Publications by authors named "Xiujuan Zheng"

30 Publications

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[A Gaussian mixture-hidden Markov model of human visual behavior].

Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi 2021 Jun;38(3):512-519

School of Electrical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, P.R.China.

Vision is an important way for human beings to interact with the outside world and obtain information. In order to research human visual behavior under different conditions, this paper uses a Gaussian mixture-hidden Markov model (GMM-HMM) to model the scanpath, and proposes a new model optimization method, time-shifting segmentation (TSS). The TSS method can highlight the characteristics of the time dimension in the scanpath, improve the pattern recognition results, and enhance the stability of the model. In this paper, a linear discriminant analysis (LDA) method is used for multi-dimensional feature pattern recognition to evaluates the rationality and the accuracy of the proposed model. Four sets of comparative trials were carried out for the model evaluation. The first group applied the GMM-HMM to model the scanpath, and the average accuracy of the classification could reach 0.507, which is greater than the opportunity probability of three classification (0.333). The second set of trial applied TSS method, and the mean accuracy of classification was raised to 0.610. The third group combined GMM-HMM with TSS method, and the mean accuracy of classification reached 0.602, which was more stable than the second model. Finally, comparing the model analysis results with the saccade amplitude (SA) characteristics analysis results, the modeling analysis method is much better than the basic information analysis method. Via analyzing the characteristics of three types of tasks, the results show that the free viewing task have higher specificity value and a higher sensitivity to the cued object search task. In summary, the application of GMM-HMM model has a good performance in scanpath pattern recognition, and the introduction of TSS method can enhance the difference of scanpath characteristics. Especially for the recognition of the scanpath of search-type tasks, the model has better advantages. And it also provides a new solution for a single state eye movement sequence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7507/1001-5515.202008022DOI Listing
June 2021

Interference with lncRNA NEAT1 promotes the proliferation, migration, and invasion of trophoblasts by upregulating miR-411-5p and inhibiting PTEN expression.

Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol 2021 Jun 20;43(3):334-342. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Affiliated Jinhua Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Jinhua, China.

Preeclampsia (PE) is an idiopathic hypertensive disorder of pregnancy, which is related to abnormal placental villi development. Our previous study has found that lncRNA NEAT1 promotes apoptosis of trophoblasts, but the role of NEAT1 in proliferation, migration, and invasion is still unclear. This study explores the role of NEAT1 in proliferation, migration, and invasion of trophoblasts. NEAT1 and miR-411-5p levels were detected by quantitative real-time PCR. Colony formation assay detected cell proliferation and transwell assay detected cell migration and invasion. Dual-luciferase reporter assay detected the binding between NEAT1 and miR-411-5p as well as the binding between miR-411-5p and PTEN. RNA pull-down assay detected the combination between NEAT1 and miR-411-5p. NEAT1 was increased and miR-411-5p was reduced in PE patients and human trophoblasts (HTR8/SVneo cells) that were induced with HO. Interference with NEAT1 promoted cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, and the miR-411-5p inhibitor reversed the effect of siRNA-NEAT1. The expression of PTEN was promoted in PE patients and HTR8/SVneo cells that were induced with HO, while the miR-411-5p mimic inhibited PTEN expression, and the plasmid-mediated PTEN overexpression reversed the effect of the miR-411-5p mimic. Besides, under HO induction, the miR-411-5p mimic promoted cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, and the plasmid-mediated PTEN overexpression reversed the effect of the miR-411-5p mimic. Interference with lncRNA NEAT1 promoted the proliferation, migration, and invasion of trophoblasts and alleviated the development of PE, which was partly mediated by upregulating miR-411-5p and inhibiting PTEN expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08923973.2021.1910834DOI Listing
June 2021

Arabidopsis SMAX1 overaccumulation suppresses rosette shoot branching and promotes leaf and petiole elongation.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 05 20;553:44-50. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Genetics, Breeding and Multiple Utilization of Crops, College of Agriculture, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, 350002, China. Electronic address:

Arabidopsis: SMAX1/SMXL (SUPPRESSOR OF MAX2 1/SMAX1-LIKE) proteins function as transcriptional repressors in karrikin and strigolactone (SL) signaling pathways and regulate plant architecture. MAX2 is a common factor in the two signaling pathways and a component of the SCF complex that modulates the proteasome-mediated degradation of SMAX1/SMXLs. SMXL6, 7, and 8 proteins promote shoot branching and inhibit petiole elongation. Our study found that the accumulation of SMAX1 suppresses rosette shoot branching and increases cauline branches on the primary inflorescence stem, plant height, petiole length, and leaf length/width ratio. The SMAX1 accumulation enhances the expression of BRC1, HB53, HB40, and HB21 that modulate shoot branching. SMAX1 also regulates the expression of the genes involved in auxin transport, cytokinin signaling pathway, and SL biosynthesis. The expression analyses of these genes suggest that excessive SMAX1 should accelerate the transport of auxin and the biosynthesis of SL in plants. High SL concentration suppresses the bud development in smax1D mutant that accumulates SMAX1 protein in plant. However, the effects of cytokinin and auxin on shoot branching remain elusive in the mutant with excessive SMAX1. SMAX1 regulates leaf shape and petiole length via modulating TCP1 expression. Our findings reveal a novel function of SMAX1 and new mechanism of shoot branching.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2021.03.006DOI Listing
May 2021

A multi-scale convolutional neural network with context for joint segmentation of optic disc and cup.

