Publications by authors named "Xiumei Zhang"

212 Publications

Barren environment damages cognitive abilities in fish: Behavioral and transcriptome mechanisms.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 1;794:148805. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Fisheries College, Zhejiang Ocean University, Zhoushan 316022, China; Laboratory for Marine Fisheries Science and Food Production Processes, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266237, China. Electronic address:

The surrounding environments that animals inhabit shape their behavioral phenotypes, physiological status and molecular processes. As one of the driving forces for the adaptation and evolution of marine animals, environmental complexity has been shown to affect several behavioral characteristics in fish. However, little is known about the effects of environmental complexity on fish spatial cognition and about the relevant regulatory mechanisms. To address this theoretical gap, black rockfish Sebastes schlegelii, which is a typical rock fish species, were exposed to laboratory-based small-scale contrasting environments (i.e., spatially complex environment vs. spatially barren environment) for seven weeks. Subsequently, the spatial cognitive abilities and behavioral performance during captive period were determined, and transcriptome sequencing and analyses for fish telencephalon were conducted. In general, the fish from barren environment had significantly lower spatial learning and memory abilities compared with the fish from complex environment (i.e., the complex fish exited the maze faster). During the whole captive period, the frequency of aggressive behavior among barren fish was significantly higher than complex fish. And meanwhile, the group dispersion index of barren group was also significantly higher than complex group, which indicated that complex fish tended to distribute in a more homogeneous pattern than barren fish. Through transcriptomic analyses, a series of differentially expressed genes and pathways which may underpin the damaged effects of barren environment on fish spatial cognition were identified, and these genes mainly related to stress response, metabolism, organism systems and neural plasticity. However, no significant differences in growth performance, locomotor activity (indicated by swimming behavior and rotatory behavior) between treatments were detected. Based on these results, mechanisms in the levels of behavior and molecule were proposed to explain the environmental effects on fish cognition. This study may provide fundamental information for deeply understanding the environmental effects on marine animals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.148805DOI Listing
July 2021

Novel Insight into the Relationship between Metabolic Profile and Fatty Acid Accumulation Altering Cellular Lipid Content in Pineapple Fruits at Different Stages of Maturity.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Hainan Key Laboratory of Banana Genetic Improvement, Haikou Experimental Station, Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences, Haikou 571101, China.

Pineapple fruits are usually harvested at different stages of maturity, based on consumer demands. The stage of maturity significantly affects the storage tolerance due to alterations in the cellular lipid homeostasis in the fruits. The characteristic abundance of metabolites and fatty acids (FAs) can provide vital information giving insight into the cellular lipid changes that occur during the ripening process in the fruits. Here, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, largely based on the analysis of widely targeted metabolomics, was applied to evaluate the differences in the metabolites among the pineapple at three different stages of maturity namely, pineapples at the young fruit (YF), mature fruit (MF), and fully mature fruit (FMF) stages. In this study, 466 metabolites were annotated and identified. Among these, 59 lipids, including the glyceride esters, fatty acids and conjugates, and lysophospholipids (LPLs) were characterized. Notably, the LPLs were down-regulated in their relative abundance in the MF compared with the YF, and subsequently they remained almost stable in the FMF stage. The FA profiling results revealed the presence of certain unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs); besides, the total monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) to saturated fatty acid (SFA) ratio, as well as the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) to SFA ratio, showed noticeable decrease during the ripening process. The differential accumulation patterns of the LPLs, MUFAs, PUFAs, and SFAs imply that the lipid degradation and peroxidation take place in the pineapple fruits from the YF to MF and YF to FMF stages, respectively. The present study provides new insights into the alterations in the cellular lipid metabolism underlying the metabolite profiles and accumulation of FAs in pineapple fruits during ripening.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.1c02658DOI Listing
July 2021

A condensate-hardening drug blocks RSV replication in vivo.

Nature 2021 Jul 7;595(7868):596-599. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Helmholtz International Lab for Anti-Infectives, State Key Laboratory of Microbial Technology, Microbial Technology Institute, Shandong University, Qingdao, P. R. China.

Biomolecular condensates have emerged as an important subcellular organizing principle. Replication of many viruses, including human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), occurs in virus-induced compartments called inclusion bodies (IBs) or viroplasm. IBs of negative-strand RNA viruses were recently shown to be biomolecular condensates that form through phase separation. Here we report that the steroidal alkaloid cyclopamine and its chemical analogue A3E inhibit RSV replication by disorganizing and hardening IB condensates. The actions of cyclopamine and A3E were blocked by a point mutation in the RSV transcription factor M2-1. IB disorganization occurred within minutes, which suggests that these molecules directly act on the liquid properties of the IBs. A3E and cyclopamine inhibit RSV in the lungs of infected mice and are condensate-targeting drug-like small molecules that have in vivo activity. Our data show that condensate-hardening drugs may enable the pharmacological modulation of not only many previously undruggable targets in viral replication but also transcription factors at cancer-driving super-enhancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03703-zDOI Listing
July 2021

A Comparative Study on Two Territorial Fishes: The Influence of Physical Enrichment on Aggressive Behavior.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Jun 23;11(7). Epub 2021 Jun 23.

National Fisheries Technology Extension Center, Beijing 100125, China.

