Publications by authors named "Xiping Wang"

111 Publications

Current status and future prospects of grapevine anthracnose caused by Elsinoe ampelina: An important disease in humid grape-growing regions.

Mol Plant Pathol 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology in Arid Areas, College of Horticulture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, China.

Anthracnose, caused by Elsinoe ampelina, is one of the most destructive diseases of grapevines worldwide, especially in humid areas. E. ampelina mainly infects young tissues starting from shoots to berries and affects vine vigour and berry yield. The occurrence and the role of the sexual stage in the disease cycle and the grapevine-E. ampelina interaction remain poorly understood. However, the recent genome sequence data of E. ampelina provides the basis for further studies to understand its evolution, pathogenicity mechanisms, and effector repertoire. New studies on E. ampelina have been conducted in recent years. In this pathogen profile, we present a comprehensive literature review of E. ampelina to summarize the findings on its aetiology, infection mechanisms, genome, pathogenicity, and host resistance.

Taxonomy: Elsinoe ampelina Shear; Kingdom Fungi; Phylum Ascomycota; Subphylum Pezizomycotina; Class Dothideomycetes; Subclass Dothideomycetidae; Order Myriangiales Starbäck; Family Elsinoaceae Höhnel; Genus Elsinoe Racib.

Host Range: E. ampelina only infects Vitis species and hybrids.

Distribution: The grapevine anthracnose is distributed worldwide but is most prevalent in Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, India, Japan, Korea, New Zealand, South Africa, Thailand, USA, and Uruguay.

Disease Symptoms: E. ampelina causes slightly abundant depressed spots on young leaves, petioles, stems, tendrils, rachises, and berries. Under severe infection conditions, early defoliation, berry dropping, and delayed berry development and ripening may occur.

Genome: The genomes of two E. ampelina isolates, YL-1 and CECT 20119, are publicly released with 8,057 and 10,207 predicted genes, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mpp.13076DOI Listing
June 2021

Overexpression of the Apple () in Increases Resistance to Powdery Mildew.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 27;22(11). Epub 2021 May 27.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology in Arid Areas, College of Horticulture, Northwest A&F University, Xianyang 712100, China.

APETALA2/ETHYLENE RESPONSIVE FACTOR (AP2/ERF) transcription factors play important roles in plant development and stress response. Although genes have been extensively investigated in model plants such as , little is known about their role in biotic stress response in perennial fruit tree crops such as apple (). Here, we investigated the role of in powdery mildew resistance in apple. MdERF100 localized to the nucleus but showed no transcriptional activation activity. The heterologous expression of in not only enhanced powdery mildew resistance but also increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and cell death. Furthermore, -overexpressing plants exhibited differential expressions of genes involved in jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) signaling when infected with the powdery mildew pathogen. Additionally, yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays confirmed that MdERF100 physically interacts with the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) protein MdbHLH92. These results suggest that mediates powdery mildew resistance by regulating the JA and SA signaling pathways, and is involved in plant defense against powdery mildew. Overall, this study enhances our understanding of the role of genes in disease resistance, and provides novel insights into the molecular mechanisms of powdery mildew resistance in apple.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22115713DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8197995PMC
May 2021

NAC domain gene VvNAC26 interacts with VvMADS9 and influences seed and fruit development.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2021 Jul 30;164:63-72. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology in Arid Areas, College of Horticulture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, 712100, China; Key Laboratory of Horticultural Plant Biology and Germplasm Innovation in Northwest China, Ministry of Agriculture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, 712100, China. Electronic address:

Grapevine (Vitis vinifera), as one of the potential gardening fruit have important economic and nutritional values. Seedless grapes are popular due to their convenience and excellent taste. As multifunctional proteins, the NAC family involves hormonal pathways, plant aging, and biological stress. However, reports of NAC affecting seed development are rare. Here, the role of grapevine VvNAC26 in regulating fruit ripening and seed size was characterized. There were remarkable differences in the expression of VvNAC26 in seeded and seedless grape varieties during ovule development. The exogenous transformation of VvNAC26 in tomato decreased the cells size of pericarp, fruits and seeds. In addition, led to cotyledon cells arranged more closely and narrowly and obviously decreased seeds at the fruit ripening stage. The tomato fruit of transgenic lines was darker red and underwent color conversion earlier than that of the wild type in the same period. Furthermore, the expression of some genes associated with hormone and fruit development was changed in overexpressed lines. Yeast two-hybrid and BiFC assays showed that VvNAC26 interacted with VvMADS9. In conclusion, these results suggest that VvNAC26 may regulate fruit and seed development by influencing multiple hormone pathways and interacting with VvMADS9 in grape. VvNAC26 may also serve as a candidate for future understanding of the potential regulatory mechanism of seed development and molecular breeding in grapevine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2021.04.031DOI Listing
July 2021

Whole-genome sequencing reveals rare off-target mutations in CRISPR/Cas9-edited grapevine.

Hortic Res 2021 May 1;8(1):114. Epub 2021 May 1.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology in Arid Areas, College of Horticulture, Northwest A&F University, 712100, Yangling, Shaanxi, China.

The CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-associated protein 9 (Cas9) system is a powerful tool for targeted genome editing, with applications that include plant biotechnology and functional genomics research. However, the specificity of Cas9 targeting is poorly investigated in many plant species, including fruit trees. To assess the off-target mutation rate in grapevine (Vitis vinifera), we performed whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of seven Cas9-edited grapevine plants in which one of two genes was targeted by CRISPR/Cas9 and three wild-type (WT) plants. In total, we identified between 202,008 and 272,397 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and between 26,391 and 55,414 insertions/deletions (indels) in the seven Cas9-edited grapevine plants compared with the three WT plants. Subsequently, 3272 potential off-target sites were selected for further analysis. Only one off-target indel mutation was identified from the WGS data and validated by Sanger sequencing. In addition, we found 243 newly generated off-target sites caused by genetic variants between the Thompson Seedless cultivar and the grape reference genome (PN40024) but no true off-target mutations. In conclusion, we observed high specificity of CRISPR/Cas9 for genome editing of grapevine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41438-021-00549-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8087786PMC
May 2021

Comparative transcriptomic analysis highlights contrasting levels of resistance of Vitis vinifera and Vitis amurensis to Botrytis cinerea.

Hortic Res 2021 May 1;8(1):103. Epub 2021 May 1.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology in Arid Areas, College of Horticulture, Northwest A&F University, 712100, Yangling, Xianyang, Shaanxi, China.

Botrytis cinerea is a major grapevine (Vitis spp.) pathogen, but some genotypes differ in their degree of resistance. For example, the Vitis vinifera cultivar Red Globe (RG) is highly susceptible, but V. amurensis Rupr Shuangyou (SY) is highly resistant. Here, we used RNA sequencing analysis to characterize the transcriptome responses of these two genotypes to B. cinerea inoculation at an early infection stage. Approximately a quarter of the genes in RG presented significant changes in transcript levels during infection, the number of which was greater than that in the SY leaves. The genes differentially expressed between infected leaves of SY and RG included those associated with cell surface structure, oxidation, cell death and C/N metabolism. We found evidence that an imbalance in the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and redox homeostasis probably contributed to the susceptibility of RG to B. cinerea. SY leaves had strong antioxidant capacities and improved ROS homeostasis following infection. Regulatory network prediction suggested that WRKY and MYB transcription factors are associated with the abscisic acid pathway. Weighted gene correlation network analysis highlighted preinfection features of SY that might contribute to its increased resistance. Moreover, overexpression of VaWRKY10 in Arabidopsis thaliana and V. vinifera Thompson Seedless enhanced resistance to B. cinerea. Collectively, our study provides a high-resolution view of the transcriptional changes of grapevine in response to B. cinerea infection and novel insights into the underlying resistance mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41438-021-00537-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8087793PMC
May 2021

Comparative transcriptome profiling of Chinese wild grapes provides insights into powdery mildew resistance.

Phytopathology 2021 Apr 18. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Taicheng Road No.3Yangling, China, 712100;

Erysiphe necator, the fungal pathogen of grape powdery mildew disease, poses a great threat to the grape fruit market and wine industry. To better understand the molecular basis of grape responses to E. necator, we performed comparative transcriptome profiling on two Chinese wild grape accessions with varying degrees of resistance to E. necator. A total of 2,856, 2,678 and 1,542 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in the susceptible Vitis pseudoreticulata 'Hunan-1' at 6, 24, and 96 hours post-inoculation of E. necator, respectively, while 1,921, 2,498 and 3,249 DEGs were identified in the resistant V. quinquangularis 'Shang-24'. 'Hunan-1' had substantially larger fraction of down-regulated genes than 'Shang-24' at every infection stage. Analysis of DEGs revealed that up-regulated genes were mostly associated with defense response and disease resistance-related metabolite biosynthesis, while signaling genes were significantly suppressed in 'Hunan-1'. Interestingly, fatty acid biosynthesis and elongation related genes were suppressed by the fungus in 'Shang-24' but somehow induced in 'Hunan-1', consistent with that E. necator is likely a fatty acid auxotroph that requires lipids from the host. Moreover, genes involved in biosynthesis and signaling of phytohormones, such as jasmonic acid and cytokinin, as well as genes encoding protein kinases and NLR proteins were differentially responded to E. necator in the two wild grapes. The variation of gene regulation associated with nutrient uptake by the fungus and with signaling transduction and pathogen recognition suggests a multi-layered regulatory network that works in concert to defend fungal pathogen infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO-01-21-0006-RDOI Listing
April 2021

Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of the B-box transcription factor gene family in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.).

BMC Genomics 2021 Mar 29;22(1):221. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology in Arid Areas, College of Horticulture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, 712100, Shaanxi, China.

Background: B-box (BBX) zinc-finger transcription factors play important roles in plant growth, development, and stress response. Although these proteins have been studied in model plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana or Oryza sativa, little is known about the evolutionary history or expression patterns of BBX proteins in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.).

Results: We identified a total of 25 VviBBX genes in the grapevine genome and named them according to the homology with Arabidopsis. These proteins were classified into five groups on the basis of their phylogenetic relationships, number of B-box domains, and presence or absence of a CCT domain or VP motif. BBX proteins within the same group showed similar exon-intron structures and were unevenly distributed in grapevine chromosomes. Synteny analyses suggested that only segmental duplication events contributed to the expansion of the VviBBX gene family in grapevine. The observed syntenic relationships between some BBX genes from grapevine and Arabidopsis suggest that they evolved from a common ancestor. Transcriptional analyses showed that the grapevine BBX genes were regulated distinctly in response to powdery mildew infection and various phytohormones. Moreover, the expression levels of a subset of BBX genes in ovules were much higher in seedless grapevine cultivars compared with seeded cultivars during ovule development, implying a potential role in seed abortion. Additionally, VviBBX8, VquBBX15a and VquBBX29b were all located in the nucleus and had transcriptional activity except for VquBBX29b.

