Publications by authors named "Xiping Xu"

269 Publications

Unveiling the mechanism of imidacloprid removal by ferrate(VI): Kinetics, role of oxidation and adsorption, reaction pathway and toxicity assessment.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Jan 17;805:150383. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

College of Environment, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014, China. Electronic address:

Imidacloprid (IMI), an emerging pollutant, has high toxicity to non-target organisms. This paper presents the kinetics of IMI removal by ferrate(VI) at different pH (6.0-9.0), molar ratios ([ferrate(VI)]:[IMI]) and added Fe(III) ions. The apparent second-order rate constant (k) decreased with increase in pH from pH 6.0 to 9.0 (i.e., (1.2 ± 0.1) × 10 M s to (8.3 ± 0.3) M s). The species-specific rate constants were obtained as k (HFeO) = 1.3 × 10 M s and k (FeO) = 6.9 M s. The decreases in the concentration of HFeO with increase in pH caused the observed pH dependence in k. At pH 7.0, the removal of IMI increased with the molar ratio from 1.0 to 10.0 with complete removal at the highest ratio. The variation in pH from 6.0 to 9.0 had no obvious effect on removal of IMI. Experiments indicate that IMI removal is mainly by ferrate(VI) oxidation and to a lesser extent by Fe(III) adsorption. Mineralization of IMI was also observed (20-26%). The addition of Fe(III) ions to ferrate(VI)-IMI at pH 7.0 and 8.0 resulted in enhanced removal of IMI, but the presence of Ca, SO, HCO, and humic acid (HA) has negative effects. The presence of coexisting substances in river water slightly decreased IMI removal by ferrate(VI) by less than 10%. Identification of products and frontier electron density (FED) calculations demonstrated involvement of opening of the five-membered heterocyclic moiety of IMI by ferrate(VI). Toxicity assessment with NIH 3T3 fibroblasts and ECOSAR analysis indicated lower toxicity of oxidized products than parent IMI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.150383DOI Listing
January 2022

Plasma Vitamin E and the Risk of First Stroke in Hypertensive Patients: A Nested Case-Control Study.

Front Nutr 2021 3;8:734580. Epub 2021 Nov 3.

National Clinical Research Study Center for Kidney Disease, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

The association between plasma vitamin E levels and first stroke risk in men and women remains unclear. We aimed to examine the prospective association between plasma vitamin E and first stroke, and evaluate the effect modifiers for the association, among hypertensive patients. The study sample was drawn from the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial (CSPPT), which randomized a total of 20,702 hypertensive patients to a double-blind, daily treatment with either 10 mg enalapril and 0.8 mg folic acid or 10 mg enalapril alone. This nested case-control study, including 618 first stroke cases and 618 controls matched for age, sex, treatment group, and study site, was conducted after the completion of the CSPPT. The median follow-up duration was 4.5 years. Among men, a significantly higher risk of first stroke (adjusted OR, 1.67; 95%CI: 1.01, 2.77) was found for those with plasma vitamin E ≥7.1 μg/mL (≥quartile 1) compared with those with plasma vitamin E < 7.1 μg/mL. Subgroup analyses further showed that the association between vitamin E (≥7.1 vs. <7.1 μg/mL) and first stroke in men was significantly stronger in non-drinkers (adjusted OR, 2.64; 95%CI: 1.41, 4.96), compared to current drinkers (adjusted OR, 0.84; 95% CI: 0.43, 1.66, -interaction = 0.008). However, there was no significant association between plasma vitamin E and first stroke in women (-interaction between sex and plasma vitamin E = 0.048). Among Chinese hypertensive patients, there was a statistically significant positive association between baseline plasma vitamin E and the risk of first stroke in men, but not in women. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00794885, Identifier: NCT00794885.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2021.734580DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8595403PMC
November 2021

Association between baseline brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity and short-term risk of first stroke among Chinese hypertensive adults.

J Hum Hypertens 2021 Nov 15. Epub 2021 Nov 15.

Department of Cardiology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, China.

Little information is available on the association between brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) and the risk of stroke in Chinese H-type hypertension patients. Therefore, our study aimed to assess this association between baseline baPWV and short-term risk of first stroke and to propose a cutoff value of baPWV that could predict near cerebrovascular events. A total of 9787 hypertension patients without preexisting stroke who underwent baPWV measurement were included. The primary end points were first symptomatic stroke. Secondary end points were first ischemic stroke and first hemorrhagic stroke. During a median follow-up of 20.8 months, there was a total of 138 first strokes including 123 first ischemic strokes and 15 first hemorrhagic strokes. When baPWV was categorized in quartiles, the higher risks of first stroke (HR = 1.52; 95% CI: 1.05-2.21) and first ischemic stroke (HR = 1.53; 95% CI: 1.03-2.26) were found in participants in quartile 4 (≥21.31 m/s), compared with those in quartile 1-3 (<21.31 m/s). In receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the best cutoff value of baPWV that could predict first stroke was 21.43 m/s. Higher baPWV (≥21.43 m/s) was significantly associated with increased risk of first stroke (HR = 1.60; 95% CI: 1.10-2.32) and first ischemic stroke (HR = 1.60; 95% CI: 1.08-2.37). In conclusion, higher baPWV levels were associated with an increased risk of first stroke among Chinese H-type hypertensive patients. In addition, a cutoff value of 21.43 m/s of baPWV was proposed that could predict the next two years' cerebrovascular events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41371-021-00611-7DOI Listing
November 2021

Self-perceived psychological stress and risk of first stroke in treated hypertensive patients.

Psychosom Med 2021 Oct 12. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Division of Nephrology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University; National Clinical Research Center for Kidney Disease; State Key Laboratory of Organ Failure Research; Guangdong Provincial Institute of Nephrology, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Renal Failure Research, Guangzhou Regenerative Medicine and Health Guangdong Laboratory; Guangdong Provincial Clinical Research Center for Kidney Disease; Guangzhou 510515, China Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Food Nutrition and Human Health, Key Laboratory of Functional Dairy, College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, China Institute of Biomedicine, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230032, China Shenzhen Evergreen Medical Institute, Shenzhen 518057, China Department of Cardiology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing 100034, China Department of Population, Family and Reproductive Health, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N. Wolfe Street, E4132, Baltimore, MD 21205-2179, USA.

Objective: We aimed to investigate the prospective association between self-perceived psychological stress and first stroke, and examine possible effect modifiers among adults with hypertension.

