecular Superlattices.

Adv Mater 2020 Jun 17;32(25):e1907645. Epub 2020 May 17.

Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 3, Singapore, 117543, Singapore.

Ferromagnetism and superconductivity are two antagonistic phenomena since ferromagnetic exchange fields tend to destroy singlet Cooper pairs. Reconciliation of these two competing phases has been achieved in vertically stacked heterostructures where these two orders are confined in different layers. However, controllable integration of these two phases in one atomic layer is a longstanding challenge. Here, an interlayer-space-confined chemical design (ICCD) is reported for the synthesis of dilute single-atom-doped TaS molecular superlattice, whereby ferromagnetism is observed in the superconducting TaS layers. The intercalation of 2H-TaS crystal with bulky organic ammonium molecule expands its van der Waals gap for single-atom doping via co-intercalated cobalt ions, resulting in the formation of quasi-monolayer Co-doped TaS superlattices. Isolated Co atoms are decorated in the basal plane of the TaS via substituting the Ta atom or anchoring at a hollow site, wherein the orbital-selected p-d hybridization between Co and neighboring Ta and S atoms induces local magnetic moments with strong ferromagnetic coupling. This ICCD approach can be applied to various metal ions, enabling the synthesis of a series of crystal-size TaS molecular superlattices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.201907645DOI Listing
June 2020

Global estimates of dry ammonia deposition inferred from space-measurements.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Aug 3;730:139189. Epub 2020 May 3.

College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China.

Ammonia (NH), as an alkaline gas, contributes substantially to atmospheric nitrogen deposition, which can cause biodiversity loss, water eutrophication and soil acidification. Advances in the application of satellite observations allow us to gain deeper insights into atmospheric NH concentrations at large spatial scales. A new satellite-based methodology is proposed for estimating dry NH deposition with consideration of bi-directional NH exchange. We estimate the global dry NH deposition for nine years (2008-2016) by using the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer Instrument (IASI) NH retrievals. Satellite-based dry NH deposition is in general consistent with measured dry NH deposition over the monitoring sites (R = 0.65). Global dry NH deposition over 8 kg N ha is mainly distributed in the Eastern China, Northern and Central Pakistan, and Northern India. An annual increase rate of 0.27 and 0.13 kg N ha y in dry NH deposition during 2008-2016 occurs in Eastern China and Sichuan Basin, which are the major Chinese agricultural regions. The NH compensation point is high during warm months, and can be above 1 μg m such as in Eastern China, implying the importance of considering the NH compensation points for estimating dry NH deposition. We find, if the upward NH flux was ignored, it will cause 11%, 17%, 5% and 3% overestimation in dry NH deposition in Eastern China, Northern India, Eastern United States and Western Europe, respectively. This study presents the potential of using the satellite retrievals to estimate the large-scale dry NH deposition, and the methodology is able to provide temporally continuous and spatially complete fine-resolution datasets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139189DOI Listing
August 2020

Imbalance in mitochondrial dynamics induced by low PGC-1α expression contributes to hepatocyte EMT and liver fibrosis.

Cell Death Dis 2020 04 8;11(4):226. Epub 2020 Apr 8.

Department of Histology and Embryology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

An imbalance in mitochondrial dynamics induced by oxidative stress may lead to hepatocyte epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) and liver fibrosis. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. This study investigated the role of mitochondrial dynamics in hepatocyte EMT and liver fibrosis using an in vitro human (L-02 cells, hepatic cell line) and an in vivo mouse model of liver fibrosis. Findings showed that oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial DNA damage was associated with abnormal mitochondrial fission and hepatocyte EMT. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers apocynin and mito-tempo effectively attenuated carbon tetrachloride (CCl)-induced abnormal mitochondrial fission and liver fibrosis. Restoring mitochondrial biogenesis attenuated hepatocyte EMT. Oxidative stress-induced abnormal hepatocyte mitochondrial fission events by a mechanism that involved the down regulation of PGC-1α. PGC-1α knockout mice challenged with CCl had increased abnormal mitochondrial fission and more severe liver fibrosis than wild type mice. These results indicate that PGC-1α has a protective role in oxidative stress-induced-hepatocyte EMT and liver fibrosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-020-2429-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7142080PMC
April 2020

New clinical screening strategy to distinguish variant-induced diabetes from young early-onset type 2 diabetes in a Chinese population.

BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care 2020 03;8(1)

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Peking University People's Hospital, Peking University Diabetes Center, Beijing, China

Objective: Maturity-onset diabetes of the young caused by hepatocyte nuclear factor-1 alpha () variants (-MODY) is a common form of monogenetic diabetes. Although patients with -MODY might specifically benefit from sulfonylurea treatment, available methods for screening this specific type of diabetes are not cost-effective. This study was designed to establish an optimized clinical strategy based on multiple biomarkers to distinguish patients with -MODY from clinically diagnosed early-onset type 2 diabetes (EOD) for genetic testing in a Chinese population.

Research Design And Methods: A case-control study including 125 non-related young patients with EOD and 15 probands with -MODY (cohort 1) was conducted to evaluate reported biomarkers for -MODY. A cut-off for the fasting insulin (Fins) level, the 97.5 percentile of 150 healthy subjects with normal components of metabolic syndrome (cohort 2), was used to filter out individuals with obvious insulin resistance (Fins <102 pmol/L). An optimized clinical screening strategy (-CSS) was established, and its effectiveness was assessed in another group of 410 young patients with EOD (cohort 3).

Results: In cohort 1, body mass index (BMI), serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) and high-sensitivity C reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels were confirmed to be useful for the differential diagnosis of MODY. In cohort 3, eight probands with -MODY were identified. In cohort 3 and young relatives with -MODY, meeting three of four criteria (BMI <28 kg/m, hs-CRP <0.75 mg/L, Fins <102 pmol/L and HDL-c >1.12 mmol/L), the sensitivity and specificity of -CSS were 100% and 69.3%, respectively. In the pooled analysis of all young patients, -CSS displayed 90.5% sensitivity and 73.6% specificity for identifying patients with MODY among those with clinically diagnosed EOD.

Conclusion: Our -CSS is useful for distinguishing patients with -MODY from patients with EOD in a young Chinese population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjdrc-2019-000745DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7170412PMC
March 2020

First-principles simulation of monolayer hydrogen passivated BiOS-metal interfaces.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2020 Apr;22(15):7853-7863

State Key Laboratory of Mesoscopic Physics and Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871, P. R. China. and Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing 100871, P. R. China and Beijing Key Laboratory for Magnetoeletric Materials and Devices (BKL-MEMD), Beijing 100871, P. R. China.

Monolayer (ML) MoS2 is one of the most extensively studied two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors. However, it suffers from low carrier mobility and pervasive Schottky contact with metal electrodes. 2D semiconductor Bi2O2S, a sulfur analogue of 2D Bi2O2Se, has been prepared recently. ML fully hydrogen-passivated Bi2O2S2 (Bi2O2S2H2) posseses a comparable band gap (1.92 eV) with ML MoS2 (1.8 eV), but probably has a better device performance than ML MoS2. Based on the density functional theory, the electron and hole mobilities of ML Bi2O2S2H2 at 300 K are calculated to be 16 447-26 699 and 264-968 cm2 V-1 s-1, respectively. Then we firstly characterize the contact properties of ML half hydrogen-passivated Bi2O2S2 (Bi2O2S2H) with four bulk metal electrodes (Ti, Sc, Pd, and Pt) based on ab initio quantum transport simulation. In the lateral direction, a p-type Schottky contact is found in Pd and Pt electrodes, and the corresponding hole Schottky barrier heights (SBHs) are 0.54 and 0.99 eV, respectively. Remarkably, a coveted n-type Ohmic contact appears in Sc and Ti electrodes. Finally, the current on-off ratio of the ML hydrogen-passivated Bi2O2S2 field effect transistor with a Ti electrode reaches 105. Hence, the good intrinsic properties, contact properties, and large switching ability put ML hydrogen-passivated Bi2O2S2 in the rank of potential channel candidates for post-silicon era field effect transistors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cp00058bDOI Listing
April 2020

New Discovery of Curcumin Combination Therapy and Action Mechanism.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2020 10;2020:4793058. Epub 2020 Mar 10.

Key Laboratory of Veterinary Chemical Drugs and Pharmaceutics, Ministry of Agriculture, Shanghai Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, No. 518 Ziyue Road, Minhang District, Shanghai 200241, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/4793058DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7085841PMC
March 2020