Conclusions: The results of this study establish the genome-wide analysis of the grapevine BBX family and provide a framework for understanding the biological roles of BBX genes in grapevine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-021-07479-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8008696PMC
March 2021

The threshold effect of cost-based environmental regulation on thermal power generation environmental governance efficiency.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 May 7;28(17):21706-21716. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Department of Economics and Management, North China Electric Power University, No. 619, Yonghua North Street, Baoding, 071003, China.

A network data envelopment analysis slack-based measure (NSBM) was applied to explore the thermal power generation environmental governance efficiency (TGGE) of 30 provinces in China except Tibet from 2006 to 2015, and then the threshold panel data model was established to study the nonlinear impact of cost-based environmental regulation (CER) on TGGE. The results show that (1) thermal power generation efficiency (TGE) is relatively low but shows a fluctuation growth trend, and TGGE is lower than thermal power generation production efficiency (TGPE); (2) CER has a significant single-threshold effect on the TGGE in China. When the proportion of CER to gross domestic production (GDP) is less than 3.023, the regulation has a significant positive effect on TGGE, while when the proportion of CER to GDP is larger than 3.023, the positive effect is greatly reduced from 0.073 to 0.002. The same conclusion can be obtained using the ratio of CER to gross industrial output value as the threshold variable, although with a different threshold value. From the average value of the sample period, for the vast majority of provinces, the effects of CER on TGGE are not significant. Based on these, relevant policy implications are presented to further promote TGGE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-11873-yDOI Listing
May 2021

Pathogenesis and Immune Response in Resistant and Susceptible Cultivars of Grapevine ( spp.) Against Infection.

Phytopathology 2021 Apr 13:PHYTO03200079R. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology in Arid Areas, College of Horticulture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China.

is the main cause of grape anthracnose, and the majority of grapevine cultivars are susceptible to this fungus. Some Chinese wild grape cultivars are resistant, however. It is therefore apt to compare the pathogenesis and immune responses in susceptible and resistant cultivars of grapevine to explore the detailed molecular and biochemical mechanisms of resistance to this fungus. In this study, ultrastructural and histopathological observations were used to demonstrate the resistance responses to in the resistant Chinese wild cultivar clone 'Shang-24' and the susceptible cultivars 'Tangwei' and 'Thompson Seedless'. Seventy-two hours postinoculation (hpi) with , brown necrotic spots were clearly visible on the leaves of the susceptible 'Tangwei' and 'Thompson Seedless'. The infection was characterized by rapid colonization of the host cells by hyphae and massive spread of the pathogen in the intercellular spaces, ultimately leading to host cell collapse, cuticle dissolution, and extensive hyphal growth. In the resistant clone 'Shang-24', the conidia were lysed, a large quantity of electronically dense matter appeared, the hyphal growth was suppressed, and the host cells remained intact. In addition, six genes associated with disease resistance were differentially expressed in the susceptible and resistant cultivars. These disease-related genes were significantly up-regulated following infection with . This study illustrates the differences in infection and colonization of in resistant and susceptible grape leaves.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO-03-20-0079-RDOI Listing
April 2021

Metagenomics Reveal Correlations Between Microbial Organisms in Soils and the Health of .

Front Microbiol 2020 8;11:2095. Epub 2020 Sep 8.

Greening Committee Office of Forestry Bureau of Yulin City, Yulin, China.

Biological diversity plays an important role in the stability of ecosystems. The Mu Us Desert (MUD), located in Northern China, is an aeolian desert. Although it has been governed by a series of ecological restoration programs, the MUD still has limited biological diversity. (), a xerophytic plant, has great potential to improve the biological diversity of the MUD. However, the survival rate of in the MUD has been very low. The current study tried to explore the mechanism of the high death rate of in the microbiome perspective. The correlation study between soil community composition and soil properties showed that water-filled pore space (WFPS), pH, EC, AP, NO, and NH possess higher potential to change the bacterial community (18%) than the fungal community (9%). Principal coordinate analysis indicated that the composition of both bacteria ( and ) and fungi () in the root soil can be increased by . By systematically comparing between the fungal diversity in the root soil around and the pathogenic fungus extract from the pathogenic site of , we found that the high death rate of was associated with specific pathogenic fungus and . In addition, the microbiome composition analysis indicated that planting could also influence the portions of bacteria community, which also has great potential to lead to future infection. However, as the extraction and separation of bacteria from plants is challenging, the correlation between pathogenic bacteria and the high death rate of was not studied here and could be explored in future work.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.02095DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7506035PMC
September 2020

Transcriptome Analysis of the Grape- Pathosystem Reveals Novel Effectors and a Robust Defense Response.