Methods: A total of 20,688 hypertensive adults with information on self-perceived psychological stress at baseline were included from the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial (CSPPT). Participants were randomly assigned to a double-blind treatment of receiving a single tablet daily with either 10 mg enalapril and 0.8 mg folic acid or 10 mg enalapril alone. Follow up visits occurred every 3 months after randomization. Psychological stress was measured with a one-item 3-point rating scale. The primary outcome was first stroke (fatal or nonfatal).

Results: The median treatment period was 4.5 years. Compared with participants with low levels of psychological stress, those with high psychological stress had a significantly higher risk of first stroke (adjusted HR, 1.40; 95%CI: 1.01, 1.94) or first ischemic stroke (adjusted HR, 1.45; 95%CI: 1.01, 2.09). Moreover, a stronger positive relationship between psychological stress and first stroke was found in participants with time-averaged mean arterial pressure (MAP) <101 mmHg (median) (P-interaction = 0.004) during the treatment period. However, our study did not find a significant association between psychological stress and first hemorrhagic stroke.

Conclusions: Higher psychological stress was associated with an increased risk of first stroke among treated hypertensive patients, especially in those with lower MAP during the treatment period.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PSY.0000000000001030DOI Listing
October 2021

Urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio and the risk of first stroke in Chinese hypertensive patients treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors.

Hypertens Res 2021 Oct 13. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Division of Nephrology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University; National Clinical Research Center for Kidney Disease; State Key Laboratory of Organ Failure Research; Guangdong Provincial Institute of Nephrology, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Renal Failure Research, Guangdong Provincial Clinical Research Center for Kidney Disease, Guangzhou Regenerative Medicine and Health Guangdong Laboratory, Guangzhou, 510515, China.

We aimed to evaluate the relationship of the albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) with the risk of first stroke and examine possible effect modifiers in hypertensive patients. A total of 11,632 hypertensive participants with urinary ACR measurements and without a history of stroke from the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial (CSPPT) were included in this analysis. The primary outcome was first stroke. Over a median follow-up of 4.4 years, 728 first strokes were identified, of which 633 were ischemic, 89 were hemorrhagic, and 6 were uncertain types. Overall, there was a significant positive association between natural log-transformed ACR and the risk of first stroke (HR, 1.11; 95% CI: 1.03-1.20) and first ischemic stroke (HR, 1.12; 95% CI: 1.03-1.22). Consistently, participants with ACR ≥ 10 mg/g had a significantly higher risk of first stroke (HR, 1.26; 95% CI: 1.06-1.50) and first ischemic stroke (HR, 1.33; 95% CI: 1.10-1.59) than those with ACR < 10 mg/g. Moreover, the association of ACR with first stroke was significantly stronger in participants with higher total homocysteine (tHcy) levels (<10 versus ≥ 10 μmol/L; P for interaction = 0.044). However, there was no significant association between ACR and first hemorrhagic stroke (per natural log [ACR] increment: HR, 1.02; 95% CI: 0.82-1.27). In summary, hypertensive patients with ACR ≥ 10 mg/g had a significantly increased risk of first stroke or first ischemic stroke. This positive association was more pronounced among participants with higher tHcy levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41440-021-00780-5DOI Listing
October 2021

Joint Associations Between Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, Glycemic Status and First Stroke in General Hypertensive Adults: Results From the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial (CSPPT).

J Nutr 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Key Laboratory of Precision Nutrition and Food Quality, Ministry of Education, Department of Nutrition and Health, College of Food Sciences and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China.

Background: Associations between vitamin D and stroke remain inconsistent. One major risk factor for stroke is high blood glucose, but the role it plays in this association is not well-studied.

Objectives: We aimed to evaluate the individual association between plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and risk of first stroke stratified by fasting blood glucose (FBG), and the joint associations between plasma 25(OH)D, glycemic status and first stroke in hypertensive adults.

Methods: This study was a nested, case-control design utilizing data from the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial (CSPPT). This analysis included 591 first stroke cases (of which 475 were ischemic stroke, 114 were hemorrhagic stroke, and 2 were uncertain type) and 591 matched controls. The age range of the study population was 45-75 years. The normal FBG (NFG) group had FBG < 5.6 mmol/L,  and the impaired FBG (IFG) group had FBG ≥ 5.6 mmol/L and < 7.0 mmol/L. Diabetes was defined as participants with FBG ≥ 7 mmol/L or who were receiving treatment with hypoglycemic agents. Odds ratios (ORs) (95% confidence intervals) were calculated using unconditional logistic regression models.

Results: Multivariable adjusted models revealed an inverse association between quartiles of 25(OH) D and risk of first stroke among participants with NFG, but the opposite trend was observed for those with IFG or diabetes. The largest odds ratios (>2) were observed among patients with diabetes, compared to the reference group of NFG and high 25(OH)D. Those with NFG and low 25(OH)D (OR = 1.73, 95%CI = 1.22 to 2.44) or those with IFG and high 25(OH)D (OR = 1.74, 95%CI = 1.14 to 2.67) both had higher risk of total stroke. There was a significant interaction between 25(OH)D and a combined group of IFG and diabetes (P = 0.001). Similar results were observed for ischemic stroke.

Conclusions: In a hypertensive population, the relation between plasma 25(OH)D and risk of first stroke was significantly modified by fasting blood glucose.Registration-URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00794885.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxab339DOI Listing
September 2021

Plasma selenium and the risk of first stroke in adults with hypertension: a secondary analysis of the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Key Laboratory of Precision Nutrition and Food Quality, Ministry of Education, Department of Nutrition and Health, College of Food Sciences and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, China.

Background: Previous studies indicated that selenium (Se) may play an important role in cardio-cerebrovascular disease. However, the relationship between circulating selenium and risk of first stroke remains inconclusive.

Objective: We conducted a secondary analysis of the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial (CSPPT), using a nested case-control design, and aimed to investigate the correlation between Se concentration and first stroke risk in adults with hypertension and examine the potential effect modifiers.

Methods: In the CSPPT, a total of 20,702 adults with hypertension were randomly assigned to a double-blind, daily treatment with either 10 mg enalapril and 0.8 mg folic acid or 10 mg enalapril alone. A total of 618 first stroke cases and 618 controls matched for age, sex, treatment group, and study site were included in this study.

Results: During a median follow-up duration of 4.5 years (IQR, 4.2-4.6 y), there was a significant inverse association between plasma Se and the risk of first stroke (per SD increment; adjusted OR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.68, 0.96) and ischemic stroke (per SD increment; adjusted OR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.62, 0.93). Furthermore, a stronger inverse association between plasma Se and first stroke was observed in participants with higher folate concentrations at baseline (≥ 7.7 (median), adjusted OR: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.54, 0.85, versus <7.7 ng/mL adjusted OR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.80, 1.21; P for interaction = 0.008), and those with higher time-averaged systolic blood pressure (SBP) over the treatment period (≥ 140, adjusted OR: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.58, 0.86, versus <140 mmHg, adjusted OR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.77, 1.20; P for interaction = 0.023).