Artif Intell Med 2021 03 17;113:102035. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

College of Electrical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China. Electronic address:

Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness. For glaucoma screening, the cup to disc ratio (CDR) is a significant indicator, whose calculation relies on the segmentation of optic disc(OD) and optic cup(OC) in color fundus images. This study proposes a residual multi-scale convolutional neural network with a context semantic extraction module to jointly segment the OD and OC. The proposed method uses a W-shaped backbone network, including image pyramid multi-scale input with the side output layer as an early classifier to generate local prediction output. The proposed method includes a context extraction module that extracts contextual semantic information from multiple level receptive field sizes and adaptively recalibrates channel-wise feature responses. It can effectively extract global information and reduce the semantic gaps in the fusion of deep and shallow semantic information. We validated the proposed method on four datasets, including DRISHTI-GS1, REFUGE, RIM-ONE r3, and a private dataset. The overlap errors are 0.0540, 0.0684, 0.0492, 0.0511 in OC segmentation and 0.2332, 0.1777, 0.2372, 0.2547 in OD segmentation, respectively. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method can estimate the CDR for a large-scale glaucoma screening.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.artmed.2021.102035DOI Listing
March 2021

C-C Bond Cleavage Initiated Cascade Reaction of β-Enaminones: One-Pot Synthesis of 5-Hydroxy-1-pyrrol-2(5)-ones.

J Org Chem 2021 Feb 13;86(3):2917-2928. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

School of Environment and Public Health, Xiamen Key Laboratory of Food and Drug Safety, Xiamen Huaxia University, Xiamen, Fujian 361024, China.

An unprecedented C(CO)-C(Ar) bond cleavage of β-enaminones has been realized under mild and transition-metal-free conditions. The cascade transformation based on this C-C bond cleavage involves 1,3-O/C migration and aerobic hydroxylation and leads to various 5-hydroxy-1-pyrrol-2(5)-ones with broad functional group tolerance. The application of this methodology has been showcased by preparing 5-alkoxy-1-pyrrol-2(5)-one derivatives and a pyrrolo[2,1-]isoquinolin-3-one derivative.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.joc.0c02832DOI Listing
February 2021

[Joint optic disc and cup segmentation based on residual multi-scale fully convolutional neural network].

Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi 2020 Oct;37(5):875-884

Department of Automation, College of Electrical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, P.R.China.

Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness, but its early symptoms are not obvious and are easily overlooked, so early screening for glaucoma is particularly important. The cup to disc ratio is an important indicator for clinical glaucoma screening, and accurate segmentation of the optic cup and disc is the key to calculating the cup to disc ratio. In this paper, a full convolutional neural network with residual multi-scale convolution module was proposed for the optic cup and disc segmentation. First, the fundus image was contrast enhanced and polar transformation was introduced. Subsequently, W-Net was used as the backbone network, which replaced the standard convolution unit with the residual multi-scale full convolution module, the input port was added to the image pyramid to construct the multi-scale input, and the side output layer was used as the early classifier to generate the local prediction output. Finally, a new multi-tag loss function was proposed to guide network segmentation. The mean intersection over union of the optic cup and disc segmentation in the REFUGE dataset was 0.904 0 and 0.955 3 respectively, and the overlapping error was 0.178 0 and 0.066 5 respectively. The results show that this method not only realizes the joint segmentation of cup and disc, but also improves the segmentation accuracy effectively, which could be helpful for the promotion of large-scale early glaucoma screening.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7507/1001-5515.201909006DOI Listing
October 2020

Up-regulation of LncRNA NEAT1 induces apoptosis of human placental trophoblasts.

Free Radic Res 2020 Sep 1;54(8-9):678-686. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Affiliated Jinhua Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Jinhua, China.

The trophoblast apoptosis induced by placental oxidative stress is a contributor to the pathological development of preeclampsia (PE), whereas the molecular mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we explored the role and mechanism of Long non-coding RNA (LncRNA) NEAT1 in trophoblasts apoptosis. In the placenta tissues of PE patients and HO-treated human trophoblast cell line HTR-8/SVneo, the expressions of LncRNA NEAT1, p53, and estrogen receptor α (ESRα) were increased whereas miR-18a-5p expression was decreased. ESRα expression was up-regulated by LncRNA NEAT1 overexpression and down-regulated by miR-18a-5p overexpression in HTR-8/SVneo cells. LncRNA NEAT1 could release ESRα expression through sponging miR-18a-5p and the transcription of LncRNA NEAT1 was promoted by p53. miR-18a-5p overexpression suppressed HO-induced cell apoptosis in HTR-8/SVneo cells, while the inhibitory effect of miR-18a-5p overexpression on cell apoptosis was abrogated by LncRNA NEAT1 overexpression. In summary, LncRNA NEAT1 transcription was induced by p53 under oxidative stress condition, the high expression of LncRNA NEAT1 subsequently increased ESRα expression by sponging miR-18a-5p, thus inducing trophoblasts apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10715762.2020.1826468DOI Listing
September 2020

Reconstructing 3D point clouds in real time with look-up tables for structured light scanning along both horizontal and vertical directions.

Opt Lett 2019 Dec;44(24):6029-6032

By scanning static, not moving, objects along both the horizontal and vertical axes instead of one, structured light illumination achieves more accurate and robust 3D surface reconstructions but with greater latency on computing 3D point clouds. If scanning is performed along only one axis, it has been reported that look-up tables, manually derived from the calibration matrices of a camera and a projector, can significantly help to speed up computation; however, it has been nearly impossible to manually derive similar look-up tables for phases scanned along two axes. In this Letter, we bridge this divide by introducing the constraint of epipolar geometry to automatically compute look-up tables and thus, significantly speed up computing 3D point clouds with only basic arithmetic operations rather than time-consuming matrix computations. Experimental results show that the proposed method, using only single-thread CPU computing, reduces process latency by an order of magnitude.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.44.006029DOI Listing
December 2019

Automatic Recognition of Laryngoscopic Images Using a Deep-Learning Technique.