Mol Plant Microbe Interact 2021 Jan 23;34(1):110-121. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology in Arid Areas, College of Horticulture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China.

is an ascomycetous fungus that causes grape anthracnose, a potentially devastating disease worldwide. In this study, a dual RNA-seq analysis was used to simultaneously monitor the fungal genes related to pathogenesis and grape genes related to defense during the interaction at 2, 3, 4, and 5 days postinoculation. Consistent with their potential roles in pathogenicity, genes for carbohydrate-active enzymes, secondary metabolite synthesis, pathogen-host interaction, and those encoding secreted proteins are upregulated during infection. Based on -mediated transient assays in , we further showed that eight and nine candidate effectors, respectively, suppressed BAX- and INF1-mediated programmed cell death. The host response was characterized by the induction of multiple defense systems against , including synthesis of phenylpropanoids, stilbenes, and terpenoid biosynthesis, cell-wall modifications, regulation by phytohormones, and expression of defense-related genes. Together, these findings offer new insights into molecular mechanisms underlying the grape- interaction.[Formula: see text] Copyright © 2021 The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 International license.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/MPMI-08-20-0227-RDOI Listing
January 2021

Grapevine improves drought resistance by directly activating and promoting lignin biosynthesis through the regulation of three peroxidase genes.

Hortic Res 2020 1;7:150. Epub 2020 Sep 1.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology in Arid Areas, College of Horticulture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, 712100 Shaanxi China.

Drought stress severely affects grapevine quality and yield, and recent reports have revealed that lignin plays an important role in protection from drought stress. Since little is known about lignin-mediated drought resistance in grapevine, we investigated its significance. Herein, we show that mediates drought resistance by activating the expression of lignin biosynthetic genes and increasing lignin deposition. Transgenic grapevine plants overexpressing exhibited lignin deposition (mainly G and S monomers) in the stem secondary xylem under control conditions, which resulted from the upregulated expression of and . Overexpression of improves drought tolerance, characterized by a reduction in the water loss rate, maintenance of an effective photosynthesis rate, and increased lignin content (mainly G monomer) in leaves under drought conditions. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay, luciferase reporter assays, and chromatin immunoprecipitation-qPCR assays indicated that directly binds to the G-box -element in the promoters of lignin biosynthetic () and drought-responsive () genes to regulate their expression. In summary, we report a novel -mediated mechanism linking lignification and drought tolerance in grapevine. The results of this study may be of value for the development of molecular breeding strategies to produce drought-resistant fruit crops.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41438-020-00372-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7458916PMC
September 2020

Research on measurement and improvement path of industrial green development in China: a perspective of environmental welfare efficiency.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Dec 27;27(34):42738-42749. Epub 2020 Jul 27.

Department of Economic Management, North China Electric Power University, Baoding, China.

The increasing concern about the environmental issue and its serious adverse effects on human health has made China's industrial green transformation being a matter of public concern. In this study, a network slack-based measure (NSBM) was applied to explore China's industrial green development level from the perspective of environmental welfare efficiency (EWE), considering not only the impact of industrial development on environment and economy, but also the impact on human well-being. Based on the data of 30 provincial administrative regions in China from 2004 to 2017, the comprehensive efficiency (CE) of China's industrial sector was measured and decomposed. The results show that the industrial production efficiency (IPE) is much higher than the EWE, and the improvement of the EWE will be the key to realize the green transformation of China's industry. On this basis, considering the effects of spatial interaction, the spatial Durbin model was established to analyze the driving factors of EWE. Finally, this research puts forward promotion path of industrial green development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-09979-4DOI Listing
December 2020

Development of Electronic Nose for Qualitative and Quantitative Monitoring of Volatile Flammable Liquids.

Sensors (Basel) 2020 Mar 25;20(7). Epub 2020 Mar 25.

College of Biological Science and Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108, China.

A real-time electric nose (E-nose) with a metal oxide sensor (MOS) array was developed to monitor 5 highly flammable liquids (ethanol, tetrahydrofuran, turpentine, lacquer thinner, and gasoline) in this work. We found that temperature had a significant impact on the test results and temperature control could efficiently improve the performance of our E-nose. The results of our qualitative analysis showed that principal component analysis (PCA) could not efficiently distinguish these samples compared to a back-propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN) which had a 100% accuracy rate on the test samples. Quantitative analysis was performed by regression analysis and the average errors were 9.1%-18.4%. In addition, through anti-interference training, the E-nose could filter out the potential false alarm caused by mosquito repellent, perfume and hair jelly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s20071817DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7180552PMC
March 2020

Integrated biorefinery approach to valorize winery waste: A review from waste to energy perspectives.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Jun 14;719:137315. Epub 2020 Feb 14.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology in Arid Areas, College of Horticulture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Xianyang 712100, China; Key Laboratory of Horticultural Plant Biology and Germplasm Innovation in Northwest China, Ministry of Agriculture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Xianyang 712100, China. Electronic address:

The ever-increasing environmental crisis, depleting natural resources, and uncertainties in fossil fuel availability have rekindled researchers' attention to develop green and environmentally friendlier strategies. In this context, a biorefinery approach with a zero-waste theme has stepped-up as the method of choice for sustainable production of an array of industrially important products to address bio-economy challenges. Grape winery results in substantial quantities of solid organic and effluent waste, which epitomizes an increasing concentration of pollution problems with direct damage to human health, economy and nature. From the perspective of integrated biorefinery and circular economy, winery waste could be exploited for multiple purpose value-added products before using the biomass for energy security. This review covers state-of-the-art biorefinery opportunities beyond traditional methods as a solution to overcome many current challenges such as waste minimization in grape leaves, stems, seeds, pomace, wine lees, vinasse etc. and the biosynthesis of various high-value bioproducts viz., phenolic compounds, hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonoids, tartaric acids, lignocellulosic substrates etc.. The critical discussion on the valorization of winery waste (solid, liquid, or gaseous) and life cycle assessment was deployed to find a sustainable solution with value added energy products in an integrated biorefinery approach, keeping the environment and circular economy in the background.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.137315DOI Listing
June 2020

Genome-Wide Characterization and Expression Profiling of GASA Genes during Different Stages of Seed Development in Grapevine ( L.) Predict Their Involvement in Seed Development.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Feb 6;21(3). Epub 2020 Feb 6.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology in Arid Areas, College of Horticulture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China.

