Publications by authors named "Xiubo Shu"

5 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Acute and chronic toxicity of microcystin-LR and phenanthrene alone or in combination to the cladoceran (Daphnia magna).

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Sep 12;220:112405. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 73 East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008, China. Electronic address:

Hazardous substances, such as microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and phenanthrene (Phe) are ubiquitous co-contaminants in eutrophic freshwaters, which cause harms to aquatic organisms. However, the risks associated with the co-exposure of aquatic biota to these two chemicals in the environment have received little attention. In this study, the single and mixture toxic effects of MC-LR and Phe mixtures were investigated in Daphnia magna after acute and chronic exposure. Acute tests showed that the median effective concentrations (48 h) for MC-LR, Phe and their mixtures were 13.46, 0.57 and 8.84 mg/L, respectively. Mixture toxicity prediction results indicated that the independent action model was more applicable than the concentration addition model. Moreover, combination index method suggested that the mixture toxicity was concentration dependent. Synergism was elicited at low concentrations of MC-LR and Phe exposure (≤4.04 + 0.17 mg/L), whereas antagonistic or additive effects were induced at higher concentrations. The involved mechanism of antagonism was presumably attributable to the protective effects of detoxification genes activated by high concentrations of MC-LR in mixtures. Additionally, chronic results also showed that exposure to a MC-LR and Phe mixture at low concentrations (≤50 +2 μg/L) resulted in greater toxic effects on D. magna life history than either chemical acting alone. The significant inhibition on detoxification genes and increased accumulation of MC-LR could be accounted for their synergistic toxic effects on D. magna. Our findings revealed the exacerbated ecological hazard of MC-LR and Phe at environmental concentrations (≤50 +2 μg/L), and provided new insights to the potential toxic mechanisms of MC-LR and Phe in aquatic animals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112405DOI Listing
September 2021

Occurrence and risk assessment of microcystin and its relationship with environmental factors in lakes of the eastern plain ecoregion, China.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Dec 10;27(36):45095-45107. Epub 2020 Aug 10.

State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 73 East Beijing Road, Nanjing, 210008, China.

The frequent occurrence of microcystins (MCs) in freshwater poses serious threats to the drinking water safety and health of human beings. Although MCs have been detected in individual fresh waters in China, little is known about their occurrence over a large geographic scale. An investigation of 30 subtropical lakes in eastern China was performed during summer 2018 to determine the MCs concentrations in water and their possible risk via direct water consumption to humans, and to assess the associated environmental factors. MCs were detected in 28 of 30 lakes, and the highest mean MCs concentrations occurred in Lake Chaohu (26.7 μg/L), followed by Lake Taihu (3.11 μg/L). MC-LR was the primary variant observed in our study, and MCs were mainly produced by Microcystis, Anabaena (Dolicospermum), and Oscillatoria in these lakes. Replete nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations, irradiance, and stable water column conditions were critical for dominance of MC-producing cyanobacteria and high MCs production in our study. Hazard quotients indicated that human health risk of MCs in most lakes was at moderate or low levels except Lakes Chaohu and Taihu. Nutrient control management is recommended to decrease the likelihood of high MCs production. Finally, we recommend the regional scale thresholds of total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations of 1.19 mg/L and 7.14 × 10 mg/L, respectively, based on the drinking water guideline of MC-LR (1 μg/L) recommended by World Health Organization. These targets for nutrient control will aid water quality managers to reduce human health risks created by exposure to MCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-10384-0DOI Listing
December 2020

A new method based on diffusive gradients in thin films for in situ monitoring microcystin-LR in waters.

Sci Rep 2019 11 26;9(1):17528. Epub 2019 Nov 26.

State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, 210008, China.

The passive sampling method of diffusive gradients in thin-films (DGT) was developed to provide a quantitative and time-integrated measurement of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) in waters. The DGT method in this study used HLB (hydrophilic-lipophilic-balanced) material as a binding agent, and methanol as an eluent. The diffusion coefficient of MC-LR was 5.01 × 10 cm s at 25 °C in 0.45 mm thick diffusion layer. This DGT method had a binding capacity of 4.24 μg per binding gel disk (3.14 cm), ensuring sufficient capacity to measure MC-LR in most water matrices. The detection limit of HLB DGT was 0.48 ng L. DGT coupled to analysis by HPLC appears to be an accurate method for MC-LR monitoring. Comparison of DGT measurements for MC-LR in water and a conventional active sampling method showed little difference. This study demonstrates that HLB-based DGT is a useful tool for in situ monitoring of MC-LR in fresh waters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-53835-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6879504PMC
November 2019

Combined toxic effects of microcystin-LR and phenanthrene on growth and antioxidant system of duckweed (Lemna gibba L.).