Conclusions: In summary, there was a significant inverse association between plasma Se and risk of first stroke in Chinese adults with hypertension, especially among those with higher baseline folate concentrations and those with higher time-averaged SBP over the treatment period.Trial registration number: NCT00794885URL of registration: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00794885?term=NCT00794885&draw=2&r.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqab320DOI Listing
September 2021

A Semantic SLAM System for Catadioptric Panoramic Cameras in Dynamic Environments.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Sep 1;21(17). Epub 2021 Sep 1.

School of Opto-Electronic Engineering, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun 130022, China.

When a traditional visual SLAM system works in a dynamic environment, it will be disturbed by dynamic objects and perform poorly. In order to overcome the interference of dynamic objects, we propose a semantic SLAM system for catadioptric panoramic cameras in dynamic environments. A real-time instance segmentation network is used to detect potential moving targets in the panoramic image. In order to find the real dynamic targets, potential moving targets are verified according to the sphere's epipolar constraints. Then, when extracting feature points, the dynamic objects in the panoramic image are masked. Only static feature points are used to estimate the pose of the panoramic camera, so as to improve the accuracy of pose estimation. In order to verify the performance of our system, experiments were conducted on public data sets. The experiments showed that in a highly dynamic environment, the accuracy of our system is significantly better than traditional algorithms. By calculating the RMSE of the absolute trajectory error, we found that our system performed up to 96.3% better than traditional SLAM. Our catadioptric panoramic camera semantic SLAM system has higher accuracy and robustness in complex dynamic environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21175889DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8433785PMC
September 2021

Effect of age stratification on the association between carotid intima-media thickness and cognitive impairment in Chinese hypertensive patients: new insight from the secondary analysis of the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial (CSPPT).

Hypertens Res 2021 Nov 7;44(11):1505-1514. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Department of Cardiovascular, Nanchang University Second Affiliated Hospital, Nanchang, China.

The current study aimed to explore the association between carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and cognitive function assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and to examine possible effect modifiers in hypertensive patients. A total of 14,322 hypertensive participants (mean age 64.2 ± 7.4 years; 40.9% male) from the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial (CSPPT) were included in the final analysis. CIMT was measured by ultrasound, and data were collected at the last follow-up visit; MMSE was used to evaluate cognitive function. Nonparametric smoothing plots, multivariate linear regression analysis, subgroup analyses and interaction testing were performed to examine the relationship between the CIMI and cognitive function and effect modification. The mean CIMT was 0.74 ± 0.11 mm, and the mean MMSE score was 23.5 ± 4.8. There was a significant interaction (P interaction < 0.05) in both male and female populations stratified by age (<60 vs. ≥60 years), and higher CIMT was significantly associated with decreased MMSE scores only in participants aged ≥60 years (male: β = -2.29, 95% CI -3.23 to -1.36; female: β = -1.96, 95% CI -2.97 to -0.95). Males with abnormal HDL-C showed a stronger negative association (β = -3.16, 95% CI -4.85 to -1.47) than those with normal HDL-C (normal vs. abnormal, P for interaction = 0.004). We observed that increased CIMT was significantly associated with cognitive impairment in the hypertensive population, especially among individuals with an age greater than 60 years and HDL-C deficiency. Overall, upon diagnosis of hypertension, treatment should start at the earliest opportunity to prevent end-organ damage and cognitive decline.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41440-021-00743-wDOI Listing
November 2021

Inverse association between body mass index and all-cause mortality in rural chinese adults: 15-year follow-up of the Anqing cohort study.

BMJ Open 2021 08 30;11(8):e045495. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

National Clinical Research Study Center for Kidney Disease, State Key Laboratory for Organ Failure Research, Renal Division, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Objective: To investigate the association between body mass index (BMI) and all-cause mortality in a Chinese rural population.

Design: Prospective cohort study.

Setting: This study was conducted from 2003 to 2018 in Anqing, Anhui Province, China.

Participants: 17 851 participants aged 25-64 years (49.4% female) attending physical examinations and questionnaire were included in this study. The inclusion criterion was families having a minimum of three participating siblings. The exclusion criteria included participants without family number and BMI data at baseline.

Outcome Measures: The outcome measure was all-cause mortality. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) regression analysis was performed to determine the association between baseline BMI and all-cause mortality.

Results: During a mean follow-up period of 14.1 years, 730 deaths (8.0%) occurred among men, and 321 deaths (3.6%) occurred among women. The mean BMI for males was 21.3[Formula: see text] kg/m, and for female it was 22.1±3.1 kg/m. Baseline BMI was significantly inversely associated with all-cause mortality risk for per SD increase (OR, 0.79 (95% CI, 0.72 to 0.87) for males; OR, 0.88 (95% CI, 0.76 to 1.01) for females). When BMI was stratified with cut points at 20 and 24 kg/m, compared with the low BMI group, a significantly lower risk of death was found in the high BMI group (BMI ≥24: OR, 0.57 (95% CI, 0.43 to 0.77) in males; 0.65 (95% CI, 0.46 to 0.93) in females) after adjustment for relevant factors.

Conclusions: In this relatively lean rural Chinese population, the risk of all-cause mortality decreased with increasing BMI. The excess risk of all-cause mortality associated with a high BMI was not seen among this rural population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-045495DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8407212PMC
August 2021

A Review of Novel Cardiac Biomarkers in Acute or Chronic Cardiovascular Diseases: The Role of Soluble ST2 (sST2), Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), Myeloperoxidase (MPO), and Procalcitonin (PCT).

Dis Markers 2021 9;2021:6258865. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

Department of Cardiology, Nanchang University Second Affiliated Hospital, Nanchang, China.

While the received traditional predictors are still the mainstay in the diagnosis and prognosis of CVD events, increasing studies have focused on exploring the ancillary effect of biomarkers for the aspiring of precision. Under which circumstances, soluble ST2 (sST2), lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and procalcitonin (PCT) have recently emerged as promising markers in the field of both acute and chronic cardiovascular diseases. Existent clinical studies have demonstrated the significant associations between these markers with various CVD outcomes, which further verified the potentiality of markers in helping risk stratification and diagnostic and therapeutic work-up of patients. The current review article is aimed at illuminating the applicability of these four novels and often neglected cardiac biomarkers in common clinical scenarios, including acute myocardial infarction, acute heart failure, and chronic heart failure, especially in the emergency department. By thorough classification, combination, and discussion of biomarkers with clinical and instrumental evaluation, we hope the current study can provide insights into biomarkers and draw more attention to their importance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6258865DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8371622PMC
August 2021

Molecular cloning and biochemical characterization of a new coumarin glycosyltransferase CtUGT1 from Cistanche tubulosa.