Intraspecific aggression is detrimental to body/fin damage, physiological stress, and other problems in aquaculture. Environmental enrichment has been proposed to have positive effects on fish aggressive behavior, physiological stress, and fish welfare, but there are mixed results. Here, we examine the impact of physical enrichment levels (i.e., the intensity of physical enrichment) on aggression in black rockfish () and fat greenling (). Generally, with the increase in the enrichment level, the frequency of the aggressive behavior of black rockfish gradually decreased. In contrast, a non-monotonous effect of the enrichment level on aggression was observed for fat greenling, with low and intermediate levels leading to no or more aggression, while a high enrichment level reduced aggression. After three days, the high-level enrichment groups in both rockfish and greenling reached social stability (i.e., a relatively stable social structure indicated by lower aggression), while aggression in the other groups continued increased. These results show the significant regulatory effect of enrichment levels on the aggressive behavior in both black rockfish and fat greenling. This study may promote the development of environmental enrichment measures, and it provides useful information for reducing fish aggression and improving fish welfare in aquaculture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani11071868DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8300207PMC
June 2021

Alginate microgels as delivery vehicles for cell-based therapies in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

Carbohydr Polym 2021 Aug 28;266:118128. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

School of Bioengineering, State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemistry, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023, PR China. Electronic address:

Conventional stem cell delivery typically utilize administration of directly injection of allogenic cells or domesticated autogenic cells. It may lead to immune clearance of these cells by the host immune systems. Alginate microgels have been demonstrated to improve the survival of encapsulated cells and overcome rapid immune clearance after transplantation. Moreover, alginate microgels can serve as three-dimensional extracellular matrix to support cell growth and protect allogenic cells from rapid immune clearance, with functions as delivery vehicles to achieve sustained release of therapeutic proteins and growth factors from the encapsulated cells. Besides, cell-loaded alginate microgels can potentially be applied in regenerative medicine by serving as injectable engineered scaffolds to support tissue regrowth. In this review, the properties of alginate and different methods to produce alginate microgels are introduced firstly. Then, we focus on diverse applications of alginate microgels for cell delivery in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2021.118128DOI Listing
August 2021

GABAergic synapses suppress intestinal innate immunity via insulin signaling in .

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 May;118(20)

State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Biology, Hunan University, 410082 Changsha, China;

GABAergic neurotransmission constitutes a major inhibitory signaling mechanism that plays crucial roles in central nervous system physiology and immune cell immunomodulation. However, its roles in innate immunity remain unclear. Here, we report that deficiency in the GABAergic neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) of results in enhanced resistance to pathogens, whereas pathogen infection enhances the strength of GABAergic transmission. GABAergic synapses control innate immunity in a manner dependent on the FOXO/DAF-16 but not the p38/PMK-1 pathway. Our data reveal that the insulin-like peptide INS-31 level was dramatically decreased in the GABAergic NMJ GABAR-deficient mutant compared with wild-type animals. with knockdown or loss of function exhibited enhanced resistance to PA14 exposure. INS-31 may act downstream of GABAergic NMJs and in body wall muscle to control intestinal innate immunity in a cell-nonautonomous manner. Our results reveal a signaling axis of synapse-muscular insulin-intestinal innate immunity in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2021063118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8157918PMC
May 2021

Berberine carried gelatin/sodium alginate hydrogels with antibacterial and EDTA-induced detachment performances.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Jun 20;181:1039-1046. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Research Center for Nano-Biomaterials & Regenerative Medicine, College of Biomedical Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024, PR China; Shanxi Key Laboratory of Material Strength & Structural Impact, Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024, PR China. Electronic address:

Most existing hydrogel wound dressings lack gentle detachment property. In this work, novel hydrogels with anti-bacterial and induced detachment properties were prepared. Both gelatin (G) and sodium alginate (SA) are natural polymer materials. The G/SA hydrogels were prepared by dual cross-linking. The addition of SA significantly improves the mechanical properties of composite hydrogels. The tensile modulus and elongation at break of the G/SA hydrogels with 2.0% SA could reach 99.23 ± 2.18 kPa and 85.47 ± 5.01%, respectively. In addition, the interconnected porous network and high swelling ratio (over 9.99 ± 0.33) are beneficial to the transmission of oxygen and absorption of exudates to accelerate the healing of wound. Subsequently, berberine (BBR) was loaded into the G/SA hydrogels. The BBR/G/SA hydrogels show sustained drug release for 168 h and exhibit anti-bacterial effect against Staphylococcus aureus. The results of L929 cells cultured with the hydrogel extracts indicate good biocompatibility. Finally, results of EDTA-induced detachment performances demonstrate that the hydrogels could be removed from the wound as the internal structure destroyed. All illustrated results above demonstrated the BBR carried G/SA hydrogels have potential used as wound dressing materials in future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.04.114DOI Listing
June 2021

Response of macrobenthic communities to heavy metal pollution in Laoshan Bay, China: A trait-based method.

Mar Pollut Bull 2021 Jun 16;167:112292. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Fisheries College, Zhejiang Ocean University, Zhoushan 316022, China; Laboratory for Marine Fisheries Science and Food Production Processes, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266237, China. Electronic address:

The effects of multiple natural and anthropogenic stressors on the functional trait composition and diversity of marine macrobenthic communities in Laoshan Bay were investigated using biological trait analysis (BTA). Seven traits, including 27 trait modalities and four functional diversity indices (functional richness, functional evenness, functional divergence, and Rao's quadratic entropy), were considered. The results of RLQ (environmental variables (R), species taxa (L), and traits (Q)) and variance partitioning analysis (VPA) showed that the trait compositions and functional diversity of macrobenthic communities were influenced by a combination of stressors, among which heavy metals were the major factors. At the sites with high heavy metal pollution, the prevalent traits were infauna, burrower, and deposit feeder, whereas epifauna, carnivores and crawlers were dominant at the sites of low heavy metal contamination. The impact of natural environmental gradients on macrobenthic communities is also worthy of attention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2021.112292DOI Listing
June 2021

Two-sided effects of prolonged hypoxia and sulfide exposure on juvenile ark shells (Anadara broughtonii).