Laryngoscope 2020 11 18;130(11):E686-E693. Epub 2020 Feb 18.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, West China Hospital, West China Medical School, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Objectives/hypothesis: To develop a deep-learning-based computer-aided diagnosis system for distinguishing laryngeal neoplasms (benign, precancerous lesions, and cancer) and improve the clinician-based accuracy of diagnostic assessments of laryngoscopy findings.

Study Design: Retrospective study.

Methods: A total of 24,667 laryngoscopy images (normal, vocal nodule, polyps, leukoplakia and malignancy) were collected to develop and test a convolutional neural network (CNN)-based classifier. A comparison between the proposed CNN-based classifier and the clinical visual assessments (CVAs) by 12 otolaryngologists was conducted.

Results: In the independent testing dataset, an overall accuracy of 96.24% was achieved; for leukoplakia, benign, malignancy, normal, and vocal nodule, the sensitivity and specificity were 92.8% vs. 98.9%, 97% vs. 99.7%, 89% vs. 99.3%, 99.0% vs. 99.4%, and 97.2% vs. 99.1%, respectively. Furthermore, when compared with CVAs on the randomly selected test dataset, the CNN-based classifier outperformed physicians for most laryngeal conditions, with striking improvements in the ability to distinguish nodules (98% vs. 45%, P < .001), polyps (91% vs. 86%, P < .001), leukoplakia (91% vs. 65%, P < .001), and malignancy (90% vs. 54%, P < .001).

Conclusions: The CNN-based classifier can provide a valuable reference for the diagnosis of laryngeal neoplasms during laryngoscopy, especially for distinguishing benign, precancerous, and cancer lesions.

Level Of Evidence: NA Laryngoscope, 130:E686-E693, 2020.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/lary.28539DOI Listing
November 2020

Robustly reconstructing magnetic resonance images via structure decomposition.

Magn Reson Imaging 2019 04 28;57:165-175. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

College of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Sichuan University, No.24 South Section 1, Yihuan Road, Chengdu, China.

In magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, for highly under-sampled k-space data, it is typically difficult to reconstruct images and preserve their original texture simultaneously. The high-degree total variation (HDTV) regularization handles staircase effects but still blurs textures. On the other hand, the non-local TV (NLTV) regularization can preserve textures, but will introduce additional artifacts for highly-noised images. In this paper, we propose a reconstruction model derived from HDTV and NLTV for robust MRI reconstruction. First, an MR image is decomposed into a smooth component and a texture component. Second, for the smooth component with sharp edges, isotropic second-order TV is used to reduce staircase effects. For the texture component with piecewise constant background, NLTV and contourlet-based sparsity regularizations are employed to recover textures. The piecewise constant background in the texture component contributes to accurately detect non-local similar image patches and avoid artifacts introduced by NLTV. Finally, the proposed reconstruction model is solved through an alternating minimization scheme. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed reconstruction model can effectively achieve satisfied quality of reconstruction for highly under-sampled k-space data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mri.2018.11.020DOI Listing
April 2019

Molecular subgroups and B7-H4 expression levels predict responses to dendritic cell vaccines in glioblastoma: an exploratory randomized phase II clinical trial.

Cancer Immunol Immunother 2018 Nov 22;67(11):1777-1788. Epub 2018 Aug 22.

Department of Neurosurgery, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200040, China.

Dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccination is a promising approach for active-specific immunotherapy, but is currently of limited efficacy. The safety and effectiveness of a DC vaccine (DCV) loaded with glioblastoma stem cell-like (GSC) antigens was assessed in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled phase II clinical trial, 43 GBM patients were randomized after surgery at a 1:1 ratio to receive either DCV (n = 22) or normal saline placebo (n = 21). Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were analysed. Participants were stratified into different molecular subgroups based on the mutation (MT) status of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH1/2) and telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT). Plasma cytokine levels, tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte numbers and immune co-inhibitory molecules PD-L1 and B7-H4 were also assessed. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that DCV treatment significantly prolonged OS (p = 0.02) after adjusting for IDH1 and TERT promoter MT and B7-H4 expression, primary vs recurrent GBM. Among IDH1 TERT patients, DCV treatment significantly prolonged OS (p < 0.01) and PFS (p = 0.03) and increased plasma levels of cytokines CCL22 and IFN-γ compared with placebo. Patients with low B7-H4 expression showed significantly prolonged OS (p = 0.02) after DCV treatment. Therefore, IDH1TERT and low B7-H4 expression identified subgroups of GBM patients more responsive to GSC DCV-based specific active-immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00262-018-2232-yDOI Listing
November 2018

Automated Region of Interest Detection Method in Scintigraphic Glomerular Filtration Rate Estimation.

IEEE J Biomed Health Inform 2019 03 11;23(2):787-794. Epub 2018 Jun 11.