Fitoterapia 2021 Sep 20;153:104995. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Modern Research Center for Traditional Chinese Medicine, School of Chinese Materia Medica, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100029, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) are an important and functionally diverse family of enzymes involved in secondary metabolite biosynthesis. Coumarin is one of the most common skeletons of natural products with candidate pharmacological activities. However, to date, many reported GTs from plants mainly recognized flavonoids as sugar acceptors. Only limited GTs could catalyze the glycosylation of coumarins. In this study, a new UGT was cloned from Cistanche tubulosa, a valuable traditional tonic Chinese herb, which is abundant with diverse glycosides such as phenylethanoid glycosides, lignan glycosides, and iridoid glycosides. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis showed that CtUGT1 is phylogenetically distant from most of the reported flavonoid UGTs and adjacent to phenylpropanoid UGTs. Extensive in vitro enzyme assays found that although CtUGT1 was not involved in the biosynthesis of bioactive glycosides in C. tubulosa, it could catalyze the glucosylation of coumarins umbelliferone 1, esculetine 2, and hymecromone 3 in considerable yield. The glycosylated products were identified by comparison with the reference standards or NMR spectroscopy, and the results indicated that CtUGT1 can regiospecifically catalyze the glucosylation of hydroxyl coumarins at the C7-OH position. The key residues that determined CtUGT1's activity were further discussed based on homology modeling and molecular docking analyses. Combined with site-directed mutagenesis results, it was found that H19 played an irreplaceable role as the crucial catalysis basis. CtUGT1 could be used in the enzymatic preparation of bioactive coumarin glycosides.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2021.104995DOI Listing
September 2021

Hypertensive Retinopathy and the Risk of Stroke Among Hypertensive Adults in China.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2021 07;62(9):28

Department of Ophthalmology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, China.

Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the association between hypertensive retinopathy and the risk of first stroke, examine possible effect modifiers in hypertensive patients, and test the appropriateness of the Keith-Wagener-Barker (KWB) classification for predicting stroke risk.

Methods: In total, 9793 hypertensive participants (3727 males and 6066 females) without stroke history from the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial were included in this study. The primary outcome was first stroke.

Results: Over a median follow-up of 4.4 years, 592 participants experienced their first stroke (509 ischemic, 77 hemorrhagic, and six unclassifiable strokes). In total, 5590 participants were diagnosed with grade 1 retinopathy (57.08%), 1466 with grade 2 retinopathy (14.97%), 231 with grade 3 retinopathy (2.36%), and three with grade 4 retinopathy (0.03%). Grades 1 and 2 were merged and classified as mild retinopathy, and grades 3 and 4 were merged and classified as severe retinopathy. There was a significant positive association between hypertensive retinopathy and the risk of first stroke and first ischemic stroke, and no effect modifiers were found. The hazard ratios (HRs) for first stroke were as follows: mild versus no retinopathy, 1.26 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-1.58, P = 0.040), and severe versus no retinopathy, 2.40 (95% CI, 1.49-3.84, P < 0.001). The HRs for ischemic stroke were as follows: severe versus no retinopathy, 2.35 (95% CI, 1.41-3.90, P = 0.001), and nonsignificantly increased HRs for mild versus no retinopathy, 1.26 (95% CI, 0.99-1.60, P = 0.057).

Conclusions: There was a significant positive association between hypertensive retinopathy and the risk of first stroke in patients with hypertension, indicating that hypertensive retinopathy may be a predictor of the risk of stroke. A simplified two-grade classification system based on the KWB classification is recommended for predicting stroke risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/iovs.62.9.28DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8300046PMC
July 2021

Pose Estimation of Omnidirectional Camera with Improved EPnP Algorithm.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Jun 10;21(12). Epub 2021 Jun 10.

College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun 130022, China.

The omnidirectional camera, having the advantage of broadening the field of view, realizes 360° imaging in the horizontal direction. Due to light reflection from the mirror surface, the collinearity relation is altered and the imaged scene has severe nonlinear distortions. This makes it more difficult to estimate the pose of the omnidirectional camera. To solve this problem, we derive the mapping from omnidirectional camera to traditional camera and propose an omnidirectional camera linear imaging model. Based on the linear imaging model, we improve the EPnP algorithm to calculate the omnidirectional camera pose. To validate the proposed solution, we conducted simulations and physical experiments. Results show that the algorithm has a good performance in resisting noise.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21124008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8228276PMC
June 2021

Association Between White Blood Cell Counts and Brachial-Ankle Pulse Wave Velocity in Chinese Hypertensive Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Angiology 2022 Jan 24;73(1):42-50. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

College of Integrative Medicine, Anhui University of Chinese Medicine, Hefei, People's Republic of China.

Increased arterial stiffness is highly prevalent in patients with hypertension and is associated with cardiovascular (CV) risk. Increased white blood cell (WBC) counts may also be an independent risk factor for arterial stiffness and CV events. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between differential WBC counts and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) in hypertensive adults. A total of 14 390 participants were included in the final analysis. A multivariate linear regression model was applied for the correlation analysis of WBC count and baPWV. Higher WBC counts were associated with a greater baPWV: adjusted β = 10 (95% CI, 8-13, < .001). The same significant association was also found when WBC count was assessed as categories or quartiles. In addition, the effect of differential WBC subtypes, including neutrophil count and lymphocyte count on baPWV, showed the similar results. These findings showed that baPWV has positive associations with differential WBC counts in hypertensive adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00033197211021199DOI Listing
January 2022

Sex difference in the association between plasma selenium and first stroke: a community-based nested case-control study.

Biol Sex Differ 2021 05 29;12(1):39. Epub 2021 May 29.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, No. 1 Minde Road, Nanchang, Jiangxi Province, China.

Background: To date, there is no clearly defined association between plasma selenium levels and first stroke. We aimed to investigate the association between baseline plasma selenium and first stroke risk in a community-based Chinese population.

Methods: Using a nested case-control study design, a total of 1255 first stroke cases and 1255 matched controls were analyzed. Participant plasma selenium concentrations were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and the association of plasma selenium with first stroke risk was estimated by conditional logistic regression models.