Mar Environ Res 2021 Jul 7;169:105326. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Fishery College, Zhejiang Ocean University, Zhoushan 316022, China; Laboratory for Marine Fisheries Science and Food Production Processes, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266237, China. Electronic address:

Oxygen deficit and sulfide have been restrictive factors in mariculture zones. However, the adaptive mechanism in aquatic lives is still unclear. The commercial ark shells Anadara broughtonii were selected to test the tolerance and adaptive responses to prolonged and intermittent hypoxia with or without exogenous sulfide (mild, moderate, high) by evaluating their behavior, mortality, oxidative level, antioxidant responses, and the MAPK-mediated apoptosis in gills. The results indicated that the clams were tolerant to hypoxia and sulfide exposure but vulnerable during reoxygenation from the challenges. Even so, sulfide had remarkable effect on attenuating the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxides caused by reoxygenation from prolonged hypoxia. The increase of glutathione level was probably as an early and primary protective response to prevent the expected reperfusion injury from reoxygenation. The challenges suppressed the oxidative level with a dose-dependent effect of sulfide, with an exception when exposed to mild sulfide. Synchronously, biphasic effects of exogenous sulfide on apoptotic cascade, which was induced by mild sulfide while it was inhibited by higher sulfide, were also detected in gills. The induced or inhibited apoptosis by hypoxia and sulfide kept to a typical ROS-MAPK-CASPASE cascade, desiderating further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marenvres.2021.105326DOI Listing
July 2021

Molecular identification of an androgen receptor and the influence of long-term aggressive interaction on hypothalamic genes expression in black rockfish (Sebastes schlegelii).

J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol 2021 May 27;207(3):401-413. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Fisheries College, Zhejiang Ocean University, Zhoushan, 316022, China.

This study aims to explore the mechanism on how aggressive interaction alters reproductive physiology by testing whether aggressive interaction can activate the reproductive neuroendocrine function via the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in black rockfish (Sebastes schlegelii). The expressions of the androgen receptor gene (ar) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone genes (gnrhs), the concentration of plasma androgens, and GSI (the ratio of testes mass to body mass) were compared between the interaction group (dominant males or subordinate males) and the isolation group in male black rockfish after 3 weeks. A full-length cDNA encoding an androgen receptor (AR) of 766 amino acids was isolated. Transcripts encoding this AR were detected at a high relative abundance in the liver, kidney, testis, ovary, muscle, and intestine tissue. Further evaluation of brain genes transcripts abundance revealed that the mRNA levels of gnrh I and ar genes were significantly different between the interaction group and the isolation group in the hypothalamus. However, no significant difference was detected in testosterone, 11-keto-testosterone, and GSI between these two groups. This study indicates that a long-term aggressive interaction affect the expression of hypothalamic gnrh I and ar but may not change the physiological function of the HPG axis in an all-male condition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00359-021-01480-8DOI Listing
May 2021

Controllable Epitaxial Growth of Large-Area MoS /WS Vertical Heterostructures by Confined-Space Chemical Vapor Deposition.

Small 2021 May 18;17(18):e2007312. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

School of Chemistry and Physics and QUT Centre for Materials Science, Queensland University of Technology (QUT), Brisbane, QLD, 4000, Australia.

The controllable large-area growth of single-crystal vertical heterostructures based on 2D transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) remains a challenge. Here, large-area vertical MoS /WS heterostructures are synthesized using single-step confined-space chemical vapor epitaxy. The heterostructures can evolve into two different kinds by switching the H flow on and off: MoS /WS heterostructures with multiple WS domains can be achieved without introducing the H flow due to the numerous nucleation centers on the bottom MoS monolayer during the transition stage between the MoS and WS monolayer growth. In contrast, isolated MoS /WS heterostructures with single WS domain can be obtained with introducing the H flow due to the reduced nucleation centers on the bottom MoS monolayer arising from the hydrogen etching effect. Both the two kinds of the vertical MoS /WS heterostructures feature high quality. The photodetectors based on the isolated MoS /WS heterostructures exhibit a high responsivity of 68 mA W and a short response time of 35 ms. This single-step chemical vapor epitaxy can be used to synthesize vertical MoS /WS heterostructures with high production efficiency. The new epitaxial growth approach may open new pathways to fabricate large-area heterostructures made of different 2D TMDs monolayers of interest to electronics, optoelectronics, and other applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202007312DOI Listing
May 2021

Enhanced performance of high Al-content AlGaN MSM photodetectors by electrode modification using hexadecanethiol.

Opt Express 2021 Feb;29(4):5466-5474

A metal electrode modification process for AlGaN-based metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodetectors have been introduced to enhance the response of solar-blind ultraviolet (UV) light detection. The hexadecanethiol organic molecules are chemically adsorbed on the electrodes of high-Al-content AlGaN MSM solar-blind UV photodetectors, which can reduce the work function of the metal electrode and change the height of the Schottky barrier. This modification process significantly increases the photocurrent and responsivity of the device compared with the referential photodetector without modification. Additionally, the adverse effects caused by the surface state and polarization of the AlGaN materials are effectively reduced, which can be beneficial for improving the electrical performances of III-nitride-based UV photodetectors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.418421DOI Listing
February 2021

Proteasome Subunit Alpha Type 7 Promotes Proliferation and Metastasis of Gastric Cancer Through MAPK Signaling Pathway.

Dig Dis Sci 2021 Mar 15. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Gastroenterology, Shanghai General Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Shanghai, 200080, China.

Background: Proteasome subunit alpha type 7 (PSMA7) shows a carcinogenic effect on various human malignancies, but its role and regulatory mechanism in gastric carcinoma (GC) remain unclear.