The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is a crucial index to measure renal function. In daily clinical practice, the GFR can be estimated using the Gates method, which requires the clinicians to define the region of interest (ROI) for the kidney and the corresponding background in dynamic renal scintigraphy. The manual placement of ROIs to estimate the GFR is subjective and labor-intensive, however, making it an undesirable and unreliable process. This work presents a fully automated ROI detection method to achieve accurate and robust GFR estimations. After image preprocessing, the ROI for each kidney was delineated using a shape prior constrained level set (spLS) algorithm and then the corresponding background ROIs were obtained according to the defined kidney ROIs. In computer simulations, the spLS method had the best performance in kidney ROI detection compared with the previous threshold method (threshold) and the Chan-Vese level set (cvLS) method. In further clinical applications, 223 sets of Tc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid renal scintigraphic images from patients with abnormal renal function were reviewed. Compared with the former ROI detection methods (threshold and cvLS), the GFR estimations based on the ROIs derived by the spLS method had the highest consistency and correlations (r = 0.98, p < 0.001) with the reference estimated by experienced physicians. The results indicate that the proposed automated ROI detection method has great potential in automated ROI detection for accurate and robust GFR estimation in dynamic renal scintigraphy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JBHI.2018.2845879DOI Listing
March 2019

[A computer tomography assisted method for the automatic detection of region of interest in dynamic kidney images].

Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi 2017 Dec;34(6):928-933

Department of Automation, School of Electrical Engineering and Information, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, P.R.China.

Glomerular filtration rate (GFR), which can be estimated by Gates method with dynamic kidney single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging, is a key indicator of renal function. In this paper, an automatic computer tomography (CT)-assisted detection method of kidney region of interest (ROI) is proposed to achieve the objective and accurate GFR calculation. In this method, the CT coronal projection image and the enhanced SPECT synthetic image are firstly generated and registered together. Then, the kidney ROIs are delineated using a modified level set algorithm. Meanwhile, the background ROIs are also obtained based on the kidney ROIs. Finally, the value of GFR is calculated via Gates method. Comparing with the clinical data, the GFR values estimated by the proposed method were consistent with the clinical reports. This automatic method can improve the accuracy and stability of kidney ROI detection for GFR calculation, especially when the kidney function has been severely damaged.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7507/1001-5515.201611038DOI Listing
December 2017

A Computer-Aided Analysis Method of SPECT Brain Images for Quantitative Treatment Monitoring: Performance Evaluations and Clinical Applications.

Biomed Res Int 2017 31;2017:1962181. Epub 2017 Jan 31.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, China.

The objective and quantitative analysis of longitudinal single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images are significant for the treatment monitoring of brain disorders. Therefore, a computer aided analysis (CAA) method is introduced to extract a change-rate map (CRM) as a parametric image for quantifying the changes of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in longitudinal SPECT brain images. The performances of the CAA-CRM approach in treatment monitoring are evaluated by the computer simulations and clinical applications. The results of computer simulations show that the derived CRMs have high similarities with their ground truths when the lesion size is larger than system spatial resolution and the change rate is higher than 20%. In clinical applications, the CAA-CRM approach is used to assess the treatment of 50 patients with brain ischemia. The results demonstrate that CAA-CRM approach has a 93.4% accuracy of recovered region's localization. Moreover, the quantitative indexes of recovered regions derived from CRM are all significantly different among the groups and highly correlated with the experienced clinical diagnosis. In conclusion, the proposed CAA-CRM approach provides a convenient solution to generate a parametric image and derive the quantitative indexes from the longitudinal SPECT brain images for treatment monitoring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2017/1962181DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5307251PMC
March 2017

[Analysis of genetic polymorphisms of 15 STR loci among ethnic Hans from Xiamen].

Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi 2017 Feb;34(1):115-117

The First Clinical Medical School, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350108, China.

Objective: To assess the value of 15 short tandem repeat (STR) loci selected by an AmpFLSTR Identifiler system for personal identification and paternity testing among ethnic Hans from Xiamen, Fujian.

Methods: For 400 unrelated individuals, allelic frequencies for the 15 STR loci from the AmpFLSTR Identifiler kit were determined. Population genetics parameters for forensic usage were calculated.

Results: No deviation of the observed allele frequency from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium expectations was found by Chi-square test (P>0.05). All of the 15 loci were highly polymorphic. Observed heterozygosity has varied between 0.580 and 0.868. Matching probability was between 0.036 and 0.148. Power of discrimination was between 0.798 and 0.967. Polymorphic information content was between 0.560 and 0.850. And power of exclusion was between 0.268 and 0.730.

Conclusion: All of the 15 loci selected by the AmpFLSTR Identifiler system are highly polymorphic among ethnic Hans from Xiamen. By determining the alleles and allelic frequencies, data for genetic polymorphisms usable for paternity testing and personal identification for local population were obtained.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.1003-9406.2017.01.027DOI Listing
February 2017

Recent amplification of Osr4 LTR-retrotransposon caused rice gene mutation and dwarf phenotype.

Plant Divers 2017 Apr 2;39(2):73-79. Epub 2017 Feb 2.

Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Genetics, Breeding and Multiple Utilization of Crops, Fujian Agriculture & Forestry University, Fuzhou, 350002, China.