Results: Overall, a non-linear negative association between plasma selenium and first total stroke and first ischemic stroke risks was found in males but not in females. Compared with participants with lower selenium levels (tertile 1-2, < 94.1 ng/mL), participants with higher selenium levels (tertile 3, ≥ 94.1 ng/mL) had significantly lower risks of first total stroke (OR 0.63; 95% CI 0.48, 0.83) and first ischemic stroke (OR 0.61; 95% CI 0.45, 0.83) in males but not in females with first total stroke (OR 0.92; 95% CI 0.69, 1.22) and first ischemic stroke (OR 0.89; 95% CI 0.65, 1.22). Furthermore, a stronger association between plasma selenium and first total stroke was found in males with higher vitamin E levels (≥ 13.5 μg/mL vs. < 13.5 μg/mL P-interaction = 0.007). No significant association was observed between plasma selenium and first hemorrhagic stroke risk in either males or females.

Conclusion: Our study indicated a significant, non-linear, negative association between plasma selenium and first stroke in males but not in females.

Trial Registration: ChiCTR1800017274 .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13293-021-00383-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8164764PMC
May 2021

High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and the Risk of First Ischemic Stroke in a Chinese Hypertensive Population.

Clin Interv Aging 2021 14;16:801-810. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Neurology, East Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.

Background And Purpose: Elevated high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels have displayed protection against cardiovascular disease. However, the association between specific lipoprotein classes and first ischemic stroke (IS) has not been well defined, particularly in higher-risk hypertensive populations. Our study evaluated the associations of HDL-C with first IS in a Chinese hypertensive population.

Methods: The study population was obtained from a community-based cohort study of hypertension in Lianyungang and Rongcheng, China. A nested case-control design was used that included 2463 identified first IS cases and 2463 controls matched by age ± 1 year, sex, and region.

Results: After adjusting for potential confounders, HDL-C was inversely associated with first IS (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 0.91; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.85-0.98). HDL-C levels of at least 65.4 mg/dL displayed a significant protective effect for first IS (aOR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.69-0.98). Conversely, adverse effects of first IS were observed for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels ≥138.1 mg/dL (aOR: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.02-1.42) and triglyceride (TG) levels ≥140.8 mg/dL (aOR: 1.27; 95% CI: 1.09-1.49). The risk associations of LDL-C and TG with first IS were attenuated in the presence of high HDL-C (≥53.0 mg/dL); an increased risk of first IS was only found in the presence of low HDL-C (<53.0 mg/dL) when LDL-C (aOR: 1.66; 95% CI: 1.19-2.31) and TG (aOR: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.17-1.84) were combined with HDL-C for analysis.

Conclusion: In this community-based Chinese hypertensive population, higher HDL-C was a significant protective factor of first IS. These data add to the evidence describing the relationship between lipids and IS and suggest that HDL-C maybe is a marker of IS risk in Chinses hypertensive population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CIA.S295252DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8132192PMC
June 2021

Design of a compact dual-channel panoramic annular lens with a large aperture and high resolution.

Appl Opt 2021 Apr;60(11):3094-3102

We propose a compact dual-channel panoramic annular lens (PAL) with a large aperture and high resolution to solve three major shortcomings of conventional PAL systems: resolution, imaging quality, and compactness. Using polarization technology, the system integrates two optical channels to eliminate the central blind area. Using our PAL aperture ray-tracing model, the large aperture PAL system with a low F-number of 2.5 and a diameter ratio of 1.5 is realized. The field of view (FoV) of the front channel is 360×(0-45), and the FoV of the side channel is 360×(45-100). Both channels apply Q-type aspheres. The Airy radii of the front channel and the side channel are 1.801 and 1.798 µm, respectively. It indicates that they match the 1.8 µm pixel sensor and can form a great image on the same sensor. The modulation transfer function at 157 lp/mm is greater than 0.4 over the entire FoV. The F- distortion is less than 5%, and the relative illuminance is higher than 0.78 in the two channels. The excellent imaging results prove the feasibility of our PAL design method and the advantages of the compact dual-channel PAL system for space-constrained scenes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.418976DOI Listing
April 2021

Egg consumption associated with all-cause mortality in rural China: a 14-year follow-up study.

Eur J Public Health 2021 07;31(3):613-618

Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Food Nutrition and Human Health, College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China.

Background: Dietary recommendations regarding egg intake remain controversial topic for public health. We hypothesized that there was a positive association between egg consumption and all-cause mortality.

Methods: To test this hypothesis, we enrolled 9885 adults from a community-based cohort in Anhui Province, China during 2003-05. Egg consumption was assessed by food questionnaire. Stratified analyses were performed for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, smoking, drinking and laboratory tests.

Results: After an average follow-up of 14.1 years, 9444 participants were included for analysis. A total of 814 deaths were recorded. Participants' BMI and lipid profile had no significantly difference between three egg consumption groups. BMI was 21.6±2.7 of the whole population, especially BMI>24 was only 17.3%. A bivariate association of egg consumption >6/week with increased all-cause mortality was observed compared with ≤6/week (RR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.73, P = 0.018). A significant interaction was observed for BMI ≥ 21.2 kg/m2 vs. BMI<21.2 kg/m2 (P for interaction: 0.001). No other significant interactions were found.

Conclusions: In this study, consuming >6 eggs/week increased risk of all-cause mortality, even among lean participants, especially who with BMI ≥ 21.2 kg/m2. Eggs are an easily accessible and constitute an affordable food source in underdeveloped regions. Consuming <6 eggs/week may be the most suitable intake mode.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/ckaa250DOI Listing
July 2021

Association of visceral adiposity index with new-onset type 2 diabetes and impaired fasting glucose in hypertensive Chinese adults.

Eat Weight Disord 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Division of Nephrology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, National Clinical Research Center for Kidney Disease, State Key Laboratory of Organ Failure Research, Guangdong Provincial Institute of Nephrology, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Renal Failure Research, Guangzhou Regenerative Medicine and Health Guangdong Laboratory, Guangdong Provincial Clinical Research Center for Kidney Disease, Guangzhou, 510515, China.

Purpose: Visceral adiposity index (VAI) is a reliable indicator for the distribution and function of adipose tissue in the body. The relation of VAI with new-onset type 2 diabetes and new-onset impaired fasting glucose (IFG) remains uncertain. We aimed to investigate the prospective relation of VAI with new-onset type 2 diabetes and new-onset IFG in Chinese hypertensive adults.

Methods: A total of 14,838 hypertensive adults free of type 2 diabetes at baseline were included from the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial. The primary outcome was new-onset type 2 diabetes, defined as physician-diagnosed diabetes or use of glucose-lowering drugs during follow-up, or fasting glucose ≥ 7.0 mmol/L at the exit visit. The secondary outcome was new-onset IFG, defined as fasting glucose < 6.1 mmol/L at baseline, while fasting glucose ≥ 6.1 mmol/L and < 7.0 mmol/L at the exit visit.