Aims: This study aimed to explore the role and mechanism of PSMA7 in GC.

Methods: In this study, PSMA7 expressions in GC cells and tissues were detected, and relationships between PSMA7 and clinicopathological features were explored. Then, PSMA7 levels in human GC cells were intervened, and changes in cell biological behavior were observed in vitro and vivo. Key proteins and downstream factors of MAPK signaling pathway were detected after PSMA7 intervention.

Results: PSMA7 was upregulated in GC tissues and cell lines. PSMA7 overexpression was significantly associated with poor pTNM, cTNM stage, and high HP infection. PSMA7 can promote proliferation, invasion, and metastasis of GC cells in vitro and vivo. Furthermore, PSMA7 expression affected the phosphorylation level of JNK, P38, ERK and the expressions of their downstream factors Ap-1, c-myc, P53.

Conclusion: PSMA7 can promote GC proliferation, invasion, and metastasis through MAPK signaling pathway in GC cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10620-021-06903-9DOI Listing
March 2021

The combined effects of macrophytes (Vallisneria denseserrulata) and a lanthanum-modified bentonite on water quality of shallow eutrophic lakes: A mesocosm study.

Environ Pollut 2021 May 19;277:116720. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography & Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 210008, Nanjing, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100049, Beijing, China; Sino-Danish Centre for Education and Research (SDC), University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100049, Beijing, China; Department of Ecology and Institute of Hydrobiology, Jinan University, 510632, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Establishment of submerged macrophyte beds and application of chemical phosphorus inactivation are common lake restoration methods for reducing internal phosphorus loading. The two methods operate via different mechanisms and may potentially supplement each other, especially when internal phosphorous loading is continuously high. However, their combined effects have so far not been elucidated. Here, we investigated the combined impact of the submerged macrophyte Vallisneria denseserrulata and a lanthanum-modified bentonite (Phoslock®) on water quality in a 12-week mesocosm experiment. The combined treatment led to stronger improvement of water quality and a more pronounced reduction of porewater soluble reactive phosphorus than each of the two measures. In the combined treatment, total porewater soluble reactive phosphorus in the top 10 cm sediment layers decreased by 78% compared with the control group without Phoslock® and submerged macrophytes. Besides, in the upper 0-1 cm sediment layer, mobile phosphorus was transformed into recalcitrant forms (e.g. the proportion of HCl-P increased to 64%), while in the deeper layers, (hydr)oxides-bound phosphorus species increased 17-28%. Phoslock®, however, reduced the clonal growth of V. denseserrulata by 35% of biomass (dry weight) and 27% of plant density. Our study indicated that Phoslock® and submerged macrophytes may complement each other in the early stage of lake restoration following external nutrient loading reduction in eutrophic lakes, potentially accelerating the restoration process, especially in those lakes where the internal phosphorus loading is high.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.116720DOI Listing
May 2021

A mouse allergic asthma model induced by shrimp tropomyosin.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Feb 25;91:107289. Epub 2020 Dec 25.

Institute of Translational Medicine, Medical College, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009, China; Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Experimental & Translational Non-coding RNA Research, Yangzhou University Medical College, Yangzhou 225009, China; Xinghua People's Hospital, Yangzhou University, Xinghua, Jiangsu 225700, China. Electronic address:

Allergic asthma remains an important worldwide health issue. Animal models are valuable for understanding the pathophysiological mechanisms of asthma and the development of effective therapeutics. This study aims to develop an alternative murine model induced by shrimp tropomyosin (ST) instead of ovalbumin (OVA). To investigate responses to short-term exposure to antigens, mice were sensitized with intraperitoneal injections of ST or ST plus aluminum adjuvant on days 0, 7, 14 followed by an intranasal challenge with ST for seven consecutive days. We reveal that sensitization with ST alone or ST plus aluminum induces significant levels of serum total IgE and ST-specific IgE in mice. Challenge results show that ST causes severe eosinophilic airway inflammation. Histology analysis of the lung tissues demonstrates airway inflammation and mucus hypersecretion within the bronchi in mice exposed to ST. Analysis of the cell composition in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) shows a significant increase in eosinophil count in ST alone and ST plus aluminum groups. We also detect increased CD4 T lymphocytes in lung tissues and production of helper T cell type 2-associated cytokines (IL-4 and IL-5) in BALF. In addition, airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine in ST alone and ST plus aluminum groups is much higher than that in control groups. For the chronic model, mice were sensitized by ST or ST plus aluminum adjuvant for 3weeks and challenged with ST for 6weeks. We find severe structural changes in animals upon prolonged exposure to ST, including goblet cell hyperplasia, collagen deposition, and smooth muscle thickening. In conclusion, ST-induced asthma is a simple murine model for studying pathogenesis of asthma and evaluating new therapeutic drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2020.107289DOI Listing
February 2021

Genome-wide analysis of AP2/ERF transcription factors in pineapple reveals functional divergence during flowering induction mediated by ethylene and floral organ development.