Members of the plant-specific GASA (gibberellic acid-stimulated Arabidopsis) gene family have multiple potential roles in plant growth and development, particularly in flower induction and seed development. However, limited information is available about the functions of these genes in fruit plants, particularly in grapes. We identified 14 GASA genes in grapevine ( L.) and performed comprehensive bioinformatics and expression analyses. In the bioinformatics analysis, the locations of genes on chromosomes, physiochemical properties of proteins, protein structure, and subcellular positions were described. We evaluated GASA proteins in terms of domain structure, exon-intron distribution, motif arrangements, promoter analysis, phylogenetic, and evolutionary history. According to the results, the GASA domain is conserved in all proteins and the proteins are divided into three well-conserved subgroups. Synteny analysis proposed that segmental and tandem duplication have played a role in the expansion of the GASA gene family in grapes, and duplicated gene pairs have negative selection pressure. Most of the proteins were predicted to be in the extracellular region, chloroplasts, and the vacuole. In silico promoter analysis suggested that the GASA genes may influence different hormone signaling pathways and stress-related mechanisms. Additionally, we performed a comparison of the expression between seedless (Thompson seedless) and seeded (Red globe) cultivars in different plant parts, including the ovule during different stages of development. Furthermore, some genes were differentially expressed in different tissues, signifying their role in grapevine growth and development. Several genes ( and ) showed different expression levels in later phases of seed development in Red globe and Thompson seedless, suggesting their involvement in seed development. Our study presents the first genome-wide identification and expression profiling of grapevine GASA genes and provides the basis for functional characterization of GASA genes in grapes. We surmise that this information may provide new potential resources for the molecular breeding of grapes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21031088DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7036793PMC
February 2020

Genome Sequence Resource for , the Causal Organism of Grapevine Anthracnose.

Mol Plant Microbe Interact 2020 Apr 3;33(4):576-579. Epub 2020 Mar 3.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology in Arid Areas, College of Horticulture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China.

is an ascomycetous fungus that causes grape anthracnose, a potentially devastating disease worldwide. Here, we report a 28.29 Mb high-quality genome sequence of YL-1 that encodes 8,057 predicted protein-coding genes and represents the first sequenced genome assembly of . This study adds to the current genomic resources for the genus and paves the way for research on comparative genomic studies, -grape interactions, and improvement of management strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/MPMI-12-19-0337-ADOI Listing
April 2020

The Endophytic Fungus from Wild Grape as an Antagonist of and Other Grape Pathogens.

Phytopathology 2020 Apr 11;110(4):843-850. Epub 2020 Feb 11.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology in Arid Areas, College of Horticulture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China.

Gray mold, caused by , is one of the most prevalent fungal diseases in table and wine grapes, affecting grape quality and yields. In this study, we isolated several endophytic fungi, including , , sp., and , from leaves of Amur grape () cultivar Shuangyou and investigated their biocontrol activity against . In vitro dual assay showed that isolate SYE-1 inhibited growth of . The isolate also had a wide range of biocontrol activity against and . Mycelial growth and conidium germination of were significantly inhibited by metabolites of in agar plates and culture extracts of from liquid culture. The isolate produced a total chitinase activity of 0.4 U/ml after incubation for 10 days in Czapek's liquid medium. In addition, application of culture extracts of prior to inoculation significantly reduced disease severity on grape leaves of the susceptible cultivar Red Globe. Taken together, our results indicate that has potential as a biocontrol agent to control grape gray mold.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO-09-19-0347-RDOI Listing
April 2020

The grapevine homeobox gene VvHB58 influences seed and fruit development through multiple hormonal signaling pathways.

BMC Plant Biol 2019 Nov 27;19(1):523. Epub 2019 Nov 27.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology in Arid Areas, College of Horticulture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, 712100, Shaanxi, China.

Background: The homeobox transcription factor has a diversity of functions during plant growth and development process. Previous transcriptome analyses of seed development in grape hybrids suggested that specific homeodomain transcription factors are involved in seed development in seedless cultivars. However, the molecular mechanism of homeobox gene regulating seed development in grape is rarely reported.

Results: Here, we report that the grapevine VvHB58 gene, encoding a homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip I) transcription factor, participates in regulating fruit size and seed number. The VvHB58 gene was differentially expressed during seed development between seedless and seeded cultivars. Subcellular localization assays revealed that the VvHB58 protein was located in the nucleus. Transgenic expression of VvHB58 in tomato led to loss of apical dominance, a reduction in fruit pericarp expansion, reduced fruit size and seed number, and larger endosperm cells. Analysis of the cytosine methylation levels within the VvHB58 promoter indicated that the differential expression during seed development between seedless and seeded grapes may be caused by different transcriptional regulatory mechanisms rather than promoter DNA methylation. Measurements of five classic endogenous hormones and expression analysis of hormone-related genes between VvHB58 transgenic and nontransgenic control plants showed that expression of VvHB58 resulted in significant changes in auxin, gibberellin and ethylene signaling pathways. Additionally, several DNA methylation-related genes were expressed differentially during seed development stages in seedless and seeded grapes, suggesting changes in methylation levels during seed development may be associated with seed abortion.