A novel rice mutant was identified using map-based cloning and comparative analysis of known mutants. The mutant () shows a mild dwarf trait, which differs only slightly from the wildtype in plant height at the tillering stage. The mutant is different from other mutants. We found that it was interrupted by an Osr4 long terminal repeat (LTR)-retrotransposon, which resulted in the loss of exon 7 in the mutant mRNA. A paralog of the gene, , was revealed. is a truncated gene that might have resulted from recombination between retrotransposons. We identified 65 Osr4 LTR-retrotransposons in Nipponbare, and found more LTR variants in contrast to coding DNA sequence (CDS) in the retrotransposons. We also identified five possible regulatory motifs in LTRs which may control the expression of the retrotransposons. In addition, we predicted six putative functional Osr4 retrotransposons that contain complete CDSs and all important elements. Osr4 retrotransposons were classified into 4 groups, and this type of retrotransposon only appears to be present in monocots. Members of group I-1, which included all putative functional retrotransposons, showed a high similarity with each other. The retrotransposons were expressed in all tissues, at especially higher levels in some leaves and seeds. These findings imply that transpositions of group I-1 members might have occurred frequently and recently.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pld.2017.01.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6112278PMC
April 2017

Cerebral blood perfusion changes in amputees with myoelectric hands after rehabilitation: a SPECT computer-aided analysis.

BMC Neurosci 2016 08 31;17(1):59. Epub 2016 Aug 31.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ren Ji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 160 Pujian Road, Shanghai, 200127, China.

Background: Rehabilitation, which is essential for amputees with myoelectric hands, can improve the quality of daily life by remodeling the neuron network. In our study, we aim to develop a cerebral blood perfusion (CBF) single-photon emission computed tomography computer-aided (SPECT-CA) detection scheme to automatically locate the brain's activated regions after rehabilitation.

Results: Five participants without forearms (three male, two female, mean age 51 ± 12.89 years, two missing the right side, and three missing the left side) were included in our study. In the clinical assessment, all of the participants received higher scores after training. The results of the SPM analysis indicated that CBF in the precentral gyrus, postcentral gyrus, frontal lobe, temporal lobe and cerebellum was significantly different among the five participants (P < 0.05). Moreover, SPECT-CA showed that the activated brain areas mainly included the precentral gyrus, postcentral gyrus, cerebellum and extensive cerebral cortex.

Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that the CBF SPECT-CA method can detect the brain blood perfusion changes induced by rehabilitation with high sensitivity and accuracy. This method has great potential for locating the remodeled neuron regions of amputees with myoelectric hands after rehabilitation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12868-016-0294-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5006566PMC
August 2016

Bifunctional αHER2/CD3 RNA-engineered CART-like human T cells specifically eliminate HER2(+) gastric cancer.

Cell Res 2016 07 24;26(7):850-3. Epub 2016 Jun 24.

Department of Digestive Diseases, Huashan Hospital and Department of Immunology of School of Basic Medical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/cr.2016.81DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5129888PMC
July 2016

Dynamic FDG-PET Imaging to Differentiate Malignancies from Inflammation in Subcutaneous and In Situ Mouse Model for Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma (NSCLC).

PLoS One 2015 30;10(9):e0139089. Epub 2015 Sep 30.

School of Pharmacy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Background: [18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) has been widely used in oncologic procedures such as tumor diagnosis and staging. However, false-positive rates have been high, unacceptable and mainly caused by inflammatory lesions. Misinterpretations take place especially when non-subcutaneous inflammations appear at the tumor site, for instance in the lung. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the use of dynamic PET imaging procedure to differentiate in situ and subcutaneous non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) from inflammation, and estimate the kinetics of inflammations in various locations.

Methods: Dynamic FDG-PET was performed on 33 female mice inoculated with tumor and/or inflammation subcutaneously or inside the lung. Standardized Uptake Values (SUVs) from static imaging (SUVmax) as well as values of influx rate constant (Ki) of compartmental modeling from dynamic imaging were obtained. Static and kinetic data from different lesions (tumor and inflammations) or different locations (subcutaneous, in situ and spontaneous group) were compared.

Results: Values of SUVmax showed significant difference in subcutaneous tumor and inflammation (p<0.01), and in inflammations from different locations (p<0.005). However, SUVmax showed no statistical difference between in situ tumor and inflammation (p = 1.0) and among tumors from different locations (subcutaneous and in situ, p = 0.91). Values of Ki calculated from compartmental modeling showed significant difference between tumor and inflammation both subcutaneously (p<0.005) and orthotopically (p<0.01). Ki showed also location specific values for inflammations (subcutaneous, in situ and spontaneous, p<0.015). However, Ki of tumors from different locations (subcutaneous and in situ) showed no significant difference (p = 0.46).

Conclusion: In contrast to static PET based SUVmax, both subcutaneous and in situ inflammations and malignancies can be differentiated via dynamic FDG-PET based Ki. Moreover, Values of influx rate constant Ki from compartmental modeling can offer an assessment for inflammations at different locations of the body, which also implies further validation is necessary before the replacement of in situ inflammation with its subcutaneous counterpart in animal experiments.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0139089PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4589399PMC
June 2016

Low percentage of CD24hiCD27⁺CD19⁺ B cells decelerates gastric cancer progression in XELOX-treated patients.

Int Immunopharmacol 2015 Jun 18;26(2):322-7. Epub 2015 Apr 18.

Department of Immunology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Biotherapy Research Center, Fudan University, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

The XELOX regimen (capecitabine plus oxaliplatin) has been demonstrated as first-line chemotherapy for gastric cancer in China. However, the efficacy of XELOX varies in individuals. Some evidences indicate that the variable efficacy might be related to the distinct immune status not only in the tumor site but also in the systemic immune system, and further investigation is required. In this study, we collected 32 PBMC samples from 16 XELOX-treated patients with gastric cancer and analyzed the patterns of immune cells. At the end point, the proportion of CD24(hi)CD27(+)CD19(+) B cells in patients without progression revealed a significant decrease compared with that in patients with progression, but not other immune cells, such as T cells and NK cells. Furthermore, CD19(+) B cells were more sensitive to capecitabine plus oxaliplatin stimulation in vitro than other immune cells, displaying higher frequency of apoptosis in a dose-dependent way. Thus, our results suggested that the outcomes of XELOX chemotherapy were inversely correlated with peripheral B cell subsets, which might provide a more convenient method to predict gastric cancer progression of XELOX-treated patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2015.04.011DOI Listing
June 2015

Whole-genome analysis revealed the positively selected genes during the differentiation of indica and temperate japonica rice.