Genomics 2021 Mar 20;113(2):474-489. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Key Laboratory of Ministry of Agriculture for Tropical Fruit Biology, South Subtropical Crops Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences, Zhanjiang 524091, PR China. Electronic address:

The APETALA2/ethylene-responsive factor (AP2/ERF) has important roles in regulating developmental processes and hormone signaling transduction in plants. Pineapple demonstrates a special sensitivity to ethylene, and AP2/ERFs may contribute to this distinct sensitivity of pineapples to ethylene. However, little information is available on the AP2/ERF of pineapple. In this study, 97 AP2/ERF family members were identified from the pineapple genome. The AcAP2/ERF superfamily could be further divided into five subfamilies, and different subfamily existed functional divergence in multifarious biological processes. ERF and RAV subfamily genes might play important roles in the process of ethylene response of pineapple; ERF and DREB subfamily genes had particular functions in the floral organ development. This study is the first to provide detailed information on the features of AP2/ERFs in pineapple, provide new insights into the potential functional roles of the AP2/ERF superfamily members, and will facilitate a better understanding of the molecular mechanism of flower in pineapple.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygeno.2020.10.040DOI Listing
March 2021

BaBao Dan Suppresses Tumor Growth of Pancreatic Cancer Through Modulating Transcriptional Reprogramming of Cancer-Related Genes.

Front Oncol 2020 19;10:584330. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Department of Integrative Oncology, Fudan University, Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai, China.

Background And Aims: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of refractory malignancies without efficient therapeutics. Babao Dan (BBD) was partially effective to suppress tumor growth of PDAC in clinical practice. However, the molecular mechanisms were unclear.

Methods: We established PDAC mice models and treated them with BBD through intragastric administration. Treatment and control groups were then subjected to high-throughput RNA sequencing. We presented the transcriptional changes upon BBD treatment by using computational analysis comparing BBD treatment and control groups. Functional enrichment analysis was employed to investigate the biological processes or pathways that BBD modulates.

Results: BBD treatment showed strong suppression on tumor growth of PDAC, even stronger than Gemcitabine. Through differential analysis comparing BBD treatment and control groups, we identified 638 up-regulated and 259 down-regulated genes in the BBD treatment group. BBD was found to activate tumor suppressor genes, such as MTUS1, PDGFB, SOD3, and UCHL1. Furthermore, we revealed that BBD treatment inhibited cancer-related pathways and elevated activities of metabolism-related processes. The BBD-modulated metabolic genes were further showed to be associated with patient survival in an independent cohort with pancreatic cancer.

Conclusion: BBD repressed the tumor growth of PDAC. BBD treatment modulated expression of cancer-related genes in PDAC. BBD suppressed cancer-related pathways and activated metabolic processes in PDAC. Our study suggests BBD treatment as potential effective therapeutics for patients with pancreatic cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2020.584330DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7710661PMC
November 2020

Changes in Aggressive Behavior, Cortisol and Brain Monoamines during the Formation of Social Hierarchy in Black Rockfish ().

Animals (Basel) 2020 Dec 10;10(12). Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Fisheries College, Zhejiang Ocean University, Zhoushan 316022, China.

Aggressive interactions can lead to a social hierarchy and influence the responses of animal behavior and physiology. However, our understanding on the changes of fish behavior and physiology during the process of social hierarchical formation is limited. To explore the responses of fish behavior and physiology to social hierarchy, we examined the differences in the growth performance, aggression, cortisol level, brain serotonergic activity, and brain dopamine activity between the dominant individuals and the subordinate individuals of black rockfish () in two time scenarios. In the short-term contest, the cortisol level and the ratio of telencephalic 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA)/5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) was significantly higher in subordinate individuals than in dominant individuals. In the long-term contest, the ratios of 5-HIAA/5-HT in all brain regions were significantly higher, and the frequency of aggressive acts were significantly lower in subordinate individuals than in dominant individuals. In contrast, no difference was detected in growth performance. Significant positive correlations between the cortisol level and serotonergic activity were observed in the short-term contest, but the serotonergic activity was negatively correlated with the aggressive behavior in the long-term contest. These results suggest that subordinate hierarchy inhibits aggression but does not impact growth in black rockfish. The cortisol-related change in brain monoaminergic activity could be a potential indicator to predict aggressive behavior in black rockfish in captivity with an obvious social hierarchy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10122357DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7764302PMC
December 2020

miR-144/451 inhibits c-Myc to promote erythroid differentiation.

FASEB J 2020 10 16;34(10):13194-13210. Epub 2020 Aug 16.

Institute of Translational Medicine, Medical College, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, China.

Ablation of miR-144/451 disrupts homeostasis of erythropoiesis. Myc, a protooncogenic protein, is essential for erythroblast proliferation but commits rapid downregulation during erythroid maturation. How erythroblasts orchestrate maturation processes through coding and non-coding genes is largely unknown. In this study, we use miR-144/451 knockout mice as in vivo model, G1E, MEL erythroblast lines and erythroblasts from fresh mouse fetal livers as in vitro systems to demonstrate that targeted depletion of miR-144/451 blocks erythroid nuclear condensation and enucleation. This is due, at least in part, to the continued high expression of Myc in erythroblasts when miR-144/451 is absent. Specifically, miR-144/451 directly inhibits Myc in erythroblasts. Loss of miR-144/451 locus derepresses, and thus, increases the expression of Myc. Sustained high levels of Myc in miR-144/451-depleted erythroblasts blocks erythroid differentiation. Moreover, Myc reversely regulates the expression of miR-144/451, forming a positive miR-144/451-Myc feedback to ensure the complete shutoff of Myc during erythropoiesis. Given that erythroid-specific transcription factor GATA1 activates miR-144/451 and inactivates Myc, our findings indicate that GATA1-miR-144/451-Myc network safeguards normal erythroid differentiation. Our findings also demonstrate that disruption of the miR-144/451-Myc crosstalk causes anemia, suggesting that miR-144/451 might be a potential therapeutic target in red cell diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.202000941RDOI Listing
October 2020

Comparative analysis of the complete mitochondrial genomes of three rockfishes (Scorpaeniformes, Sebastiscus) and insights into the phylogenetic relationships of Sebastidae.

Biosci Rep 2020 12;40(12)

Fishery College, Zhejiang Ocean University, Zhoushan, Zhejiang, China.