Results: Over a median of 4.5 years' follow-up, 1612 (10.9%) participants developed type 2 diabetes. When VAI was categorized into quartiles, compared with participants in quartile 1-3 (< 2.80), significantly higher risk of new-onset type 2 diabetes (OR 1.30; 95% CI 1.08-1.56) and new-onset IFG (OR 1.28; 95% CI 1.08-1.52) was found in those in quartile 4 (≥ 2.80). Moreover, the positive associations were consistent in participants with or without single abnormal VAI components, including general obesity, abdominal obesity, elevated triglycerides and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels; or with different numbers of abnormal VAI components (all P interactions > 0.05).

Conclusion: Our study suggested a positive relation of VAI with the risk of new-onset type 2 diabetes and new-onset IFG in Chinese hypertensive patients, independent of its components.

Level Of Evidence: Level III, a well-designed cohort.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40519-021-01187-4DOI Listing
April 2021

Prospective association between baseline plasma zinc concentration and development of proteinuria in Chinese hypertensive patients.

J Trace Elem Med Biol 2021 Jul 2;66:126755. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Division of Nephrology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, National Clinical Research Center for Kidney Disease, State Key Laboratory of Organ Failure Research, Guangdong Provincial Institute of Nephrology, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Renal Failure Research, Guangdong Provincial Clinical Research Center for Kidney Disease, Guangzhou Regenerative Medicine and Health Guangdong Laboratory, Guangzhou, 510515, China. Electronic address:

Objective: We aimed to evaluate the association between baseline plasma zinc and the development of proteinuria as well as possible effect modifiers in hypertensive patients.

Methods: This is a subset of the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial (CSPPT) Renal Sub-Study. In the CSPPT, participants were randomized to receive a daily oral dose of 1 tablet containing 10 mg enalapril and 0.8 mg folic acid or 1 tablet containing 10 mg enalapril only. A total of 783 participants with plasma zinc measurements and without proteinuria at baseline were included in the current study. The study outcome was the development of proteinuria during the follow-up, defined as a urine dipstick reading of trace or ≥1+ at the exit visit.

Results: During a median follow-up duration of 4.4 years, the development of proteinuria occurred in 93 (11.9 %) participants. There was an inverse relation of baseline plasma zinc with the development of proteinuria (per SD increment; OR, 0.74, 95 % CI: 0.55-0.99), p for trend of quartiles = 0.005.

Conclusions: In Chinese hypertensive patients, there was a significant inverse association between baseline plasma zinc and the development of proteinuria, although plasma zinc remained in the reference range.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtemb.2021.126755DOI Listing
July 2021

Cigarette smoking and all-cause mortality in rural Chinese male adults: 15-year follow-up of the Anqing cohort study.

BMC Public Health 2021 04 9;21(1):696. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Food Nutrition and Human Health, College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China.

Background: According to the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017, smoking is one of the leading four risk factors contributing to deaths in China. We aimed to evaluate the associations of smoking with all-cause mortality in a Chinese rural population.

Methods: Male participants over age 45 (n = 5367) from a large familial aggregation study in rural China, were included in the current analyses. A total of 528 former smokers and 3849 current smokers accounted for 10 and 71.7% of the cohort, respectively. Generalized Estimating Equations were used to evaluate the association between baseline smoking status and mortality, adjusting for pertinent covariates.

Results: There were 579 recorded deaths during the 15-year follow-up. Current smokers (odds ratio [OR],1.60; 95% CI,1.23-2.08) had higher all-cause mortality risks than nonsmokers. Relative to nonsmokers, current smokers of more than 40 pack-years ([OR],1.85; 95% CI,1.33-2.56) had a higher all-cause mortality risk. Compared to nonsmokers, current smokers who started smoking before age 20 ([OR],1.91; 95% CI,1.43-2.54) had a higher all-cause mortality risk, and former smokers in the lower pack-year group who quit after age 41 (median) ([OR],3.19; 95% CI,1.83-5.56) also had a higher risk of death after adjustment. Furthermore, former smokers who were also former drinkers had the highest significant risk of mortality than never smokers or drinkers. (P for interaction = 0.034).

Conclusions: This study provides evidence that current smokers and former smokers have a higher mortality risk than nonsmokers and would benefit from cessation at a younger age.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-10691-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8034075PMC
April 2021

Neutrophil counts and the risk of first stroke in general hypertensive adults.

Hypertens Res 2021 07 9;44(7):830-839. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

National Clinical Research Center for Kidney Disease, State Key Laboratory for Organ Failure Research, Division of Nephrology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 510515, China.

We aimed to investigate the association between neutrophil counts and first stroke and examine possible effect modifiers among treated hypertensive adults. This is a post hoc analysis of the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial (CSPPT). A total of 11,878 hypertensive adults with data on neutrophil counts at baseline were included in the current study. The primary outcome was first stroke. During a median follow-up of 4.5 years, 414 (3.5%) participants experienced a first stroke, including 358 with ischemic stroke, 55 with hemorrhagic stroke and one with uncertain type of stroke. Compared with participants in quartile 1 (<2.9 × 10/L) of neutrophil counts, those in the upper quartiles (quartile 2-4 [≥2.9 × 10/L]) had a significantly higher risk of first stroke (HR, 1.35; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.78) or first ischemic stroke (HR, 1.38; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.86). Moreover, a strong positive association between neutrophil counts and first ischemic stroke was found in participants with total homocysteine (tHcy) levels <15 μmol/L (HR, 1.74; 95% CI: 1.17, 2.58; vs. ≥15 μmol/L; HR, 0.91; 95% CI: 0.57, 1.46, P interaction = 0.042) at baseline or time-averaged mean arterial pressure (MAP) ≥102 mmHg (median) (HR, 1.92; 95% CI: 1.27, 2.89; vs. <102 mmHg; HR, 0.89; 95% CI: 0.57, 1.41, P interaction = 0.015) during the treatment period. However, no such association between neutrophil counts and first hemorrhagic stroke was found. In summary, high baseline neutrophil counts were associated with an increased risk of first ischemic stroke among hypertensive patients, especially in those with low tHcy at baseline or high time-averaged MAP during the treatment period.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41440-021-00625-1DOI Listing
July 2021

Relationship of several serum folate forms with the risk of mortality: A prospective cohort study.

