Publications by authors named "Xiujun Guo"

9 Publications

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Using MODFLOW/MT3DMS and electrical resistivity tomography to characterize organic pollutant migration in clay soil layer with a shallow water table.

Environ Technol 2021 Dec 23;42(28):4490-4499. Epub 2020 May 23.

College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, People's Republic of China.

The clay soil in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River in China is widely distributed and the groundwater table is shallow. In order to accurately analyze the distribution and assess the potentially harmful effects of the pollutants in this region, it's necessary to study the diffusion rate and subsequent concentrations of organic pollutants. Our study area, located in Kunshan in the Jiangsu Province, represents a typical contaminated site consisting of a silty clay layer located in a shallow water table. Our model for the horizontal diffusion, vertical diffusion, and concentration distribution of organic pollutants through this clay layer over 30 years. The simulation results were compared to the measured horizontal distribution of the pollutant concentration at a depth of 2 m and the electrical resistivity tomography data reflecting the longitudinal changes in the polluted area. Our model generated accurate pollutant concentration and diffusion depth results, but the modelled horizontal diffusion distance of the pollution plume did not agree with observational data. After increasing the soil permeability coefficient at a depth of 2 m by a factor of 20,000, the numerical simulation results more closely match those of the measured results. Based on model results, we propose that the seasonal fluctuation of the groundwater table controls the vertical diffusion distance, and that the wide horizontal pollutant diffusion distance is a consequence of the sharp increase in the cohesive soil permeability (caused by repeated water gain and loss).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09593330.2020.1767699DOI Listing
December 2021

Mapping the contaminant plume of an abandoned hydrocarbon disposal site with geophysical and geochemical methods, Jiangsu, China.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2019 Aug 25;26(24):24645-24657. Epub 2019 Jun 25.

College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, China.

The management and remediation of abandoned hydrocarbon-contaminated sites require detailed information on the distribution of contaminant plumes. In areas where groundwater is active, the formation of contaminant plumes is associated with hydrodynamics, the nature of the sedimentary layers, and the nature of the pollutants and the degradation process. A comprehensive survey is needed to determine this information. An abandoned hydrocarbon disposal site is located in an area where groundwater is very active. In the investigation of contaminant plumes, we combined the geophysical method with accurate geochemical analysis of subsoil and groundwater samples. Ground-penetrating radar and electrical resistivity tomography images of the electrical anomalies potentially originating from hydrocarbon pollution were used to select sites for subsurface sampling. Total petroleum hydrocarbons, total dissolved solids, and groundwater pH were measured. The results showed that the source zone had undergone long-term natural attenuation, and it was unable to continuously output organic matter to support the expansion of contaminant plumes. Low-resistivity anomalies and enhanced attenuation in the study area were caused by hydrocarbon degradation products and enhanced mineral weathering. Delineating the distribution of contaminant plumes in areas where the resistivity was below 15 Ω m. The distribution of the plume in the vertical direction was related to the hydrocarbon release history (release rate and volume) and was affected by fluctuations in the groundwater level. The contaminant plume moved very slowly along the direction of the hydraulic gradient and was in a basically stable state. The results showed that the combined application of the geoelectrical method and the geochemical method can effectively describe the distribution of underground contaminant plumes in an aged pollution site.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-05780-0DOI Listing
August 2019

Fresh underground light non-aqueous liquid (LNAPL) pollution source zone monitoring in an outdoor experiment using cross-hole electrical resistivity tomography.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2019 Jun 30;26(18):18316-18328. Epub 2019 Apr 30.

College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, China.

Real-time monitoring of source zone of light non-aqueous liquids (LNAPLs) is important for preventing accidental pollution and taking effective underground pollution remediation measures. As a high-precision monitoring technology, cross-hole electrical resistivity tomography (CHERT) has been widely used to obtain static information regarding underground stratigraphic structures and dynamic information regarding fluid motion. The time-lapse data processing method can be used to obtain pollution zone dynamic change information. Since the leakage rate directly affects the diffusion range of pollution, this study simulated the initial evolution process of LNAPL pollution source regions under two different leakage rates. The time-lapse monitoring of the above process was performed using CHERT. The test results show that CHERT can be used to observe the migration of LNAPLs and the initial evolution of the contaminated area. Differences in leakage rate will result in variation in soil wettability and fluid distribution, which will cause changes in soil resistivity in the corresponding region. The low-saturation LNAPL-contaminated area may exhibit low-resistivity characteristics and is easily overlooked in field investigations. In addition, the degree of contamination in the saturated zone can be quantitatively evaluated by CHERT; however, the pollution range and oil saturation value determined by CHERT are underestimated. The results showed the electrical variation characteristics of the initial evolution process of the fresh pollution source area and provide data that will enable early warnings of LNAPL leakage. This shows that CHERT is a promising tool for monitoring LNAPL pollution source leakage even if further research is needed to fully understand the effect of hydrological processes on electronic signals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-05039-8DOI Listing
June 2019

A Seabed Real-Time Sensing System for In-Situ Long-Term Multi-Parameter Observation Applications.

Sensors (Basel) 2019 Mar 12;19(5). Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Key Laboratory of Marine Environment and Geological Engineering Shandong Province, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100, China.