PLoS One 2015 16;10(3):e0119239. Epub 2015 Mar 16.

Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Genetics, Breeding and Multiple Utilization of Crops, Fujian Agriculture & Forestry University, Fuzhou, China; College of Crop Science, Fujian Agriculture & Forestry University, Fuzhou, China.

To investigate the selective pressures acting on the protein-coding genes during the differentiation of indica and japonica, all of the possible orthologous genes between the Nipponbare and 93-11 genomes were identified and compared with each other. Among these genes, 8,530 pairs had identical sequences, and 27,384 pairs shared more than 90% sequence identity. Only 2,678 pairs of genes displaying a Ka/Ks ratio significantly greater than one were revealed, and most of these genes contained only nonsynonymous sites. The genes without synonymous site were further analyzed with the SNP data of 1529 O. sativa and O. rufipogon accessions, and 1068 genes were identified to be under positive selection during the differentiation of indica and temperate japonica. The positively selected genes (PSGs) are unevenly distributed on 12 chromosomes, and the proteins encoded by the PSGs are dominant with binding, transferase and hydrolase activities, and especially enriched in the plant responses to stimuli, biological regulations, and transport processes. Meanwhile, the most PSGs of the known function and/or expression were involved in the regulation of biotic/abiotic stresses. The evidence of pervasive positive selection suggested that many factors drove the differentiation of indica and japonica, which has already started in wild rice but is much lower than in cultivated rice. Lower differentiation and less PSGs revealed between the Or-It and Or-IIIt wild rice groups implied that artificial selection provides greater contribution on the differentiation than natural selection. In addition, the phylogenetic tree constructed with positively selected sites showed that the japonica varieties exhibited more diversity than indica on differentiation, and Or-III of O. rufipogon exhibited more than Or-I.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0119239PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4361536PMC
February 2016

A semi-automated region of interest detection method in the scintigraphic glomerular filtration rate determination for patients with abnormal low renal function.

Clin Nucl Med 2013 Nov;38(11):855-62

From the *School of Biomedical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China; †Department of Nuclear Medicine, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China; and ‡Banner Alzheimer's Institute, Phoenix, AZ.

Purpose: This work presents a novel semi-automated renal region-of-interest (ROI) determination method that is user friendly, time saving, and yet provides a robust glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimation highly consistent with the reference method.

Subjects And Methods: We reviewed data from 57 patients who underwent (99m)Tc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid renal scintigraphy and were diagnosed with abnormal renal function. The renal and background ROIs were delineated by the proposed multi-step, semi-automated method, which integrates temporal/morphologic information via visual inspection and computer-aided calculations. The total GFR was estimated using the proposed method (sGFR) performed by 2 junior clinicians (A and B) with 1 and 3 years of experience, respectively (sGFR_a, sGFR_b), and compared with the reference total GFR (rGFR) estimated by a senior clinician with 20 years of experience who manually delineated the kidney and background ROIs. All GFR calculations herein were conducted using the Gates method.

Results: Data from 10 patients with unilateral or non-functioning kidneys were excluded from the analysis. For the remaining patients, sGFR correlated well with rGFR (r(s/rGFR_a) = 0.957, P < 0.001 and r(s/rGFR_b) = 0.951, P < 0.001) and sGFR_a correlated well with sGFR_b (r(a/b) = 0.997, P < 0.001). Moreover, the Bland-Altman plots for sGFR_a and sGFR_b confirm the high reproducibility of the proposed method between different operators. Finally, the proposed procedure is almost 3 times faster than the routinely used procedure in clinical practice.

Conclusion: The results suggest that this method is easy to use, highly reproducible, and accurate in measuring the GFR of patients with low renal function. The method is being further extended to a fully automated procedure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RLU.0000000000000223DOI Listing
November 2013

A study of non-invasive Patlak quantification for whole-body dynamic FDG-PET studies of mice.

Biomed Signal Process Control 2012 Sep;7(5):438-446

School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, China.

Physiological changes in dynamic PET images can be quantitatively estimated by kinetic modeling technique. The process of PET quantification usually requires an input function in the form of a plasma-time activity curve (PTAC), which is generally obtained by invasive arterial blood sampling. However, invasive arterial blood sampling poses many challenges especially for small animal studies, due to the subjects' limited blood volume and small blood vessels. A simple non-invasive quantification method based on Patlak graphical analysis (PGA) has been recently proposed to use a reference region to derive the relative influx rate for a target region without invasive blood sampling, and evaluated by using the simulation data of human brain FDG-PET studies. In this study, the non-invasive Patlak (nPGA) method was extended to whole-body dynamic small animal FDG-PET studies. The performance of nPGA was systematically investigated by using experimental mouse studies and computer simulations. The mouse studies showed high linearity of relative influx rates between the nPGA and PGA for most pairs of reference and target regions, when an appropriate underlying kinetic model was used. The simulation results demonstrated that the accuracy of the nPGA method was comparable to that of the PGA method, with a higher reliability for most pairs of reference and target regions. The results proved that the nPGA method could provide a non-invasive and indirect way for quantifying the FDG kinetics of tumor in small animal studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bspc.2011.11.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3433071PMC
September 2012

[An automatic 3D brain segmentation based on improved level-set method in micro-CT rat/mouse images].