Clin Nutr 2021 06 27;40(6):4255-4262. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Division of Nephrology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, National Clinical Research Center for Kidney Disease, State Key Laboratory of Organ Failure Research, Guangdong Provincial Institute of Nephrology, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Renal Failure Research, Guangzhou Regenerative Medicine and Health Guangdong Laboratory, Guangzhou, 510515, China. Electronic address:

Objective: We aim to examine the relation of several folate forms (5-methyltetrahydrofolate [5-mTHF], unmetabolized folic acid [UMFA], non-methyl folate, and MeFox [pyrazino-s-triazine derivative of 4α-hydroxy-5-methyltetrahydrofolate]) with the risk of mortality.

Methods: Using data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2014, a total of 10,661 people with folate forms data were recruited. Death information was obtained from the National Death Index until 2015. Cox proportional hazards regression models were developed to evaluate the relationship between folate forms and mortality.

Results: During 2.99 years of follow-up, 344 (2.6%) deaths occurred. Overall, significantly higher risks of all-cause mortality were found in participants with higher level of serum 5-mTHF (≥51.3 nmol/L [quartile 4] vs. 23.9-51.3 nmol/L [quartile 2-3]; HR, 1.61; 95% CI: 1.03-2.53), UMFA (≥1.1 nmol/L [quartile 4] vs. <1.1 nmol/L [quartile 1-3]; HR, 1.55; 95% CI: 1.15-2.09), non-methyl folate (≥1.7 nmol/L [quartile 4] vs. 1.2-1.7 nmol/L [quartile 3]; HR, 1.62; 95% CI: 1.06-2.48), or MeFox (≥2.5 nmol/L [quartile 4] vs. <2.5 nmol/L [quartile 1-3]; HR, 1.54; 95% CI: 1.11-2.12). In addition, there was an increased risk of all-cause mortality for those with low level of serum 5-mTHF (<23.9 nmol/L [quartile 1] vs. 23.9-51.3 nmol/L [quartile 2-3]; HR, 1.66; 95% CI: 1.12-2.47). Most importantly, none of any folate forms significantly modified the association between other folate forms and mortality (all P for interactions >0.05).

Conclusion: Higher levels of serum folate forms (5-mTHF, UMFA, non-methyl folate, and MeFox) were associated with higher risk of mortality while 5-mTHF insufficiency also showed a negative impact on mortality. Our findings emphasized the importance of monitoring the folate forms concentrations and may help counsel future related clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2021.01.025DOI Listing
June 2021

Protocatechuic Acid Protects Platelets from Apoptosis via Inhibiting Oxidative Stress-Mediated PI3K/Akt/GSK3β Signaling.

Thromb Haemost 2021 Jul 5;121(7):931-943. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Department of Nutrition and Food Safety, School of Public Health (Shenzhen), Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China.

Oxidative stress plays crucial roles in initiating platelet apoptosis that facilitates the progression of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Protocatechuic acid (PCA), a major metabolite of anthocyanin cyanidin-3-O-β-glucoside (Cy-3-g), exerts cardioprotective effects. However, underlying mechanisms responsible for such effects remain unclear. Here, we investigate the effect of PCA on platelet apoptosis and the underlying mechanisms in vitro. Isolated human platelets were treated with hydrogen peroxide (HO) to induce apoptosis with or without pretreatment with PCA. We found that PCA dose-dependently inhibited HO-induced platelet apoptosis by decreasing the dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential, activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3, and decreasing phosphatidylserine exposure. Additionally, the distributions of Bax, Bcl-xL, and cytochrome mediated by HO in the mitochondria and the cytosol were also modulated by PCA treatment. Moreover, the inhibitory effects of PCA on platelet caspase-3 cleavage and phosphatidylserine exposure were mainly mediated by downregulating PI3K/Akt/GSK3β signaling. Furthermore, PCA dose-dependently decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and the intracellular Ca concentration in platelets in response to HO. N-Acetyl cysteine (NAC), a ROS scavenger, markedly abolished HO-stimulated PI3K/Akt/GSK3β signaling, caspase-3 activation, and phosphatidylserine exposure. The combination of NAC and PCA did not show significant additive inhibitory effects on PI3K/Akt/GSK3β signaling and platelet apoptosis. Thus, our results suggest that PCA protects platelets from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis through downregulating ROS-mediated PI3K/Akt/GSK3β signaling, which may be responsible for cardioprotective roles of PCA in CVDs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1722621DOI Listing
July 2021

Association between plasma copper levels and first stroke: a community-based nested case-control study.

Nutr Neurosci 2021 Feb 3:1-10. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang of Jiangxi, People's Republic of China.

Background And Aims: Uncertainty remains regarding the association between the risk of stroke and plasma copper levels in population with copper mostly in normal range due to limited data. We examined the association between baseline plasma copper and risk of first stroke in Chinese community-dwelling population.

Methods: We conducted a nested case control study from 'H-type Hypertension and Stroke Prevention and Control Project'. A total of 1255 first stroke cases and 1255 controls matched for age, sex and study site were included in the analysis. Conditional logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the association between plasma copper and first stroke.

Results: The overall mean of copper was 15.90 (2.66) μmol/L. In total, 94.26% participants' copper concentration was in the normal range by Mayo Clinic laboratory reference values. Smoothing curve showed that the associations of plasma copper with first stroke and its subtypes were linear. Each standard deviation (SD) increment of plasma copper was independently and positively associated with risk of first stroke [odds ratio (OR): 1.17, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07-1.28]. The multivariable ORs with 95% CIs for total stroke, ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke in the highest versus the lowest quartile of plasma copper were 1.49 (1.16-1.90; -trend = 0.001), 1.46 (1.12-1.92; -trend = 0.004) and 2.05 (0.95-4.38; -trend = 0.050), respectively.

Conclusions: Baseline plasma copper was positively associated with risk of first ischemic stroke in an approximately linear fashion among Chinese community population (80.32% hypertensives), although their copper levels were mostly within the normal range according to current reference values. Our findings warrant additional investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1028415X.2021.1875299DOI Listing
February 2021

Relation of BMI and waist circumference with the risk of new-onset hyperuricemia in hypertensive patients.

QJM 2021 Jan 24. Epub 2021 Jan 24.

Institute of Biomedicine, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China.

Background: We aimed to evaluate the relationship of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) with the risk of new-onset hyperuricemia, and examine possible effect modifies in general hypertensive patients.

Methods: A total of 10,611 hypertensive patients with normal uric acid (UA) concentrations (<357μmol/L) at baseline were included from the UA Sub-study of the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial (CSPPT). The primary outcome was new-onset hyperuricemia, defined as a UA concentration ≥417μmol/L in men or ≥ 357μmol/L in women at the exit visit.