Conclusion: VvHB58 has a potential function in regulating fruit and seed development by impacting multiple hormonal pathways. These results expand understanding of homeodomain transcription factors and potential regulatory mechanism of seed development in grapevine, and provided insights into molecular breeding for grapes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12870-019-2144-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6882351PMC
November 2019

Genome-Wide Analysis of the YABBY Gene Family in Grapevine and Functional Characterization of .

Front Plant Sci 2019 8;10:1207. Epub 2019 Oct 8.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology in Arid Areas, College of Horticulture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, China.

Genes of the plant-specific YABBY transcription factor family have various roles, including lateral organ development, establishment of dorsoventral polarity, and response to abiotic stress. In this study, we carried out a genomic census of YABBY genes in grapevine () and characterized their expression pattern during ovule development. We identified seven YABBY genes and classified them into five subfamilies, based on peptide sequence, similarity of exon-intron structure and composition of peptide sequence motifs. Analysis of YABBY gene expression in various grapevine structures and organs suggested that these genes function in diverse aspects of development and physiology. Analysis of expression during ovule development in four cultivars showed that one gene, , was preferentially expressed during the period of ovule abortion in seedless cultivars. Transgenic expression of in tomato conferred reduced plant stature, dark green leaves, elongated pistil, and reduced size of fruit and seeds. Reduced seed size was associated with smaller endosperm cells. Expression of also affected expression of numerous tomato genes with presumed roles in seed development. These data suggest the potential for to influence seed development in grapevine, which may impact seedless grape breeding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2019.01207DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6791920PMC
October 2019

Genomic Organization of the B3-Domain Transcription Factor Family in Grapevine ( L.) and Expression during Seed Development in Seedless and Seeded Cultivars.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Sep 14;20(18). Epub 2019 Sep 14.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology in Arid Areas, College of Horticulture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Xianyang 712100, China.

Members of the plant-specific B3-domain transcription factor family have important and varied functions, especially with respect to vegetative and reproductive growth. Although B3 genes have been studied in many other plants, there is limited information on the genomic organization and expression of B3 genes in grapevine ( L.). In this study, we identified 50 B3 genes in the grapevine genome and analyzed these genes in terms of chromosomal location and syntenic relationships, intron-exon organization, and promoter element content. We also analyzed the presumed proteins in terms of domain structure and phylogenetic relationships. Based on the results, we classified these genes into five subfamilies. The syntenic relationships suggest that approximately half of the genes resulted from genome duplication, contributing to the expansion of the B3 family in grapevine. The analysis of element composition suggested that most of these genes may function in response to hormones, light, and stress. We also analyzed expression of members of the B3 family in various structures of grapevine plants, including the seed during seed development. Many B3 genes were expressed preferentially in one or more structures of the developed plant, suggesting specific roles in growth and development. Furthermore, several of the genes were expressed differentially in early developing seeds from representative seeded and seedless cultivars, suggesting a role in seed development or abortion. The results of this study provide a foundation for functional analysis of B3 genes and new resources for future molecular breeding of grapevine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20184553DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6770561PMC
September 2019

The jasmonate-ZIM domain gene VqJAZ4 from the Chinese wild grape Vitis quinquangularis improves resistance to powdery mildew in Arabidopsis thaliana.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2019 Oct 13;143:329-339. Epub 2019 Sep 13.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology in Arid Areas, College of Horticulture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, 712100, China; Key Laboratory of Horticultural Plant Biology and Germplasm Innovation in Northwest China, Ministry of Agriculture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, 712100, China. Electronic address:

Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) is one of the most widely cultivated and economically important fruits. Most cultivated varieties of grape are highly susceptible to fungal diseases, and one of the most pervasive is powdery mildew, caused by Uncinula necator. The jasmonate-ZIM domain (JAZ) family proteins are critical for plant responses to environmental stresses. Here, we report the characterization of VqJAZ4, a jasmonate-ZIM domain gene isolated from Vitis quinquangularis, a Chinese wild Vitis species that exhibits high tolerance to several kinds of fungi. Subcellular localization assay indicated that the VqJAZ4 protein is targeted to the nucleus. The VqJAZ4 gene was strongly induced by U. necator inoculation, as well as by the defense-related hormones methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and salicylic acid (SA). The upregulation of VqJAZ4 after inoculation was dependent on its promoter sequences. Expression of VqJAZ4 in Arabidopsis thaliana improved resistance to powdery mildew. Histochemical staining assays indicated that plants expressing VqJAZ4 displayed a larger number of dead cells and stronger reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst than non-transgenic control (NTC) plants. Expression analysis of several disease-related genes suggested that VqJAZ4 expression enhanced defense responses though SA and/or JA signaling pathways. We also found that VqJAZ4-expressing Arabidopsis showed increased susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea. Taken together, these results provide evidence that VqJAZ4 may play an important role in response to fungal pathogens in grape, and may represent a candidate for future grape molecular breeding for disease resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2019.09.018DOI Listing
October 2019

VpSTS29/STS2 enhances fungal tolerance in grapevine through a positive feedback loop.

Plant Cell Environ 2019 11 16;42(11):2979-2998. Epub 2019 Jul 16.

College of Horticulture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, People's Republic of China.