Mitochondrial genome is a powerful molecule marker to provide information for phylogenetic relationships and revealing molecular evolution in ichthyological studies. Sebastiscus species, a marine rockfish, are of essential economic value. However, the taxonomic status and phylogenetic relationships of Sebastidae have been controversial so far. Here, the mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) of three species, S. tertius, S. albofasciatus, and S. marmoratus, were systemically investigated. The lengths of the mitogenomes' sequences of S. tertius, S. albofasciatus, and S. marmoratus were 16910, 17056, and 17580 bp, respectively. It contained 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and one identical control region (D-loop) among the three species. The genetic distance and Ka/Ks ratio analyses indicated 13 PCGs were suffering purifying selection and the selection pressures were different from certain deep-sea fishes, which were most likely due to the difference in their living environment. The phylogenetic tree was constructed by Bayesian Inference (BI) and Maximum Likelihood (ML). Most interestingly, the results indicated that Sebastidae and Scorpaenidae were grouped into a separate branch, so the taxonomic status of Sebastidae should be classified into subfamily Sebastinae. Our results may lead to a taxonomic revision of Scorpaenoidei.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BSR20203379DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7736627PMC
December 2020

2D atomic crystal molecular superlattices by soft plasma intercalation.

Nat Commun 2020 Nov 24;11(1):5960. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Engineering Research Center of IoT Technology Applications (Ministry of Education), Department of Electronic Engineering, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, 214122, China.

Two-dimensional (2D) atomic crystal superlattices integrate diverse 2D layered materials enabling adjustable electronic and optical properties. However, tunability of the interlayer gap and interactions remain challenging. Here we report a solution based on soft oxygen plasma intercalation. 2D atomic crystal molecular superlattices (ACMSs) are produced by intercalating O ions into the interlayer space using the plasma electric field. Stable molecular oxygen layer is formed by van der Waals interactions with adjacent transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) monolayers. The resulting interlayer gap expansion can effectively isolate TMD monolayers and impart exotic properties to homo-(MoS[O]) and hetero-(MoS[O]/WS[O]) stacked ACMSs beyond typical capacities of monolayer TMDs, such as 100 times stronger photoluminescence and 100 times higher photocurrent. Our potentially universal approach to tune interlayer stacking and interactions in 2D ACMSs may lead to exotic superlattice properties intrinsic to monolayer materials such as direct bandgap pursued for future optoelectronics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-19766-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7686334PMC
November 2020

Trophic transfer of heavy metals through aquatic food web in a seagrass ecosystem of Swan Lagoon, China.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Mar 16;762:143139. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

Fishery College, Zhejiang Ocean University, Zhoushan 316022, China; Laboratory for Marine Fisheries Science and Food Production Processes, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266237, China. Electronic address:

The Swan Lagoon is a national nature reserve and an important spawning ground in China. In this study, we evaluated the concentration of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn) in different aquatic organisms (aquatic plants, crustaceans, mollusks, and fish), in order to examine their trophic transfer in food web. The results showed that the concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn were considerably higher in mollusks, whereas Cr concentrations were significantly higher in aquatic plants than in mollusks, crustaceans, and fish (p < 0.01). Heavy metals exhibit different patterns of trophic transfer in food web. Cd, Cr, Cu, and Pb tended to be efficiently biodiluted with increasing trophic levels in food web (trophic magnification factor, TMF < 1; p < 0.05). The concentration of Zn increased with increasing trophic level; however, it exhibited a TMF of only 1.03, and was not significantly correlated with δN (p > 0.05), indicating neither biomagnification or biodilution in the food web.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.143139DOI Listing
March 2021

Stimulation of photosynthesis and enhancement of growth and yield in Arabidopsis thaliana treated with amine-functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2020 Nov 6;156:566-577. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Deakin University, School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Geelong Campus at Waurn Ponds, Victoria, 3216, Australia. Electronic address:

Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) of 50 nm diameter particle size with a pore size of approximately 14.7 nm were functionalized with amino groups (Am-MSNs) and the effects of exposure to these positively charged Am-MSNs on each of the life cycle stages of Arabidopsis thaliana were investigated. After growth in half strength MS medium amended with Am-MSNs (0-100 μg/mL) for 7 and 14 days, seed germination rate and seedling growth were significantly increased compared with untreated controls. The seedlings were then transferred to soil and irrigated with Am-MSNs solutions every 3 days until seed harvesting. After four weeks growth in soil, Am-MSNs treated plants showed up-regulation of chlorophyll and carotenoid synthesis-related genes, an increase in the content of photosynthetic pigments and an amplification of plant photosynthetic capacity. All these changes in plants were closely correlated with greater vegetative growth and higher seed yield. In all the experiments, 20 and 50 μg/mL of Am-MSNs were found to be more effective with respect to other treatments, while Am-MSNs at the highest level of 100 μg/mL did not result in oxidative stress or cell membrane damage in the exposed plants. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report evaluating both physiological and molecular responses following exposure to plants of these specific Am-MSNs throughout their whole life cycle. Overall, these findings indicate that following exposure Am-MSNs play a major role in the increase in seed germination, biomass, photosynthetic pigments, photosynthetic capacity and seed yield in A. thaliana.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2020.09.036DOI Listing
November 2020

Uniform FeO/GdO-DHCA nanocubes for dual-mode magnetic resonance imaging.

Beilstein J Nanotechnol 2020 8;11:1000-1009. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of MRI, Taiyuan Central Hospital of Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030009, China.

The multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique has been extensively studied over the past few years since it offers complementary information that can increase diagnostic accuracy. Simple methods to synthesize contrast agents are necessary for the development of multimodal MRI. Herein, uniformly distributed FeO/GdO nanocubes for - dual-mode MRI contrast agents were successfully designed and synthesized. In order to increase hydrophilicity and biocompatibility, the nanocubes were coated with nontoxic 3,4-dihydroxyhydrocinnamic acid (DHCA). The results show that iron (Fe) and gadolinium (Gd) were homogeneously distributed throughout the FeO/GdO-DHCA (FGDA) nanocubes. Relaxation time analysis was performed on the images obtained from the 3.0 T scanner. The results demonstrated that and maximum values were 67.57 ± 6.2 and 24.2 ± 1.46 mM·s, respectively. In vivo - and -weighted images showed that FGDA nanocubes act as a dual-mode contrast agent enhancing MRI quality. Overall, these experimental results suggest that the FGDA nanocubes are interesting tools that can be used to increase MRI quality, enabling accurate clinical diagnostics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3762/bjnano.11.84DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7356208PMC
July 2020

A novel tumor suppressor ZBTB1 regulates tamoxifen resistance and aerobic glycolysis through suppressing expression in breast cancer.

J Biol Chem 2020 10 20;295(41):14140-14152. Epub 2020 Jul 20.

The Center for Translational Medicine, Yichun University, Yichun, Jiangxi, P.R. China

Transcriptional repressor zinc finger and BTB domain containing 1 (ZBTB1) is required for DNA repair. Because DNA repair defects often underlie genome instability and tumorigenesis, we determined to study the role of ZBTB1 in cancer. In this study, we found that ZBTB1 is down-regulated in breast cancer and this down-regulation is associated with poor outcome of breast cancer patients. ZBTB1 suppresses breast cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth. The majority of breast cancers are estrogen receptor (ER) positive and selective estrogen receptor modulators such as tamoxifen have been widely used in the treatment of these patients. Unfortunately, many patients develop resistance to endocrine therapy. Tamoxifen-resistant cancer cells often exhibit higher HER2 expression and an increase of glycolysis. Our data revealed that ZBTB1 plays a critical role in tamoxifen resistance and To see if ZBTB1 regulates HER2 expression, we tested the recruitments of ZBTB1 on regulatory sequences. We observed that over-expressed ZBTB1 occupies the estrogen receptor α (ERα)-binding site of the intron in tamoxifen-resistant cells, suppressing tamoxifen-induced transcription. In an effort to identify potential microRNAs (miRNAs) regulating ZBTB1, we found that miR-23b-3p directly targets ZBTB1. MiR-23b-3p regulates HER2 expression and tamoxifen resistance via targeting ZBTB1. Finally, we found that miR-23b-3p/ZBTB1 regulates aerobic glycolysis in tamoxifen-resistant cells. Together, our data demonstrate that ZBTB1 is a tumor suppressor in breast cancer cells and that targeting the miR-23b-3p/ZBTB1 may serve as a potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of tamoxifen resistant breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.RA119.010759DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7549032PMC
October 2020

TMED3 Promotes Proliferation and Migration in Breast Cancer Cells by Activating Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling.

Onco Targets Ther 2020 19;13:5819-5830. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

College of Basic Medical Sciences, China Medical University and Department of Pathology, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Evidence describing TMED3 in the context of breast cancer is scarce, and the effect of TMED3 on Wnt/β-catenin signaling in breast cancer has not been reported. The objective of this study was to determine the potential physiological functions and molecular mechanisms of TMED3 in breast cancer.

Materials And Methods: Quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot analysis were used to analyze the expression of TMED3 mRNA and protein in 182 paraffin-embedded primary breast cancer tissues and 60 paired noncancerous tissues and 25 fresh primary breast cancer tissues and surrounding adjacent noncancerous tissues. Associations between TMED3 expression and clinicopathologic factors or overall survival were determined. The effects of overexpression or knockdown of TMED3 on proliferation, migration, invasion, and cell cycle progression in breast cancer cell lines were investigated with the Cell Counting Kit-8, clone formation assay, transwell assay, wound healing assay, and flow cytometry, respectively. Immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis were used to detect the expression of cell cycle, migration-related, and Wnt/β-catenin signaling proteins.

Results: The expression of TMED3 mRNA and protein were significantly increased in breast cancer tissues and cell lines compared to normal controls. TMED3 upregulation was significantly correlated with clinicopathologic characteristics and predicted poor prognosis in patients with breast cancer. TMED3 overexpression promoted proliferation, migration, invasion, and cell cycle progression compared to controls in breast cancer cell lines. TMED3 knockdown suppressed proliferation, migration, invasion, and cell cycle progression compared to controls in breast cancer cell lines. TMED3 promoted proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells by a mechanism that involved Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

Conclusion: TMED3 behaves as an oncogene that promotes the proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells by a mechanism that involved Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Strategies targeting TMED3 have potential therapeutic implications for patients with breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OTT.S250766DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7311187PMC
June 2020

Epidemiological and clinical features of 125 Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19 in Fuyang, Anhui, China.

Int J Infect Dis 2020 Jun 11;95:421-428. Epub 2020 Apr 11.

Fuyang Infectious Disease Clinical College of Anhui Medical University, Yingzhou west Road 1088, Fuyang, Anhui 236015, PR China; Department of Respiratory and Critical Care, the Second People's Hospital of Fuyang City, Yingzhou west Road 1088, Fuyang, Anhui 236015, PR China.

Objective: To investigate the epidemiological and clinical features of patients with COVID-19 in Anhui province of China.

Method: In this descriptive study, we obtained epidemiological, demographic, manifestations, laboratory data and radiological findings of patients confirmed by real-time RT-PCR in the NO.2 People's Hospital of Fuyang City from Jan 20 to Feb 9, 2020. Clinical outcomes were followed up to Feb 18, 2020.