Results: During a median follow-up duration of 4.4 years, 1663 (15.7%) participants developed new-onset hyperuricemia. When analyzed separately, increased BMI (≥25 kg/m2, quartile 3-4; OR, 1.46; 95% CI: 1.29-1.65), or increased WC (≥85cm for females, quartile 3-4; OR, 1.24; 95% CI: 1.08-1.42; and ≥84cm for males, quartile 3-4; OR, 1.30; 95% CI: 1.01-1.67) were each significantly associated with higher risk of new-onset hyperuricemia. When WC was forced into the model with BMI simultaneously, its significant association with new-onset hyperuricemia disappeared in females (<85 versus ≥85cm; OR, 0.96, 95% CI: 0.81-1.13) or males (≥84 versus <84cm; OR, 1.13; 95%CI: 0.84-1.52); however, BMI was still significantly related with new-onset hyperuricemia (≥25 versus <25kg/m2; OR, 1.48; 95%CI: 1.27-1.73). Moreover, the positive BMI & new-onset hyperuricemia association was more pronounced in participants with higher time-averaged on-treatment SBP (median: <138.3 versus ≥138.3 mmHg; P-interaction = 0.041).

Conclusions: Higher BMI, but not WC, is significantly and independently associated with an increased risk of new-onset hyperuricemia among hypertensive patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/qjmed/hcaa346DOI Listing
January 2021

Underwater Object Detection and Reconstruction Based on Active Single-Pixel Imaging and Super-Resolution Convolutional Neural Network.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Jan 5;21(1). Epub 2021 Jan 5.

School of Engineering, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway 47500, Malaysia.

Due to medium scattering, absorption, and complex light interactions, capturing objects from the underwater environment has always been a difficult task. Single-pixel imaging (SPI) is an efficient imaging approach that can obtain spatial object information under low-light conditions. In this paper, we propose a single-pixel object inspection system for the underwater environment based on compressive sensing super-resolution convolutional neural network (CS-SRCNN). With the CS-SRCNN algorithm, image reconstruction can be achieved with 30% of the total pixels in the image. We also investigate the impact of compression ratios on underwater object SPI reconstruction performance. In addition, we analyzed the effect of peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) and structural similarity index (SSIM) to determine the image quality of the reconstructed image. Our work is compared to the SPI system and SRCNN method to demonstrate its efficiency in capturing object results from an underwater environment. The PSNR and SSIM of the proposed method have increased to 35.44% and 73.07%, respectively. This work provides new insight into SPI applications and creates a better alternative for underwater optical object imaging to achieve good quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21010313DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7796515PMC
January 2021

The effect of ABCA1 gene DNA methylation on blood pressure levels in a Chinese hyperlipidemic population.

J Hum Hypertens 2021 Jan 18. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Institute of Biomedicine, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China.

Hypertension is an important public health challenge worldwide. Epigenetic studies are providing novel insight into the underlying mechanisms of hypertension. We investigated the effect of DNA methylation in ATP-binding cassette transporter 1 (ABCA1) gene on blood pressure levels in a Chinese hyperlipidemic population. We randomly selected 211 individuals with hyperlipidemia who had not received any lipid-lowering treatment at baseline from our previous statin pharmacogenetics study (n = 734). DNA methylation loci at the ABCA1 gene were measured by MethylTarget, a next generation bisulfite sequencing-based multiple targeted cytosine-guanine dinucleotide methylation analysis method. Mean DNA methylation level was used in statistical analysis. In all subjects, higher mean ABCA1_B methylation was positively associated with systolic blood pressure (SBP) (β = 8.27, P = 0.008; β = 8.78, P = 0.005) and explained 2.7% and 5.8% of SBP variation before and after adjustment for lipids, respectively. We further divided all patients into three groups based on the tertile of body mass index (BMI) distribution. In the middle tertile of BMI, there was a significantly positive relationship between mean ABCA1_A methylation and SBP (β = 0.89, P = 0.003) and DBP (β = 0.32, P = 0.030). Mean ABCA1_A methylation explained 11.0% of SBP variation and 5.3% of DBP variation, respectively. Furthermore, mean ABCA1_A methylation (β = 0.79; P = 0.007) together with age and gender explained up to 24.1% of SBP variation. Our study provides new evidence that the ABCA1 DNA methylation profile is associated with blood pressure levels, which highlights that DNA methylation might be a significant molecular mechanism involved in the pathophysiological process of hypertension.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41371-020-00479-zDOI Listing
January 2021

Degree of blood pressure control and the risk of new-onset hyperuricemia in treated hypertensive patients.

Ann Transl Med 2020 Nov;8(21):1434

Division of Nephrology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, National Clinical Research Center for Kidney Disease, State Key Laboratory for Organ Failure Research, Guangzhou, China.

Background: The relationship between blood pressure (BP) control and the risk of new-onset hyperuricemia remains uncertain. We aimed to examine the association between degree of time-averaged on-treatment BP control and new-onset hyperuricemia in general hypertensive patients.

Methods: A total of 10,617 hypertensive patients with normal uric acid (UA) concentrations (<357 µmol/L) at baseline were included from the UA Sub-study of the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial (CSPPT). Participants were randomized to receive a double-blind daily treatment of enalapril 10 mg and folic acid 0.8 mg or enalapril 10 mg alone. BP measurements were taken every three months after randomization. The primary outcome was new-onset hyperuricemia, defined as a UA concentration ≥417 µmol/L in men or ≥357 µmol/L in women at the exit visit.

Results: Over a median of 4.4 years, 1,664 (15.7%) participants developed new-onset hyperuricemia. Overall, there was a significantly positive association between time-averaged on-treatment diastolic BP (DBP) and new-onset hyperuricemia (per 10 mmHg increment; OR 1.13; 95% CI: 1.02-1.26). Consistently, a significantly higher risk of new-onset hyperuricemia was found in participants with time-averaged on-treatment DBP ≥82.9 mmHg (median) (. <82.9 mmHg; 17.3% . 14.1%; OR 1.25; 95% CI: 1.10-1.44). Furthermore, the lowest new-onset hyperuricemia risk (12.1%) was found in those with both time-averaged on-treatment SBP (median: 138.3 mmHg) and DBP below the median (P-interaction=0.023). The results were similar for time-averaged DBP during the first 12- or 24-month treatment period, or in the analysis using propensity scores. Furthermore, a non-significant higher risk of new-onset hyperuricemia was observed in participants with time-averaged on-treatment SBP ≥120 mmHg (. <120 mmHg; OR 1.61; 95% CI: 0.88-2.97).

Conclusions: A tight DBP control of <82.9 mmHg was associated with lower risk of new-onset hyperuricemia among hypertensive patients without hyperuricemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-20-3017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7723605PMC
November 2020
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