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2019 Dec 28;185:109668. Epub 2019 Sep 28.

State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 73 East Beijing Road, Nanjing, 210008, China. Electronic address:

Microcystins and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons commonly co-exist in eutrophic freshwater environments. However, their combined toxicity remains unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the combined toxic effects of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and phenanthrene (Phe) on duckweed (Lemna gibba L.) during a short-term exposure (7 d). L. gibba was exposed to a range of environmentally relevant concentrations of MC-LR (5, 50, 250, 500 μg/L) and Phe (0.1, 1, 5, 10 μg/L), both individually and in MC-LR + Phe mixtures (5 + 0.1, 50 + 1, 250 + 5, 500 + 10 μg/L). Subsequently, biomarkers of toxicity such as growth, chlorophyll-a, and antioxidant enzyme activity (catalase, superoxide dismutase, and peroxidase) were analyzed in L. gibba. Growth and the antioxidant system of L. gibba were not significantly inhibited by Phe alone, whereas higher concentrations of individual MC-LR (≥50 μg/L) significantly inhibited growth and induced oxidative stress. Based on Abott's formula, their interaction effects were concentration dependent. Antagonistic effects were observed when exposed to combinations of lower concentrations of MC-LR and Phe (≤50 + 1 μg/L), while additive or synergistic effects were induced at higher concentrations of both compounds (≥250 + 5 μg/L). Moreover, higher concentrations of Phe (≥5 μg/L) increased the accumulation of MC-LR in L. gibba. Our results suggested that the toxic effects of MC-LR and phenanthrene were exacerbated only when they co-exist in water bodies at relatively high concentrations. Consequently, co-existence of MC-LR and Phe at low levels are unlikely to exacerbate ecological hazards to L. gibba in most aquatic environments, at least based on responses of this plant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2019.109668DOI Listing
December 2019

Glutathione biosynthesis plays an important role in microcystin-LR depuration in lettuce and spinach.

Environ Pollut 2019 Oct 13;253:599-605. Epub 2019 Jul 13.

State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 73 East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008, China. Electronic address:

Irrigation of crop plants with microcystins (MCs) contaminated water could be a threat to human health via bioaccumulation. Despite the fact MCs bioaccumulation in crop plants is well documented, MCs depuration, as well as the mechanism involved remains unclear. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the bioaccumulation and depuration of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.), as well as to explore the role of glutathione (GSH) biosynthesis in MC-LR depuration. The tested plants were irrigated with deionized water containing 10 μg L MC-LR for 12 days (bioaccumulation), and subsequently, with either deionized water only or deionized water containing 0.5 mM buthionine sulfoximine (BSO, a specific inhibitor of GSH biosynthesis) for 12 days (depuration). After bioaccumulation period, highest concentrations of MC-LR found in lettuce and spinach were 114.4 and 138.5 μg kg dry weight (DW) respectively. Depuration rates of MC-LR in lettuce and spinach were 9.5 and 8.1 μg kg DW d, which deceased to 3.7 and 4.6 μg kg DW d in treatments with BSO application. GSH content in both lettuce and spinach were not significantly affected during depuration without BSO; whereas after treatment with BSO, GSH content significantly decreased by 36.0% and 24.7% in lettuce and spinach on 15 d, and the decrease remained on 18 d and 21 d in lettuce. Moreover, during the bioaccumulation period, activities of glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were enhanced in both plants. Our results suggested that GSH biosynthesis played an important role in MC-LR depuration in the tested plants. Concerning human health risk, most of the estimated daily intake (EDI) values during the bioaccumulation period exceeded the tolerable daily intake (TDI) guideline. However, the risk could be alleviated by irrigating with MCs-free water for a certain amount of time before harvest.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2019.07.064DOI Listing
October 2019
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