Aiming at the real-time observation requirements in marine science and ocean engineering, based on underwater acoustic communication and satellite communication technology, a seabed real-time sensing system for in-situ long-term multi-parameter observation applications (SRSS/ILMO) is proposed. It consists of a seabed observation system, a sea surface relay transmission buoy, and a remote monitoring system. The system communication link is implemented by underwater acoustic communication and satellite communication. The seabed observation system adopts the "ARM + FPGA" architecture to meet the low power consumption, scalability, and versatility design requirements. As a long-term unattended system, a two-stage anti-crash mechanism, an automatic system fault isolation design, dual-medium data storage, and improved Modbus protocol are adopted to meet the system reliability requirements. Through the remote monitoring system, users can configure the system working mode, sensor parameters and acquire observation data on demand. The seabed observation system can realize the observation of different fields by carrying different sensors such as those based on marine engineering geology, chemistry, biology, and environment. Carrying resistivity and pore pressure sensors, the SRSS/ILMO powered by seawater batteries was used for a seabed engineering geology observation. The preliminary test results based on harbor environment show the effectiveness of the developed system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s19051255DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6427298PMC
March 2019

Multicenter comparison of the efficacy on prevention of pressure ulcer in postoperative patients between two types of pressure-relieving mattresses in China.

Int J Clin Exp Med 2014 15;7(9):2820-7. Epub 2014 Sep 15.

Department of Pathology, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing University School of Medicine Jiangsu, China.

Objective: Present study is designed to evaluate the effects of preventing pressure ulcer in surgical patients with two types of pressure-relieving mattresses.

Methods: 1074 surgical patients from 12 hospitals in China were divided into A group (static air mattress with repositioning every 2 hours, n = 562) and B group (power pressure air mattress with repositioning every 2 hours, n = 512). The patient was subjected to a pressure-relieving mattress and observed from 0-5 days after surgery. Indications include the Braden scores, hospital-acquired pressure ulcers (HAPU) incidence and stage.

Results: The Braden scores between two groups in five days after surgery were no significant (P > 0.05). The incidence of HAPU between two groups in same days also was no significant (1.07% vs. 0.98%, P > 0.05). The incidence of Stage I and stage II pressure ulcers in group A and B were 1.07% (6/562) and 0.98% (5/512), respectively (χ(2) = 0.148, P = 0.882).

Conclusion: The effects of preventing pressure ulcer in surgical patients with two types of pressure-relieving mattresses are similar, but the protocol by static air mattress with repositioning every 2 hours is benefit when no power.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4211794PMC
October 2014

The incidence, risk factors and characteristics of pressure ulcers in hospitalized patients in China.

Int J Clin Exp Pathol 2014 15;7(5):2587-94. Epub 2014 Apr 15.

Department of Pathology, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing University School of Medicine Nanjing 210002, China.

Pressure ulcers are very common in hospital patients. Though many studies have been reported in many countries, the large-scale benchmarking prevalence of pressure ulcers in China is not available. The aim of this study is to quantify the prevalence of pressure ulcers and the incidence of hospital-acquired pressure ulcers and analyze risk factors in hospitalized patients in China. A multi-central cross-sectional survey was conducted in one university hospital and 11 general hospitals in China. The Minimum Data Set (MDS) recommended by European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel (EUPAP) was used to collect information of inpatients. All patients stayed in hospital more than 24 hours and older than 18 years signed consent form and were included. Data from 39952 out of 40415 (98.85%) inpatients were analyzed. Of the 39952 patients, 631 patients (including 1024 locations) had pressure ulcers. The prevalence rate of pressure ulcers in 12 hospitals was 1.58% (0.94-2.97%). The incidence of hospital-acquired pressure ulcers (HAPU) was 0.63% (0.20-1.20%). The most common locations developed pressure ulcers were sacrum, heels, and iliac crests. The common stages of pressure ulcers were stage I and II. Patients in Intensive Care Unit, Geriatric and Neurological Department were easier to develop pressure ulcers. The prevalence and incidence of pressure ulcers in China was lower than that reported in European and other countries. The stages of pressure ulcers in China were different than that reported in European countries. Our study provides with a baseline value for intensive research on pressure ulcer in China.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4069923PMC
February 2015

Characteristics of two calcium pectinates prepared from citrus pectin using either calcium chloride or calcium hydroxide.

J Agric Food Chem 2014 Jul 27;62(27):6354-61. Epub 2014 Jun 27.

Department of Food Science and Engineering, Jinan University , Guangzhou 510632, China.