Zhongguo Yi Liao Qi Xie Za Zhi 2012 May;36(3):162-7

Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200025.

Objective: In vivo Micro-PETICT imaging of mouse/rat brain has been widely used to non-invasively monitor brain and provides researchers a better understanding of therapeutic effects in models of human neurological disease. For the need of further processing, extraction of brain tissue from head is required and vital.

Methods: An automatic multistep combination methods was proposed based on an improved level set framework, which includes (1) Use Fuzzy-C-Means method together with threshold and morphology methods to get the initial level-set surface automatically. (2) Combine gradient vector flow to enhance the gradient contrast and enforce the surface move toward to the object's surface much faster, especially obtain a significantly improvement in the regions of forehead and the joint between brain and neck. (3) introduce an automatic stop condition based on average bandwidth energy maximization to overcome the leakage problem.

Results: 3 Micro-CT images of rat and 3 of mouse have been tested using the proposed methods and the average accuracy has increased by 33% for rat and 6.7% for mouse. The average processing duration for rat and mouse are about 8 minutes and 4 minutes, respectively.

Conclusions: The proposed methods were proved that it can be effectively used for Micro-PET/CT imaging of mouse/rat brain segmentation and have a great improvement on accuracy and convenience.
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May 2012

Glucocorticoids inhibit lipopolysaccharide-mediated inflammatory response by downregulating microRNA-155: a novel anti-inflammation mechanism.

Free Radic Biol Med 2012 Apr 8;52(8):1307-17. Epub 2012 Feb 8.

Department of Immunology and Key Laboratory of Molecular Medicine of the Ministry of Education, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, People's Republic of China.

Glucocorticoids (GCs) are among the most widely used and effective therapies for many chronic inflammatory diseases. Although attempts have been made to identify important protein-coding genes and pathways involved in the anti-inflammatory effect of GCs, knowledge of genomic aberrations associated with noncoding genes, such as micro-RNAs (miRNAs), and their contributions is relatively limited. In this study, a systematic screening of the miRNA expression profile by microarray showed that GCs inhibited the expression of miR-155 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced macrophage inflammatory responses. Overexpression of miR-155 markedly reversed the suppressive action of GCs, whereas inhibition of miR-155 exhibited an effect similar to that of GCs on LPS-treated RAW264.7 cells, indicating miR-155 to be a functional regulator in the anti-inflammatory effect of GCs. Furthermore, GCs inhibited miR-155 expression in a GC receptor- and NF-κB-dependent manner. Bioinformatics analysis and luciferase assay revealed that the NF-κB binding site located in the promoter region of the B-cell integration cluster was important in mediating the GC-driven suppression of miR-155 in response to LPS stimulation. In addition, the combination of treatment with GCs and inhibition of miR-155 enhanced the anti-inflammatory effect of GCs on LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Therefore, we identify miR-155 to be a novel target through which GCs exert their anti-inflammatory effect on the LPS-induced macrophage inflammatory response. These findings may provide a basic rationale for new approaches in the effort to develop anti-inflammatory therapeutics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2012.01.031DOI Listing
April 2012

Study of an image-derived SUV and a modified SUV using mouse FDG-PET.

Nucl Med Biol 2011 Apr 3;38(3):353-62. Epub 2010 Dec 3.

Department of Electronic Information Engineering, the Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong.

Introduction: Standard uptake value (SUV) is calculated without consideration of the differences in plasma 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) clearance. Its variability can be affected by changes of the amount of excreted FDG by renal function. Moreover, the estimation of SUV is quite sensitive to errors in the measurements of body weight and injected dose. This study aims to develop an image-based method to obtain an image-derived SUV (iSUV) and a modified SUV (mSUV) to overcome these problems.

Methods: Thirty-one tumor-planted SCID mice were scanned in micro-positron emission tomography (PET) at ∼60 min post FDG injection and then scanned in micro-computed tomographic (CT). Using image-based method, the body weight and injected dose were derived from the microPET/CT images to calculate iSUV. The volumes and the total activities of FDG within the bladder and the whole-body were also obtained to calculate mSUV. For the selected targets, the iSUVs and mSUVs were compared against their corresponding SUVs.

Results: Compared with SUV factor (injected dose/body weight), iSUV factor had an average percentage error of -0.7%. The linear regressions between SUV and iSUV had a slope of 0.99 with correlation coefficient of 0.95. Compared with SUV and iSUV, coefficient of variation of mSUV decreased while the tumor-to-background separation of mSUV increased.

Conclusions: Using this image-based method, the iSUV can replace SUV when the actual measurements were missing or unreliable. The mSUV can reduce the inter-subject variability and enhance the tumor-to-background separation in mouse FDG-PET studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nucmedbio.2010.10.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3078337PMC
April 2011

A hybrid clustering method for ROI delineation in small-animal dynamic PET images: application to the automatic estimation of FDG input functions.

IEEE Trans Inf Technol Biomed 2011 Mar 14;15(2):195-205. Epub 2010 Oct 14.

Department of Electronic and Information Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong.