Accumulation of stilbene phytoalexins stimulates resistance mechanisms against the grapevine fungus Uncinula necator. However, the defensive mechanisms triggered by stilbene synthase (STS) genes, remain largely unknown. Here, we report the function and molecular mechanism of the stilbene synthase gene VpSTS29/STS2 from Vitis pseudoreticulata in the regulation of plant responses to powdery mildew. Stilbene synthesis occurred mainly in root tips and mesophyll cells of transgenic grapevines via transport through the vascular bundles. Overexpression of VpSTS29/STS2 in Vitis vinifera increased the abundance of STSs in mesophyll tissue and resulted in the accumulation of biologically active resveratrol derivatives at the invasion site. Similarly, expression of VpSTS29/STS2 in Arabidopsis increased resistance to Golovinomyces cichoracearum. The VpSTS29/STS2-expressing Arabidopsis lines showed increased piceid accumulation together with more local hypersensitive reactions, inhibition of mycelial growth, and a reduced incidence of pathogens. Transcriptome profiling analyses demonstrated that VpSTS29/STS2-induced defences led to reprograming of global gene expression and activation of salicylic acid (SA) signalling, thus increasing expression of WRKY-MYB transcription factors and other defence response genes. We propose a model for resveratrol-mediated coordination of defence responses in which SA participates in a positive feedback loop.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pce.13600DOI Listing
November 2019

LUX ARRHYTHMO mediates crosstalk between the circadian clock and defense in Arabidopsis.

Nat Commun 2019 06 11;10(1):2543. Epub 2019 Jun 11.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Maryland Baltimore County, 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, MD, 21250, USA.

The circadian clock is known to regulate plant innate immunity but the underlying mechanism of this regulation remains largely unclear. We show here that mutations in the core clock component LUX ARRHYTHMO (LUX) disrupt circadian regulation of stomata under free running and Pseudomonas syringae challenge conditions as well as defense signaling mediated by SA and JA, leading to compromised disease resistance. RNA-seq analysis reveals that both clock- and defense-related genes are regulated by LUX. LUX binds to clock gene promoters that have not been shown before, expanding the clock gene networks that require LUX function. LUX also binds to the promoters of EDS1 and JAZ5, likely acting through these genes to affect SA- and JA-signaling. We further show that JA signaling reciprocally affects clock activity. Thus, our data support crosstalk between the circadian clock and plant innate immunity and imply an important role of LUX in this process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-10485-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6560066PMC
June 2019

Transcriptome Analysis of Apple Leaves in Response to Powdery Mildew () Infection.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 May 10;20(9). Epub 2019 May 10.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology in Arid Areas, College of Horticulture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China.

Apple ( Borkh.) is one of the most important cultivated tree fruit crops worldwide. However, sustainable apple production is threatened by powdery mildew (PM) disease, which is caused by the obligate biotrophic fungus . To gain insight into the molecular basis of the PM infection and disease progression, RNA-based transcriptional profiling (RNA-seq) was used to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in apples following inoculation with . Four RNA-seq libraries were constructed comprising a total of 214 Gb of high-quality sequence. 1177 DEGs (661 upregulated and 629 downregulated) have been identified according to the criteria of a ratio of infection/control fold change > 2, and a false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.001. The majority of DEGs (815) were detected 12 h after inoculation, suggesting that this is an important time point in the response of the PM infection. Gene annotation analysis revealed that DEGs were predominately associated with biological processes, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, hormone signal transduction and plant-pathogen interactions. Genes activated by infection corresponded to transcription factors (e.g., AP2/ERF, MYB, WRKY and NAC) and synthesis of defense-related metabolites, including pathogenesis-related genes, glucosidase and dehydrin. Overall, the information obtained in this study enriches the resources available for research into the molecular-genetic mechanisms of the apple/powdery mildew interactions, and provides a theoretical basis for the development of new apple varieties with resistance to PM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20092326DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6539105PMC
May 2019

Thallium concentrations, sources and ecological risk in the surface sediments of the Yangtze Estuary and its adjacent east China marginal sea: A baseline study.

Mar Pollut Bull 2019 Jan 24;138:206-212. Epub 2018 Nov 24.

College of Life Sciences, Zaozhuang University, Zaozhuang, Shandong 277160, China.

The distribution characteristics, sources and ecological risk of thallium (Tl) in the surface sediments of Yangtze Estuary and its adjacent sea were studied. Tl concentrations ranged from 0.369 to 1.197 μg g with an average of 0.674 μg g, which was slightly higher than the corresponding background values. Tl concentrations were relatively high in sediments of the south bank of Chongming Island and the Hangzhou Bay mouth, and gradually decreased from inner shelf to outer seas. The variation trend of Tl concentrations was controlled by sediment characteristics, hydrodynamic conditions and sources together. The sediment flux of Tl in the study area was 428.6 t/yr. The Yangtze River, the Yellow River and atmospheric inputs of Tl accounted for 52.7%, 10.5%, and 0.15% of the total sediment flux, respectively. The result of potential ecological index indicated that Tl in surface sediments of the study area had no threat to the ecological environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2018.11.049DOI Listing
January 2019

Screening Genotypes for Responses to and Evaluation of Antioxidant Enzymes, Reactive Oxygen Species and Jasmonic Acid in Resistant and Susceptible Hosts.