Results: Of 125 patients infected SARS-CoV-2, the mean age was 38.76 years (SD, 13.799) and 71(56.8%) were male. Common symptoms include fever [116 (92.8%)], cough [102(81.6%)], and shortness of breath [57(45.6%)]. Lymphocytopenia developed in 48(38.4%) patients. 100(80.0%) patients showed bilateral pneumonia, 26(20.8%) patients showed multiple mottling and ground-glass opacity. All patients were given antiviral therapy. 19(15.2%) patients were transferred to the intensive care unit. By February 18, 47(37.6%) patients were discharged and none of patients died. Among the discharged patients, the median time of length of stay was 14.8 days (SD 4.16).

Conclusion: In this single-center, retrospective, descriptive study, fever is the most common symptom. Old age, chronic underlying diseases and smoking history may be risk factors to worse condition. Certain laboratory inspection may contribute to the judgment of the severity of illness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.03.070DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7151431PMC
June 2020

Biomimetic polyvinyl alcohol/type II collagen hydrogels for cartilage tissue engineering.

J Biomater Sci Polym Ed 2020 06 5;31(9):1179-1198. Epub 2020 Apr 5.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Research Center for Nano-biomaterials & Regenerative Medicine, College of Biomedical Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan, PR China.

Type II collagen (Col-II) is one of the important organic components of the cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM). Such natural material is known for its good biocompatibility, but it could not provide a good supporting environment for seed cells due to its rapid degradation and poor strength. In the present work, different contents of Col-II were incorporated into porous polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to fabricate porous PVA/Col-II composite hydrogels for cartilage tissue engineering. The results illustrate that, after incorporation of Col-II, the elasticity modulus of the composite hydrogels firstly increases, and then decreases (under moisture state). The elasticity modulus of PVA/Col-II (at the ratio of 1:1) hydrogels reaches 11 ± 1.7 KPa, about two-fold higher than pure PVA hydrogels (4.9 ± 0.6 KPa). Meanwhile, all hydrogels exhibit relatively high water content (> 95%) and porosity (> 75%). The degradation analysis indicates that Col-II incorporation induce a high degradation ratio of the composite hydrogels. Cell culture results show PVA/Col-II hydrogels have no negative effects on cells viability and proliferation. The PVA/Col-II hydrogels may possess a potential application in the field of articular cartilage tissue engineering and regeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09205063.2020.1747184DOI Listing
June 2020

TXNDC5 protects synovial fibroblasts of rheumatoid arthritis from the detrimental effects of endoplasmic reticulum stress.

Intractable Rare Dis Res 2020 Feb;9(1):23-29

Shandong Medicinal Biotechnology Centre, Key Laboratory for Rare and Uncommon Diseases of Shandong Province, Key Lab for Biotechnology Drugs of the Ministry of Health, Shandong First Medical University & Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Ji'nan, Shandong, China.

TXNDC5 is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident chaperone that protects the endothelium from secondary effects of ER stress. Previous studies by the current authors identified TXNDC5 as a key pathological factor in promoting the inflammatory phenotype of fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) from rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, its activity in RA FLSs under ER stress remains unclear. The current study found that TXNDC5 is responsive to ER stress in RA FLSs since its expression was induced by ER stress at both the endogenous and secretory level. A functional study indicated that silencing TXNDC5 reduced the viability of RA FLSs more markedly in the presence of ER stressors. In contrast, rhTXNDC5 attenuated a decrease in cell viability as a result of ER stress. Moreover, silencing TXNDC5 attenuated the induction of IL-6 and IL-8 from RA FLSs in response to ER stress. In addition, rhTXNDC5 induced a greater increase in VEGF production during ER stress. These findings confirm the pro-survival and pro-inflammation roles of TXNDC5 under ER stress in RA FLSs. TXNDC5 appears to act as a mediator linking ER stress and inflammation of RA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5582/irdr.2019.01139DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7062600PMC
February 2020

Pinyin Is an Effective Proxy for Early Screening for Mandarin-Speaking Children at Risk of Reading Disorders.

Front Psychol 2020 26;11:327. Epub 2020 Feb 26.

Department of Women's and Children's Health, Dunedin School of Medicine, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.

Reading disorders (RD) are common and complex neuropsychological conditions associated with decoding printed words and/or reading comprehension. Early identification of children at risk of RD is critical to allow timely interventions before mental suffering and reading impairment take place. Chinese is a unique medium for studying RD because of extra efforts required in reading acquisition of characters based on meaning rather than phonology. Pinyin, an alphabetic coding system mapping Mandarin sounds to characters, is important to develop oral language skills and a promising candidate for early screening for RD. In this pilot study, we used a cohort of 100 students (50 each in Grades 1 and 2) to derive novel profiles of applying Pinyin to identify early schoolers at risk of RD. Each student had comprehensive reading related measures in two consecutive years, including Pinyin reading and reading comprehension tested in the first and second year, respectively. We showed that Pinyin reading was mainly determined by phonological awareness, was well developed in Grade 1 and the top predictor of reading comprehension (explaining ∼30% of variance, < 1.0e-05). Further, students who performed poorly in Pinyin reading [e.g. 1 standard deviation (SD) below the average, counting 14% in Grade 1 and 10% in Grade 2], tended to perform poorly in future reading comprehension tests, including all four individuals in Grade 1 (two out of three in Grade 2) who scored 1.5 SDs below the average. Pinyin is therefore an effective proxy for early screening for Mandarin-speaking children at risk of RD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.00327DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7055296PMC
February 2020
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