Calcium pectinate (CaP) was prepared from citrus pectin using either calcium chloride (C-CaP) or calcium hydroxide (HO-CaP) as the source of calcium for the reaction. The production yields and the rates of decalcification for the two calcium pectinates were compared and both found to be lower for C-CaP than for HO-CaP. In an attempt to explain these differences, certain chemical and structural characteristics of the two products, including functional groups (-CH3, C═O, COO-), rheological properties, morphology, and egg-box junction zones, were investigated by Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, rheology, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results from FTIR showed that, with an increase in calcium content, the wavenumber values and peak areas of FTIR for -CH3, C═O, and COO- groups all changed dramatically for C-CaP, while they were virtually unchanged for HO-CaP. Rheological analysis of the CaP gel showed that C-CaP had a stronger cross-linked network structure and a greater range of elastic behavior as compared to HO-CaP. SEM images of two CaP gels showed irregular membranes. C-CaP maintained a tight structure and a smooth surface, whereas HO-CaP was loose and rough. The results from XRD revealed a higher degree of crystallinity within C-CaP than within HO-CaP, which indicated that C-CaP possessed compact, ordered, and stable egg-box junction zones while the junction zones in HO-CaP were metastable and loose.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf5004545DOI Listing
July 2014

Mixed polyethylene glycol-modified breviscapine-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles for improved brain bioavailability: preparation, characterization, and in vivo cerebral microdialysis evaluation in adult Sprague Dawley rats.

AAPS PharmSciTech 2014 Apr 31;15(2):483-96. Epub 2014 Jan 31.

Tianjin State Key Laboratory of Modern Chinese Medicine, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 88 Yuquan Road, Tianjin, 300193, People's Republic of China,

Breviscapine is used in the treatment of ischemic cerebrovascular diseases, but it has a low bioavailability in the brain due to its poor physicochemical properties and the activity of P-glycoprotein efflux pumps located at the blood-brain barrier. In the present study, breviscapine-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) derivatives were formulated and evaluated for their ability to enhance brain bioavailability. The SLNs were either coated with polyethylene glycol (40) (PEG-40) stearate alone (Bre-GBSLN-PS) or a mixture of PEG-40 stearate and 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-PEG2000 (DSPE-PEG2000) (Bre-GBSLN-PS-DSPE) and were characterized both in vitro and in vivo. The mean particle size, polydispersity index, and entrapment efficiency for Bre-GBSLN-PS and Bre-GBSLN-PS-DSPE were 21.60 ± 0.10 and 22.60 ± 0.70 nm, 0.27 ± 0.01 and 0.26 ± 0.04, and 46.89 ± 0.73% and 47.62 ± 1.86%, respectively. The brain pharmacokinetic parameters revealed that the brain bioavailability of breviscapine from the Bre-GBSLN-PS and Bre-GBSLN-PS-DSPE was significantly enhanced (p < 0.01) with the area under concentration-time curve (AUC) of 1.59 ± 0.39 and 1.42 ± 0.58 μg h/mL of breviscapine, respectively, in comparison to 0.11 ± 0.02 μg h/mL from the commercial breviscapine injection. The ratios of the brain AUC for scutellarin in comparison with the plasma scutellarin AUC for commercial breviscapine injection, Bre-GBSLN-PS, and Bre-GBSLN-PS-DSPE were 0.66%, 2.82%, and 4.51%, respectively. These results showed that though both SLN formulations increased brain uptake of breviscapine, Bre-GBSLN-PS-DSPE which was coated with a binary combination of PEG-40 stearate and DSPE-PEG2000 had a better brain bioavailability than Bre-GBSLN-PS. Thus, the coating of SLNs with the appropriate PEG derivative combination could improve brain bioavailability of breviscapine and can be a promising tool for brain drug delivery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1208/s12249-014-0080-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3969492PMC
April 2014

Preparation and evaluation of charged solid lipid nanoparticles of tetrandrine for ocular drug delivery system: pharmacokinetics, cytotoxicity and cellular uptake studies.

Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2014 Jul 10;40(7):980-7. Epub 2013 May 10.

Engineering Research Center of Modern Chinese Medicine Discovery and Preparation Technique, Ministry of Education , Tianjin 300193 , P.R. China .

In this study, tetrandrine-loaded cationic solid lipid nanoparticles (TET-CNP) and solid lipid nanoparticles (TET-NP) were prepared by the emulsion evaporation-solidification at low temperature method. The particle size, zeta potential, and entrapment efficiency of TET-CNP and TET-NP were characterized. The results showed that the TET-CNP and TET-NP had average diameters of (15.29 ± 1.34) nm and (18.77 ± 1.23) nm with zeta potentials of (5.11 ± 1.03) mV and (-8.71 ± -1.23) mV and entrapment efficiencies of (94.1 ± 2.37)% and (95.6 ± 2.43)%, respectively. In vitro release studies indicated that the TET-CNP and TET-NP retained the drug entity better than tetrandrine ophthalmic solutions (TET-SOL). In the pharmacokinetics studies, the AUC values of TET-CNP and TET-NP were 1.96-fold and 2.00-fold higher than that of TET-SOL ( p < 0.05); the Cmax values of TET-CNP and TET-NP were 2.45-fold and 2.53-fold higher than that of the TET-SOL (p < 0.05), respectively. Cytotoxicity study showed that TET-CNP and TET-NP had no significant toxicity at low concentrations. Flow cytometry studies and confocal microscopy analysis demonstrated that calcein labeled NP (CA-NP) uptake by SRA 01/04 cells was much higher than those of calcein labeled CNP (CA-CNP) and calcein solution (CA-SOL).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/03639045.2013.795582DOI Listing
July 2014
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