Tracer kinetic modeling with dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) requires a plasma time-activity curve (PTAC) as an input function. Several image-derived input function (IDIF) methods that rely on drawing the region of interest (ROI) in large vascular structures have been proposed to overcome the problems caused by the invasive approach for obtaining the PTAC, especially for small-animal studies. However, the manual placement of ROIs for estimating IDIF is subjective and labor-intensive, making it an undesirable and unreliable process. In this paper, we propose a novel hybrid clustering method (HCM) that objectively delineates ROIs in dynamic PET images for the estimation of IDIFs, and demonstrate its application to the mouse PET studies acquired with [ (18)F]Fluoro-2-deoxy-2-D-glucose (FDG). We begin our HCM using k-means clustering for background removal. We then model the time-activity curves using polynomial regression mixture models in curve clustering for heart structure detection. The hierarchical clustering is finally applied for ROI refinements. The HCM achieved accurate ROI delineation in both computer simulations and experimental mouse studies. In the mouse studies, the predicted IDIF had a high correlation with the gold standard, the PTAC derived from the invasive blood samples. The results indicate that the proposed HCM has a great potential in ROI delineation for automatic estimation of IDIF in dynamic FDG-PET studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TITB.2010.2087343DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3071356PMC
March 2011

Coimmunization with RANTES plasmid polarized Th1 immune response against hepatitis B virus envelope via recruitment of dendritic cells.

Antiviral Res 2007 Nov 16;76(2):140-9. Epub 2007 Jul 16.

Institute for ImmunoBiology and Department of Immunology, Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University, 138, Yi Xue Yuan Road, Shanghai 200032, PR China.

Induction of T help cell type 1 (Th1) response seems to be a prerequisite of HBV clearance. DNA vaccines have shown its potential to elicit Th1-biased immune response. However, its immunogenicity needs to be improved. Regulated upon activation normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) is an inflammatory chemokine that promotes the accumulation and activation of CD4+, CD8+ T cells, and dendritic cells (DCs), which would favor antiviral immunity. In this study, the efficacy of a DNA vaccine encoding hepatitis B virus (HBV) preS2 plus S protein was enhanced through co-injection of a plasmid encoding RANTES in a BALB/c model. Co-injection of RANTES gene resulted in a moderate increase in the HBV specific humoral and cellular immune responses and a significant increase following an HBsAg booster vaccination compared to DNA encoding HBsAg alone. This enhancement was due to an enrichment of DCs in the draining lymph node and an up-regulation of DCs maturation by RANTES. More importantly, RANTES polarized the specific immunity towards a dominant Th1 profile and even converted an established Th2 response to a Th1 phenotype. Our study suggested the feasibility of using a plasmid-encoded RANTES as a modulatory Th1 adjuvant in genetic vaccination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2007.06.012DOI Listing
November 2007

A rapid and simple approach to preparation of monoclonal antibody based on DNA immunization.

Cell Mol Immunol 2004 Aug;1(4):295-9

Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China.

Inoculation with purified specific protein is usually the first step for preparation of monoclonal antibody (mAb). But it is quite difficult to obtain pure proteins especially with natural structures. Here we attempt to replace the protein inoculation with DNA immunization in the preparation of mAb. The eukaryotic expression vectors pcDNA3-PreS2/S and pVAX-PreS2/S encoding the HBV M protein were constructed and prepared for DNA immunization. Female BALB/c mice developed a well antibody response to the target antigen after muscle injection with corresponding plasmids. The mice with effective antibodies induced were used for preparation of mAb. We found the mice immunized with three administrations of pcDNA3-PreS2/S and boosted by intrasplenic injection with the same plasmid could be exploited for preparation of mAb. And positive hybridoma cell 2D3 that can secrete specific mAb was cloned and analyzed. Our studies demonstrate that gene immunization may provide a convenient and efficient way to prepare mAbs.
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August 2004

Origin and anti-tumor effects of anti-dsDNA autoantibodies in cancer patients and tumor-bearing mice.

Immunol Lett 2005 Jul 25;99(2):217-27. Epub 2005 Apr 25.

Department of Immunology, Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University, PR China.

In the present investigation, we detected anti-dsDNA autoantibodies in cancer patients and modeled the production of anti-dsDNA autoantibodies by inoculating tumors in BALB/c mice. Moreover, induction of anti-dsDNA autoantibodies by immunization with inactivated tumor cells and their DNA indicated that DNA of tumor cells was probably the primary antigen, which was supported by the significantly increasing levels of sera free DNA in cancer patients and tumor-bearing mice. cELISA and indirect immunofluorescence assay showed that the anti-dsDNA autoantibodies could bind to the surface components of tumor cells. In vitro assay showed that immunosera at week 6 from immunized mice displayed significant cytotoxicity to tumor cells compared to that of negative control, but no cytotoxicity mediated by immunosera at week 22 was observed. In addition, by flow cytometry and electrophoresis of fragmented DNA, the cytotoxicity might probably be mediated by apoptosis. Our data also showed that the ability of the anti-dsDNA autoantibodies to induce apoptosis of SP2/0 and Wehi 164 cells was significantly correlated (r = 0.990, p < 0.01 and r = 0.901, p < 0.05) with their functional affinity. In vivo, the growth of solid tumors was significantly inhibited in the immunized mice inoculated directly with SP2/0 and Wehi 164 cells, or in the naïve mice which were inoculated with SP2/0 cells preincubated with immunosera containing anti-dsDNA autoantibodies. In conclusion, we demonstrated the origin of anti-dsDNA autoantibodies in cancer patients and tumor-bearing mice. And our data also showed that these autoantibodies revealed anti-tumor effect by inducing apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.imlet.2005.03.019DOI Listing
July 2005
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