Molecules 2018 Dec 20;24(1). Epub 2018 Dec 20.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology in Arid Areas, College of Horticulture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China.

is a necrotrophic fungal phytopathogen with devastating effects on many genotypes. Here, a screening of 81 genotypes for leaf resistance to . revealed two highly resistant (HR), twelve resistant (R), twenty-five susceptible (S) and forty-two highly susceptible (HS) genotypes. We focused on the HR genotype, 'Zi Qiu' (), and the HS genotype 'Riesling' (. ), to elucidate mechanisms of host resistance and susceptibility against . , using detached leaf assays. These involved a comparison of fungal growth, reactive oxygen species (ROS) responses, jasmonic acid (JA) levels, and changes in the anti-oxidative system between the two genotypes after inoculation with . . Our results indicated that the high-level resistance of 'Zi Qiu' can be attributed to insignificant fungal development, low ROS production, timely elevation of anti-oxidative functions, and high JA levels. Moreover, severe fungal infection of 'Riesling' and sustained ROS production coincided with relatively unchanged anti-oxidative activity, as well as low JA levels. This study provides insights into . infection in grape, which can be valuable for breeders by providing information for selecting suitable germplasm with enhanced disease resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules24010005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6337682PMC
December 2018

Heterologous Expression of the Grapevine Gene in Arabidopsis Confers Enhanced Resistance to Powdery Mildew but Not to .

Int J Mol Sci 2018 Dec 5;19(12). Epub 2018 Dec 5.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology in Arid Areas, College of Horticulture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China.

Jasmonate ZIM-domain () family proteins comprise a class of transcriptional repressors that silence jasmonate-inducible genes. Although a considerable amount of research has been carried out on this gene family, there is still very little information available on the role of specific gene members in multiple pathogen resistance, especially in non-model species. In this study, we investigated the potential resistance function of the gene from a disease-resistant wild grapevine, cv. "Shang-24", through heterologous expression in . -expressing transgenic Arabidopsis were challenged with three pathogens: the biotrophic fungus , necrotrophic fungus , and semi-biotrophic bacteria DC3000. We found that plants expressing showed greatly reduced disease symptoms for , but not for or . In response to infection, -expressing transgenic lines exhibited markedly higher levels of cell death, superoxide anions (O₂¯, and H₂O₂ accumulation, relative to nontransgenic control plants. Moreover, we also tested the relative expression of defense-related genes to comprehend the possible induced pathways. Taken together, our results suggest that in grapevine participates in molecular pathways of resistance to , but not to or .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms19123889DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6321488PMC
December 2018

Reliability of acoustic tomography and ground-penetrating radar for tree decay detection.

Appl Plant Sci 2018 Oct 23;6(10):e01187. Epub 2018 Oct 23.

USDA Forest Service Forest Products Laboratory 1 Gifford Pinchot Drive Madison Wisconsin 53726-2398 USA.

Premise Of The Study: Various nondestructive testing technologies have been used for detecting and visualizing internal defects in urban trees. The results obtained by using different nondestructive testing tools can be interpreted in different ways, which may result in inaccurate assessment of the true condition of the inspected trees. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the reliability of acoustic tomography and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) technology for detecting internal decay in a number of different tree species.

Methods: One hundred and forty-seven individual trees of 33 species were inspected at a historic park in Yangzhou, Jiangsu Province, China, using a combination of visual inspection, acoustic tomography, GPR scanning, and resistance micro-drilling methods. Special image processing procedures were developed to analyze the acoustic and radar images and to estimate the proportion of compromised wood.

Results: The acoustic tomography tests revealed 10 defective trees with acoustic shadows suggesting compromised wood in more than 10% of the cross-section area. The actual nature of these defects on living trees can be ascertained by conducting resistance micro-drilling at selected paths. The Tree Radar Unit (TRU) System produced 85% false positive predictions and thus was not successful in visualizing the true physical conditions of the trees.

Conclusions: Acoustic tomography can successfully detect trees with internal decay and cavities. A combination of visual inspection, acoustic tomography, and resistance micro-drilling is an effective approach to detect, measure, and visualize internal defects on a diversity of tree species. The image processing procedures we developed make possible the quantitative analysis of compromised wood and could improve the science-based tree risk assessment process. In contrast, the TRU System presented challenges in field applications, particularly on trees with small diameters and irregularly shaped trunks. The images obtained in this study using the TRU system were largely inaccurate and not reliable for tree inspection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aps3.1187DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6201721PMC
October 2018

Expression of a Grape -Increased Resistance to Powdery Mildew and Osmotic Stress in Arabidopsis but Enhanced Susceptibility to in Arabidopsis and Tomato.

Int J Mol Sci 2018 Sep 30;19(10). Epub 2018 Sep 30.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology in Arid Areas, College of Horticulture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China.

Stilbene synthase genes make a contribution to improving the tolerances of biotic and abiotic stress in plants. However, the mechanisms mediated by these genes remain unclear. To provide insight into the role of genes defense against biotic and abiotic stress, we overexpressed in and tomato (Micro-Tom) via -mediated transformation. -transformed Arabidopsis lines displayed an increased resistance to powdery mildew, but both -transformed Arabidopsis and tomato lines showed the increased susceptibility to . Besides, transgenic Arabidopsis lines were found to confer tolerance to salt and drought stress in seed and seedlings. When transgenic plants were treated with a different stress, qPCR assays of defense-related genes in transgenic Arabidopsis and tomato suggested that played a specific role in different phytohormone-related pathways, including salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and abscisic acid signaling pathways. All of these results provided a better understanding of the mechanism behind the role of in biotic and abiotic stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms19102985DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6213015PMC
September 2018